Science.gov

Sample records for advanced achievement levels

  1. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  2. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  3. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  4. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  5. What Matters, What Works: Advancing Achievement after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public/Private Ventures, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief provides highlights from "Advancing Achievement: Findings from an Independent Evaluation of a Major After-School Initiative." The brief underscores the potential of after-school programs in the ongoing drive to advance children's academic achievement. It shines a light on some of the issues that matter most for programs striving to…

  6. Achievement Test Performance of Intellectually Advanced Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study assessed the feasibility of using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with 24 intellectually precocious preschoolers. Ss' performances suggested that the PIAT is an appropriate instrument for assessing the academic skills of intellectually advanced preschoolers. (SBH)

  7. Couching for cataract: advanced medical achievements of China in 1976?

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2011-01-01

    Cataracts have been a common disease in China for centuries. As early as the Tang dynasty, physicians of Chinese medicine had developed 'jin pi shu', a method of couching, to cure the disease. In 1976, a new method, invented by Tang Youzhi, was acknowledged as one of the most advanced medical achievements in communist China. This paper explores the significance of Tang's method for Mao Zedong's China. Tang's method achieved two goals set by Chairman Mao for medical and health policies: to serve rural China and to integrate Chinese and Western medicine.

  8. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2)…

  9. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  10. Relationship between Uric Acid Level and Achievement Motivation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ernst F.; French, John R. P., Jr.

    In an investigation of the relationship of uric acid (a metabolic end product) to achievement, this study hypothesized that a person's serum urate level (a factor often associated with gout) is positively related to achievement need as well as indicators of actual achievement. (Speed of promotion and number of yearly publications were chosen as…

  11. Predicting Mathematics Achievement by Motivation and Self-Efficacy across Gender and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartawi, AbdelAziz; Alsawaie, Othman N.; Dodeen, Hamzeh; Tibi, Sana; Alghazo, Iman M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which self-efficacy and motivation served as a predictor for mathematics achievement of fifth grade students in United Arab Emirates (UAE) across gender and achievement levels. Self-efficacy was measured by two scales, which differed in levels of specificity--Category Specific and Task Specific. Motivation was…

  12. The Effects of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Samia Merza

    2013-01-01

    This study compared student academic achievement in two college readiness programs, Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) and attempted to determine how well program participation predict student performance compared to variables such as SES, parent education level, GPA, gender, and SAT II scores. Finally, the research…

  13. Grade Level of Achievement Reporting: Teacher and Administrator Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Dale; Laird, Alice; Mulgrew, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to assist educators in understanding grade level of achievement (GLA), the role it plays in communicating student learning, and how to effectively implement the reporting of grade level of achievement for students enrolled in grades one through nine to Alberta Education as an adjunct to the on-going reporting to…

  14. Grade Level of Achievement Reporting: Teacher and Administrator Handbook. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Dale; Laird, Alice; Mulgrew, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to assist educators in understanding grade level of achievement (GLA), the role it plays in communicating student learning, and how to effectively implement the reporting of grade level of achievement for students enrolled in grades one through nine to Alberta Education as an adjunct to the on-going reporting to…

  15. Social Deprivation, School-Level Achievement and Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Data from interviews with 299 teachers in 46 English primary schools revealed that the correlation between free school meals and achievement and between free school meals and special educational needs may stem from teacher judgments. The very poorest schools with the lowest achievement have substantially higher levels of special needs identified…

  16. Aligning Items and Achievement Levels: A Study Comparing Expert Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliski, Pamela; Huff, Kristen; Barry, Carol

    2011-01-01

    For educational achievement tests that employ multiple-choice (MC) items and aim to reliably classify students into performance categories, it is critical to design MC items that are capable of discriminating student performance according to the stated achievement levels. This is accomplished, in part, by clearly understanding how item design…

  17. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  18. Grade Level of Achievement: 2007-08 Report on Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the outcomes of the analysis of Grade Level of Achievement (GLA) data at the provincial level to inform the program planning and evaluation needs of Alberta Education as well as school and central office based administrators. GLA data reported to Alberta Education is a teacher's judgment of a student's academic progress. GLA…

  19. Middle Level Best Practice and Student Achievement in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dawn Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the implementation level of best practice strategies for middle level education in the state of Texas described by This We Believe (AMLE, 2010) and to determine the relationship of those practices with the schools' academic achievement in math and reading. A survey was distributed to principals of all…

  20. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  1. Science at 0 Level: Subject Choice and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffin, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Examines science course selection by curriculum candidates (N=2178) for Northern Ireland GCE 0 level in 1980. Data are provided for nature (biology, chemistry, physics) and number of courses selected, and achievement (pass/failure rates). Data are also reported for males/females and type of school. (JN)

  2. Beyond ORF: Student-Level Predictors of Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Angela I.; Proctor, Briley E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored student-level predictors of reading achievement among third grade regular education students. Predictors included student demographics (sex and socioeconomic status (SES), using free and reduced lunch as proxy for SES), direct observations of reading skills (oral reading fluency (ORF) and word decoding skill (nonsense word…

  3. Organizational Health and Student Achievement in Tennessee Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Christopher L.; Buehler, Alison E.; Stein, William L.; Dalton, John E.; Robinson, Teresa R.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Although the successful middle level school was designed to address both the affective and cognitive development of young adolescents (NMSA 2003), academic achievement is the outcome of paramount importance in the current political context of accountability, high-stakes testing, and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In their efforts to reform,…

  4. Advanced Low Language Proficiency--An Achievable Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Aleidine J.

    2013-01-01

    A standard of language proficiency recommended for world language preservice teachers has been set at advanced low as defined by the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) requires that foreign language teacher candidates in specific languages (e.g., French, German, Spanish) achieve…

  5. The effect of teacher education level, teaching experience, and teaching behaviors on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui

    Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655 students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school year. Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher inservice training.

  6. Achieving Helicopter Modernization with Advanced Technology Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    computer modeling of compressor and turbine aerody- digital engine control ( FADEC ) with manual backup. namics. Modern directionally solidified and single...controlled by a dual RAH.66A M channel FADEC , and features a very simple installation "" Improved Gross Weight and significantly reduced pilot...air separation efficiencies as an "advanced technology" engine. Technological meas- high as 97.5%. The FADEC improves acceleration, ures include but

  7. NSF ADVANCE: Institutional Transformation to Achieve Faculty Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, E. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF ADVANCE initiative is designed to enhance gender equity in academic science and engineering faculty. One of its components - Institutional Transformation - has the goal of establishing strategies and policies that will revolutionize institutional climate so that diverse faculty flourish. The University of Texas at El Paso is one of 19 institutions to currently hold a 5-year grant under the Institutional Transformation program. This poster presentation highlights practices from the participating institutions. Two general aspects of the program are: 1) co-principal investigators are a blend of administrators and active researchers. This blend ensures a bottom-up, top-down approach to presenting gender equity to faculty. 2) Many of the investigators have diversity as their research focus, which is intended to result in rigorous, peer-reviewed dissemination of institutional results. Specific effors for all institutions relate to recruitment, retention, and advancement of female faculty and, by establishing equitable conditions, to improvement of the workplace for all faculty. To aid recruitment, institutions have committed faculty involved in the search process, including training of search committees in diversity strategies and interaction with candidates. A close working relationship with the campus EO officer is essential. Retention strategies center on mentoring, monetary support for research, and policy implementation. Policies focus on work-family balance. Advancement of females to important administrative and non-administrative leadership roles is the third focus. Workshops and seminars on leadership skills are common in the various institutions. Finally, a central theme of the program is that, in addition to specific strategies, institutions must articulate diversity as a core value and reflect on the means to actualize this value. More information on the NSF ADVANCE program, including links to the Institutional Transformation grantees, may be found on

  8. An Analysis of Collaborative Technology Advancements Achieved through the Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY ADVANCEMENTS ACHIEVED THROUGH THE CENTER FOR NETWORK INNOVATION AND EXPERIMENTATION by Eric L. Quarles December 2008...Advancements Achieved through the Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric L. Quarles 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7...cycles which the members of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation (CENETIX) participate. These experiments

  9. Achieving network level privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full network level privacy has often been categorized into four sub-categories: Identity, Route, Location and Data privacy. Achieving full network level privacy is a critical and challenging problem due to the constraints imposed by the sensor nodes (e.g., energy, memory and computation power), sensor networks (e.g., mobility and topology) and QoS issues (e.g., packet reach-ability and timeliness). In this paper, we proposed two new identity, route and location privacy algorithms and data privacy mechanism that addresses this problem. The proposed solutions provide additional trustworthiness and reliability at modest cost of memory and energy. Also, we proved that our proposed solutions provide protection against various privacy disclosure attacks, such as eavesdropping and hop-by-hop trace back attacks.

  10. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  11. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  12. Growth and Achievement Trends of Advanced Placement (AP) Exams in American High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene; Hobson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined and compared overall trends in growth and student achievement of the Advanced Placement (AP) program. Using data from the past two decades, analyses indicated there has been steady and extensive growth of AP participation, particularly among underclassmen and some minority groups. However, overall achievement, as…

  13. Experiences of High-Achieving High School Students Who Have Taken Multiple Concurrent Advanced Placement Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Problem: An increasing number of high-achieving American high school students are enrolling in multiple Advanced Placement (AP) courses. As a result, high schools face a growing need to understand the impact of taking multiple AP courses concurrently on the social-emotional lives of high-achieving students. Procedures: This phenomenological…

  14. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers.

    PubMed

    Lutz Klauda, Susan; Guthrie, John T

    2015-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed measures of reading motivations, engagement and comprehension for information text as well as measures of general reading comprehension and reading fluency twice during the school year. Advanced readers showed stronger relations of motivation and engagement with achievement than struggling readers. However, motivation predicted concurrent engagement and growth in engagement similarly for struggling and advanced readers. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that cognitive challenges limit the relations of motivation and engagement to achievement for struggling readers. The discussion also considers the impact of the focus on the information text genre on the relations observed and implications of the findings for achievement motivation theories.

  15. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Lutz Klauda, Susan; Guthrie, John T.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed measures of reading motivations, engagement and comprehension for information text as well as measures of general reading comprehension and reading fluency twice during the school year. Advanced readers showed stronger relations of motivation and engagement with achievement than struggling readers. However, motivation predicted concurrent engagement and growth in engagement similarly for struggling and advanced readers. These results are interpreted as support for the hypothesis that cognitive challenges limit the relations of motivation and engagement to achievement for struggling readers. The discussion also considers the impact of the focus on the information text genre on the relations observed and implications of the findings for achievement motivation theories. PMID:25663747

  16. Creative Artistic Achievement Is Related to Lower Levels of Alexithymia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Horwitz, Eva Bojner; Theorell, Töres; Ullén, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by deficits in the ability to identify, differentiate, and describe emotions--abilities that are of importance for social interactions, well-being, and, consequently, also for health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether achievements in cultural activities are associated with alexithymia. Participants from…

  17. Comparison of the Level of Using Metacognitive Strategies during Study between High Achieving and Low Achieving Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet; Demir, Ozden

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to compare the level of using metacognitive strategies during study between high achieving and low achieving prospective classroom teachers. This study was designed as a mixed method study. Metacognitive Learning Strategies Scale developed by Namlu (2004) was used to measure the use of metacognitive strategies…

  18. A Study of Relationship between Achievement Motivation, Self Concept and Achievement in English and Mathematics at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Riffat-Un-Nisa; Noureen, Ghazala; Naz, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the achievement and its relationship with achievement motivation and self concept. The subjects consisted of 336 students (146 males and 172 females) from four public and four private schools of the Sargodha district at the secondary level. Intact groups of all eight schools enrolled in 9th grade were involved in the study. An…

  19. Rule Reformulation at the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Sharon L.

    1993-01-01

    An inductive and interactive classroom technique to help advanced French language students reformulate simplified schemata into more useful insights into French grammar is described. It is proposed that, by developing the ability to revise continually structural hypotheses, students can expand syntactic repertories and improve long-term language…

  20. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  1. Designing and Implementing a New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Angela; Reiss, Michael J.; Rowell, Cathy; Scott, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology is a new advanced level biology course, piloted from September 2002 in England with around 1200 students. This paper discusses the reasons for developing a new advanced biology course at this time, the philosophy of the project and how the materials are being written and the specification devised. The aim of the…

  2. The Efficacy of Advance Organizers and Behavioral Objectives for Improving Achievement in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershman, Kenneth Eugene

    This research investigates the utility of advance organizers and behavioral objectives in a traditional introductory physics class at the college level. The advance organizer was designed to compare and contrast content to be learned with content previously studied or with assumed common knowledge. Behavioral objectives listed the expected…

  3. Comparing Content in Selected GCE A Levels and Advanced GNVQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In an action research project, four British further education colleges compared mandatory units of three Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)--business, art and design, and health and social care--with related General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A-level) syllabuses. Activities included a detailed comparison…

  4. Advancing Student Achievement through Labor-Management Collaboration (Denver, Colorado, February 15-16, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of a conference entitled "Advancing Student Achievement through Labor-Management Collaboration" held in Denver, Colorado last February 15-16, 2011. This first-of-its-kind conference on labor-management collaboration is a historic effort to transform the relationships among local superintendents, school…

  5. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  6. Recent Advances in Developmental Pediatrics Related to Achievement and Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Wendy S.; Barabas, Gabor

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances related to the achievement and school behavior in children with tic syndromes, seizure disorders, and minor physical anomolies are discussed. The role of the school psychologist as liaison between the pupil's teacher, family, and physician is described, as well as his or her role with the children themselves. (Author/EGS)

  7. Using Advance Organizers to Enhance Pupils' Achievement in Learning Poetry in English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiruri, Mary; Wambugu, Patriciah; Wamukuru, Kuria

    2016-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental that investigated the effects of Advance Organizers (AO) on achievement in poetry. Target population was class seven pupils of Nakuru North Sub-county primary schools in Kenya. 160 pupils were involved in the study. Four sampled schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups in Solomon Four…

  8. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed…

  9. Science and Mathematics Advanced Placement Exams: Growth and Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Rapid growth of Advanced Placement (AP) exams in the last 2 decades has been paralleled by national enthusiasm to promote availability and rigor of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Trends were examined in STEM AP to evaluate and compare growth and achievement. Analysis included individual STEM subjects and disaggregation…

  10. Advancing beyond the average: the importance of mentoring in professional achievement.

    PubMed

    Chatburn, Robert L

    2004-03-01

    project will take, when to ask for help, and when to stop because you have reached your physical or mental limit and you need to rest and devote some time to your nutrition and recreation. The sixth aspect is : having achieved the basic skills and gained a fair amount of experience, your efficiency improves and you begin to achieve more in a day; you begin to start mentoring others; you can confidently and quickly handle multiple projects; if you don't know the answers you know where to find them; you are seen as an authority and people ask you for consultations and presentations and to participate in committees. The final aspect is, meaning that your practice of respiratory care reaches a level at which you meet challenges for which you feel you have no response in memory and yet you succeed.

  11. NEW APPROACHES: Reading in Advanced level physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Dorothy

    1997-11-01

    Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.

  12. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  13. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  14. Reassessing the Economic Value of Advanced Level Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Michael; Noyes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the economic return to Advanced level (A-level) mathematics was examined. The analysis was based upon a series of log-linear models of earnings in the 1958 National Child Development Survey (NCDS) and the National Survey of 1980 Graduates and Diplomates. The core finding was that A-level mathematics had a unique earnings premium…

  15. Measuring Success: Examining Achievement and Perceptions of Online Advanced Placement Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Sharon; Barbour, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance on Advanced Placement (AP) exams from 2009 to 2011 at Florida Virtual School and to explore student perceptions of their online course experience compared with the classroom-based AP experiences. The data indicated that students performed at levels comparable to the national sample but…

  16. The Need for Technology Maturity of Any Advanced Capability to Achieve Better Life Cycle Cost (LCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Programs such as space transportation systems are developed and deployed only rarely, and they have long development schedules and large development and life cycle costs (LCC). They have not historically had their LCC predicted well and have only had an effort to control the DDT&E phase of the programs. One of the factors driving the predictability, and thus control, of the LCC of a program is the maturity of the technologies incorporated in the program. If the technologies incorporated are less mature (as measured by their Technology Readiness Level - TRL), then the LCC not only increases but the degree of increase is difficult to predict. Consequently, new programs avoid incorporating technologies unless they are quite mature, generally TRL greater than or equal to 7 (system prototype demonstrated in a space environment) to allow better predictability of the DDT&E phase costs unless there is no alternative. On the other hand, technology development programs rarely develop technologies beyond TRL 6 (system/subsystem model or prototype demonstrated in a relevant environment). Currently the lack of development funds beyond TRL 6 and the major funding required for full scale development leave little or no funding available to prototype TRL 6 concepts so that hardware would be in the ready mode for safe, reliable and cost effective incorporation. The net effect is that each new program either incorporates little new technology or has longer development schedules and costs, and higher LCC, than planned. This paper presents methods to ensure that advanced technologies are incorporated into future programs while providing a greater accuracy of predicting their LCC. One method is having a dedicated organization to develop X-series vehicles or separate prototypes carried on other vehicles. The question of whether such an organization should be independent of NASA and/or have an independent funding source is discussed. Other methods are also discussed. How to make the

  17. Achieving and sustaining advanced scenarios in ITER modelled by CRONOS and DINA-CH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besseghir, K.; Garcia, J.; Artaud, J.-F.; Imbeaux, F.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Lister, J. B.; Lukash, V. E.; Maget, P.

    2013-12-01

    The heating and current drive characteristics for accessing advanced scenarios in ITER, close to those obtained in present-day experiments, are analysed together with the plasma performance using the prescribed-boundary CRONOS suites of codes. For the hybrid scenario, a sensitivity analysis shows the sensitivity to the parameter range which leads to an appropriate control of the safety factor and pressure profiles. A steady-state regime with no internal transport barrier is obtained as a natural extension of the hybrid regime. These prescribed-boundary scenario developments are used as an initial step for a complete free-boundary simulation carried out with the DINA-CH code coupled to CRONOS, which once again underlines how sensitive the ITER advanced scenarios are to small plasma geometry changes. Both scenarios were achieved within the technical limits of ITER, specifically the poloidal field coil currents, voltages, forces and fields.

  18. What Is Important in Electronic Textbooks for Students of Different Achievement Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luik, Piret; Mikk, Jaan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study that explored which characteristics of electronic textbooks correlated with knowledge acquisition by learners of different achievement levels. The study was carried out on 35 units of electronic textbooks that were studied by 19 high-achieving and 19 low-achieving students in four Estonian schools. The…

  19. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  20. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  1. A Study of the Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Program and Student Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement: An Exploration with Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monachino, Kimberly S.

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined the impact of the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) program on students' self-efficacy and academic achievement outcome measures at the middle and high school level. AVID is a college readiness system designed to prepare at-risk students in the fourth through 12th grade for college. The main focus of this…

  2. Technology Readiness Levels for Advanced Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack

    2014-01-01

    The Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used to quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the advanced fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Advanced Fuel Campaign (AFC).

  3. The Effect of Teacher Certification and Task Level on Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Liu, Qiduan

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effect of teachers' mathematics preparation and the thinking level of mathematics problems on student performance. Achievement scores of students whose teachers differed on level of mathematics preparation indicated that students performed better on higher level thinking tasks when teachers had advanced…

  4. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  5. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  6. Advances in genetics and genomics: use and limitations in achieving malaria elimination goals.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2015-05-01

    Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effectiveness. Here we review and provide specific examples of current technological advances and how these genetic and genomic tools have increased our knowledge of host, parasite and vector biology in relation to malaria elimination and in turn enhanced the potential to reach that goal. We then discuss limitations of these tools and future prospects for the successful achievement of global malaria elimination goals.

  7. Advances in genetics and genomics: use and limitations in achieving malaria elimination goals

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

    2015-01-01

    Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effectiveness. Here we review and provide specific examples of current technological advances and how these genetic and genomic tools have increased our knowledge of host, parasite and vector biology in relation to malaria elimination and in turn enhanced the potential to reach that goal. We then discuss limitations of these tools and future prospects for the successful achievement of global malaria elimination goals. PMID:25943157

  8. Competency Level of Nigerian Primary 4 Pupils in Life Skills Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewale, J. Gbenga

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of education in Nigeria is to develop in children the ability to adapt to their changing environment. This goal could be achieved through competency in life skills. Therefore, this study examines the competency level of Nigerian Primary 4 pupils in the life skills achievement test. The test was administered on a sample of 22,638…

  9. Profiling Differences in Achievement and Social Goals of Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…

  10. The Role of Pre-School Education on Learning Achievement at Primary Level in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Samir Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school education on learning achievement at primary level in Bangladesh. Evidence from learning achievement test and household and school-related data were obtained from 7093 pupils attending 440 primary schools in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a small proportion (15.3%) of primary school pupils attended…

  11. The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E.

    2007-01-01

    This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade…

  12. Leading in the Middle: Leadership Behaviors of Middle Level Principals that Promote Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minus, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. In particular, this study investigated the specific principal leadership behaviors of middle level principals that promote student achievement in school. A secondary variable for consideration was student…

  13. Evaluation Studies of the Nuffield A-Level Biology Trials - 4. School Characteristics and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    Teacher motivation, class size, type of school (administrative arrangement), and instructional facilities available had little differential influence on student achievement in the trials of the Nuffield A-Level Biology course. The mean achievement of the students in the schools tended to reflect the general calibre and aspirations of past and…

  14. Technology advances needed for photovoltaics to achieve widespread grid price parity: Widespread grid price parity for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones-Albertus, Rebecca; Feldman, David; Fu, Ran; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2016-04-20

    To quantify the potential value of technological advances to the photovoltaics (PV) sector, this paper examines the impact of changes to key PV module and system parameters on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The parameters selected include module manufacturing cost, efficiency, degradation rate, and service lifetime. NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) is used to calculate the lifecycle cost per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems within the contiguous United States, with a focus on utility scale. Different technological pathways are illustrated that may achieve the Department of Energy's SunShot goal of PV electricity that is at grid price parity with conventional electricity sources. In addition, the impacts on the 2015 baseline LCOE due to changes to each parameter are shown. These results may be used to identify research directions with the greatest potential to impact the cost of PV electricity.

  15. Quantitative levels of immunoglobulin E in advanced tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Casterline, C L; Evans, R; Ward, G W

    1976-07-01

    Quantitative levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined in samples of sera obtained from 29 patients with proven moderate to far-advanced tuberculosis. The sensitive radioimmunoassay test for IgE was used. Statistical analysis of the results revealed no difference in IgE values as compared to a control group of normal sera. In contrast to other chronic pulmonary infections, such as bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, the IgE level in pulmonary tuberculous infection is of no diagnostic significance. Simultaneous determination of levels of immunoglobulins G, A, M, and D (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD) in these same sera by radial immunodiffusion showed elevated IgG and lowered IgM levels in the tuberculous patients, confirming previous studies. The significance of these alterations in immunoglobulin levels is unclear and may represent a secondary phenomenon rather than a primary host response.

  16. The Relation between Pre-Service Music Teachers' Psychological Resilience and Academic Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokus, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relation between pre-service music teachers' psychological resilience and academic achievement levels and to determine what variables influence their psychological resilience levels. The study sample consisted of students enrolled in a music education program in the 2013-2014 academic year (N = 333). In respect with…

  17. Who Achieves Level 2 Qualifications during Adulthood? Evidence from the NCDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Skaliotis, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of people who return to learning to achieve at least a level 2 qualification, drawing on the 1958 National Child Development Cohort Study. Results show that adults who gained level 2 were more likely than those who did not to have been engaged in a range of learning activities at earlier ages, including…

  18. The Influence of Parents Educational Level on Secondary School Students Academic Achievements in District Rajanpur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Rana Muhammad Asad; Iqbal, Nadeem; Tasneem, Saima

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to focus the influence and impact of parents educational level on students academic achievement at secondary level of education. The study utilizes the students results of the 9th class in secondary school certificate examination taken by the Board of Intermediate & Secondary Education Dera Ghazi Khan. Oral interview,…

  19. Investigating the Relationship between School Level Accountability Practices and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gándara, Fernanda; Randall, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between school-level accountability practices and science achievement of 15-year-olds, across four counties: Australia, Korea, Portugal, and the United States. We used PISA 2006 data, since 2006 is the only administration that has focused on science. School-level accountability practices are here defined as…

  20. The Latino Education Crisis: School-Level Factors Influencing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantitatively examine the relationships among various school-level factors (school socioeconomic status, school size, average class size, and teacher effectiveness) and to determine which school-level factors predict Latino academic achievement and Adequate Yearly Progress. Measuring teacher effectiveness is at…

  1. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  2. Self-regulation, motivation, and math achievement in middle school: variations across grade level and math context.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Timothy J; Chen, Peggy P

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined grade level, achievement group, and math-course-type differences in student self-regulation and motivation in a sample of 880 suburban middle-school students. Analysis of variance was utilized to assess group differences in student self-regulation and motivation, and linear regression analysis was used to identify variables that best predicted students' use of regulatory strategies. A key finding was that although seventh graders exhibited a more maladaptive self-regulation and motivation profile than sixth graders, achievement groups in seventh grade (high, moderate, low) were more clearly differentiated across both self-regulation and motivation than achievement groups in sixth grade. The pattern of achievement group differences also varied across math course type, as self-regulation and motivation processes more consistently differentiated achievement groups in advanced classes than regular math courses. Finally, task interest was shown to be the primary motivational predictor of students' use of regulatory strategies during math learning. The study highlights the importance of identifying shifting student motivation and self-regulation during the early middle school years and the potential role that context may have on these processes.

  3. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  4. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  5. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  6. Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation Belief Differences among Gifted and Non-Gifted Middle School Students across Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogrebe, Jaclyn M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examined self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, perceived responsibility) across ability (i.e., gifted, advanced, average) and achievement groups (i.e., high achievers, low achievers) in a sample of 135 suburban middle school students (i.e., fifth and sixth grade). In order to expand upon…

  7. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all

  8. Advanced micromechanisms in a multi-level polysilicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Miller, S.L.; Barron, C.C.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    Quad-level polysilicon surface micromachining technology, comprising three mechanical levels plus an electrical interconnect layer, is giving rise to a new generation of micro-electromechanical devices and assemblies. Enhanced components can not be produced through greater flexibility in fabrication and design. New levels of design complexity that include multi-level gears, single-attempt locks, and optical elements have recently been realized. Extensive utilization of the fourth layer of polysilicon differentiates these latter generation devices from their predecessors. This level of poly enables the fabrication of pin joints, linkage arms, hinges on moveable plates, and multi-level gear assemblies. The mechanical design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design aspects of these latest micromachines will be discussed with particular emphasis on a number of design modifications that improve the power, reliability, and smoothness of operation of the microengine. The microengine is the primary actuation mechanism that is being used to drive mirrors out of plane and rotate 1600-{mu}m diameter gears. Also discussed is the authors most advanced micromechanical system to date, a complex proof-of-concept batch-fabricated assembly that, upon transmitting the proper electrical code to a mechanical lock, permits the operation of a micro-optical shutter.

  9. Learning nanotechnology with texts and comics: the impacts on students of different achievement levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-05-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two media which attract high-school students to learn science. A mixed-method quasi-experimental design was adopted. The participants were 697 grade ten students from eight schools with different levels of academic achievement. Two similar classes in each of the eight schools were assigned as the comic group or the text group. The results indicated that the science comic book benefited medium achievers more than the science text booklet did, but the contrary result was found for the high achievers. In comparison, the two media benefited the low achievers equally, but both had only a limited effect due to the students' lack of prior knowledge. We conclude four kinds of evidence, including perceived difficulty of comprehension, reasons for interest/disinterest, emotional perceptions of learning science, and learning time, to support the phenomenon of the learning benefit of media specific to certain achievers' science learning.

  10. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  11. Single-Parent Households and Children’s Educational Achievement: A State-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Paul R.; Patterson, Sarah; Beattie, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children’s educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children’s educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1990 and 2011 and state mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that changes in the percentage of children living with single parents were not associated with test scores. Increases in maternal education, however, were associated with improvements in children’s test scores during this period. These results do not support the notion that increases in single parenthood have had serious consequences for U.S. children’s school achievement. PMID:26188447

  12. Single-parent households and children's educational achievement: A state-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Amato, Paul R; Patterson, Sarah; Beattie, Brett

    2015-09-01

    Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children's educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children's educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1990 and 2011 and state mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Regression models with state and year fixed effects revealed that changes in the percentage of children living with single parents were not associated with test scores. Increases in maternal education, however, were associated with improvements in children's test scores during this period. These results do not support the notion that increases in single parenthood have had serious consequences for U.S. children's school achievement.

  13. The effects of student-level and classroom-level factors on elementary students' science achievement in five countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Sibel

    The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects (Lamb & Fullarton, 2002) as well as understanding how these factors operate across countries (Baker, Fabrega, Galindo, & Mishook, 2004). The current study examined the individual student factors and classroom factors on fourth grade science achievement within and across five countries. Guided by the previous school learning models, the elements of students' science learning were categorized as student-level and classroom-level factors. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science, and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom composition. Results for the United States and four other countries, Singapore, Japan, Australia, and Scotland were reported. Multilevel effects of student and classroom variables were examined through Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 fourth grade dataset. The outcome variable was the TIMSS 2003 science score. Overall, the results of this study showed that selected student background characteristics were consistently related to elementary science achievement in countries investigated. At the student-level, higher levels of home resources and self-confidence and at the classroom-level, higher levels of class mean home resources yielded higher science scores on the TIMSS 2003. In general, teacher and instructional variables were minimally related to science achievement. There was evidence of positive effects of teacher support in the U.S. and Singapore. The emphasis on science inquiry was positively related to science achievement in Singapore and negatively related in the U.S. and Australia. Experimental studies that investigate the impacts of teacher and instructional factors on elementary science achievement are

  14. Advancing the Science of Community-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beehler, Sarah; Deutsch, Charles; Green, Lawrence W.; Hawe, Penelope; McLeroy, Kenneth; Miller, Robin Lin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Schensul, Jean J.; Schulz, Amy J.; Trimble, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Community interventions are complex social processes that need to move beyond single interventions and outcomes at individual levels of short-term change. A scientific paradigm is emerging that supports collaborative, multilevel, culturally situated community interventions aimed at creating sustainable community-level impact. This paradigm is rooted in a deep history of ecological and collaborative thinking across public health, psychology, anthropology, and other fields of social science. The new paradigm makes a number of primary assertions that affect conceptualization of health issues, intervention design, and intervention evaluation. To elaborate the paradigm and advance the science of community intervention, we offer suggestions for promoting a scientific agenda, developing collaborations among professionals and communities, and examining the culture of science. PMID:21680923

  15. A Definition of Achievement Level II in the Control of Spanish Syntax. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Clay Benjamin; Shawl, James Robert

    A third volume of a highly articulated set of language materials defines achievement level 2 in the control of Spanish syntax while providing descriptions and interrelationships of vital syntactic structures and expected student performance. The noun phrase, predicate phrase, verbal aspects, adverbials, relativization, noun modification,…

  16. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; vanDellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding…

  17. Students' Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Level and Its Relationship with Their Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar Güvendir, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…

  18. The Efficacy of Instructional Strategy on Mathematics Achievement, Attitudes, and Anxiety Levels of Developmental Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Browne, Carmen G.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation investigated three instructional strategies in developmental math classes to determine if instructional strategy had a positive effect on student achievement, attitude towards mathematics, and anxiety level towards mathematics at a college in western Pennsylvania for students majoring in applied arts. The significance of this…

  19. Analyzing State and Private School Students' Achievement Goal Orientation Levels in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkçapar, Ünal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the state and private school students' achievement goal orientation levels in terms of some variables. Quantitative survey method was used in this study. Study group in this research consists of 201 students who are studying at state and private school in Kahramanmaras during the 2014-2015 academic year.…

  20. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  1. Teaching Aptitude of Student Teachers and their Academic Achievements at Graduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajan, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation aims at studying teaching aptitude of student teachers with respect to their gender and academic achievement at graduate level examination. The sample for this study is selected by stratified random sampling from the Teacher Education institutions of Malabar area of Kerala. Teaching Aptitude Test Battery (T A T B)…

  2. Relationship among School Size, School Culture and Students' Achievement at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad Salfi, Naseer; Saeed, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to determine the relationship among school size, school culture and students' achievement at secondary level in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: The study was descriptive (survey type). It was conducted on a sample of 90 secondary school head teachers and 540 primary, elementary and high school teachers working in…

  3. Learning Nanotechnology with Texts and Comics: The Impacts on Students of Different Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    Comics are popular with adolescents because of their features of humor, narrative, and visual imagery. The purposes of this study were to examine the learning outcomes and emotional perceptions of reading a science comic book and a science text booklet for students of different levels of achievement, and to explore the main factors of the two…

  4. Level of Students' Achievement in Mathematics at the End of Elementary Education in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khair, Tarig Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Elrofai, Tahra Aisa

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the level of student's achievement in mathematics in Yemen. This study use a sample of 200 male students and 200 female students, chosen from eight government schools on the basis of diversified sampling techniques. A mathematics test which composed of seventy five items that covered geometrical…

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Student Approaches to Learning and Reading Achievement at the School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.; Barofsky, Meryl Y.; List, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort of 1998 (ECLS-K, 98), a nationally representative sample of kindergarteners in the United States, we investigated the relationship between approaches to learning and spring reading achievement with particular emphasis on classroom and school-level differences. We employed…

  6. The Impact of Scaffolding and Student Achievement Levels in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Krista D.; Klein, James D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how scaffolds and student achievement levels influence inquiry and performance in a problem-based learning environment. The scaffolds were embedded within a hypermedia program that placed students at the center of a problem in which they were trying to become the youngest person to fly around the world in a balloon. One-hundred…

  7. 76 FR 9004 - Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... Document. Materials for Review and Comment Policymakers, teachers, researchers, State and local writing specialists, members of professional writing and teacher organizations, and members of the public are invited... Public Comment on Setting Achievement Levels in Writing AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education,...

  8. Effects of Eclectic Learning Approach on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in English at Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleman, Qaiser; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research paper was to investigate the effect of eclectic learning approach on the academic achievement and retention of students in English at elementary level. A sample of forty students of 8th grade randomly selected from Government Boys High School Khurram District Karak was used. It was an experimental study and that's why…

  9. Playing level achieved, throwing history, and humeral torsion in Masters baseball players.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Rod; Adams, Roger; Ginn, Karen; Nicholson, Leslie

    2010-09-01

    Humeral torsion is thought to be beneficial for throwing. To examine this hypothesis, the throwing and non-throwing arms of 84 Masters baseball players over 35 years of age were measured for humeral torsion, and the highest playing level they achieved and their playing history were recorded. Regression analyses were used to obtain predictors of the highest playing level achieved, throwing arm humeral torsion, and side-to-side difference in humeral torsion. Equations accounting for 36%, 46%, and 12% of the variance respectively were produced. Achieving representative level playing status was associated with the number of seasons played under 16 years of age and having greater throwing arm humeral retrotorsion. Throwing arm humeral retrotorsion was associated with non-throwing arm humeral retrotorsion and an increased number of seasons played before the age of 16 years. A model in which repeated throwing develops an adaptive unilateral bone torsion along with growth in baseball expertise is proposed. Thus dominant arm humeral retrotorsion is a predictor of highest baseball playing level achieved, which in turn is influenced by genetic endowment (as seen in the torsion of the non-throwing arm) and amount of throwing activity, particularly prior to the age of 16.

  10. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  11. Resilience and Academic Achievement of Male and Female Secondary Level Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Inamullah, Hafiz; Khan, Naeemullah; Anwar, Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to succeed despite barriers that make it difficult for the students to succeed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between resilience and academic achievement of secondary level students of Gujranwala, Pakistan. A Resilience scale was used to collect data. The sample consisted of 127 secondary…

  12. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  13. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power becomes a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust, and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the field of geological disposal has been made in the last two decades. Some countries have reached important milestones, and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden. In fact, the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into its final phase. In France, disposal of intermediate-level waste (ILW) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by an Act of Parliament in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, can reduce the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production, a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the HLW definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository (i.e., an increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion).

  14. The effects of preservice teacher's cognitive questioning level and redirecting on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Joseph P., II

    The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of 100% high cognitive questions, 50% high cognitive questions and 0% high cognitive questions on primary and intermediate students' achievement at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels. A second purpose was to examine the effects of redirecting questions on student achievement. Groups of 5 subjects were randomly selected from 16 intermediate and 16 primary classrooms and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment levels. Data were collected on 154 subjects. Within the three cognitive questioning treatment levels the subjects were also randomly assigned to one of two questioning strategies: (1) redirected and (2) directed. Redirection occurs when the teacher asks the same question to a number of students (in this case 2). Thirty preservice teachers conducted the treatments. The teachers were trained to follow a prescribed behavior pattern and were video taped during the treatment to insure fidelity to the scripted questions. At the end of the lesson a criterion test was administered with 3 subtests measuring at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. There was no significant difference among scores on the total criterion measure or the sub tests due to cognitive questioning level. There was a significant difference due to redirecting questions (p = 0.05). Students assigned to teachers using redirection scored significantly higher than those assigned to teachers not using this strategy. This difference was found on the knowledge subtest. Significant interactions occurred between questioning level and questioning strategy on the comprehension and total test.

  15. Effect of Direct Teaching Method on the Academic Achievement of High and Low Achievers in the Subject of English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Hamdani, Syed Nisar Hussain; Quraishi, Uzma; Zeeshan, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test was used to…

  16. Student-Support Portfolio System with Students' Assessment of Their Own Level of Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Hisami; Saika, Takashi

    A JABEE educational program must be regularly improved in educational methods and educational environment. For the purpose, the program must establish a system that enhances students' understanding of class work, promoting students' enthusiasm to learn, while coping with students' requests. The mechanical engineering departments of Kogakuin University have established a portfolio system to support students from entrance to graduation. Specifically the portfolios on students' learning and life are continuously maintained, and students' ledgers are arranged and updated. Furthermore, a system, by which students can assess their own level of achievement against the program's learning and educational objectives, is also introduced. The achievement level can be checked from various viewpoints so that students could improve their learning plans.

  17. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  18. Achieve Continuous Injection of Solid Fuels into Advanced Combustion System Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Derek L. Aldred; Timothy Saunders

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project is the development of a mechanical rotary-disk feeder, known as the Stamet Posimetric High Pressure Solids Feeder System, to demonstrate feeding of dry granular coal continuously and controllably into pressurized environments of up to 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi). This is the Phase III of the ongoing program. Earlier Phases 1 and II successfully demonstrated feeding into pressures up to 35 kg/cm{sup 2} (500 psi). The final report for those phases was submitted in April 2005. Based on the previous work done in Phases I & II using Powder River Basin coal provided by the PSDF facility in Wilsonville, AL, a Phase III feeder system was designed and built to accomplish the target of feeding the coal into a pressure of 70 kg/cm2 (1,000 psi) and to be capable of feed rates of up to 550 kilograms (1,200lbs) per hour. The drive motor system from Phase II was retained for use on Phase III since projected performance calculations indicated it should be capable of driving the Phase III pump to the target levels. The pump & motor system was installed in a custom built test rig comprising an inlet vessel containing an active live-wall hopper mounted on weigh cells in a support frame, transition into the pump inlet, transition from pump outlet and a receiver vessel containing a receiver drum supported on weigh cells. All pressure containment on the rig was rated to105 kg/cm{sup 2} (1,500psi) to accommodate the final pressure requirement of a proposed Phase IV of the program. A screw conveyor and batch hopper were added to transfer coal at atmospheric pressure from the shop floor up into the test rig to enable continuous feeding up to the capacity of the receiving vessel. Control & monitoring systems were up-rated from the Phase II system to cover the additional features incorporated in the Phase III rig, and provide closer control and expanded monitoring of the entire system. A program of testing and modification was carried out in Stamet's facility

  19. Achievement Motivation. An Idea in Motion Publication of the Consortium of Advanced Educational Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Harold C.

    This pamphlet is concerned with achievement motivation. Motives refers to a fairly stable set of personality characteristics which constitute a disposition to strive for certain kinds of satisfaction. The achievement motive is the disposition to strive for success. Two other motives are discussed, affiliation and influence motives. Operant versus…

  20. Advanced level set segmentation of the right atrium in MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siqi; Kohlberger, Timo; Kirchberg, Klaus J.

    2011-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a common heart arrhythmia, and can be effectively treated with ablation. Ablation planning requires 3D models of the patient's left atrium (LA) and/or right atrium (RA), therefore an automatic segmentation procedure to retrieve these models is desirable. In this study, we investigate the use of advanced level set segmentation approaches to automatically segment RA in magnetic resonance angiographic (MRA) volume images. Low contrast to noise ratio makes the boundary between the RA and the nearby structures nearly indistinguishable. Therefore, pure data driven segmentation approaches such as watershed and ChanVese methods are bound to fail. Incorporating training shapes through PCA modeling to constrain the segmentation is one popular solution, and is also used in our segmentation framework. The shape parameters from PCA are optimized with a global histogram based energy model. However, since the shape parameters span a much smaller space, it can not capture fine details of the shape. Therefore, we employ a second refinement step after the shape based segmentation stage, which follows closely the recent work of localized appearance model based techniques. The local appearance model is established through a robust point tracking mechanism and is learned through landmarks embedded on the surface of training shapes. The key contribution of our work is the combination of a statistical shape prior and a localized appearance prior for level set segmentation of the right atrium from MRA. We test this two step segmentation framework on porcine RA to verify the algorithm.

  1. How, and at what costs, can low-level stabilization be achieved? - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Metz; Detlef van Vuuren

    2006-02-15

    In order to prevent 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', stabilization of greenhouse gases at low levels (at 550 ppmv CO{sub 2} equivalent or below) might be needed. This paper discusses some of the current literature on whether stabilization at such a low level is possible based on available technologies and on stabilisation scenarios (including their costs). Technology options considered were: energy efficiency improvement; renewable energy; nuclear power; CO{sub 2} capture and storage; biological sequestration; and non-CO{sub 2} gases reduction. The combined technical potential of different options as reported in the literature seems, in principle, to be sufficient to achieve low-level stabilization. Application of these technologies, however, is more uncertain as it requires further development, technology transfer, and widespread diffusion. Effective and efficient stabilization strategies use a portfolio of options (changing over time) to achieve a least cost approach. For low-level stabilization marginal costs will increase steadily as more and more expensive measures are required. Costs in terms of welfare loss, compared to a situation without climate policy measures, highly depend on the underlying socioeconomic development. If the most efficient implementation (including multi-gas strategies, maximum participation of countries in a global emission trading regime, optimal timing of reduction actions) is chosen, current studies estimate global costs in the order of a maximum of a few per cent GDP loss by the year 2050. Costs for individual countries may highly differ. By looking at mitigation/stabilization costs in a wider context we can help identify co-benefits of policies for achieving sustainable development, energy security or environmental goals, and so reduce costs. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Adolescent Sleep Duration, Variability, and Peak Levels of Achievement and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Arruda, Erin H; Krull, Jennifer L; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-01-27

    To inform public health recommendations for adolescent sleep, the amounts of sleep associated with the highest levels of academic achievement and mental health were examined. The degree to which daily variability in sleep duration represents an underappreciated but functionally significant sleep behavior also was tested. A total of 421 adolescents (Mage  = 15.03 years) with Mexican-American backgrounds reported nightly sleep times for 2 weeks; approximately 80% repeated the same protocol 1 year later. Multilevel modeling indicated that the amount of sleep associated with the lowest levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms was more than 1 hr greater than the amount associated with the highest levels of academic performance. Greater daily variability in sleep duration predicted greater symptomatology and mixed academic outcomes.

  3. Measuring the Impact of Advanced Placement Failure on Students' Academic Achievement and Retention in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutchner, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of…

  4. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 2 models

    SciTech Connect

    Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.; Rempe, J.L.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Sequence Precursor program pursues the ultimate objective of performing risk significant evaluations on operational events (precursors) occurring in commercial nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is supporting the development of simple probabilistic risk assessment models for all commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in the U.S. Presently, only simple Level 1 plant models have been developed which estimate core damage frequencies. In order to provide a true risk perspective, the consequences associated with postulated core damage accidents also need to be considered. With the objective of performing risk evaluations in an integrated and consistent manner, a linked event tree approach which propagates the front end results to back end was developed. This approach utilizes simple plant models that analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude and timing of a radioactive release to the environment, and calculate the consequences for a given release. Detailed models and results from previous studies, such as the NUREG-1150 study, are used to quantify these simple models. These simple models are then linked to the existing Level 1 models, and are evaluated using the SAPHIRE code. To demonstrate the approach, prototypic models have been developed for a boiling water reactor, Peach Bottom, and a pressurized water reactor, Zion.

  5. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  6. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  7. Using Speaking Test Data to Define the Advanced Proficiency Level for L2 Arabic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Reaching the Advanced level of proficiency in speaking is a common goal of second language learners, but data on advanced learners of less commonly taught languages such as Arabic are scarce. This mixed-methods study reports words-per-minute and type-token ratios for three ACTFL levels--10 Intermediate Mid, 10 Advanced Mid, and 8…

  8. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  9. Achieving behavioral control with millisecond resolution in a high-level programming environment.

    PubMed

    Asaad, Wael F; Eskandar, Emad N

    2008-08-30

    The creation of psychophysical tasks for the behavioral neurosciences has generally relied upon low-level software running on a limited range of hardware. Despite the availability of software that allows the coding of behavioral tasks in high-level programming environments, many researchers are still reluctant to trust the temporal accuracy and resolution of programs running in such environments, especially when they run atop non-real-time operating systems. Thus, the creation of behavioral paradigms has been slowed by the intricacy of the coding required and their dissemination across labs has been hampered by the various types of hardware needed. However, we demonstrate here that, when proper measures are taken to handle the various sources of temporal error, accuracy can be achieved at the 1 ms time-scale that is relevant for the alignment of behavioral and neural events.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  12. Advanced liquid cooling in HCPVT systems to achieve higher energy efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, S.; Helmers, H.; Tiwari, M. K.; Escher, W.; Paredes, S.; Neves, P.; Poulikakos, D.; Wiesenfarth, M.; Bett, A. W.; Michel, B.

    2013-09-01

    The benefits of advanced thermal packaging are demonstrated through a receiver package consisting of a monolithic interconnected module (MIM) which is directly attached to a high performance microchannel heat sink. Those packages can be applied in high-concentration photovoltaic systems and the generated heat can be used in addition to the electrical power output (CPVT systems). Thus, the total energy efficiency of the system increases significantly. A detailed exergy analysis of the receiver power output underscores the advantages of the new cooling approach.

  13. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  14. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  15. Learning Strategies of Physics Teacher Candidates: Relationships with Physics Achievement and Class Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selçuk, Gamze S.; Çalişkan, Serap; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    Learning strategy concept was introduced in the education field from the development of cognitive psychology. Learning strategies are behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning which are intended to influence the learner's encoding process. Literature on learning strategies in physics field is very scarce. Participants of the research consist of teacher candidates (n=137) from 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th grade attending Department of Physics Education, Education Faculty of Buca, Dokuz Eylül University in Turkey. Data of this research was collected by ``Scale of Learning Strategies Usage in Physics'' (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93). Mean, Standard Deviation, Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the research data. This paper reports on teacher candidates' learning strategies used in physics education The paper investigates the relationships between learning strategies and physics achievement, class level. Some important outcomes of the research are presented, discussed and certain suggestions are made.

  16. Hosted Services for Advanced V and V Technologies: An Approach to Achieving Adoption without the Woes of Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Penix, John; Markosian, Lawrence Z.; OMalley, Owen; Brew, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Attempts to achieve widespread use of software verification tools have been notably unsuccessful. Even 'straightforward', classic, and potentially effective verification tools such as lint-like tools face limits on their acceptance. These limits are imposed by the expertise required applying the tools and interpreting the results, the high false positive rate of many verification tools, and the need to integrate the tools into development environments. The barriers are even greater for more complex advanced technologies such as model checking. Web-hosted services for advanced verification technologies may mitigate these problems by centralizing tool expertise. The possible benefits of this approach include eliminating the need for software developer expertise in tool application and results filtering, and improving integration with other development tools.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  18. Recent advances on enzymatic glucose/oxygen and hydrogen/oxygen biofuel cells: Achievements and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosnier, Serge; Gross, Andrew J.; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of producing electrical power from chemical energy with biological catalysts has induced the development of biofuel cells as viable energy sources for powering portable and implanted electronic devices. These power sources employ biocatalysts, called enzymes, which are highly specific and catalytic towards the oxidation of a biofuel and the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes, on one hand, are promising candidates to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts in fuel cell research. On the other hand, they offer the exciting prospect of a new generation of fuel cells which harvest energy from body fluids. Biofuel cells which use glucose as a fuel are particularly interesting for generating electricity to power electronic devices inside a living body. Hydrogen consuming biofuel cells represent an emerging alternative to platinum catalysts due to comparable efficiencies and the capability to operate at lower temperatures. Currently, these technologies are not competitive with existing commercialised fuel cell devices due to limitations including insufficient power outputs and lifetimes. The advantages and challenges facing glucose biofuel cells for implantation and hydrogen biofuel cells will be summarised along with recent promising advances and the future prospects of these exotic energy-harvesting devices.

  19. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. PMID:28146177

  20. Intra-beam Scattering and Minimum Achievable Emittance in the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl LF

    2002-08-13

    Intra-beam scattering (IBS) potentially limits the minimum emittance of low-energy storage rings, and this effect strongly influences the choice of energy of damping rings for linear colliders. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is the third-generation synchrotron light source operating in high-intensity, low-emittance beams at energies up to 2 GeV. It can operate with an emittance coupling of below 1%. We present measurements of the beam growth in three dimensions as a function of current, for normalized natural horizontal emittances approximately 1-10 mm-mrad at energies of 0.7-1.5 GeV, values comparable to the parameters in an NLC damping ring [1]. Using a dedicated diagnostic beamline with an x-ray scintillator imaging system, measurements of the transverse beamsize are made, simultaneously with bunch length measurements using an optical streak camera. The bunch volume growth as a function of bunch current is compared with theoretical estimates, for a parameter space of IBS, where very little experimental data exists so far.

  1. Achieving Ambitious Goals: Case Studies of Scaling-Up Programs for Advancing Low-Skilled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endel, Barbara; Anderson, Nate

    2011-01-01

    A college credential is essential for individuals seeking to earn family-supporting wages. However, over 90 million Americans face considerable barriers in obtaining the basic academic skills necessary to enroll in college-level courses. Research, combined with the challenges experienced daily by those in the workforce development field, has led…

  2. Advanced Placement Course Enrollment and School-Level Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; McGaha-Garnett, Valerie; Burley, Hansel

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses as a function of these school characteristics (e.g., percentage of ethnic minority and lower socioeconomic status) and then examined AP course enrollment as a function of both access to AP courses and these school characteristics. Using structural equation modeling techniques,…

  3. Assessing Accomplished Teaching: Advanced-Level Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stuart W., Ed.; Koenig, Judith Anderson, Ed.; Hakel, Milton D., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is to establish "high and rigorous standards for what teachers should know and be able to do, to certify teachers who meet those standards, and to advance other education reforms for the purpose of improving student learning in American schools." In response to…

  4. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  5. Advancing efforts to achieve health equity: equity metrics for health impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L; Yuen, Tina K; Gould, Solange; Jandu, Maria Benkhalti; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-10-24

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  6. Achievement motivation level in students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and its influential factors

    PubMed Central

    KAVOUSIPOUR, SOMAYEH; NOORAFSHAN, ALI; POURAHMAD, SAEEDEH; DEHGHANI-NAZHVANI, ALI

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many studies have investigated the relationship between motivation and educational outcomes. The present study was conducted to determine whether the students’ motivation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) decreases during educational years. Methods: 770 students in SUMS were selected by multi-stage stratified random sampling from each field and entrance year. The first questionnaire contained 57 questions on the effect of economic, social, educational, geographical and personality factors on the students’ motivation. The second one was based on 50 incomplete sentences. The validity and reliability of these questionnaires were approved by the experts and Cronbach's Alpha coefficients (85% and 90%, respectively). In this cross-sectional study, ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests were applied for data analysis at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Six factors with the most effect on academic motivation were "family attitudes", "getting good jobs in future", "respect for themselves", " the ability to learn", "believing their role in victory and defeat" and "the tendency toward optimism about themselves". In addition, comparing professional doctorate and basic sciences’ results revealed no significant relationship between academic motivation and educational years (F=0.819, p=0.397). But comparing field by field showed that Dentistry and Hospital Management and Medical Information (HMMI) had a significant decrease in motivation score by increase in educational years (F=3.991, p=0.015). Conclusion: Achievement motivation level in SUMS students was higher than average and did not decrease during educational years. Also, the results showed that personal, social and educational related factors affected motivation level more than economic and environmental factors. PMID:25587552

  7. Achieving Population-Level Immunity to Rabies in Free-Roaming Dogs in Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Morters, Michelle K.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Horton, Daniel L.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Schoeman, Johan P.; Restif, Olivier; Whay, Helen R.; Goddard, Amelia; Fooks, Anthony R.; Damriyasa, I. Made; Wood, James L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Canine rabies can be effectively controlled by vaccination with readily available, high-quality vaccines. These vaccines should provide protection from challenge in healthy dogs, for the claimed period, for duration of immunity, which is often two or three years. It has been suggested that, in free-roaming dog populations where rabies is endemic, vaccine-induced protection may be compromised by immuno-suppression through malnutrition, infection and other stressors. This may reduce the proportion of dogs that seroconvert to the vaccine during vaccination campaigns and the duration of immunity of those dogs that seroconvert. Vaccination coverage may also be limited through insufficient vaccine delivery during vaccination campaigns and the loss of vaccinated individuals from populations through demographic processes. This is the first longitudinal study to evaluate temporal variations in rabies vaccine-induced serological responses, and factors associated with these variations, at the individual level in previously unvaccinated free-roaming dog populations. Individual-level serological and health-based data were collected from three cohorts of dogs in regions where rabies is endemic, one in South Africa and two in Indonesia. We found that the vast majority of dogs seroconverted to the vaccine; however, there was considerable variation in titres, partly attributable to illness and lactation at the time of vaccination. Furthermore, >70% of the dogs were vaccinated through community engagement and door-to-door vaccine delivery, even in Indonesia where the majority of the dogs needed to be caught by net on successive occasions for repeat blood sampling and vaccination. This demonstrates the feasibility of achieving population-level immunity in free-roaming dog populations in rabies-endemic regions. However, attrition of immune individuals through demographic processes and waning immunity necessitates repeat vaccination of populations within at least two years to ensure

  8. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  9. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio

    2015-11-19

    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  10. Repetition of a sisterhood survey at district level in Malawi: the challenge to achieve MDG 5.

    PubMed

    Beltman, Jogchum Jan; van den Akker, Thomas; Lam, Eva; Moens, Mieke; Kazima, Julie; Massaquoi, Moses; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-05-05

    Objective To evaluate progress made at district level in Malawi towards reaching the 5th Millennium Development Goal, the reduction of maternal mortality. Methods In 2006, community-based maternal mortality in Thyolo, Malawi was calculated by applying the 'sisterhood method', a survey that relies on participants responding to basic questions about maternal mortality in their families. Results were compared with a 1989 sisterhood study in the same district. Information on facility-based maternal mortality in 2005 was extracted from district hospital records. Results The community-based maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was calculated as 558 per 100 000 live births (95% CI 260 to 820). A comparison with the MMR from the 1989 survey (409 per 100 000 live births) shows that maternal mortality had not declined. The hospital-based MMR was 994 per 100 000 live births in 2005. Conclusion Maternal mortality in this district has not reduced and may actually have increased. The threat of failure to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5 increases the moral obligation to improve access to quality health care.

  11. Repetition of a sisterhood survey at district level in Malawi: the challenge to achieve MDG 5

    PubMed Central

    van den Akker, Thomas; Lam, Eva; Moens, Mieke; Kazima, Julie; Massaquoi, Moses; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate progress made at district level in Malawi towards reaching the 5th Millennium Development Goal, the reduction of maternal mortality. Methods In 2006, community-based maternal mortality in Thyolo, Malawi was calculated by applying the ‘sisterhood method’, a survey that relies on participants responding to basic questions about maternal mortality in their families. Results were compared with a 1989 sisterhood study in the same district. Information on facility-based maternal mortality in 2005 was extracted from district hospital records. Results The community-based maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was calculated as 558 per 100 000 live births (95% CI 260 to 820). A comparison with the MMR from the 1989 survey (409 per 100 000 live births) shows that maternal mortality had not declined. The hospital-based MMR was 994 per 100 000 live births in 2005. Conclusion Maternal mortality in this district has not reduced and may actually have increased. The threat of failure to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5 increases the moral obligation to improve access to quality health care. PMID:22021754

  12. Mice and rats achieve similar levels of performance in an adaptive decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Two opposing constraints exist when choosing a model organism for studying the neural basis of adaptive decision-making: (1) experimental access and (2) behavioral complexity. Available molecular and genetic approaches for studying neural circuits in the mouse fulfill the first requirement. In contrast, it is still under debate if mice can perform cognitive tasks of sufficient complexity. Here we compare learning and performance of mice and rats, the preferred behavioral rodent model, during an acoustic flexible categorization two-alternative choice task. The task required animals to switch between two categorization definitions several times within a behavioral session. We found that both species achieved similarly high performance levels. On average, rats learned the task faster than mice, although some mice were as fast as the average rat. No major differences in subjective categorization boundaries or the speed of adaptation between the two species were found. Our results demonstrate that mice are an appropriate model for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making, and suggest they might be suitable for other cognitive tasks as well.

  13. Latin America and the Caribbean: Assessment of the Advances in Public Health for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Amal K.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC. PMID:20623022

  14. Latin America and the Caribbean: assessment of the advances in public health for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Amal K; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Gisela

    2010-05-01

    To improve health and economy of the world population, the United Nations has set up eight international goals, known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. The goals include: (1) eradicating extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieving universal primary education; (3) promoting gender equality; (4) reducing child mortality; (5) improving maternal health; (6) combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensuring environmental sustainability; and (8) developing a global partnership for development. Having been in the midway from the 2015 deadline, the UN Secretary-General urges countries to engage constructively to review progress towards the MDGs. This paper aims to evaluate advances in public health, with special reference to gender inequalities in health, health sector reform, global burden of disease, neglected tropical diseases, vaccination, antibiotic use, sanitation and safe water, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, indicators of health, and disease prevention in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). The paper also identifies areas of deficits for the achievement of MDGs in LAC.

  15. The Effects of Grade Level and Other Factors on the Achievement in Project Physics among High School Physics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard Kenard, Jr.

    This study was designed to determine experimentally the relationship between achievement and grade level for 64 tenth-grade students, 48 eleventh-grade students, and 95 twelfth-grade physics students. All students were enrolled in the Project Physics course in their respective schools. The Physics Achievement Test (PAT) and the algebra I and II…

  16. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Central Office Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Sonia Rodarte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this study examined collaboration around student achievement at the central office leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This study is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  17. A Multi-Level Simultaneous Analysis of How Student and School Characteristics Are Related to Students' English Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güvendir, Emre

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how student and school characteristics are related to Turkish students' English language achievement in Evaluation of Student Achievement Test (ÖBBS) of 2009. The participants of the study involve 43707 ninth year students who were required to take ÖBBS in 2009. For data analysis two level hierarchical linear modeling was…

  18. Role of the Direct Teaching Method in the Academic Achievement of Students in English at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Hafizatullah, Hafiz

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the direct teaching method in the academic achievement of students in English at the secondary level. To achieve the said objective, the "Solomon Four-Design pre-test/post-test equivalent group design" was considered to be the most useful design for this study. The pre-test…

  19. Ten-Year Trend in SES Effects on Reading Achievement at School and Individual Levels: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang-Hansen, Kajsa

    2008-01-01

    This study examined changes in the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on reading achievement at individual and school levels between 1991 and 2001. Data from 9 countries that participated in both the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the Trend Study in the Progress in…

  20. The Relationship between Professional Learning Communities, Personal Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sherri L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to determine if there was a relationship between professional learning community (PLC), personal teacher efficacy (PTE), and student achievement. The study examined teacher perception of PLC implementation and PET as it related to student achievement at the high school level on the Virginia End-of Course…

  1. Consideration of How Levels of Achievement and Anxiety toward Education Affect Older People's Participation in Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Paul G.

    Using a sample of 250 adults aged 65 or over (in Quincy, Massachusetts), this study investigated the relation of educational participation by older adults to socioeconomic achievement and to anxiety as regards education. Achievement was based on levels of occupation, income, and education. A series of 17 questions covered peer relationships,…

  2. Maximal Levels of Aspiration, Minimal Boundary Goals, and Their Relationships with Academic Achievement: The Case of Secondary-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Johnston, Michael; Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Hodis, Georgeta M.; Starkey, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Maximising educational attainment is important for both individuals and societies. However, understanding of why some students achieve better than others is far from complete. Motivation and achievement data from a sample of 782 secondary-school students in New Zealand reveal that two specific types of outcome goals, namely "maximal levels of…

  3. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: School Site Leadership Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Esther Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement at the school site leadership level in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD). This project is one of three concurrent studies focused on collaboration around student achievement in the PUSD that include…

  4. An Examination of Tri-Level Collaboration around Student Achievement Using the Gap Analysis Approach: Teacher Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Anthony Steven

    2013-01-01

    Using the Gap Analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008), this project examined collaboration around student achievement in the Pasadena Unified School District (PUSD) from the teacher perspective. As part of a tri-level study, two other projects examined collaboration around student achievement in PUSD from the perspectives of…

  5. Retail Merchandising. An Advanced Level Option for Marketing and Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Ross; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to prepare secondary school students for entry-level and career-level positions in the largest area of employment in distribution and marketing--retail merchandising. Developed for use in the twelfth grade competency cluster phase of New York State secondary marketing and distributive education program, this…

  6. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    PubMed

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  7. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  8. Developing an Adequately Specified Model of State Level Student Achievement with Multilevel Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lawrence

    Limitations of using linear, unilevel regression procedures in modeling student achievement are discussed. This study is a part of a broader study that is developing an empirically-based predictive model of variables associated with academic achievement from a multilevel perspective and examining the differences by which parameters are estimated…

  9. Mathematics Achievement Effects of Three Levels of Individualization: Whole Class, Ability Grouped, and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Karweit, Nancy L.

    This research evaluated mathematics achievement and attitudinal effects of three instructional methods directed in varying degrees toward accommodating diversity in students' prior achievement. Two randomized field experiments of 16 and 18 weeks' duration, respectively, compared an individualized model, Team Assisted Individualization (TAI); an…

  10. Mathematics Achievement in Middle School Level in Pakistan: Findings from the First National Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayyaba, Saadia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The general objective of this paper is to investigate the mathematics achievement of middle grade students in Pakistan. Specifically: to determine whether mathematics achievement varies systematically across students and schools; to what extent the mathematics curriculum and frameworks are implemented in schools; to what extent gender and…

  11. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools located…

  12. Achievement Levels Among Foreign-Born and Native-Born Mexican American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baral, David P.

    The study compared the academic achievement of 59 recent Mexican immigrant and 59 native-born Mexican American junior high school students in Nogales, Arizona. Three different types of variables were investigated: measures of student achievement, family background factors, and acculturative stress variables. Data were obtained from the school…

  13. Advancement of Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Emiley, Mark S.; Agte, Jeremy S.; Sandusky, Robert R., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is a method for optimization of an engineering system, e.g., an aerospace vehicle. BLISS consists of optimizations at the subsystem (module) and system levels to divide the overall large optimization task into sets of smaller ones that can be executed concurrently. In the initial version of BLISS that was introduced and documented in previous publications, analysis in the modules was kept at the early conceptual design level. This paper reports on the next step in the BLISS development in which the fidelity of the aerodynamic drag and structural stress and displacement analyses were upgraded while the method's satisfactory convergence rate was retained.

  14. U.S. Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses for 10 Adult CT Examinations.

    PubMed

    Kanal, Kalpana M; Butler, Priscilla F; Sengupta, Debapriya; Bhargavan-Chatfield, Mythreyi; Coombs, Laura P; Morin, Richard L

    2017-02-21

    Purpose To develop diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and achievable doses (ADs) for the 10 most common adult computed tomographic (CT) examinations in the United States as a function of patient size by using the CT Dose Index Registry. Materials and Methods Data from the 10 most commonly performed adult CT head, neck, and body examinations from 583 facilities were analyzed. For head examinations, the lateral thickness was used as an indicator of patient size; for neck and body examinations, water-equivalent diameter was used. Data from 1 310 727 examinations (analyzed by using SAS 9.3) provided median values, as well as means and 25th and 75th (DRL) percentiles for volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE). Applicable results were compared with DRLs from eight countries. Results More than 46% of the facilities were community hospitals; 13% were academic facilities. More than 48% were in metropolitan areas, 39% were suburban, and 13% were rural. More than 50% of the facilities performed fewer than 500 examinations per month. The abdomen and pelvis was the most frequently performed examination in the study (45%). For body examinations, DRLs (75th percentile) and ADs (median) for CTDIvol, SSDE, and DLP increased consistently with the patient's size (water-equivalent diameter). The relationships between patient size and DRLs and ADs were not as strong for head and neck examinations. These results agree well with the data from other countries. Conclusion DRLs and ADs as a function of patient size were developed for the 10 most common adult CT examinations performed in the United States. (©) RSNA, 2017.

  15. Advanced-Level Biology--Is There a Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Explores whether there are problems with A-level biology that are broadly shared by teachers. Addresses five major areas of concerns: (1) teaching and learning, (2) practical work, (3) subject content, (4) assessment, and (5) initial teacher training. (DDR)

  16. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  17. Advances of Community-Level Plant DNA Barcoding in China

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W. J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a “purpose-driven barcode” fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources. PMID:28270824

  18. Advances of Community-Level Plant DNA Barcoding in China.

    PubMed

    Pei, Nancai; Chen, Bufeng; Kress, W J

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation. Lastly, we raised five possible directions; specifically, proposing a "purpose-driven barcode" fit for multi-level applications, developing new integrative sequencing strategies, pushing DNA barcoding beyond terrestrial ecosystem, constructing national-level DNA barcode sequence libraries for special plant groups, and establishing intelligent identification systems or online server platforms. These efforts will be potentially valuable to explore large-scale biodiversity patterns, the origin and evolution of life, and will also facilitate preservation and utilization of biodiversity resources.

  19. Bilingual vs. Oral Education: A Comparison of Academic Achievement Levels in Deaf Eighth-Graders from Two Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiling, Kerstin

    This study examined whether the level of academic achievement changed when deaf pupils in Sweden were introduced to sign communication at the preschool or kindergarten level. The study compared performance of 40 deaf students, attending a school for the deaf, on a comprehensive testing program (covering Swedish language and mathematical and…

  20. Longitudinal Investigation of Elementary Students' Science Academic Achievement in 4-8th Grades: Grade Level and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursal, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the change of the science academic achievement by grade level and gender where 222 elementary students' science and technology course scores between the 4th and 8th grades and science success percentages in 6th and 8th grades Level Determination Exam were longitudinally analyzed. Based on the findings of this study,…

  1. The Impact of Block Scheduling on Student Achievement, Attendance, and Discipline at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact block scheduling has on (a) student academic achievement, discipline, and attendance, and (b) administrator, teacher, and student perceptions. The study compared 2005-2010 data from a high school utilizing the A/B block schedule and a high school under a traditional schedule, in one suburban…

  2. Impact of Teacher Qualification on Student Achievement at the Elementary and Middle School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Although the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act requires that classroom teachers be highly qualified, the assumption that achieving the highly qualified endorsement equates to teacher effectiveness in the classroom is unverified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of teacher qualification, as defined by the NCLB Act and…

  3. A Comparison of Urban, Suburban, and Rural Principal Leadership Skills by Campus Student Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Susan; Winn, Pam; Gentry, Jim; Cauble, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled school leaders, statewide assessments of 784 Texas public school administrators were compared to determine how leadership skills varied by type of campus (urban, suburban and rural) and by campus student achievement ratings. Important findings indicate differences exist by campus type and by…

  4. Science Anxiety: An Investigation of Science Achievement, Sex and Grade Level Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene; Chiarelott, Leigh

    This study reviews literature on science anxiety related to such variables as sex, intellectual capacity, achievement, and attitudes. To measure science anxiety, a questionnaire (included in an appendix) was developed, pilot-tested on students in grades 5 and 7 in the Bowling Green (Ohio) School District, and administered in final form to 532…

  5. Study-Orientation of High and Low Academic Achievers at Secondary Level in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Bashir, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Naemullah; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2009-01-01

    The study orientation of low and high academic achievers was compared, measured through a self-developed study orientation scale (SOS) primarily based on 47 items comparing study habits and attitude. Students' marks obtained in the 10th grade Examination determined the measure of academic performance. The analysis revealed that the high achievers…

  6. Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils. Exploring Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This resource kit, which can be used with an accompanying videotape and written materials, shows how three English secondary schools have succeeded in raising the achievement of their ethnic minority students by increasing expectations of what each student is capable of, valuing diversity, working in partnership with parents, and encouraging…

  7. A Transformational Analysis of Low Achievers' Writing at the Ninth and Eleventh Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary Miles

    This study assesses an analytical process which seeks to describe the writing style of a student in terms of the four basic transformational operations: addition, deletion, combining, and reordering. Application of the process to writing skills of low achievers in English is evaluated. All ninth and eleventh grade students in the Falls Church,…

  8. Evaluation of Intrarehearsal Achievement by Listeners of Varying Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate expertise-related differences in the evaluation of moment-to-moment rehearsal achievement. Nonmusic majors, music education majors, and expert music teachers (N = 60) listened to 18 "before" and "after" pairs of rehearsal trials of various high school bands in their pursuit…

  9. Variability in Pretest-Posttest Correlation Coefficients by Student Achievement Level. NCEE 2011-4033

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…

  10. Literacy Coaching to Improve Student Reading Achievement: A Multi-Level Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Garnier, Helen E.; Spybrook, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal group-randomized trial, we explore the key role of the quality of classroom text discussions in mediating the effects of Content-Focused Coaching (CFC) on student reading achievement (2983 students, 167 teachers). Schools in the United States serving large numbers of minority and English language learning (ELL) students from…

  11. Interracial Best Friendships: Relationship with 10th Graders' Academic Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newgent, Rebecca A.; Lee, Sang Min; Daniel, Ashley F.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between interracial best friendships and 10th-grade students' academic achievement. The analysis consisted of data from 13,134 participants in the ELS:2002 database. The results indicated that interracial best friendships for minority students (African Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and…

  12. Electrophysiological dynamic brain connectivity during symbolic magnitude comparison in children with different mathematics achievement levels.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola R; Vélez-Pérez, Hugo; Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Romo-Vazquez, Rebeca; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A; Ruiz-Stovel, Vanessa; Gallardo-Moreno, Geisa B; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Berumen, Gustavo

    2017-02-08

    Children with mathematical difficulties usually have an impaired ability to process symbolic representations. Functional MRI methods have suggested that early frontoparietal connectivity can predict mathematic achievements; however, the study of brain connectivity during numerical processing remains unexplored. With the aim of evaluating this in children with different math proficiencies, we selected a sample of 40 children divided into two groups [high achievement (HA) and low achievement (LA)] according to their arithmetic scores in the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th ed.. Participants performed a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i.e. determining which of two numbers is numerically larger), with simultaneous electrophysiological recording. Partial directed coherence and graph theory methods were used to estimate and depict frontoparietal connectivity in both groups. The behavioral measures showed that children with LA performed significantly slower and less accurately than their peers in the HA group. Significantly higher frontocentral connectivity was found in LA compared with HA; however, when the connectivity analysis was restricted to parietal locations, no relevant group differences were observed. These findings seem to support the notion that LA children require greater memory and attentional efforts to meet task demands, probably affecting early stages of symbolic comparison.

  13. Student Misconceptions in Chemical Equilibrium as Related to Cognitive Level and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Alan E.; Kass, Heidi

    Reported is an investigation to determine the nature and extent of student misconceptions in chemical equilibrium and to ascertain the degree to which certain misconceptions are related to chemistry achievement and to performance on specific tasks involving cognitive transformations characteristic of the concrete and formal operational stages of…

  14. Validity Studies Using the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB): IV. Predicting Achievement at the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph; Woolsey, Lorette K.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presented evidence of the criterion related validity of several Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB) tests relative to criterion variables representing first year college achievement. Information regarding the criterion related validity of nontraditional tests of the CAB reflecting divergent production hypothesized to be associated with…

  15. Academic Achievement of Ugandan Sixth Grade Students: Influence of Parents' Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Omala Saint; Jjemba, Evans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of a father and mother's education on the academic achievement of their child. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in Ugandan primary schools. Students' percentage…

  16. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  17. The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement in Intermediate Level Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Class size and student achievement have been debated for decades. The vast amount of research on this topic is either conflicting or inconclusive. There are large and small scale studies that support both sides of this dilemma (Achilles, Nye, Boyd-Zaharias, Fulton, & Cain, 1994; Glass & Smith, 1979; Slavin, 1989). Class size reduction is a…

  18. The Influence of Early Childhood Program Participation on Academic Achievement at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, Gina Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of early childhood program participation on academic achievement by grade 3. This case study utilized a quantitative approach to data collection. For purposes of this research, one P-12 school district in central New Jersey was studied to look at the influence of early childhood program…

  19. Geographic Variation of District-Level Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Gender achievement gaps on national and state assessments have been a popular research topic over the last few decades. Many prior studies examine these gaps in different subjects (e.g., mathematics, reading, and science) and grades (typically kindergarten through eighth grade) for students living in various regions (typically states or countries)…

  20. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  1. Non-US advanced low-level radwaste treatment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyen, L. C.; Tucker, R. F., Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A review of power plant radwaste treatment practices and research in Canada, Japan, Korea and Europe is given. In addition to a review of the available English language literature, visits were made to power plants and research centers in Europe and Japan and to private and government agencies in Korea. the nuclear research centers and power plants which were visited in Japan made use of volume reduction (VR) techniques and on site storage facilities. VR techniques were in use at the two major nuclear research centers in West Germany, and several power plants have made plans to use VR systems. Research on leaching was also being carried out in Japan because they intend to dispose of low level radioactive waste by deep sea disposal. Information concerning the VR systems in Canada included in this report is based on a trip to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development Station in 1977 and on reports and personal communications with Ontario Hydro engineers. The status of the work on radwaste VR systems and radwaste incinerators in the United States is updated along with other significant events concerning VR systems.

  2. Who Studies Religion at Advanced Level: Why and to What Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Astley, Jeff; Parker, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was established to profile students currently studying religion at Advanced level (A level) in terms of their demography, motivation, experience and attitudes. Eight specific areas were identified for examination: their personal motivation to study religion at A level, the personal challenges posed by the subject, their personal…

  3. Assessment Practices of Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP): Investigating Student Advancement through Third and Fourth Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obaid, Rana

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale mixed method research focuses on investigating the way Preparatory Year English Program (PYEP) female students in a Saudi tertiary level institution context are assessed and how they are advanced from level three (Pre-intermediate) and level four (Intermediate). A four-point agreement scale survey was conducted with fifteen…

  4. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O.

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  5. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  6. Human figure drawings: validity in assessing intellectual level and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Aikman, K G; Belter, R W; Finch, A J

    1992-01-01

    In a sample of 216 child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients, significant but low correlations were found between Goodenough-Harris (GH) drawing scores and both Full Scale IQs and academic achievement. The percentage of subjects correctly classified in appropriate IQ categories ranged from 35 to 44%; the percentage of misclassified subjects ranged from 56 to 65%. Consideration of visual-motor integration, using the Bender-Gestalt, did not improve the accuracy of G-H scores in predicting IQ scores in this sample. These results indicate that human figure drawings should not be substituted for other well-established intelligence and achievement tests nor used as an additional measure of these constructs when one is evaluating psychiatric patients.

  7. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    PubMed

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs.

  8. Energy-Level Modulation of Small-Molecule Electron Acceptors to Achieve over 12% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sunsun; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Shaoqing; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Fine energy-level modulations of small-molecule acceptors (SMAs) are realized via subtle chemical modifications on strong electron-withdrawing end-groups. The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices. Finally, a top power conversion efficiency of 12.05% is achieved.

  9. Advanced nanoporous materials for micro-gravimetric sensing to trace-level bio/chemical molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-10-13

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  10. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  11. Advancing biopharmaceutical process development by system-level data analysis and integration of omics data.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Jochen; Clemens, Christoph; Kaufmann, Hitto; Schulz, Torsten W

    2012-01-01

    Development of efficient bioprocesses is essential for cost-effective manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins. To achieve further process improvement and process rationalization comprehensive data analysis of both process data and phenotypic cell-level data is essential. Here, we present a framework for advanced bioprocess data analysis consisting of multivariate data analysis (MVDA), metabolic flux analysis (MFA), and pathway analysis for mapping of large-scale gene expression data sets. This data analysis platform was applied in a process development project with an IgG-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line in which the maximal product titer could be increased from about 5 to 8 g/L.Principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering, and partial least-squares (PLS) models were applied to analyze the macroscopic bioprocess data. MFA and gene expression analysis revealed intracellular information on the characteristics of high-performance cell cultivations. By MVDA, for example, correlations between several essential amino acids and the product concentration were observed. Also, a grouping into rather cell specific productivity-driven and process control-driven processes could be unraveled. By MFA, phenotypic characteristics in glycolysis, glutaminolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cycle, coupling of amino acid metabolism to citrate cycle, and in the energy yield could be identified. By gene expression analysis 247 deregulated metabolic genes were identified which are involved, inter alia, in amino acid metabolism, transport, and protein synthesis.

  12. A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

  13. Examining the Contribution of Teacher Graduate Degrees on Student Achievement as Measured by District Level TAKS Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…

  14. Examining the Level of Convergence among Self-Regulated Learning Microanalytic Processes, Achievement, and a Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.; Malatesta, Jaime; Adams, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the convergent and predictive validity of self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic measures. Specifically, theoretically based relations among a set of self-reflection processes, self-efficacy, and achievement were examined as was the level of convergence between a microanalytic strategy measure and a SRL self-report…

  15. The Academic Achievement of Elementary Level General Education Students in Inclusion Classrooms versus Non-Inclusion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surgener, Gena F.

    2016-01-01

    This research study was conducted to examine the effects of the academic achievement of elementary level general education students in the inclusion classroom setting versus the general education students in the non-inclusion classroom in a large suburban school district in Tennessee as measured by third, fourth, and fifth grade mathematics and…

  16. The Effective Practices and Beliefs of School Principals in High Achieving Hispanic Majority Mid-Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briseno, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the effective practices and beliefs of 10 Texas principals in high achieving majority Hispanic mid-level schools. Participant interviews were analyzed using the Creswell (2007) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study…

  17. An Examination of Vocational School Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics and of Their Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Cahit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine vocational school students' self-efficacy beliefs in mathematics and their achievement levels. As the data collection tool, "Self-Efficacy Perception of Mathematics Scale" developed by Umay (2001) was used in the study. The sample is composed of 178 students who were attending different programs of…

  18. Prospective Teachers' Comprehension Levels of Special Relativity Theory and the Effect of Writing for Learning on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the comprehension levels of special relativity theory in prospective teachers who take the Introduction to Modern Physics lesson in the faculty of education science teaching department and the effect of writing for learning on their achievement is researched. In the research, a control group pre-test post-test…

  19. Learning Time of Day and Students' Academic Achievement at School Certificate Level: A Case Study of Chibote Girls' Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenga, Henry M.; Mukuka, Angel

    2016-01-01

    A case study presented here is an investigation into whether time of day for instruction has an effect on students' academic achievement in Mathematics, Science, Biology and English at school certificate level by focusing on the grades candidates obtained after sitting for national examinations. The focus is primarily on 33 randomly selected…

  20. Improving the Ability of Qualitative Assessments to Discriminate Student Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jeffrey Chi Hoe; Toh, Anita Ann Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the use of blind marking to increase the ability of criterion-referenced marking to discriminate students' varied levels of knowledge and skill mastery in a business communication skills course. Design/methodology/approach: The business communication course in this study involved more than 10 teachers and…

  1. Transcending Disciplinary Lines to Promote Student Achievement at the Post-Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Erinn; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Writing proficiencies in the K-12 setting and at the post-secondary level have become stagnant and have decreased in some instances. Several studies indicated using peer review was beneficial for students by increasing student engagement and providing appropriate feedback. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a peer review workshop…

  2. Psychological Factors in the Academic Achievement of Remedial-Level English Students in Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of in-coming college students in need of academic remediation are on the rise, for both community college and four-year colleges. Consequently, many of these students will be required to enroll in some level of academic remediation in reading, writing and/or math to develop the basic skills necessary for student success in college-level…

  3. An Exploration of Levels of Use of an Innovation and the Relationship to Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Susan F.

    The present study was in part a case study involving the levels of use that existed among a sample of second- and fourth-grade teachers using or anticipating the use of individualized instruction in reading and mathematics instruction. The sample was assumed to include both users and nonusers of the innovation as half the schools were involved in…

  4. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  5. An Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Servant Leadership and Student Achievement in Middle Level Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, Corbett A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory quantitative research study was to determine if middle schools in which higher levels of servant leadership are evident perform better on school effectiveness measures than middle schools that exhibit lower degrees of servant leadership. Furthermore, it sought to identify contextual factors that were correlated with…

  6. Teaching Physics at Preschool Level for Mexican Students in Order to Achieve the National Scientific Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramírez Díaz, Mario H.; Nieto Betance, Gabriela; García Trujillo, Luís Antonio; Chávez-Campos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In its program of studies for preschool level, the Secretary of Public Education of Mexico promoted development of four standards of science: Scientific knowledge, applications of scientific knowledge and technology, skills associated to science, and attitudes associated to science. However, to develop this skills and reach out the standards there…

  7. Instructional Leadership in Missouri: A Study of Middle-Level Building Principals and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe Missouri middle-level school principals' perceptions of their instructional leadership practices. The Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) by Philip Hallinger was used to define the measured leadership tasks (www.philiphallinger.com). There were a total of 77 middle-level…

  8. Individualizing Instruction in College-Level Spanish: A Study of Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimerhanzel-Nestlerode, Samye Ruth Mott; Cooper, James

    This study considers whether the outcomes for students who participated in an individualized instructional approach to language learning in intermediate college-level foreign language courses are different from the outcomes for students who participated in a lecture-recitation aproach. A two-treatment group quasi-experimental design was used. The…

  9. Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, Afshin; Bayani, Mojtaba; Torabi, Sepehr; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadnejhad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Leptin is a hormone-like protein produced by the adipose tissue. It plays an important role in protection of host against inflammation and infection. Some studies have reported changes in leptin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), saliva and blood serum of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary leptin levels in patients with advanced periodontitis and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the salivary samples of healthy individuals and patients with advanced periodontitis with clinical attachment loss >5mm were obtained using a standardized method and the leptin levels were measured in the salivary samples by means of ELISA. The effects of the periodontal status and sex on the salivary leptin levels of both groups were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Results: The means ± standard deviation (SD) of salivary leptin levels in healthy subjects and patients with advanced periodontitis were 34.27±6.88 and 17.87±5.89 pg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of sex on the salivary leptin levels was not significant (P=0.91), while the effect of advanced periodontitis on the salivary leptin levels was significant compared to healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with advanced periodontitis, the salivary leptin levels were significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. Thus, assessment of salivary leptin can be done as a non-invasive and simple method to determine the susceptibility of patients to advanced periodontitis. PMID:27536322

  10. Charter school education in Texas: Student achievement on the exit level assessment in math and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jeffery E.

    Public schools in the state of Texas are held accountable for performance and quality of education. Accountability is important to all schools, but it is critical to open-enrollment charter schools to remain in good standing. The current economic situation in Texas public education has brought attention as well as the need for alternative education programs such as charter schools. It is of the utmost importance for charter schools to illustrate that they are meeting the academic needs of the target market. This study addressed student achievement, as well as expenditure per student in both charter schools and traditional schools in the Region 10 educational service center. The datum for the study were obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) website, specifically the Academic Excellence Indicator System Data (AEIS) files for the 2011-2012. The study sample included 30 open-enrollment charters schools and 30 traditional high schools within the Region 10 educational service center during the school year of 2011-2012. The research study determined significant statistical differences between open-enrollment charter schools and traditional high schools. The potential for the study was to gain additional knowledge and insight along with additional data for the open-enrollment charter schools and traditional schools in the Region 10 Educational Service Center. The study has potentially increased the information for researchers and practitioners in education. In addition this study has proved charter schools are a viable and an effective educational tool for the future.

  11. A question of balance: achieving appropriate nutrient levels in biofortified staple crops.

    PubMed

    Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Berman, Judit; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu

    2013-12-01

    The biofortification of staple crops with vitamins is an attractive strategy to increase the nutritional quality of human food, particularly in areas where the population subsists on a cereal-based diet. Unlike other approaches, biofortification is sustainable and does not require anything more than a standard food-distribution infrastructure. The health-promoting effects of vitamins depend on overall intake and bioavailability, the latter influenced by food processing, absorption efficiency and the utilisation or retention of the vitamin in the body. The bioavailability of vitamins in nutritionally enriched foods should ideally be adjusted to achieve the dietary reference intake in a reasonable portion. Current vitamin biofortification programmes focus on the fat-soluble vitamins A and E, and the water-soluble vitamins C and B9 (folate), but the control of dosage and bioavailability has been largely overlooked. In the present review, we discuss the vitamin content of nutritionally enhanced foods developed by conventional breeding and genetic engineering, focusing on dosage and bioavailability. Although the biofortification of staple crops could potentially address micronutrient deficiency on a global scale, further research is required to develop effective strategies that match the bioavailability of vitamins to the requirements of the human diet.

  12. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A structured pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  13. Local Partnerships: Achieving Stakeholder Consensus on Low-Level Waste Disposal?

    SciTech Connect

    Hooft, E.; Bergmans, A.; Derveaux, K.; Vanhoof, L.

    2002-02-28

    Nuclear waste management is more then finding a technical answer to a technical problem. Dealing with nuclear, or any other form of hazardous waste, for that matter, not only implies solving a technical problem, it also means solving a societal problem. And societal questions cannot be resolved in a technical laboratory. Of course, the technical aspect of nuclear waste management and disposal is a very important one, but the societal aspect is of equal importance. In order to find an implementable solution to deal with nuclear waste, attention should be paid to what kind of solution the society wants and under what conditions a proposed solution might be acceptable. This, however, cannot be achieved by simply adding a number of ''societal parameters'' to a technical concept modeling. It is something that can only be established through interaction with the public concerned. And that, in addition, is not something that can be preformed as an accidental spin off of a vastly elaborated technical program. Communicating or interacting with the public does not mean sweeping them off their feet with smoothly edited leaflets explaining how technically sound the proposed solution is and how wonderful it would fit in their back yard. Adding, just to proof how brilliantly this all has been thought through, numerous safety measures, so people would feel reassured. This kind of communication, will only activate people's suspicion and drive them straight into a ''NIMBY''-reaction. The public (and by this we mean the stakeholders or the people actually concerned) should be involved in the decision making on nuclear waste from the very start of the program. This means that they must be aware of the fact that tests are taken place, that they can participate in the follow up of these technical analysis, and, that they have a say in whether further steps will eventually be taken.

  14. Recent advances and achievements in nanomaterial-based, and structure switchable aptasensing platforms for ochratoxin A detection.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Akhtar; Yang, Cheng; Rhouati, Amina; Marty, Jean Louis

    2013-11-06

    Aptamer-based bioreceptors that can easily adopt their surroundings have captured the attention of scientists from a wide spectrum of domains in designing highly sensitive, selective and structure switchable sensing assays. Through elaborate design and chemical functionalization, numerous aptamer-based assays have been developed that can switch their conformation upon incubation with target analyte, resulting in an enhanced output signal. To further lower the detection limits to picomolar levels, nanomaterials have attracted great interest in the design of aptamer-based sensing platforms. Associated to their unique properties, nanomaterials offer great promise for numerous aptasensing applications. This review will discuss current research activities in the aptasensing with typical example of detection of ochratoxin A (OTA). OTA, a secondary fungal metabolite, contaminates a variety of food commodities, and has several toxicological effects such as nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, teratogenic and immunotoxic activities. The review will introduce advances made in the methods of integrating nanomaterials in aptasensing, and will discuss current conformational switchable design strategies in aptasensor fabrication methodologies.

  15. Quality of Research Design Moderates Effects of Grade Retention on Achievement: A Meta-analytic, Multi-level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Chiharu S.; Chen, Qi; Willson, Victor L.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the effect of grade retention on academic outcomes and investigated systemic sources of variability in effect sizes. Using multi-level modeling, we investigated characteristics of 207 effect sizes across 22 studies published between 1990 and 2007 at two levels: the study (between) and individual (within) levels. Design quality was a study-level variable. Individual level variables were median grade retained and median number of years post retention. Quality of design was associated with less negative effects. Studies employing middle to high methodological designs yielded effect sizes not statistically significantly different from zero and 0.34 higher (more positive) than studies with low design quality. Years post retention was negatively associated with retention effects, and this effect was stronger for studies using grade comparisons versus age comparisons. Results challenge the widely held view that retention has a negative impact on achievement. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:20717492

  16. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  17. A Comparison of the Effects of an Advanced Organizer and/or Behavioral Objectives on the Achievement of Disadvantaged Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    The use of an advanced organizer (a generalizable, encompassing concept) prior to an individualized instructional sequence in a self-paced, audiotutorial learning format was accompanied by gains in individual unit achievement and in retention by disadvantaged biology students. Although behavioral objectives generally were shown to make no…

  18. Chemical genoprotection: reducing biological damage to as low as reasonably achievable levels

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, M; Armero, D; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Castillo, J; Benavente-García, O; Fernandez, H; Alcaraz-Saura, M; Canteras, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances present in the human diet with an antimutagenic protective capacity against genotoxic damage induced by exposure to X-rays in an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. Methods Ten compounds were assessed using the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome test. The compounds studied were added to human blood at 25 μM 5 min before exposure to irradiation by 2 Gy of X-rays. Results The protective capacity of the antioxidant substances assessed was from highest to lowest according to the frequency of the MN generated by X-ray exposure: rosmarinic acid = carnosic acid = δ-tocopherol = l-acid ascorbic = apigenin = amifostine (P < 0.001) > green tea extract = diosmine = rutin = dimetylsulfoxide (P < 0.05) > irradiated control. The reduction in genotoxic damage with the radiation doses administered reached 58%, which represents a significant reduction in X-ray-induced chromosomal damage (P < 0.001). This degree of protection is greater than that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy and which is characterised by its high toxicity. Conclusion Several antioxidant substances, common components of the human diet and lacking toxicity, offer protection from the biological harm induced by ionizing radiation. Administering these protective substances to patients before radiological exploration should be considered, even in the case of small radiation doses and regardless of the biological damage expected. PMID:21697157

  19. Advances and Achievements in In Situ Analysis of Corrosion and Structure–Property Relationship in Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, D.; Joshi, V.

    2016-11-03

    Every year, TMS Magnesium Committee carefully selects a special topic in magnesium (Mg) related research and development not only having the hottest subject from both academic and industrial perspectives but also demonstrating major achievements within this subject. Following last year’s topic on Mg microallying [1], this year’s focus is on in-situ methods and associated techniques in their broad definition spanning from laboratory- to large- scale facilities to process monitoring. The applications of in-situ techniques have a wide spectrum from the analysis of melts and liquid-solid transitions to solid-state phenomena during thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatments to surface interactions with various environments. Therefore, such works are of significant interest to scientists working in the area of Mg alloy development as well as to a much broader audience from both academia and industry. This interest is primarily caused by challenges in the analysis of structure-property relationship in Mg alloys, and even cursory glance of literature reveals sharp increase of publications relevant to this topic recently. For instance, very high reactivity of Mg as well as its well-known propensity to substantially alter structure upon unloading in mechanical testing makes it difficult to understand and thus to simulate correlation between microstructures observed in post-mortem analysis and physical processes during testing or fabrication. However, recent advances in in-situ analysis based on large-scale research facilities such as neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation sources as well as microscopy-based, acoustic emission, and other more traditional techniques allowed significant achievements. Apart from apparent development of relevant experimental techniques, a significant part of this success should also be attributed to increasing accessibility of the facilities and simplification of their use from a user perspective. The selection of articles in this

  20. An analysis of predictors of enrollment and successful achievement for girls in high school Advanced Placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalma, Darlene M.

    A problem within science education in the United States persists. U.S students rank lower in science than most other students from participating countries on international tests of achievement (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). In addition, U.S. students overall enrollment rate in high school Advanced Placement (AP) physics is still low compared to other academic domains, especially for females. This problem is the background for the purpose of this study. This investigation examined cognitive and motivational variables thought to play a part in the under-representation of females in AP physics. Cognitive variables consisted of mathematics, reading, and science knowledge, as measured by scores on the 10th and 11th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). The motivational factors of attitude, stereotypical views toward science, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs were measured by a questionnaire developed with questions taken from previously proven reliable and valid instruments. A general survey regarding participation in extracurricular activities was also included. The sample included 12th grade students from two high schools located in Seminole County, Florida. Of the 106 participants, 20 girls and 27 boys were enrolled in AP physics, and 39 girls and 20 boys were enrolled in other elective science courses. Differences between males and females enrolled in AP physics were examined, as well as differences between females enrolled in AP physics and females that chose not to participate in AP physics, in order to determine predictors that apply exclusively to female enrollment in high school AP physics and predictors of an anticipated science related college major. Data were first analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent t-tests, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis. One overall theme that emerged from this research was findings that refute the ideas that

  1. An exploration of the perceptions, developmental reasoning levels, differences in learning processes, and academic achievement levels of students in introductory college microbiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Barbara Ann Matherly

    1997-11-01

    This study explored the relationship between the grades students earned in introductory college microbiology and American College Testing scores, sex, race, age, GED or high school diploma, full-time or part-time student status, developmental reasoning levels, memory tactics, and expected achievement. The study also explored student perceptions at the beginning and the end of the microbiology courses for science preparation, expected achievement, relevancy of microbiology, and expectations for the course. Archival records for 121 freshman level and 119 sophomore level microbiology students were accessed to obtain final grades, ACT scores, sex, race, age, GED or high school diploma and full-time or part-time status. The same information was obtained for the 113 freshman level and the 85 sophomore level students who participated in the study. The study groups were given the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking to assess their level of formal reasoning ability, the Inventory of Learning Processes-Revised to assess three memory techniques, an initial perception survey, and an exit perception survey. Academic achievement in microbiology could not be predicted using composites of the predictor variables. There were significant relationships between the GALT scores and the predicted grades with both the freshman and the sophomore final grades. The Self-Efficacy Fact Retention scores and the Literal Memorization scores had significant relationships to the final grades of the freshmen but not the sophomores. There was not a significant relationship between the Deep Semantic scores and the final grades in either group. Students indicated that high school science had given them only a medium to low level of preparation for college microbiology. The sophomores felt that previous college science classes had given them a much better preparation for microbiology than did the freshmen students. Both groups expressed the importance of the laboratory experience to the understanding

  2. Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Hubrig; G.H. Biallas

    2005-05-01

    Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

  3. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Elizabeth A; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially predicted literacy achievement from cognitive-linguistic translation (Block 1); working memory components for word-form coding (Block 2), phonological and orthographic loops (Block 3), and supervisory focused or switching attention (Block 4); and SLD groups (Block 5). Results showed that cognitive-linguistic translation explained an average of 27% and 15% of the variance in reading and writing achievement, respectively, but working memory components explained an additional 39% and 27% of variance. Orthographic word-form coding uniquely predicted nearly every measure, whereas attention switching uniquely predicted only reading. Finally, differences in reading and writing persisted between dyslexia and dysgraphia, with dysgraphia higher, even after controlling for Block 1 to 4 predictors. Differences in literacy achievement between students with dyslexia and oral and written language learning disabilities were largely explained by the Block 1 predictors. Applications to identifying and teaching students with these SLDs are discussed.

  4. The Relationship between Teaching Styles and Autonomy among Iranian Female EFL Teachers, Teaching at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baradaran, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at inspecting the existence of a significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their Autonomy. For this reason, two questionnaires with regard to the main variables were given to 175 female English language teachers, teaching at advanced levels. Moreover, non-parametric Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis…

  5. Perspectives on Performance Indicators: GCE Advanced Level and Differences Between Institution Types in Cost Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, A.

    1998-01-01

    Applies multilevel models of cost-effectiveness to numerous types of (British) institutions providing courses of instruction in the General Certificate of Education at Advanced Level. Different impressions may be gained about an institution's relative effectiveness when cost considerations are combined with outcome measures. Data evaluation needs…

  6. Saving Lower-Enrollment, Advanced-Level Elective Programs: A Way to Get Blood from Turnips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Leon C.

    An innovative, flexible scheduling technique for advanced levels of a foreign language program is described. The technique, predicated on individualized pacing and continuous progress, is generalizable to all elective programs, and offers a workable solution to satisfy the enrollment "numbers game" and to lend breadth and depth to the curricula of…

  7. Student Presentation as a Means of Learning English for Upper Intermediate to Advanced Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunpyo; Park, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This study observes and examines how upper intermediate to advanced level college students perform and perceive one-topic-for-each student presentation as a means of learning English. It is also to have the prospective medical doctors ready for their future use of English presentation and paper writing since such demand is on the rise in the…

  8. Intercultural Language Learning through Translation and Interpreting: A Study of Advanced-Level Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the appropriateness of translation and interpreting tasks for language teaching. To this end, it analyses an advanced-level Japanese language subject taught at an Australian university, utilising the concept of intercultural language learning (ICLL) as a theoretical framework. The study also investigates the learning experience…

  9. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part one, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  10. An Intermediate-Advanced Level German Refresher Course: Book 4, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Book four, part two, of an intermediate-advanced level German refresher course for college students is presented. The volume consists of 25 lessons of text material and 50 prerecorded tapes. A typical lesson with its two accompanying tapes is made up of interrogation, military terminology drill, and a comprehension test. The materials of the first…

  11. The Contribution of CALL to Advanced-Level Foreign/Second Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack; Arispe, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the contribution of instructional technology to advanced-level foreign/second language learning (AL2) over the past thirty years. It is shown that the most salient feature of AL2 practice and associated Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research are their rarity and restricted nature. Based on an analysis of four…

  12. Advancing Ecological Models to Compare Scale in Multi-Level Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David James

    2016-01-01

    Education systems as units of analysis have been metaphorically likened to ecologies to model change. However, ecological models to date have been ineffective in modelling educational change that is multi-scale and occurs across multiple levels of an education system. Thus, this paper advances two innovative, ecological frameworks that improve on…

  13. Undergraduate Performance of Advanced Level and Associate Degree Students: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Rose, Kieran Winnifred

    2013-01-01

    In the English-speaking Caribbean, the Advanced level qualification is the traditional and preferred route to accessing an education at the University of the West Indies (UWI). However, applicants with nontraditional qualifications--such as the associate degree qualification, teacher certificate, diploma, and mature student status (meaning one who…

  14. Reinforcing Constructivist Teaching in Advanced Level Biochemistry through the Introduction of Case-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartfield, Perry J.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of curriculum development, I have integrated a constructivist teaching strategy into an advanced-level biochemistry teaching unit. Specifically, I have introduced case-based learning activities into the teaching/learning framework. These case-based learning activities were designed to develop problem-solving skills, consolidate…

  15. Selenoprotein gene variants, toenail selenium levels, and risk for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Geybels, Milan S; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J; van Schooten, Frederik J; van Breda, Simone G; Rayman, Margaret P; Green, Fiona R; Verhage, Bas A J

    2014-03-01

    Lower selenium levels have been associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and genetic variation in the selenoprotein genes selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is thought to modify this relationship. We investigated whether the association between toenail selenium levels and advanced PCa risk in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study is modified by common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1. Toenail clippings were used to determine selenium levels and to isolate DNA for genotyping. This case-cohort study, which included 817 case subjects with advanced PCa and 1048 subcohort members, was analyzed with Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Three genetic variants were associated with advanced (stage III/IV or IV) PCa risk: SEPP1 rs7579 (lower risk; P trend = .01), GPX1 rs17650792 (higher risk; P trend = .03), and GPX1 rs1800668 (lower risk; P trend = .005). Toenail selenium levels were inversely associated with advanced PCa risk, independently of common genetic variation in SEPP1 and GPX1.

  16. Cognitive Levels of Questions Used by Iranian EFL Teachers in Advanced Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khorsand, Narjess

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…

  17. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  18. Guide for the Training and Qualification of Welding Personnel. Level II - Advanced Welders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Welding Society, Miami, FL.

    This guide is designed to help education and training facilities develop and administer competency-based training programs to qualify and certify trainees in accordance with the American Welding Society (AWS) requirements for level II (advanced) welders. Presented first are the scope, objectives, and requirements of the AWS…

  19. South Carolina Pharmacy Practitioner Opinion of Entry Level Degree and Interest in an Advanced Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karig, Arnold W.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A survey of South Carolina pharmacists investigated the desired entry level pharmacy degree, years of study required, perceived adequacy of the respondents' current education, current pursuit of credit courses and continuing education programs, and interest in obtaining advanced degrees. Results suggest an off-campus program would be…

  20. ESL for Hotel/Hospitality Industry. Level: Advanced Beginner/Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Northport, NY.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans for an advanced beginning and intermediate course in work-related English for non-English- or limited-English-speaking entry-level employees in the hotel and hospitality industry. Course objectives are as follows: helping participants understand and use job-specific vocabulary; receive and understand…

  1. Advanced System-Level Reliability Analysis and Prediction with Field Data Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    innovative life prediction methodologies that incorporate emerging probabilistic lifing techniques as well as advanced physics-of- failure...often based on simplifying assumptions and their predictions may suffer from different sources of uncertainty. For instance, one source of...system level, most modeling approaches focus on life prediction for single components and fail to account for the interdependencies that may result

  2. Advanced Level Biology Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment and Their Engagement in Assessment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a Mixed Methods study involving an investigation into the attitudes of advanced level biology teachers towards assessment and describes the teachers' experiences while being engaged in Assessment for Learning (AfL) practices such as sharing of learning objectives and peer- and self-assessment. Quantitative data were collected…

  3. Does meditation play an integral role in achieving high-level wellness as defined by Travis and Ryan (2004)?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Nicole J

    2011-01-01

    In the emerging discipline of wellness, Travis and Ryan (2004) develop a dynamic theory of wellness that while not explicitly stated takes a systems theory approach to health and wellness. As a result, their theory of wellness resonates with many of the concepts and ideals experienced through a meditation practice. It is with this congruence in mind that the current paper explores whether there is any relationship between meditation and high-level wellness and if meditation techniques play an integral role in helping to achieve enhanced levels of wellness. A wide range of research across disciplines is reviewed, and despite controversies in the methodology employed to test meditation's efficacy, it is readily apparent that numerous benefits or wellness outcomes are derived from a meditation practice. However, it is doubtful that meditation is the only path to deliver high-level wellness, other means exist-some that may be a function of the natural human condition.

  4. Advances in Instrumentation for Quantification of Isotopic Nitrous Oxide from ppb levels to 100%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, F.; Gupta, M.; Leen, J.; Provencal, R. A.; Owano, T. G.; Baer, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic composition of trace gases provides information of their origin and fate that cannot be determined from their concentration measurements alone. Biological source and loss processes, like bacterial production of nitrous oxide, are typically accompanied by isotopic selectivity associated with the kinetics of bond formation and destruction. Of the three important biologically mediated greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), the understanding of nitrous oxide isotopic budget in air lags behind the other two gases primarily due to the relatively low concentration of N2O in ambient air (~320 ppb). Furthermore, the origin of nitrates in rivers, lakes, ocean and other water supplies may be determined from analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide produced via chemical reduction or biological conversion. These processes can produce nitrous oxide at levels considerably greater than those present in ambient air. To date, analyses of isotopic nitrous oxide requires either pre-concentration of samples containing low concentrations or dilution of samples with high concentrations. We report significant advances of instrumentation for real-time measurements of site-specific isotopic nitrogen (δ15Nα, δ15Nβ, δ15N, δ18O) and mixing ratio [N2O] of nitrous oxide over a very wide range of mole fractions in air. Specifically, LGR's Isotopic N2O Analyzer can report site-specific isotopic nitrogen and isotopic oxygen continuously in flows ranging from 0.2 to over 20 ppm (parts per million) nitrous oxide in air (with preconcentration or dilution). Furthermore, for samples of limited volume, a batch technique may be used for similar isotopic measurements in discrete samples containing 0.2 ppm to 100% nitrous oxide (e.g., sample volumes from bacterial digestion can be as little as 1-10 mL). This novel technology, which employs cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) and a mid-infrared laser (4.56 microns) and does not require any cryogenic components, has been

  5. Low Circulating Levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone in Histologically Advanced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Michael; Angulo, Paul; Chalasani, Naga; Merriman, Ralph; Viker, Kimberly; Charatcharoenwitthaya, Phunchai; Sanderson, Schuyler; Gawrieh, Samer; Krishnan, Anuradha; Lindor, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The biological basis of variability in histological progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone and has been shown to influence sensitivity to oxidative stress, insulin sensitivity, and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and procollagen messenger RNA. Our aim was to determine whether more histologically advanced NAFLD is associated with low circulating levels of DHEA. Serum samples were obtained prospectively at the time of liver biopsy in 439 patients with NAFLD (78 in an initial and 361 in validation cohorts) and in controls with cholestatic liver disease (n = 44). NAFLD was characterized as mild [simple steatosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis stage 0–2] or advanced (NASH with fibrosis stage 3–4). Serum levels of sulfated DHEA (DHEA-S) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients with advanced NAFLD had lower plasma levels of DHEA-S than patients with mild NAFLD in both the initial (0.25 ± 0.07 versus 1.1 ± 0.09 µg/mL, P < 0.001) and validation cohorts (0.47 ± 0.06 versus 0.99 ± 0.04 µg/mL, P < 0.001). A “dose effect” of decreasing DHEA-S and incremental fibrosis stage was observed with a mean DHEA-S of 1.03 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.07, 0.83 ± 0.11, 0.66 ± 0.11, and 0.35 ± 0.06 µg/mL for fibrosis stages 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. All patients in both cohorts in the advanced NAFLD group had low DHEA-S levels, with the majority in the hypoadrenal range. The association between DHEA-S and severity of NAFLD persisted after adjusting for age. A relationship between disease/fibrosis severity and DHEA-S levels was not seen in patients with cholestatic liver diseases. Conclusion More advanced NAFLD, as indicated by the presence of NASH with advanced fibrosis stage, is strongly associated with low circulating DHEA-S. These data provide novel evidence for relative DHEA-S deficiency in patients with

  6. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Advancing Success for Black Men in College. Policy Notes. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 22, No. 1) provides highlights from a recent symposium sponsored by ETS and the Children Defense Fund (CDF), "Advancing Success for Black Men in College," held on June 23, 2014, in Washington, DC. The symposium is part of a two-conference series: It was the 18th of ETS's "Addressing Achievement…

  7. Exploring How Teacher-Related Factors Relate to Student Achievement in Learning Advanced Algebra in Technology-Enhanced Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen J.; Tapper, John; Dalton, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between contextual variables related to teachers and student performance in Advanced Algebra classrooms in the USA. The data were gathered from a cluster-randomized study on the effects of SimCalc MathWorlds®, a curricular and technological intervention as a replacement for Algebra 2 curriculum, on…

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  9. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  10. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  11. The relationship of certified flight instructors' emotional intelligence levels on flight student advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokeness, Mark Merrill

    Aviation researchers estimate airline companies will require nearly 500,000 pilots in the next 20 years. The role of a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) is to move student pilots to professional pilots with training typically conducted in one-on-one student and instructor sessions. The knowledge of aviation, professionalism as a teacher, and the CFI’s interpersonal skills can directly affect the successes and advancement of a student pilot. A new and emerging assessment of people skills is known as emotional intelligence (EI). The EI of the CFI can and will affect a flight students’ learning experiences. With knowledge of emotional intelligence and its effect on flight training, student pilot dropouts from aviation may be reduced, thus helping to ensure an adequate supply of pilots. Without pilots, the growth of the commercial aviation industry will be restricted. This mixed method research study established the correlation between a CFI’s measured EI levels and the advancement of flight students. The elements contributing to a CFI’s EI level were not found to be teaching or flight-related experiences, suggesting other life factors are drawn upon by the CFI and are reflected in their emotional intelligence levels presented to flight students. Students respond positively to CFIs with higher levels of emotional intelligence. Awareness of EI skills by both the CFI and flight student contribute to flight student successes and advancement.

  12. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  13. The effects of a CD-ROM textbook on student achievement and cognition-level attainment of undergraduate biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludrick, Brad Burton

    Purpose of the study. This study was designed to measure the effects of CD-ROM textbook integration on student achievement and student cognition-level-attainment for undergraduate general biology students. Four sections of general biology were selected as the study group. Two sections served as the experimental group receiving CD-ROM textbook integration. The remaining two sections served as the control group, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Procedure. This study employed a pre-experimental research design, static group comparison (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1996: 331), to determine if a CD-ROM textbook had significant effects on student cognition-level-attainment and content achievement of undergraduate biology students. The study was conducted during the 2001 spring semester at Southeastern Oklahoma State University. The duration of the treatment was approximately sixteen weeks. Four sections of general biology (N = 101) were selected as the study group. Two of the four sections of general biology (n = 48) were randomly selected by the researcher via coin toss to serve as the experimental group, Group A, and were taught biological content utilizing a CD-ROM Textbook. The remaining two sections of general biology (n = 53) served as the control group, Group B, and were taught biological content utilizing a traditional textbook. Various statistical tests were used in analysis of the data. The ten null hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of significance. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS), version 9.0 (SPSS, 1999), was used to process the data. Results. The results determined by this study were the overall effects of the CD-ROM textbook did not significantly differ from the effects of the traditional textbook on student content achievement and cognition-level-attainment. Conclusions. The utilization of CD-ROM textbook instruction is not superior at improving student achievement of biology content, as

  14. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  15. Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Kettinger, Ádám; Hill, Christopher; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Windischberger, Christian; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these advanced echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years) using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1) simple arithmetic averaging, (2) BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3) temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4) temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e., group-level t-values) compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned. PMID:28018165

  16. Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

  17. Metabolic Engineering of Seeds Can Achieve Levels of ω-7 Fatty Acids Comparable with the Highest Levels Found in Natural Plant Sources1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Mishra, Girish; Whittle, Edward; Pidkowich, Mark S.; Bevan, Scott A.; Merlo, Ann Owens; Walsh, Terence A.; Shanklin, John

    2010-01-01

    Plant oils containing ω-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1Δ9 and cis-vaccenic 18:1Δ11) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of ω-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1Δ9 with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased ω-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of ω-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased ω-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds. PMID:20943853

  18. Advanced Quantum Mechanical Calculation of Superheavy Ions: Energy Levels, Radiation and Finite Nuclear Size Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, Alexander V.; Gurnitskaya, E.P.; Loboda, A.V.

    2005-10-26

    Advanced quantum approach to calculation of spectra for superheavy ions with an account of relativistic, correlation, nuclear, radiative effects is developed and based on the gauge invariant quantum electrodynamics (QED) perturbation theory (PT). The Lamb shift polarization part is calculated in the Ueling approximation, self-energy part is defined within a new non-PT procedure of Ivanov-Ivanova. Calculation results for energy levels, hyperfine structure parameters of some heavy elements ions are presented.

  19. Intrinsic Advance Primers: An Investigation of the Effects of Personalized Extraneous Multimedia upon Intrinsic Interest and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Matthew Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the delivery of personalized extraneous multimedia (PEM) messages prior to the delivery of the primary instructional materials could prime intrinsic interest and have a positive impact upon achievement in comparison to the use of non-personalized extraneous multimedia (NPEM). Extraneous materials are…

  20. Powerful Pedagogies: Evaluating Effective Culturally Relevant English Instruction for High Achieving African American Males in Advanced Placement English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Stanley Louis, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Helping teachers to effectively use culturally relevant instructional practices can help the educational community close the literacy gap for African American males. This study examines effective secondary English teachers and their high achieving African American male students. Using critical race and sociocultural theories as a conceptual…

  1. The Impact of Advanced Geometry and Measurement Curriculum Units on the Mathematics Achievement of First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Firmender, Janine M.; Carroll, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Project M2 was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for K-2 students. The units were developed using recommendations from gifted, mathematics, and early childhood education. This article reports on achievement results for students in Grade 1 at 12 diverse sites in four states using the Iowa Tests of…

  2. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  3. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  4. Primary care of patients with high cardiovascular risk : Blood pressure, lipid and diabetic target levels and their achievement in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szigethy, Endre; Jancsó, Zoltán; Móczár, Csaba; Ilyés, István; Kovács, Eszter; Róbert Kolozsvári, László; Rurik, Imre

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the majority of premature deaths in Hungary as well. Most of them could be prevented with healthy lifestyle of patients and adequate drug prescription of primary care physicians. Earlier European surveys found wide differences between the practices and achievements of different countries in this field. The study was based on and designed according to the framework of previous European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) studies and aimed presenting Hungarian results and comparing with the achievements of other countries and previous Hungarian surveys. Among rural and urban settings, 679 patients under continuous care (236 diabetics, 218 with dyslipidaemia, and 225 with hypertension) were consecutively selected by 20 experienced general practitioners. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (men) and 64.0 years (women). Among diabetics, less than 7 % of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values were found in 42.5 % patients, while only 11.4 % patients had fasting plasma sugar less than 6.0 mmol/L. Of the patients treated for dyslipidaemia, the target level of triglyceride was reached by 40.6 %, recommended total cholesterol by 14.2 % and the HDL-cholesterol by 71.8 %. The therapeutic control of total and HDL-cholesterol was better in men, although women had better triglyceride values. The achievement among patients with hypertension was 42.0 %. Significantly higher blood pressure was measured by patients who were treated with not recommended combinations of antihypertensive medication. A remarkable improvement could be observed in Hungary in the field of secondary prevention. It was greater among patients with hypertension and dyslipidaemia and smaller in diabetes care. Compared to the results of published European surveys, Hungary occupies a good position, but further improvement is still required.

  5. Evidence-based surgical training in orthopaedics: how many arthroscopies of the knee are needed to achieve consultant level performance?

    PubMed

    Price, A J; Erturan, G; Akhtar, K; Judge, A; Alvand, A; Rees, J L

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants. There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant. We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum.

  6. Learning the Cell Structures with Three-Dimensional Models: Students' Achievement by Methods, Type of School and Questions' Cognitive Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Naim, Raphael

    2013-08-01

    The cell topic was taught to 9th-grade students in three modes of instruction: (a) students "hands-on," who constructed three-dimensional cell organelles and macromolecules during the learning process; (b) teacher demonstration of the three-dimensional model of the cell structures; and (c) teaching the cell topic with the regular learning material in an expository mode (which use one- or two-dimensional cell structures as are presented in charts, textbooks and microscopic slides). The sample included 669, 9th-grade students from 25 classes who were taught by 22 Biology teachers. Students were randomly assigned to the three modes of instruction, and two tests in content knowledge in Biology were used. Data were treated with multiple analyses of variance. The results indicate that entry behavior in Biology was equal for all the study groups and types of schools. The "hands-on" learning group who build three-dimensional models through the learning process achieved significantly higher on academic achievements and on the high and low cognitive questions' levels than the other two groups. The study indicates the advantages students may have being actively engaged in the learning process through the "hands-on" mode of instruction/learning.

  7. Research on Selection Methods and Programming for Advanced Black Students at the Secondary Level of Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, James R.; And Others

    This research investigated the phenomenon of underrepresentation of blacks in advanced level secondary school courses in Shaker Heights, Ohio. Initial interviews revealed that the problem of racial imbalance in advanced level courses was not one of identifying black gifted youth or of offering attractive programs for them, but of black children…

  8. Predicting Levels of Reading and Writing Achievement in Typically Developing, English-Speaking 2(nd) and 5(th) Graders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jasmin Niedo; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2014-05-01

    Human traits tend to fall along normal distributions. The aim of this research was to evaluate an evidence-based conceptual framework for predicting expected individual differences in reading and writing achievement outcomes for typically developing readers and writers in early and middle childhood from Verbal Reasoning with or without Working Memory Components (phonological, orthographic, and morphological word storage and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and rapid switching attention for cross-code integration). Verbal Reasoning (reconceptualized as Bidirectional Cognitive-Linguistic Translation) plus the Working Memory Components (reconceptualized as a language learning system) accounted for more variance than Verbal Reasoning alone, except for handwriting for which Working Memory Components alone were better predictors. Which predictors explained unique variance varied within and across reading (oral real word and pseudoword accuracy and rate, reading comprehension) and writing (handwriting, spelling, composing) skills and grade levels (second and fifth) in this longitudinal study. Educational applications are illustrated and theoretical and practical significance discussed.

  9. Chameleon Effects in Homework Research: The Homework-Achievement Association Depends on the Measures Used and the Level of Analysis Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Schnyder, Inge; Niggli, Alois; Neumann, Marko; Ludtke, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Using a data set specifically tailored to homework research, with a sample of 1275 students from 70 classes in Switzerland, the association between homework and achievement in French as a second language was tested at three levels (class level, between-student level, and within-student level). The strength and direction of the homework-achievement…

  10. Achievable capacity improvement by using multi-level modulation format in trench-assisted multi-core fiber system.

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Choi, H G; Chung, Y C

    2013-06-17

    We evaluate the impacts of using multi-level modulation formats on the transmission capacity of the multi-core fiber (MCF) having trench-assisted index profile and hexagonal layout. For this evaluation, we utilize the spectral efficiency per unit area, defined as the spatial spectral efficiency (SSE). The results show that the SSE improvement achievable by using the higher-level modulation format can be reduced due to its lower tolerance to the inter-core crosstalk. We also evaluate the effects of using large effective area on the transmission capacity of the trench-assisted MCF. The results show that the use of large effective area can decrease this capacity due to the increased inter-core crosstalk and lengthened cable cutoff wavelength, although it can help increase the transmission distance. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the effective area of MCF by considering both the SSE and transmission distance. However, the results indicate that the effect of using different effective areas on the SSE-distance product is not significant, and it is not useful to increase the effective area of the trench-assisted MCF to be larger than ~110 μm(2).

  11. Variables that predict academic achievement in the Spanish compulsory secondary educational system: a longitudinal, multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín, Elena; Martínez-Arias, Rosario; Marchesi, Alvaro; Pérez, Eva M

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a study whose objective was to identify certain personal and institutional variables that are associated with academic achievement among Spanish, secondary school students, and to analyze their influence on the progress of those students over the course of that stage of their education. In order to do this, a longitudinal, multi-level study was conducted in which a total of 965 students and 27 different schools were evaluated in Language, Math and Social Science at three different times (beginning, middle and end of the period). The results show progress in all the schools and in all areas. As for the personal, student variables, the longitudinal, HLM analyses confirmed the importance of sex and sociocultural background and, distinguishing it from other studies, also the predictive capacity of meta-cognitive abilities and learning strategies on success in school. On the institutional level, the school climate and teachers' expectations of their students were the most relevant of the variables studied. The size of the school, the percentage of students who repeat grades, and the leadership of the administration also explained a portion of the variance in some areas.

  12. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  13. Impaired clearance of accumulated lysosomal glycogen in advanced Pompe disease despite high-level vector-mediated transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Young, Sarah P.; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Infantile-onset glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease; MIM 232300) causes death early in childhood from cardiorespiratory failure in absence of effective treatment, whereas late-onset Pompe disease causes a progressive skeletal myopathy. The limitations of enzyme replacement therapy could potentially be addressed with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy. Methods AAV vectors containing tissue-specific regulatory cassettes, either liver-specific or muscle-specific, were administered to 12 and 17 month old Pompe disease mice to evaluate the efficacy of gene therapy in advanced Pompe disease. Biochemical correction was evaluated through GAA activity and glycogen content analyses of the heart and skeletal muscle. Western blotting, urinary biomarker, and Rotarod performance were evaluated following vector administration. Results The AAV vector containing the liver-specific regulatory cassette secreted high-level hGAA into the blood and corrected glycogen storage in the heart and diaphragm. The biochemical correction of the heart and diaphragm was associated with efficacy, as reflected by increased Rotarod performance; however, the clearance of glycogen from skeletal muscles was relatively impaired, in comparison with younger Pompe disease mice. An alternative vector containing a muscle-specific regulatory cassette transduced skeletal muscle with high efficiency, but also failed to achieve complete clearance of accumulated glycogen. Decreased transduction of the heart and liver in older mice, especially in females, was implicated as a cause for reduced efficacy in advanced Pompe disease. Conclusion The impaired efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in old Pompe disease mice emphasized the need for early treatment to achieve full efficacy. PMID:19621331

  14. A new hydrostatic leveling system developed for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kivioja, L. A.

    1998-09-18

    As a result of the calibration tests performed with the first prototype units using the new measurement principle, we believe that the described leveling method is stable and accurate to the micron level with a sufficiently large range for the expected elevation changes of the support girders used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although long-term studies with this system have not been conducted, we believe that after installation this system requires little or no servicing for long periods of time. The methods described in this paper cover only the elevation changes of individual vessels. However, changes in the tilt of a girder must also be known. Therefore, a combination of tiltmeters in conjunction with this hydrostatic level system (HLS) would be most suitable for measuring the tilt and elevation changes of the APS girders.

  15. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  17. Development of low-pH cements for immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste: achievements and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Martins de Freitas, Regeane; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2013-07-01

    Although cementation is a widely recognized solidification/ stabilization process for immobilisation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILRW), the low resistance to hyper-alkaline pore waters compromises the effectiveness of the process when Portland Cement (PC) is employed. Moreover the manufacture of PC is responsible for significant CO{sub 2} emissions. In this context, low pH cements are environmentally more suitable and have emerged as a potential alternative for obtaining secure waste forms. This paper summarises the achievements on development of low-pH cements and the challenges of using these new materials for the ILRW immobilisation. The performance of waste forms is also discussed in terms of radionuclides release. Reactive magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphate cements are emphasised as they feature important advantages such as consumption of available constituents for controlling acid-base reactions, reduced permeability and higher density. Additionally, in order to identify new opportunities for study, the long-term modelling approach is also briefly discussed. (authors)

  18. The effect of low level laser on condylar growth during mandibular advancement in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It has been shown that Low Level Laser (LLL) has a positive effect on bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low level laser on condylar growth during mandibular advancement in rabbits. Materials and methods Continuous forward mandibular advancement was performed in fourteen male Albino rabbits with the mean age of 8 weeks and the mean weight of 1.5 ± 0.5 kg, with acrylic inclined planes. The rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups after 4 weeks. LLL (KLO3: wave length 630 nm) was irradiated at 3 points around the TMJ, through the skin in the first group. The exposure was performed for 3 minutes at each point (a total of 9 minutes) once a day for 3 weeks. The control group was not exposed to any irradiation. The rabbits in both groups were sacrificed after two months and the histological evaluation of TMJ was performed to compare fibrous tissue, cartilage, and new bone formation in condylar region in both groups. Disc displacement was also detected in both groups. Student's t-test, Exact Fisher and Chi square tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results The formation of fibrous tissue was significantly lower, while bone formation was significantly greater in lased group as compared with control group. The thickness of cartilage did not differ significantly between two groups. Conclusion Irradiation of LLL (KLO3) during mandibular advancement in rabbits, increases bone formation in condylar region, while neither increase in the cartilage thickness nor fibrous tissues was observed. PMID:22361310

  19. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  20. The Effects of Performance Objectives on the Achievement Level of Selected Eighth-Grade Science Pupils in Four Predominantly Black Inner City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.

    Reported is a study to determine the effects of performance objectives on the achievement level of low achieving science pupils in four predominantly black inner city schools. Six teachers and 210 pupils were involved in the study. Three teachers were trained to develop and use performance objectives as an instructional technique. Pedagogical…

  1. Examining the Effects of General Level Course Elimination and Tracking on Student Growth and Achievement in a Suburban High School Mathematics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decade of reform driven by the NCLB legislation, there continues to be a significant gap in mathematics achievement between race/ethnicity and socioeconomic groupings of students. This study examines the practice of tracking and an effort to improve mathematics achievement by eliminating the general level mathematics track. The suburban…

  2. The Effects of School-Based Parental Involvement on Academic Achievement at the Child and Elementary School Level: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sira; Holloway, Susan D.

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers view parental involvement (PI) as a crucial component of school reform efforts, but evidence of its effect on student achievement is equivocal. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort dataset, we examined the long-term impact on student- and school-level achievement of three types of school-based PI: PI to…

  3. Anti-GnRH antibodies can induce castrate levels of testosterone in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Simms, M S; Scholfield, D P; Jacobs, E; Michaeli, D; Broome, P; Humphreys, J E; Bishop, M C

    2000-01-01

    D17DT consists of the GnRH decapeptide linked to diphtheria toxoid. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the tolerance of D17DT and the production of anti-GnRH antibodies from two doses, 30 and 100 μg, in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. Twelve patients with histologically proven prostate cancer in whom hormonal therapy was indicated were recruited. Patients received either 30 or 100 μg given intramuscularly on three separate occasions over six weeks. Patients were followed up and blood was taken for estimation of serum testosterone, PSA and anti-GnRH antibody titre. Overall the drug was well tolerated. In 5 patients a significant reduction in serum testosterone and PSA was seen. Castrate levels of testosterone were achieved in 4 and maintained for up to 9 months. Patients with the highest antibody titre had the best response in terms of testosterone suppression. This study shows that it is possible to immunize a patient with prostate cancer against GnRH to induce castrate levels of testosterone. This state appears to be reversible. This novel form of immunotherapy may have advantages over conventional forms of hormonal therapy and further studies are warranted in order to try and increase the proportion of responders. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10945488

  4. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  5. The Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Learning Structures on Achievement in a College-Level Computer-Aided Drafting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, A. Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study of cooperative learning in post-secondary engineering education investigated achievement of engineering students enrolled in two intact sections of a computer-aided drafting (CAD) course. Quasi-experimental and qualitative methods were employed in comparing student achievement resulting from out-of-class cooperative and individualistic…

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Rescues Gene Knockout Levels Achieved with Integrase-Defective Lentiviral Vectors Encoding Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Pelascini, Laetitia P.L.; Maggio, Ignazio; Liu, Jin; Holkers, Maarten; Cathomen, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) work as dimers to induce double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at predefined chromosomal positions. In doing so, they constitute powerful triggers to edit and to interrogate the function of genomic sequences in higher eukaryotes. A preferred route to introduce ZFNs into somatic cells relies on their cotransduction with two integrase-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) each encoding a monomer of a functional heterodimeric pair. The episomal nature of IDLVs diminishes the risk of genotoxicity and ensures the strict transient expression profile necessary to minimize deleterious effects associated with long-term ZFN activity. However, by deploying IDLVs and conventional lentiviral vectors encoding HPRT1- or eGFP-specific ZFNs, we report that DSB formation at target alleles is limited after IDLV-mediated ZFN transfer. This IDLV-specific underperformance stems, to a great extent, from the activity of chromatin-remodeling histone deacetylases (HDACs). Importantly, the prototypic and U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved inhibitors of metal-dependent HDACs, trichostatin A and vorinostat, respectively, did not hinder illegitimate recombination-mediated repair of targeted chromosomal DSBs. This allowed rescuing IDLV-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to levels approaching those achieved by using their isogenic chromosomally integrating counterparts. Hence, HDAC inhibition constitutes an efficacious expedient to incorporate in genome-editing strategies based on transient IDLV-mediated ZFN expression. Finally, we compared two of the most commonly used readout systems to measure targeted gene knockout activities based on restriction and mismatch-sensitive endonucleases. These experiments indicate that these enzymatic assays display a similar performance. PMID:24059449

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  8. Component-Level Prognostics Health Management Framework for Passive Components - Advanced Reactor Technology Milestone: M2AT-15PN2301043

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Dib, Gerges; Pardini, Allan F.

    2015-06-19

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical advanced reactor passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. Achieving this objective will necessitate addressing several of the research gaps and technical needs described in previous technical reports in this series.

  9. Advances in the metabolic profiling of acidic compounds in children's urines achieved by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, N Pérez; Crosnier de Bellaistre-Bonose, M; Lévêque, N; Thioulouse, E; Doummar, D; Billette de Villemeur, T; Rodriguez, D; Couderc, R; Robin, S; Courderot-Masuyer, C; Moussa, F

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic (GCxGC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS) method in the field of biomarker candidates' discovery. To this purpose we developed a GCxGC-qMS method suitable for the separation of organic acids and other classes of compounds with silylable polar hydrogen such as sugars, amino-acids, and vitamins. As compared to those obtained by a widely used 1D-GC method, the urinary chromatographic profiles performed by the proposed 2D-GC method exhibit higher resolution and sensitivity, leading to the detection of up to 92 additional compounds in some urine samples including some well-known biomarkers. In order to validate the proposed method we focused on three metabolites of interest with various functional groups and polarities including CH3-malonic acid (MMA: biomarker of methylmalonic acidemia), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaric acid (3-OHMGA: biomarker of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia), and phenylpiruvic acid (PhPA: marker of phenylketonuria). While these three metabolites can be considered as representative of organic acids classically determined by 1D-GC, they cannot be representative of new detected metabolites. Thus, we also focused on quinolic acid (QUIN), taken as an example of biomarker not detected at basal levels with the classical 1D GC-qMS method. In order to obtain sufficient recoveries for all tested compounds, we developed a sample preparation protocol including a step of urea removal followed by two extraction steps using two solvents of different polarity and selectivity. Recoveries with the proposed method reached more than 80% for all targeted compounds and the linearity was satisfactory up to 50μmol/L. The CVs of the within-run and within-laboratory precisions were less than 8% for all tested compounds. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.6μmol/L for MMA, 0.4μmol/L for 3-OHMGA, 0.7μmol/L for PhPA, and 1μmol/L for QUIN. The LOQs of

  10. A Suggested Syllabus for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command in Accordance with NATO STANAG 6001 Level 3 Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare a suggested syllabus in accordance with NATO Stanag 6001 Level 3 perspective for the Advanced Level English Course at Gendarmerie Schools Command which is subordinate to Gendarmerie General Command. It is believed that this study will contribute to other studies in the context of NATO Stanag 6001 language…

  11. Innovative Training Experience for Advancing Entry Level, Mid-Skilled and Professional Level URM Participation in the Geosciences Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, M. H.; Johnson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of URMs in the U.S. Geosciences workforce remains proportionally low compared to their representation in the general population (Bureau of Labor Sta.s.cs, 2014). Employment in this and related industries is projected to grow 32% by 2030 for minority workers (Gillula and Fullenbaum, 2014), corresponding to an additional 48,000 jobs expected to be filled by minorities (National Research Council, 2014). However, there is a shortage of employees with proper training in the hard sciences (Holeywell, 2014; Ganzglass, 2011), as well as craft skills (Hoover and Duncan, 2013), both important for middle skill employment. Industry recognizes the need for developing and retaining a diverse workforce, therefore we hightlight a program to serve as a potential vanguard initative for developing an innovative training experience for URM and underserved middle skilled workers with essential knowledge, experience and skills necessary to meet the demands of the Geosciences industry's growing need for a safe, productive and diverse workforce. Objectives are for participants to achieve the following: understanding of geosciences workforce trends and associated available opportunities; mastery of key environmental, health and safety topics; improvements in decision making skills and preparedness for responding to potential environmental, health and safety related situations; and engagement in one-on-one coaching sessions focused on resume writing, job interviewing and key "soft skills" (including conflict resolution, problem solving and critical observation, representing 3 major skills that entry- level workers typically lack.

  12. Initial Stage Affects Survival Even After Complete Pathologic Remission is Achieved in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer: Analysis of 70 Patients With Pathologic Major Response After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Jong Hoon; Song, Ho-Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and factors predictive for recurrence and survival in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma who achieved pathologic complete response (PCR) or microscopic residual disease (MRD) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Materials and Methods: Outcomes were assessed in 70 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer who achieved pathologic major response (53 with PCR and 17 with MRD) after preoperative CRT. Results: At a median follow-up of 38.6 months for surviving patients, 17 of 70 patients (24.3%) experienced disease recurrence and 31 (44.3%) died. Clinical stage (II vs III; p = 0.013) and pathologic response (PCR vs. MRD; p = 0.014) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Median overall survival (OS) was 99.6 months (95% CI, 44.1-155.1 months) and the 5-year OS rate was 57%. Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 71.5 months (95% CI, 39.5-103.6 months) and the 5-year RFS rate was 51.3%. Median OS of patients with Stage II and Stage III disease was 108.8 months and 39.9 months, respectively, and the 5-year OS rates were 68.2% and 27.0%, respectively (p = 0.0003). In a subgroup of patients with PCR, median OS and RFS were also significantly different according to clinical stage. Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage was an independent predictor of RFS (p = 0.01) and OS (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Even though patients achieved major response after preoperative CRT, pretreatment clinical stage is an important prognostic marker for recurrence and survival. Patients with MRD have an increased recurrence risk but similar survival compared with patients achieved PCR.

  13. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.

  14. Systemic Administration of Glibenclamide Fails to Achieve Therapeutic Levels in the Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lahmann, Carolina; Kramer, Holger B.; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). Patients with severe mutations also suffer from neurological complications. Glibenclamide blocks the open KATP channels and is the treatment of choice for ND. However, although glibenclamide successfully restores normoglycaemia, it has a far more limited effect on the neurological problems. To assess the extent to which glibenclamide crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, we quantified glibenclamide concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue of rats, control mice, and mice expressing a human neonatal diabetes mutation (Kir6.2-V59M) selectively in neurones (nV59M mice). As only small sample volumes can be obtained from rodents, we developed a highly sensitive method of analysis, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry acquisition with pseudo-selected reaction monitoring, achieving a quantification limit of 10ng/ml (20nM) glibenclamide in a 30μl sample. Glibenclamide was not detectable in the CSF or brain of rats after implantation with subcutaneous glibenclamide pellets, despite high plasma concentrations. Further, one hour after a suprapharmacological glibenclamide dose was administered directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain, the plasma concentration was twice that of the CSF. This suggests the drug is rapidly exported from the CSF. Elacridar, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (major multidrug resistance transporters at the BBB), did not affect glibenclamide levels in CSF and brain tissue. We also identified a reduced sensitivity to volatile anaesthetics in nV59M mice and showed this was not reversed by systemic delivery of glibenclamide. Our results therefore suggest that little glibenclamide reaches the central nervous system when given systemically, that glibenclamide is rapidly removed across the BBB when given intracranioventricularly, and that any

  15. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, achieved high sustained virological response rates in patients with HCV infection and advanced liver disease in a real-world cohort

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Tania M; Petersen, Jörg; Herzer, Kerstin; Ferenci, Peter; Gschwantler, Michael; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Berg, Thomas; Spengler, Ulrich; Weiland, Ola; van der Valk, Marc; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Zhao, Yue; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the effectiveness and safety of daclatasvir (DCV) plus sofosbuvir (SOF), with or without ribavirin (RBV), in a large real-world cohort, including patients with advanced liver disease. Design Adults with chronic HCV infection at high risk of decompensation or death within 12 months and with no available treatment options were treated in a European compassionate use programme. The recommended regimen was DCV 60 mg plus SOF 400 mg for 24 weeks; RBV addition or shorter duration was allowed at physicians' discretion. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12). Results Of the 485 evaluable patients, 359 received DCV+SOF and 126 DCV+SOF+RBV. Most patients were men (66%), white (93%) and treatment-experienced (70%). The most frequent HCV genotypes were 1b (36%), 1a (33%) and 3 (21%), and 80% of patients had cirrhosis (42% Child–Pugh B/C; 46% Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score >10). SVR12 (modified intention-to-treat) was achieved by 91% of patients (419/460); 1 patient had virological breakthrough and 13 patients relapsed. Virological failure was not associated with treatment group (adjusted risk difference DCV+SOF minus DCV+SOF+RBV: 1.06%; 95% CI −2.22% to 4.35%). High SVR12 was observed regardless of HCV genotype or cirrhosis, liver transplant or HIV/HCV coinfection status. Twenty eight patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events (n=18) or death (n=10) and 18 died during follow-up. Deaths and most safety events were associated with advanced liver disease and not considered treatment related. Conclusions DCV+SOF with or without RBV achieved high SVR12 and was well tolerated in a diverse cohort of patients with severe liver disease. Trial registration number NCT0209966. PMID:27605539

  16. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  17. Relationship Between Locus of Control Scores and Reading Achievement of Black and White Second Grade Children from Two Socio-Economic Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ralph L.; Uhl, Norman P.

    This study investigates the effect of socio-economic level (lower and upper-middle), race (black and white), and sex on locus of control of reinforcement scores, and the relationship between the latter scores and reading achievement in a sample of 211 second grade children. A stratified random sampling technique insured adequate levels of each…

  18. Estimating Causal Effects of Teacher-Child Relationships on Reading and Math Achievement in a High-Risk Sample: A Multi-Level Propensity Score Matching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2013-01-01

    A robust body of research has identified associations between positive teacher-child relationships--characterized by high levels of closeness and low levels of conflict--and children's academic achievement in elementary school (e.g. Roorda, 2012). Additional studies find that high-quality teacher-child relationships may promote academic resilience…

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions to promote advance directives among older adults: a systematic review and multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gina; Dubois, Marie-France; Wagneur, Bernard

    2008-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effectiveness of interventions in promoting advance directives (ADs) but there is uncertainty as to what works best, and in whom. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence in this regard, using both classical meta-analysis approaches and multi-level analyses. Eleven databases were searched for relevant reports published through March 2007. All prospective studies were eligible, whether involving a single group or several and, in the latter case, regardless of the allocation mechanism. Outcomes included formal and informal ADs assessed by chart review or self-report. Heterogeneous sets of outcomes were pooled under a random-effects model. The search yielded 55 studies, half of which targeted outpatients. Most groups of subjects were educated in a single session led by one healthcare professional. Outcomes were measured within six months of the intervention in 73% of cases. The largest set of single-arm studies yielded an overall AD completion rate of 45.6%. Across randomized trials, the largest pooled odds ratio was 4.0, decreasing to 2.6 when all comparative studies were included. Multi-variable analyses identified the provision of oral information over multiple sessions as the most successful intervention. This was true regardless of the target population. These findings support the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing the formulation of ADs and provide practical advice on how best to achieve this goal.

  20. Work/Life Satisfaction Policy in ADVANCE Universities: Assessing Levels of Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Leslie E.; Dilks, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Work/life satisfaction policies are seen as key to recruiting, retaining, and advancing high quality faculty. This article explores the work/life policies prevalent at NSF ADVANCE institutions (PAID, Catalyst, and IT). We systematically review ADVANCE university websites (N = 124) and rank 9 categories of work/life policy including dual career…

  1. Dissecting miRNA gene repression on single cell level with an advanced fluorescent reporter system

    PubMed Central

    Lemus-Diaz, Nicolas; Böker, Kai O.; Rodriguez-Polo, Ignacio; Mitter, Michael; Preis, Jasmin; Arlt, Maximilian; Gruber, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Despite major advances on miRNA profiling and target predictions, functional readouts for endogenous miRNAs are limited and frequently lead to contradicting conclusions. Numerous approaches including functional high-throughput and miRISC complex evaluations suggest that the functional miRNAome differs from the predictions based on quantitative sRNA profiling. To resolve the apparent contradiction of expression versus function, we generated and applied a fluorescence reporter gene assay enabling single cell analysis. This approach integrates and adapts a mathematical model for miRNA-driven gene repression. This model predicts three distinct miRNA-groups with unique repression activities (low, mid and high) governed not just by expression levels but also by miRNA/target-binding capability. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of the system by applying controlled concentrations of synthetic siRNAs and in parallel, altering target-binding capability on corresponding reporter-constructs. Furthermore, we compared miRNA-profiles with the modeled predictions of 29 individual candidates. We demonstrate that expression levels only partially reflect the miRNA function, fitting to the model-projected groups of different activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that subcellular localization of miRNAs impacts functionality. Our results imply that miRNA profiling alone cannot define their repression activity. The gene regulatory function is a dynamic and complex process beyond a minimalistic conception of “highly expressed equals high repression”. PMID:28338079

  2. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  3. Levels of Achievement: A Review of the Assessment of Practice. Researching Professional Education. Research Reports Series Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrish, Kate; McManus, Mike; Ashworth, Peter

    Assessment of practice at diploma, degree, and postgraduate levels in nursing and midwifery education in Britain was the focus of a research study. Key issues from a critical review of literature on the assessment of theory and practice at different academic levels were as follows: lack of clarity in defining "levels"; inconsistencies in…

  4. Effects of Multiple Intelligences Supported Project-Based Learning on Students' Achievement Levels and Attitudes towards English Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gökhan; Beyhan, Ömer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning and traditional foreign language-teaching environment on students' achievement and their attitude towards English lesson. The research was carried out in 2009-2010 education-instruction year in Karatli Sehit Sahin Yilmaz Elementary…

  5. What Is the Predict Level of Which Computer Using Skills Measured in PISA for Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziya, Engin; Dogan, Nuri; Kelecioglu, Hulya

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at determining the extent to which computer using skills specified in Project for International Students Evaluation (PISA) 2006 predict Turkish students' achievement in mathematics. Apart from questions on mathematics, science and reading competencies, a student questionnaire, a school questionnaire and a parent questionnaire were…

  6. The Effect of Computer Based Instructional Technique for the Learning of Elementary Level Mathematics among High, Average and Low Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad Tanveer; Gondal, Bashir; Fatima, Nuzhat

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of the study was to elicit the effect of three instructional methods for teaching of mathematics on low, average and high achiever elementary school students. Three methods: traditional instructional method, computer assisted instruction (CAI) and teacher facilitated mathematics learning software were employed for the teaching…

  7. The Relationship between Grade-Level Team Implementation of Professional Learning Communities and Student Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesar, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    With changing academic standards, more rigorous state assessments, growing diversity among student populations, decreased school funding, and high achievement expectations from the state and federal government, teachers have a very challenging and demanding job. Fully aware of these high expectations from the education community, school leaders…

  8. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Climate, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Undergraduate Mathematics: A Multi-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, leaders in American industry, military, education, and politics have focused considerable attention on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. Given the increased societal demand for STEM careers, the relationships among classroom climate, self-efficacy, and achievement in undergraduate mathematics…

  9. A Comparison of the Achievement Levels of Eighth Graders from One Parent Homes with Those from Two-Parent Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dollie Walton

    This study tested whether a significant difference exists between academic performance scores of eighth grade students from one-parent homes and those from two-parent homes in the areas of reading, mathematics, science, social studies, and English. School records pertaining to academic achievement, and free-lunch applications were used to collect…

  10. Primary Teacher Literacy Preparation and Practices in New York State Elementary Schools at Diverse Levels of Achievement and Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterne, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the issues of elementary teacher preparation for teaching literacy and teacher preparation for teaching literacy to diverse populations. This study contrasted primary teachers' literacy preparation and practice in high, middle, and low achieving and high, average, and low need schools in New York State.…

  11. Achievement Levels of Middle School Students in the Standardized Science and Technology Exam and Formative Assessment Probes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap; Karagoz, Funda; Tavsanli, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The present study has two aims. Firstly, it aims to determine eighth grade students' conceptual understanding of floating and sinking through formative assessment probes. Secondly, it aims to determine whether or not there is a significant difference between students' performance in formative assessment probes and their achievement in the…

  12. Relationships among Teacher and Pupil Self-Concept and Pupil Reading Achievement at the First Grade Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Verna Lee

    Relationships among teacher and pupil self-concepts and pupil reading achievement were investigated in a sample of 239 first-grade pupils and the 17 teachers assigned to them. Results from pretesting and posttesting indicated that a positive relationship existed among changes in certain elements of pupil self-concept (self-acceptance, social…

  13. Effects of Reflective Inquiry Instructional Technique on Students' Academic Achievement and Ability Level in Electronic Work Trade in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Owodunni, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of reflective inquiry instructional technique on achievement of students in Technical Colleges. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, quasi-experimental research design which involved groups of students in their intact class assigned to experimental group and control…

  14. Influence of Student Beliefs about Nature of School Mathematics on Their Achievement at Secondary Level in Kerala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study probes students' beliefs about nature of mathematics, difficulty in learning mathematics sourcing from these and their influence on achievement in mathematics. Questionnaire survey on 458, 9th standard students randomly selected from schools of Malappuram district elicited data on nature of school mathematics and difficulty arising out…

  15. Increased levels of advanced glycation endproducts in the lenses and blood vessels of cigarette smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, I. D.; Stitt, A. W.; Moore, J. E.; Ritchie, A. J.; Archer, D. B.; Bucala, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) arise from the spontaneous reaction of reducing sugars with the amino groups of macromolecules. AGEs accumulate in tissue as a consequence of diabetes and aging and have been causally implicated in the pathogenesis of several of the end-organ complications of diabetes and aging, including cataract, atherosclerosis, and renal insufficiency. It has been recently proposed that components in mainstream cigarette smoke can react with plasma and extracellular matrix proteins to form covalent adducts with many of the properties of AGEs. We wished to ascertain whether AGEs or immunochemically related molecules are present at higher levels in the tissues of smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lens and coronary artery specimens from nondiabetic smokers and nondiabetic nonsmokers were examined by immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy, and ELISA employing several distinct anti-AGE antibodies. In addition, lenticular extracts were tested for AGE-associated fluorescence by fluorescence spectroscopy. RESULTS: Immunoreactive AGEs were present at significantly higher levels in the lenses and lenticular extracts of nondiabetic smokers (p < 0.003). Anti-AGE immunogold staining was diffusely distributed throughout lens fiber cells. AGE-associated fluorescence was significantly increased in the lenticular extracts of nondiabetic smokers (p = 0.005). AGE-immunoreactivity was significantly elevated in coronary arteries from nondiabetic smokers compared with nondiabetic nonsmokers (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: AGEs or immunochemically related molecules are present at higher levels in the tissues of smokers than in nonsmokers, irrespective of diabetes. In view of previous reports implicating AGEs in a causal association with numerous pathologies, these findings have significant ramifications for understanding the etiopathology of diseases associated with smoking, the single greatest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the

  16. Two Years of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Treatment Decreased Parathyroid Gland Volume and Serum Parathyroid Hormone Level in Hemodialysis Patients With Advanced Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Toyonaga, Jiro; Suehiro, Takaichi; Eriguchi, Rieko; Fujimi, Satoru; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    The long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume has been scarcely investigated in patients with moderate to advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The present study was a prospective observational study to determine the effect of cinacalcet treatment on PTG volume and serum biochemical parameters in 60 patients with renal SHPT, already treated with intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA). Measurement of biochemical parameters and PTG volumes were performed periodically, which were analyzed by stratification into tertiles across the baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) level or PTG volume. We also determined the factors that can estimate the changes in PTG volume and the achievement of the target PTH range by multivariable analyses. Two years of cinacalcet treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphate, followed by the improvement of achieving the target ranges for these parameters recommended by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Cinacalcet decreased the maximal and total PTG volume by about 30%, and also decreased the serum PTH level independent of the baseline serum PTH level and PTG volume. Ten out of 60 patients showed 30% increase in maximal PTG after 2 years. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with nodular PTG at baseline and patients with higher serum calcium and PTH levels at 1 year were likely to exceed the target range of PTH at two years. In conclusion, cinacalcet treatment with intravenous VDRA therapy decreased both PTG volume and serum intact PTH level, irrespective of the pretreatment PTG status and past treatment history.

  17. Providing a navigable route for acute medicine nurses to advance their practice: a framework of ascending levels of practice.

    PubMed

    Lees-Deutsch, Liz; Christian, Jan; Setchfield, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article conveys concerns raised by delegates at the International SAM Conference (Manchester, 2015) regarding how to advance nursing practice in acute medicine. It endeavors to capture the essence of 'how to advance practice' and 'how to integrate advanced practice' within the workforce structures of an acute medicine unit (AMU). It addresses the production of tacit knowledge and the recognition and integration of this to developing the nursing workforce. The current context of NHS efficiencies and recruitment issues emphasize the value of retaining tacit knowledge. Uniquely, this article offers an early conceptual framework through which levels of advancement and potential transition points to advance nursing practice in acute medicine are articulated. Determining how to advance requires identification of prior accomplishments such as, tacit knowledge, experiential learning, CPD, specialist courses and management experience. This requires nurses to make judicious decisions to advance their practice and the distinction between 'amassing experience' and 'career progression'. It aims to stimulate thinking around the practicalities of advancement, the value of tacit knowledge and potential realization through the framework trajectory.

  18. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S; Fu, You; Hannon, James C

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children.

  19. Predictors and grade level trends of school day physical activity achievement in low-income children from the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fang, Yi; Myrer, Rachel S.; Fu, You; Hannon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of recommended levels (≥ 30 min/day) of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is paramount to decrease risk of chronic disease in children from low-income families. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and grade-level trends of school day MVPA achievement in low-income children. Data were collected during the Fall of 2014 on 1232 children (Mean age = 8.8 ± 1.6 years; 625 girls, 607 boys) recruited from three low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U.S. Children wore pedometers for one school week and a stratified random subsample (n = 533) also wore accelerometers to record sedentary time and MVPA. Generalized linear mixed models were employed to calculate odds ratios for achieving school MVPA standards (≥ 30 min/day) from various predictors and to determine odds of achievement across grade levels, accounting for school and classroom clustering. Odds of meeting MVPA standards were 3 times greater if a student achieved at least 6000 steps during the school day (p < 0.01), and were 55% lower for every 1% increase in sedentary time (p < 0.001). Older children had 26% lower odds of meeting the recommended levels of MVPA compared to children in an immediately younger grade level (p < 0.05). A significant proportion of MVPA variance was explained by classroom and school affiliation (Rho = 0.09 to 0.54, p < 0.001). Daily steps, sedentary times, grade level, and classroom and school affiliation associate with school MVPA achievement in low-income children. PMID:26844162

  20. Currently used dosage regimens of vancomycin fail to achieve therapeutic levels in approximately 40% of intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Vitor Yuzo; Zacas, Carolina Petrus; Carrilho, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. Methods A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Results Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Conclusion Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged. PMID:28099635

  1. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    GHARETEPEH, AMENEH; SAFARI, YAHYA; PASHAEI, TAHEREH; RAZAEI, MANSOUR; BAGHER KAJBAF, MOHAMMAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement. Methods This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14. Results The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82) and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33) variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23). The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001). Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571). In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, self-motivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001). Conclusion Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops. PMID:25927067

  2. Use of allopurinol with low-dose 6-mercaptopurine in inflammatory bowel disease to achieve optimal active metabolite levels: A review of four cases and the literature

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Todd N; Ginsberg, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At least one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease do not respond or are intolerant to therapy with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). A subgroup fails to attain optimal levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and instead shunts to 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted, and four patients are described who had been previously unable to achieve optimal 6-TGN metabolite levels until allopurinol was added to their treatment. RESULTS: All four patients achieved optimal 6-TGN levels and undetectable 6-MMPN with a mean 6-MP dose of 0.49 mg/kg. Three achieved steroid-free clinical remission. Two of those three patients had normalization of liver enzymes; one patient had baseline normal liver enzymes despite an initial 6-MMPN level of 27,369 pmol/8×108 red blood cells. Two patients experienced reversible leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Combination allopurinol and low-dose 6-MP is an effective means to achieve optimal metabolite levels and steroid-free clinical remission in previously refractory patients. Caution is advised. PMID:18299738

  3. Very compact FTTH Diplexer design using advanced wafer level fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Christophe; Grosse, Philippe; Gilet, Philippe; Olivier, Nicolas; Chelnokov, Alexei; Fulbert, Laurent; Bernabé, Stéphane; Rossat, Cyrille; Hamelin, Régis; Hamberg, Ivar; Lundqvist, Lennart; Chitica, Nicolae; Hammar, Matthias; Berggren, Jesper; Junique, Stéphane; Wang, Qin; Almqvist, Susanne; Sillans, Christian

    2008-04-01

    FTTH networks require implementing a diplexer at each user termination. According to most of the standards, this diplexer detects a download signal beam at 1.49μm and emits an upload signal beam at 1.31μm on the same single mode fibre. Both signals exhibit datarate speed below 2.5Gbps. Today, most of the diplexers are obtained by actively aligning a set of individual optoelectronic components and micro-optics. However, new manufacturing solutions satisfying very low cost and mass production capability requirements of this market would help to speed the massive spreading of this technology. In this paper, we present an original packaging design to manufacture Diplexer Optical Sub-Assembly for FTTH application. A dual photodiode is stacked over a VCSEL and detects both the download signal beam at 1.49μm passing through the laser and one part of the upload signal beam at 1.31μm for monitoring. To satisfy this approach, an innovative VCSEL has been designed to have a very high transmission at 1.49μm. All these components are mounted on a very small circuit board on glass including also integrated circuits such as transimpedance amplifier. So, the device combines advanced optoelectronic components and highly integrated Multi-Chip-Module on glass approach using collective wafer-level assembling technologies. For the single mode fibre optical coupling, active and passive alignment solutions are considered.

  4. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01

    significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO2 mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH)2. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO2 mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach has provided a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. We used ab initio techniques to significantly advance our understanding of atomic-level processes at the solid/solution interface by

  5. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2003-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  6. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2002-12-19

    /NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we have already significantly improved our understanding of mineral carbonation. Group members at the Albany Research Center have recently shown that carbonation of olivine and serpentine, which naturally occurs over geological time (i.e., 100,000s of years), can be accelerated to near completion in hours. Further process refinement will require a synergetic science/engineering approach that emphasizes simultaneous investigation of both thermodynamic processes and the detailed microscopic, atomic-level mechanisms that govern carbonation kinetics. Our previously funded Phase I Innovative Concepts project demonstrated the value of advanced quantum-mechanical modeling as a complementary tool in bridging important gaps in our understanding of the atomic/molecular structure and reaction mechanisms that govern CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration reaction processes for the model Mg-rich lamellar hydroxide feedstock material Mg(OH){sub 2}. In the present simulation project, improved techniques and more efficient computational schemes have allowed us to expand and augment these capabilities and explore more complex Mg-rich, lamellar hydroxide-based feedstock materials, including the serpentine-based minerals. These feedstock materials are being actively investigated due to their wide availability, and low-cost CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration potential. Cutting-edge first principles quantum chemical, computational solid-state and materials simulation methodology studies proposed herein, have been strategically integrated with our new DOE supported (ASU-Argonne National Laboratory) project to investigate the mechanisms that govern mineral feedstock heat-treatment and aqueous/fluid-phase serpentine mineral carbonation in situ. This unified, synergetic theoretical and experimental approach will provide a deeper understanding of the key reaction mechanisms than either individual approach can alone. Ab initio techniques will also

  7. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  8. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  9. The Relation between Finnish University Students' Perceived Level of Study-Related Burnout, Perceptions of the Teaching-Learning Environment and Perceived Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriläinen, Matti; Kuittinen, Matti

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between university students' perceived level of study-related burnout (SRB) and their perceptions of the teaching-learning environment (TLE), as well as their perceived achievement motivation (AM). The data are based on a survey of nine Finnish universities in the spring of 2009. Altogether, 3035 university…

  10. Relations among Academic Enablers and Academic Achievement in Children with and without High Levels of Parent-Rated Symptoms of Inattention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic enablers (i.e., engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, study skills) and academic achievement in children with and without high levels of parent-rated symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity (Symptoms of IIH Group). The study included 69 participants (29 [42%] in the IIH…

  11. Achieved Level of Living in a Mississippi Delta County: A Step-wise Multiple Regression Model with Emphasis on Race and Related Background Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John L.

    Washington County, Mississippi was selected as the site for this study because it manifested many of the rural social problems of the larger 11 county Yazoo Mississippi Delta region. During the spring of 1971 a sample of 418 males, 45 years of age and younger, were interviewed to investigate achieved level of living. The sample was about evenly…

  12. Using Eye Tracking to Observe Differential Effects of Repeated Readings for Second-grade Students as a Function of Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawoyski, Andrea M.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated readings (RR) is an evidence-based instructional technique in which students read the same text multiple times. Currently, little is known about how effects of RR may differ based on students' achievement levels. Eye tracking provides a means for closely examining instructional effects because it permits measurement of subtle changes that…

  13. Impact of a Career Intervention on At-Risk Middle School Students' Career Maturity Levels, Academic Achievement, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legum, Harry L.; Hoare, Carol H.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 9-week career intervention program on at-risk middle school students' career maturity levels, self-esteem, and academic achievement. This study was based on a pretest and posttest design using a control group. Data were collected from 27 at-risk middle school students representing the…

  14. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  15. The Investigation of the Relationship between the Level of Metacognitive Awareness, Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Academic Achievement of Preschool Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagal, Asude Balaban; Bayindir, Dilan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between the level of metacognitive awareness, self-directed learning readiness and academic achievement of preschool teacher candidates. The study group of the research, which was designed in survey method, included 151 teacher candidates from Atatürk Education Faculty, Preschool Teaching…

  16. Effects of Two Teaching Methods on the Achievement in and Attitude to Biology of Students of Different Levels of Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwagbo, Chinwe

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the relative efficacy of the guided inquiry and the expository teaching methods on the achievement in and attitude to biology of students of different levels of scientific literacy. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were posed and formulated respectively, to guide the work. It was hypothesized…

  17. The Effects of Synchronous Class Sessions on Students' Academic Achievement and Levels of Satisfaction in an Online Introduction to Computers Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeShea, Andrea Valene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental static-group comparison study was to test the theory of transactional distance that relates the inclusion of synchronous class sessions into an online introductory computer course to students' levels of satisfaction and academic achievement at a post-secondary technical college. This study specifically looked…

  18. Changes in the Multi-Level Effects of Socio-Economic Status on Reading Achievement in Sweden in 1991 and 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kajsa Yang; Rosen, Monica; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the changes in educational inequality at the school- and individual-levels in 1991 and 2001. Comparisons are made between the IEA Reading Literacy Study 1991 and the so called 10-Year Trend Study in PIRLS 2001. The between-school differences in reading achievement variance and the size of the relationship between SES and…

  19. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  20. Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels.

    PubMed

    Ramió-Lluch, Laura; Yeste, Marc; Fernández-Novell, Josep M; Estrada, Efrén; Rocha, Luiz; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Concha, Ilona I; Ramírez, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve subsequent, progesterone-induced in vitro acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Both inhibitory effects were caused without changes in the rhythm of O2 consumption, intracellular ATP levels or mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). IVAE was accompanied by a fast and intense peak in O2 consumption and ATP levels in control spermatozoa. Oligomycin A also inhibited progesterone-induced IVAE as well as the concomitant peaks of O2 consumption and ATP levels. The effect of oligomycin on IVAE was also accompanied by concomitant alterations in the IVAE-induced changes on intracellular Ca(2+) levels and MMP. Our results suggest that the oligomycin A-sensitive mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity is instrumental in the achievement of an adequate boar sperm motion pattern, IVC and IVAE. However, this effect seems not to be linked to changes in the overall maintenance of adequate energy levels in stages other than IVAE.

  1. Electrokinetic treatment of polluted soil at pilot level coupled to an advanced oxidation process of its wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, B.; Ramos, L.; Garibay, A.; Pérez-Corona, M.; Cuevas, M. C.; Cárdenas, J.; Teutli, M.; Bustos, E.

    2016-02-01

    Soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is a current problem of great importance. These contaminants may be toxic, can retain water and block gas exchange with the atmosphere, which produces a poor-quality soil unsuitable for ecological health. Electroremediation is among the treatments for the removal of such contaminants. In this research, a pilot-level electroremediation test was applied using a circular arrangement of electrodes with a Ti cathode at the middle of the cell surrounded by six IrO2-Ta2O5 | Ti anodes. The presence of an NaOH electrolyte helps to develop the electromigration and electro-osmosis of gasoline molecules (at 1126 mg kg-1) surrounded by Na+ ions. The hydrocarbons are directed towards the cathode and subsequently removed in an aqueous Na+ - hydrocarbon solution, and the -OH migrates to the anode. During electrokinetic treatment, the physicochemical characteristics of the soil close to either the cathode or anode and at the half-cell were evaluated during the three weeks of treatment. During that time, more than 80% of hydrocarbons were removed. Hydrocarbons removed by the electrokinetic treatment of gasoline-polluted soil were collected in a central wastewater compartment and subsequently treated with a Fenton-type advanced oxidation process. This achieved more than 70% mineralization of the hydrocarbons to CO2 and H2O within 1.5 h; its low toxicity status was verified using the Deltatox® kit test. With this approach, the residual water complied with the permissible limits of COD, pH, and electrical conductivity for being discharged into water bodies, according to Mexican norm NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996.

  2. The Effects of the Medium of Instruction in Certificate-Level Physics on Achievement and Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Yip, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year study was launched in a Hong Kong secondary school to investigate the effects of the medium of instruction (MOI), specifically English and Chinese, on the learning of certificate-level physics. A total of 199 Secondary Four (S4 or tenth-grade) students, divided into three major ability groups, participated in a teaching intervention…

  3. Dimensions of Literacy Leadership: An Analysis of Middle-Level Principals' Literacy Leadership Proficiencies and Student Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jannette M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which middle-level principals reported the use of literacy leadership dimensions and whether or not a predictive relationship exists between the use of these dimensions and student reading proficiency in Grades 6 through 8 in Region 2 in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Also examined was the…

  4. Strategies for Achieving the New SHAPE America Standards and Grade-Level Outcomes: Bringing Obstacle Course Training into Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Keri S.; Brewer, Hannah; Windish, Lance; Carlson, Hollie

    2017-01-01

    The new SHAPE America standards and grade level outcomes for high-school physical education focus exclusively on physical activities that are suitable for lifelong participation. Some of the fastest-growing physical activities for adults in the United States are non-traditional multi-sport events and obstacle course races. As "Healthy People…

  5. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  6. The Effect of Using Concept Maps on Student Achievement in Selected Topics in Chemistry at Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Indra Sen; Moono, Karren

    2015-01-01

    The performance in chemistry at tertiary level in Zambia has not been as expected. It has therefore been a matter of concern. There has been a continuous focus on exploring new teaching strategies to improve the understanding of this difficult subject. This study investigated the effectiveness of composite use of concept maps and traditional…

  7. The Relationship between Reading Achievement and Morphological Word Analysis in Deaf and Hearing Students Matched for Reading Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Martha Gonter; Kelly, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the findings of Gaustad, Kelly, Payne, and Lylak (2002), which showed that deaf college students and hearing middle school students appeared to have approximately the same morphological knowledge and word segmentation skills. Because the average grade level reading abilities for the two groups of students were also similar,…

  8. Advanced-Level Testing of Foreign Language Proficiency: An Interim Report of the Post A-Level Spanish Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ife, Anne E.; Standish, Peter

    This is a preliminary report concerning the development of tests which measure the linguistic ability in Spanish of English students at the beginning of their post A-level courses. The Palspan (Post A-level Spanish project) pilot test battery is comprised of five sub-tests of between 45 and 90 minutes in length which test for speaking, listening,…

  9. Using Instructional Technology to Integrate CEFR "Can Do" Performance Objectives into an Advanced-Level Language Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack; Athanasiou, Androulla; Neophytou-Yiokari, Maro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how instructional technology can be exploited to effectively integrate Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) "Can Do" performance objectives (Council of Europe, 2001) into the syllabus and assessment of an advanced (B2) level course. The particular course that will be used for purposes…

  10. All Above-Board: A Comparativist Looks at the Advanced Level French Syllabuses of the Nine GCE Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Advanced level French syllabuses of the nine GCE Boards in the United Kingdom are examined. The Southern Universities Joint Board has recently introduced the most radical innovations. As an alternative to its traditional examination it offers Syllabus "B" which dispenses with prescribed tests, but where each student must produce for the…

  11. Teaching Groups as Foci for Evaluating Performance in Cost-Effectiveness of GCE Advanced Level Provision: Some Practical Methodological Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Antony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes subject teaching-group effectiveness in English and Welsh General Certification of Education (GCE) Advanced Level prior to a linking to resources; suggests cross-classified multilevel models with weighted random effects for disentangling student, group, and teacher effects; finds that teacher effects are considerable, but cannot find…

  12. Finding a Balance: Fifteen Institutional Case Studies on the Relationship between Part-Time Work and Advanced Level Study. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann, Ed.; Spours, Ken, Ed.

    This document presents and discusses case studies that examined the relationship between part-time employment and advanced level study at 15 schools in Essex, England. "Foreword" (David Jones) provides a brief overview of the project. "Finding a Balance--Fifteen Institutional Case Studies on the Relationship between Part-time Work…

  13. Strategic Alliance to Advanced Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    2004-01-01

    This document (book) reports on the Strategic Alliance to Advance Technological Education through Enhanced Mathematics, Science, Technology, and English Education at the Secondary Level, funded by National Science Foundation. It was a collaborative partnership involving the Rockford Public Schools, Rock Valley College, and Northern Illinois…

  14. The Extraction and Partial Purification of Bacterial DNA as a Practical Exercise for GCE Advanced Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, A. C.; Hayes, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a relatively simple method of extraction and purification of bacterial DNA. This technique permits advanced secondary-level science students to obtain adequate amounts of DNA from very small pellets of bacteria and to observe some of its polymer properties. (ML)

  15. Some Misconceptions in Meiosis Shown by Students Responding to an Advanced Level Practical Examination Question in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are problems revealed in student responses to a practical task which formed part of an advanced level examination. The frequencies with which some misconceptions about cell reproduction and genetics occurred are presented. The nature of these misconceptions is analyzed and their implications discussed. (CW)

  16. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  17. Leveling the Playing Field: China’s Development of Advanced Energy Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    China’s aggressive development of advanced energy weapons and long-range delivery systems — combined with an analysis of their strategic...3 Game Changers : A Review... Changers ................................................................................................ 13 China’s Intentions

  18. Selected factors associated with achievement of biology preparatory students and their follow-up to higher level biology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biermann, Carol A.; Sarinsky, Gary B.

    This study was undertaken to determine whether a biology preparatory course given at an urban community college was helping students to develop the proper skills and background necessary for them to successfully complete follow-up courses in biology. A group of students who enrolled in a biology preparatory course, and subsequently, a follow-up anatomy and physiology or general biology course (experimental group) was compared to a group of students who should have registered for the preparatory course, but who enrolled directly into the anatomy and physiology or general biology course (control group). It was shown that there was no significant difference in their anatomy and physiology or general biology grades. Furthermore, only 16% of the initial group of preparatory students enrolled in and passed a follow-up biology course. Examination of the preparatory group using discriminant analysis ascertained that mathematics score was the principle discriminator between pass/fail groups. A stepwise multiple regression analysis of the variables explaining the preparatory grade showed that mathematics score, reading score, and type of high school degree explained 33% of the variance. Of the students who did pass the preparatory course and enrolled in a follow-up biology class, their preparatory grade was a good predictor of their achievement (measured by follow-up course grade), as determined by multiple regression.

  19. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  20. Combined Effect of Levels in Personal Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching on Meta-Cognitive, on Meta-Motivational, and on Academic Achievement Variables in Undergraduate Students

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M.; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore

    2017-01-01

    The Theory of Self- vs. Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes. PMID:28280473

  1. The benefit of consolidation radiotherapy to initial disease bulk in patients with advanced Hodgkin’s disease who achieved complete remission after standard chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bayoumi, Yasser; Al-Homaidi, Abdulaziz; Zaidi, Syed; Tailor, Imran; Motiabi, Ibrahiem; Alshehri, Nawal; Al-Ghazali, Assem; Almudaibigh, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Background/purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of consolidation radiotherapy (RT) in advanced-stage Hodgkin’s disease (HD) with initial bulky sites after radiological complete remission (CR) or partial response (PR) with positron emission tomography-negative (metabolic CR) following standard chemotherapy (ABVD [Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine]) six to eight cycles. Patients and methods Adult patients with advanced-stage HD treated at our institute during the period 2006 to 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. One hundred and ninety-two patients with initial bulky disease size (>7 cm) who attained radiological CR/PR and metabolic CR were included in the analysis. One hundred and thirteen patients who received radiotherapy (RT) as consolidation postchemotherapy (RT group) were compared to 79 patients who did not receive RT (non-RT group). Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and were compared according to treatment group by the log-rank tests at P ≤0.05 significance level. Results The mean age of the cohort was 33 (range: 14 to 81) years. Eighty-four patients received involved-field radiation and 29 patients received involved-site RT. The RT group had worse prognostic factors compared to the non-RT group. Thirteen (12%) relapses occurred in the RT group, and 19 (24%) relapses occurred in the non-RT group. Nine patients (8%) in the RT group died, compared to eleven patients (14%) in the non-RT group. Second malignancies were seen in only five patients: three patients in the RT group compared to two patients in the non-RT group. At 5 years, overall DFS was 79%±9% and OS was 85%±9%. There was significant statistical difference between the RT group and the non-RT group regarding 5-year DFS: 86%±7% and 74%±9%, respectively (P ≤0.02). However, the 5-year OS was 90%±5% for the RT group and 83%±8% for the non-RT group, with no statistical difference (P ≤0

  2. Accurate dosimetry with GafChromic EBT film of a 6 MV photon beam in water: What level is achievable?

    SciTech Connect

    Battum, L. J. van; Hoffmans, D.; Piersma, H.; Heukelom, S.

    2008-02-15

    This paper focuses on the accuracy, in absolute dose measurements, with GafChromic EBT film achievable in water for a 6 MV photon beam up to a dose of 2.3 Gy. Motivation is to get an absolute dose detection system to measure up dose distributions in a (water) phantom, to check dose calculations. An Epson 1680 color (red green blue) transmission flatbed scanner has been used as film scanning system, where the response in the red color channel has been extracted and used for the analyses. The influence of the flatbed film scanner on the film based dose detection process was investigated. The scan procedure has been optimized; i.e. for instance a lateral correction curve was derived to correct the scan value, up to 10%, as a function of optical density and lateral position. Sensitometric curves of different film batches were evaluated in portrait and landscape scan mode. Between various batches important variations in sensitometric curve were observed. Energy dependence of the film is negligible, while a slight variation in dose response is observed for very large angles between film surface and incident photon beam. Improved accuracy in absolute dose detection can be obtained by repetition of a film measurement to tackle at least the inherent presence of film inhomogeneous construction. We state that the overall uncertainty is random in absolute EBT film dose detection and of the order of 1.3% (1 SD) under the condition that the film is scanned in a limited centered area on the scanner and at least two films have been applied. At last we advise to check a new film batch on its characteristics compared to available information, before using that batch for absolute dose measurements.

  3. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  4. Effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searson, Robert Francis

    This researcher investigated the effects of tactual and kinesthetic instructional resources on the simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement and attitudes toward science of third-grade suburban students in a northern New Jersey school district. The Learning Style Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1996) was administered to ascertain the identity of the learning-style perceptual preferences of all 59 third-graders who completed the three science units. Each of the three classes was presented two science units using learning-style instructional resources; one science unit was taught using traditional methods. All three science units were completed in a six-week period. Students were administered a pretest and posttest for each science unit and the Semantic Differential Scale (Pizzo, 1981) at the conclusion of each science unit. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed the effects of treatments and attitudes toward science. The statistical analysis of this study revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between students' simple recall science achievement posttest scores when taught tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they were taught science traditionally. Furthermore, the Contingency Table analysis, using Fisher's Exact Test indicated a significant difference (p = 0.00008) between the higher-level cognitive science achievement posttest scores when students are taught science tactually and/or kinesthetically compared to when they are taught science traditionally. The findings of this study supported the view when tactual and/or kinesthetic methods were employed, higher achievement gains were realized for simple recall and higher-level cognitive science achievement. Further recommendations called for a reexamination of science instructional methods employed in our elementary classroom.

  5. Ping-pong amplification of a retroviral vector achieves high-level gene expression: human growth hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, S L; Kabat, D

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral vectors offer major advantages for gene transfer studies but have not been useful for producing proteins in large quantities. This deficiency has resulted in part from interference to superinfection, which limits the numbers of active proviruses in cells. Recently, we found that these vectors amplify when they are added as calcium phosphate precipitates to cocultures of cells that package retroviruses into ecotropic and amphotropic host range envelopes. Helper-free virions from either cell type can infect the other without interference, resulting in theoretically limitless back-and-forth (ping-pong) vector replication. In initial studies, however, amplifications of a vector that contained the human growth hormone gene ceased when the hormone produced was 0.3% or less of cellular protein synthesis. This limit was caused by two factors. First, recombinant shutoff viruses that are replication defective and encode envelope glycoproteins form at a low probability during any round of the vector replication cycle and these spread in cocultures, thereby establishing interference. Single cells in shutoff cocultures therefore synthesize both ecotropic and amphotropic envelope glycoproteins, and they release promiscuous (presumably hybrid) virions. The probability of forming shutoff viruses before the vector had amplified to a high multiplicity was reduced by using small cocultures. Second, cells with large numbers of proviruses are unhealthy and their proviral expression can be unstable. Stable expresser cell clones were obtained by selection. Thereby, cell lines were readily obtained that stably produce human growth hormone as 4 to 6% of the total protein synthesis. A ping-pong retroviral vector can be used for high-level protein production in vertebrate cells. Images PMID:2352330

  6. Evaluation of skill achievement levels and practical experiences of public health nursing students before and after the introduction of the public health nursing course as an elective.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshimi; Saito, Emiko; Sawai, Minako; Kishi, Emiko; Kakemoto, Satori; Nakada, Harumi; Igarashi, Chiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To equip public health nurses (PHNs) with higher qualifications, PHN education is shifting from an integrated curriculum for PHNs and registered nurses to a specific elective system of undergraduate or postgraduate programs. Most colleges in the special wards of Tokyo introduced the elective system in 2014 before the remaining areas. The outcomes of this must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the achievement levels and practical experiences of PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards before and after introduction of the PHN course as an elective.Method Self-administered, anonymous questionnaires were completed by senior PHN students at seven colleges in the special wards who underwent training in 2013, the last year of an integrated curriculum, and in 2014, the first year of the elective system. The target numbers of participants were 663 in 2013 and 136 in 2014 with 20 students from each school exposed to the elective system. Our study focused on whether they achieved the 98 "technical items of PHN training and achievement levels at the time of graduation" required by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The study also determined whether participants obtained practical experience in 15 items developed by the special wards based on the standards set for training.Results In 2013, there were 348 total responses (52.5%) and 310 valid responses. In 2014, there were 136 total responses (88.2%) and 120 valid responses. The average achievement rate at which the student answered, "I was able to arrive at it," at an arrival degree level for the 98 technical items was 72.6% in 2014, an increase compared to the 67.9% obtained in 2013. Moreover, the average practical experience rate at which the student answered, "I was able to have an experience," regarding the 15 items was 85.7% in 2014, which constituted an increase compared to 70.5% attained in 2013. However, the number of items with an achievement rate of more than 80% remained

  7. An Exploration of Learners' Conceptions of Language, Culture, and Learning in Advanced-Level Spanish Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle; Mitchell, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study, which examines learners' rating of culture in relation to other concepts in advanced Spanish courses and their justification of the ratings attributed. Open-ended responses, elicited from a questionnaire completed by 179 respondents, were analysed line by line using an interpretive approach. Data…

  8. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…

  9. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss "small-group apprenticeships (SGAs)" as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments…

  10. Travel and Tourism Module. An Advanced-Level Option For Distribution and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    Intended as an advanced option for distributive education students in the twelfth grade, this travel and tourism module is designed to cover a minimum of ten weeks or a maximum of twenty weeks. Introductory material includes information on employment demands, administrative considerations, course format, teaching suggestions, expected outcomes,…

  11. Beginning an Advanced Placement German Literature (Level 3) Course. Edition Y.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Donna H.; And Others

    This is a supplement to the Advanced Placement (AP) German literature course description. Its aim is both to assist teachers in planning an AP German literature course and to provide experienced AP teachers with information about other successful programs. To this end, six teachers from different high schools in the U.S. provide descriptions of…

  12. Advanced Placement Strategy: A Framework for Identifying School-Level Barriers to AP Success. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiwalla, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, Tennessee counted nearly 7,000 students in the senior cohort whose academic skills when they entered high school suggested they were on track to earn college credits through Advanced Placement (AP) exams. Yet just over half of these students actually graduated with an AP credit, and less than a third of the economically disadvantaged…

  13. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  14. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Discusses small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method for introducing cell culture techniques to high school participants. Teaches cell culture practices and introduces advance imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Clarifies and illuminates the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships. (Author/KHR)

  15. Plasma Levels of Pentosidine, Carboxymethyl-Lysine, Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products, and Metabolic Syndrome: The Metformin Effect

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Mohamed; Knani, Ines; Bouzidi, Hsan; Berriche, Olfa; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is considered one of the most important public health problems. Several and controversial studies showed that the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor in the development of metabolic syndrome and therapeutic pathways is still unsolved. We have investigated whether plasma pentosidine, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels were increased in patients with MetS and the effect of metformin in plasma levels of pentosidine, CML, and sRAGE. 80 control subjects and 86 patients were included in this study. Pentosidine, CML, and sRAGE were measured in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma pentosidine, CML, and sRAGE levels were significantly increased in patients compared to control subjects (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.014, resp.). Plasma levels of pentosidine were significantly decreased in patients who received metformin compared to untreated patients (P = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference between patients treated with metformin and untreated patients in plasma CML levels. Plasma levels of sRAGE were significantly increased in patients who received metformin and ACE inhibitors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, resp.). However, in a multiple stepwise regression analysis, pentosidine, sRAGE, and drugs treatments were not independently associated. Patients with metabolic syndrome showed increased levels of AGEs such as pentosidine and CML. Metformin treatment showed a decreased level of pentosidine but not of CML. Therapeutic pathways of AGEs development should be taken into account and further experimental and in vitro studies merit for advanced research. PMID:27829696

  16. Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Lu; Qu, Xiao-Jing; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Liu, Ru-Yu; Hu, Lei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Xie, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion is considered to be the ideal endpoint of antiviral therapy and the ultimate treatment goal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to assess the patterns of HBsAg kinetics in CHB patients who achieved HBsAg loss during the treatment of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, composing of 83 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 67 HBeAg-negative patients. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a180 μg/week until HBsAg loss/seroconversion was achieved, which occurred within 96 weeks. Serum hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid and serological indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe) were determined before and every 3 months during PEG-IFN α-2a treatment. Biochemical markers and peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet counts were tested every 1–3 months. Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were 2.5 ± 1.3 log IU/ml, and decreased rapidly at 12 and 24 weeks by 48.3% and 88.3%, respectively. The mean time to HBsAg loss was 54.2 ± 30.4 weeks, though most patients needed extended treatment and 30.0% of HBsAg loss occurred during 72–96 weeks. Baseline HBsAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients (2.9 ± 1.1 log IU/ml) compared with HBeAg-negative patients (2.0 ± 1.3 log IU/ml; t = 4.733, P < 0.001), but the HBsAg kinetics were similar. Patients who achieved HBsAg loss within 48 weeks had significantly lower baseline HBsAg levels and had more rapid decline of HBsAg at 12 weeks compared to patients who needed extended treatment to achieve HBsAg loss. Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss. PMID:28229987

  17. Final Report Full-Scale Test of DWPF Advanced Liquid-Level and Density Measurement Bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.; Weeks, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    As requested by the Technical Task Request (1), a full-scale test was carried out on several different liquid-level measurement bubblers as recommended from previous testing (2). This final report incorporates photographic evidence (Appendix B) of the bubblers at different stages of testing, along with the preliminary results (Appendix C) which were previously reported (3), and instrument calibration data (Appendix D); while this report contains more detailed information than previously reported (3) the conclusions remain the same. The test was performed under highly prototypic conditions from November 26, 1996 to January 23, 1997 using the full-scale SRAT/SME tank test facilities located in the 672-T building at TNX. Two different types of advanced bubblers were subjected to approximately 58 days of slurry operation; 14 days of which the slurry was brought to boiling temperatures.The test showed that the large diameter tube bubbler (2.64 inches inside diameter) operated successfully throughout the2-month test by not plugging with the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 deg Cand several days of boiling temperatures. However, a weekly blow-down with air or water is recommended to minimize the slurry which builds up.The small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) operated successfully on a daily basis in the glass-frit ladened slurry which was maintained at a minimum temperature of 50 degrees C and several days of boiling temperatures. However, a daily blow-down with air, or air and water, is necessary to maintain accurate readings.For the small diameter porous tube bubbler (0.62 inch inside diameter; water flow {gt} 4 milliliters/hour = 1.5 gallons/day) there were varying levels of success with the lower water-flow tubes and these tubes would have to be cleaned by blowing with air, or air and water, several times a day to maintain them plug free. This

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Asian and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. Gains in math tended to be larger than in reading. Trends in closing achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were available from 2007 through 2009. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  19. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  20. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  1. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; ...

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  2. The impact of salsalate treatment on serum levels of advanced glycation end products in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Joshua I; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Fonseca, Vivian; Shoelson, Steven E; Goldfine, Allison B; Strauch, Christopher; Monnier, Vincent M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Salsalate is a nonacetylated salicylate that lowers glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we examined whether salsalate also lowered serum-protein-bound levels of early and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were from the Targeting Inflammation Using Salsalate for Type 2 Diabetes (TINSAL-T2D) study, which examined the impact of salsalate treatment on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and a wide variety of other parameters. One hundred eighteen participants received salsalate, 3.5 g/day for 48 weeks, and 109 received placebo. Early glycation product levels (HbA1c and fructoselysine [measured as furosine]) and AGE levels (glyoxal and methylglyoxal hydroimidazolones [G-(1)H, MG-(1)H], carboxymethyllysine [CML], carboxyethyllysine [CEL], pentosidine) were measured in patient serum samples. RESULTS Forty-eight weeks of salsalate treatment lowered levels of HbA1c and serum furosine (P < 0.001) and CML compared with placebo. The AGEs CEL and G-(1)H and MG-(1)H levels were unchanged, whereas pentosidine levels increased more than twofold (P < 0.001). Among salsalate users, increases in adiponectin levels were associated with lower HbA1c levels during follow-up (P < 0.001). Changes in renal and inflammation factor levels were not associated with changes in levels of early or late glycation factors. Pentosidine level changes were unrelated to changes in levels of renal function, inflammation, or cytokines. CONCLUSIONS Salsalate therapy was associated with a reduction in early but not late glycation end products. There was a paradoxical increase in serum pentosidine levels suggestive of an increase in oxidative stress or decreased clearance of pentosidine precursor.

  3. Achievement of recommended lipid and lipoprotein levels with combined ezetimibe/statin therapy versus statin alone in patients with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Betteridge, D John; Farnier, Michel; Leiter, Lawrence A; Lin, Jianxin; Shah, Arvind; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Brudi, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Treatment guidelines identify low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary target of therapy with secondary targets of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Data were pooled from 27 randomised, double-blind, active or placebo-controlled trials in 21,794 adult hypercholesterolaemic patients (LDL-C 1.81-6.48 mmol/L) receiving ezetimibe/statin or statin for 4-24 weeks. Percentages of patients achieving various targets were calculated among diabetes (n = 6541) and non-diabetes (n = 15,253) subgroups. Significantly more patients with and without diabetes achieved specified levels of LDL-C (< 2.59, < 1.99, < 1.81 mmol/L), non-HDL-C (< 3.37, < 2.59 mmol/L) and apoB (< 0.9, < 0.8 g/L) with ezetimibe/statin versus statin. Patients with diabetes had larger mean per cent reductions in LDL-C and non-HDL-C than non-diabetes patients. A greater percentage of patients achieved both the LDL-C and apoB targets and all three LDL-C, apoB, and non-HDL-C targets with ezetimibe/statin versus statin in both subgroups. Patients with diabetes benefitted at least as much as, and sometimes more than, non-diabetes patients following treatment with ezetimibe/statin.

  4. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  5. I-NERI Annual Technical Progress Report 2007-004-K Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Frank

    2010-09-01

    The current method for the immobilization of fission products that accumulate in electrorefiner salt during the electrochemical processing of used metallic nuclear fuel is to encapsulate the electrorefiner salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. This process was developed by Argonne National Laboratory in the USA and is currently performed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) used fuel. This process utilizes a “once-through” option for the disposal of spent electrorefiner salt; where, after the treatment of the EBR-II fuel, the electrorefiner salt containing the active fission products will be disposed of in the ceramic waste form (CWF). The CWF produced will have low fission product loading of approximately 2 to 5 weight percent due to the limited fuel inventory currently being processed. However; the design and implementation of advanced electrochemical processing facilities to treat used fuel would process much greater quantities fuel. With an advanced processing facility, it would be necessary to selectively remove fission products from the electrorefiner salt for salt recycle and to concentrate the fission products to reduce the volume of high-level waste from the treatment facility. The Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Idaho National Laboratory have been collaborating on I-NERI research projects for a number of years to investigate both aspects of selective fission product separation from electrorefiner salt, and to develop advanced waste forms for the immobilization of the collected fission products. The first joint KAERI/INL I-NERI project titled: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels, was successfully completed in 2009 by concentrating and isolating fission products from actual electrorefiner salt used for the treated used EBR-II fuel. Two separation methods were tested and from these tests were

  6. Advancing Cybersecurity Capability Measurement Using the CERT(registered trademark)-RMM Maturity Indicator Level Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Institute at permission@sei.cmu.edu. * These restrictions do not apply to U.S. government entities. CERT® and CMMI ® are registered marks of Carnegie...Attributes 4 1.3.4 Appraisal and Scoring Methods 5 1.3.5 Improvement Roadmaps 5 2 Introducing the Maturity Indicator Level (MIL) Concept 6 2.1...CERT®-RMM v1.2) utilizes the maturity architecture (levels and descriptions) as provided in the Capability Maturity Model Integration ( CMMI

  7. A Broad Range of Dose Optima Achieve High-level, Long-term Gene Expression After Hydrodynamic Delivery of Sleeping Beauty Transposons Using Hyperactive SB100x Transposase

    PubMed Central

    Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Olson, Erik R; Somia, Nikunj V; Russell, Stephen J; McIvor, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system has been shown to enable long-term gene expression by integrating new sequences into host cell chromosomes. We found that the recently reported SB100x hyperactive transposase conferred a surprisingly high level of long-term expression after hydrodynamic delivery of luciferase-encoding reporter transposons in the mouse. We conducted dose-ranging studies to determine the effect of varying the amount of SB100x transposase-encoding plasmid (pCMV-SB100x) at a set dose of luciferase transposon and of varying the amount of transposon-encoding DNA at a set dose of pCMV-SB100x in hydrodynamically injected mice. Animals were immunosuppressed using cyclophosphamide in order to prevent an antiluciferase immune response. At a set dose of transposon DNA (25 µg), we observed a broad range of pCMV-SB100x doses (0.1–2.5 µg) conferring optimal levels of long-term expression (>1011 photons/second/cm2). At a fixed dose of 0.5 μg of pCMV-SB100x, maximal long-term luciferase expression (>1010 photons/second/cm2) was achieved at a transposon dose of 5–125 μg. We also found that in the linear range of transposon doses (100 ng), co-delivering the CMV-SB100x sequence on the same plasmid was less effective in achieving long-term expression than delivery on separate plasmids. These results show marked flexibility in the doses of SB transposon plus pCMV-SB100x that achieve maximal SB-mediated gene transfer efficiency and long-term gene expression after hydrodynamic DNA delivery to mouse liver. PMID:26784638

  8. Relationship between level of lymph node metastasis and survival in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianjun; Lin, Heather; Gold, Kathryn A.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lee, J. Jack; William, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) staging system may not capture the full prognostic implications of regional lymph node involvement. We sought to investigate the impact of level of lymph node metastasis (LNM) on survival Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was queried for oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), larynx (LAR), and hypopharynx (HP) HNSCC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate whether level of LNM is an independent prognostic factor. Site-specific recursive-partitioning analysis (RPA) was performed to classify patients into different risk groups. Results Totally, 14,499 patients including OC (N=2,463), OP (N=8,567), LAR (N=2,332) and HP (N=1,137) were analyzed. Both AJCC N classification and level of LNM showed significant effects on overall survival (OS) in patients with OC, OP or LAR, but not in HP. In patients with N2 disease, AJCC subclassification (N2a, N2b, N2c) was significantly associated with OS of patients with OP and LAR, but not OC or HP, while level of LNM (primary, secondary, and tertiary) was significantly associated with OS in patients with OC, OP and LAR, but not HP. Using RPA, we designed a simple, primary site-specific prognostic tool integrating AJCC T classification, N classification, and level of LNM that can be easily utilized by health care providers in clinic. Conclusions Level of LNM is an independent prognostic factor for patients with locally advanced HNSCC and could add to the prognostic value of AJCC T and N classification in patients with locally advanced HNSCC. PMID:26554754

  9. Advanced treatment processes for low and intermediate level radwastes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, S.K.; Singh, I.J.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1993-12-31

    Development of improved treatment processes for low and intermediate level radwastes is being pursued in India in view of the increasing environmental and regulatory concerns. Copper hexacyanoferrate loaded, macroporous anion exchange resin was developed as an effective sorbent for the removal of radiocesium from low level aqueous effluents and spent fuel storage pool water. The reverse osmosis process using cellulose acetate membranes was tested in pilot scale as an alternative treatment process for low level aqueous wastes. A treatment scheme for alkaline intermediate level aqueous wastes based on the selective uptake of radiocesium by a resorcinol-formaldehyde polycondensate resin was developed in the laboratory and found satisfactory in trials with the alkaline waste of a reprocessing plant. Synthetic zeolites are being tested for fixation of activity released in solution in wet oxidative destruction of spent ion exchange resin, arising from reactors and other nuclear facilities. All these processes are being critically evaluated for possible application in the treatment of low and intermediate level radwastes in India.

  10. MGMT expression levels predict disease stabilisation, progression-free and overall survival in patients with advanced melanomas treated with DTIC.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Geisler, Jürgen; Lillehaug, Johan R; Lønning, Per Eystein

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic melanoma responds poorly to systemic treatment. We report the results of a prospective single institution study evaluating O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status as a potential predictive and/or prognostic marker among patients treated with dacarbazine (DTIC) 800-1000 mg/m(2) monotherapy administered as a 3-weekly schedule for advanced malignant melanomas. The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee. Surgical biopsies from metastatic or loco-regional deposits obtained prior to DTIC treatment were snap-frozen immediately upon removal and stored in liquid nitrogen up to processing. Median time from enrolment to end of follow-up was 67 months. MGMT expression levels evaluated by qRT-PCR correlated significantly to DTIC benefit (CR/PR/SD; p=0.005), time to progression (TTP) (p=0.005) and overall survival (OS) (p=0.003). MGMT expression also correlated to Breslow thickness in the primary tumour (p=0.014). While MGMT promoter hypermethylation correlated to MGMT expression, MGMT promoter hypermethylation did not correlate to treatment benefit, TTP or OS, suggesting that other factors may be critical in determining MGMT expression levels in melanomas. In a Cox proportional regression analysis, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, p<0.001), MGMT expression (p=0.022) and p16(INK4a) expression (p=0.037) independently predicted OS, while TTP correlated to DTIC benefit after 6 weeks only (p=0.001). Our data reveal MGMT expression levels to be associated with disease stabilisation and prognosis in patients receiving DTIC monotherapy for advanced melanoma. The role of MGMT expression as a predictor to DTIC sensitivity versus a general prognostic factor in advanced melanomas warrants further evaluation.

  11. Biotechnology apprenticeship for secondary-level students: teaching advanced cell culture techniques for research.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer R; Kotur, Mark S; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

  12. Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors. PMID:12587031

  13. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  14. Homemade Equipment for the Teaching of Electrochemistry at Advanced Level. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a detailed description for the construction of equipment needed to investigate acid/base equilibria through the measurement of pH and potentiometric titrations. Suggested experiments and calibration techniques are explained. This information helps to solve the problems of inadequate, expensive equipment required for A-level chemistry…

  15. Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Oral microbes represent one of the most well studied microbial communities owing to the fact that they are a fundamental part of human development influencing health and disease, an easily accessible human microbiome, a highly structured and remarkably resilient biofilm as well as a model of bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. In the last 80 years since oral plaque was first characterized for its functionally stable physiological properties such as the highly repeatable rapid pH decrease upon carbohydrate addition and subsequent recovery phase, the fundamental approaches to study the oral microbiome have cycled back and forth between community level investigations and characterizing individual model isolates. Since that time, many individual species have been well characterized and the development of the early plaque community, which involves many cell–cell binding interactions, has been carefully described. With high throughput sequencing enabling the enormous diversity of the oral cavity to be realized, a number of new challenges to progress were revealed. The large number of uncultivated oral species, the high interpersonal variability of taxonomic carriage and the possibility of multiple pathways to dysbiosis pose as major hurdles to obtain a systems level understanding from the community to the gene level. It is now possible however to start connecting the insights gained from single species with community wide approaches. This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them. PMID:25120956

  16. Contact, Attitude and Motivation in the Learning of Catalan at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Colleen; Serrano, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical complexity of current understandings of second language (L2) identity has brought the study of language learning motivations from basic concepts of intrinsic, integrative and instrumental motives to a more dynamic construct that interacts with background factors, learning contexts and proficiency levels. This cross-sectional study…

  17. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Clapp, Carmen; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05. Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001) in the aqueous and vitreous samples. Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group. PMID:20856587

  18. Role of PACAP in Female Fertility and Reproduction at Gonadal Level – Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Reglodi, Dora; Tamas, Andrea; Koppan, Miklos; Szogyi, Donat; Welke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, first isolated from hypothalamic extracts, but later shown in peripheral organs, such as endocrine glands, gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, and reproductive organs. PACAP plays a role in fertility and reproduction. Numerous studies report on the gonadal regulatory effects of PACAP at hypothalamo-hypophyseal levels. However, the local effects of PACAP at gonadal levels are also important. The present review summarizes the effects of PACAP in the ovary. PACAP and its receptors are present in the ovary, and PACAP plays a role in germ cell migration, meiotic division, follicular development, and atresia. The autocrine-paracrine hormonal effects seem to play a regulatory role in ovulation, luteinization, and follicular atrophy. Altogether, PACAP belongs to the ovarian regulatory peptides. PMID:23248616

  19. Recent advances in the compilation of holocene relative Sea-level database in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Vacchi, M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nikitina, D.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. In recent years, efforts were made to create RSL databases following a standardized methodology. These regional databases provided a framework for developing our understanding of the primary mechanisms of RSL change since the Last Glacial Maximum and a long-term baseline against which to gauge changes in sea-level during the 20th century and forecasts for the 21st. Here we present two quality-controlled Holocene RSL database compiled for North America. Along the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA), our re-evaluation of sea-level indicators from geological and archaeological investigations yield 841 RSL data-points mainly from salt and freshwater wetlands or adjacent estuarine sediment as well as from isolation basin. Along the Atlantic coast of North America (Hudson Bay, Canada to South Carolina, USA), we are currently compiling a database including more than 2000 RSL data-points from isolation basin, salt and freshwater wetlands, beach ridges and intratidal deposits. We outline the difficulties and solutions we made to compile databases in such different depostional environment. We address complex tectonics and the framework to compare such large variability of RSL data-point. We discuss the implications of our results for the glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) models in the two studied regions.

  20. Assessment of the Orion-SLS Interface Management Process in Achieving the EIA 731.1 Systems Engineering Capability Model Generic Practices Level 3 Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellicorse, John J.; Rahman, Shamin A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently developing the next generation crewed spacecraft and launch vehicle for exploration beyond earth orbit including returning to the Moon and making the transit to Mars. Managing the design integration of major hardware elements of a space transportation system is critical for overcoming both the technical and programmatic challenges in taking a complex system from concept to space operations. An established method of accomplishing this is formal interface management. In this paper we set forth an argument that the interface management process implemented by NASA between the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and the Space Launch System (SLS) achieves the Level 3 tier of the EIA 731.1 System Engineering Capability Model (SECM) for Generic Practices. We describe the relevant NASA systems and associated organizations, and define the EIA SECM Level 3 Generic Practices. We then provide evidence for our compliance with those practices. This evidence includes discussions of: NASA Systems Engineering Interface (SE) Management standard process and best practices; the tailoring of that process for implementation on the Orion to SLS interface; changes made over time to improve the tailored process, and; the opportunities to take the resulting lessons learned and propose improvements to our institutional processes and best practices. We compare this evidence against the practices to form the rationale for the declared SECM maturity level.

  1. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  2. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  3. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  4. A two-level structure for advanced space power system automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Chankong, Vira

    1990-05-01

    The tasks to be carried out during the three-year project period are: (1) performing extensive simulation using existing mathematical models to build a specific knowledge base of the operating characteristics of space power systems; (2) carrying out the necessary basic research on hierarchical control structures, real-time quantitative algorithms, and decision-theoretic procedures; (3) developing a two-level automation scheme for fault detection and diagnosis, maintenance and restoration scheduling, and load management; and (4) testing and demonstration. The outlines of the proposed system structure that served as a master plan for this project, work accomplished, concluding remarks, and ideas for future work are also addressed.

  5. A two-level structure for advanced space power system automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.; Chankong, Vira

    1990-01-01

    The tasks to be carried out during the three-year project period are: (1) performing extensive simulation using existing mathematical models to build a specific knowledge base of the operating characteristics of space power systems; (2) carrying out the necessary basic research on hierarchical control structures, real-time quantitative algorithms, and decision-theoretic procedures; (3) developing a two-level automation scheme for fault detection and diagnosis, maintenance and restoration scheduling, and load management; and (4) testing and demonstration. The outlines of the proposed system structure that served as a master plan for this project, work accomplished, concluding remarks, and ideas for future work are also addressed.

  6. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  7. An oral exam model for teaching advanced "Batchelor-level" fluid mechanics in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    A teaching model is developed to meet the challenge of teaching fluid mechanics at what might be considered a high level, at least by the current norms in the US. The initial goal was to avoid loss of concepts amidst the challenge of particular mathematical manipulations on particular assignments. However, it evolved toward fostering facile working knowledge of challenging material, such as in the books by Batchelor (e.g. streaming flow), Whitham (e.g. ship waves), and van Dyke (e.g. second-order boundary layer). To this end, the course model forgoes traditional assigned problems to focus on completion, augmentation, and in-depth understanding of the lecture material. The lectures are relatively traditional in structure, albeit with somewhat more interactive examples. The main unusual feature-again, by modern US standards-was assessment via multiple half-hour oral exams. This model has now been successful over 8 semesters for 3 different graduate courses in 2 departments. For all, students were assume to have already completed a full course at a "Navier-Stokes level". The presentation will include specifics of the course and exam structure, impressions of positive outcomes from the instructor, and a summary of the overwhelmingly positive student feedback.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  9. Multi level optimization of burnable poison utilization for advanced PWR fuel management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Serkan

    The objective of this study was to develop an unique methodology and a practical tool for designing burnable poison (BP) pattern for a given PWR core. Two techniques were studied in developing this tool. First, the deterministic technique called Modified Power Shape Forced Diffusion (MPSFD) method followed by a fine tuning algorithm, based on some heuristic rules, was developed to achieve this goal. Second, an efficient and a practical genetic algorithm (GA) tool was developed and applied successfully to Burnable Poisons (BPs) placement optimization problem for a reference Three Mile Island-1 (TMI-1) core. This thesis presents the step by step progress in developing such a tool. The developed deterministic method appeared to perform as expected. The GA technique produced excellent BP designs. It was discovered that the Beginning of Cycle (BOC) Kinf of a BP fuel assembly (FA) design is a good filter to eliminate invalid BP designs created during the optimization process. By eliminating all BP designs having BOC Kinf above a set limit, the computational time was greatly reduced since the evaluation process with reactor physics calculations for an invalid solution is canceled. Moreover, the GA was applied to develop the BP loading pattern to minimize the total Gadolinium (Gd) amount in the core together with the residual binding at End-of-Cycle (EOC) and to keep the maximum peak pin power during core depletion and Soluble boron concentration at BOC both less than their limit values. The number of UO2/Gd2O3 pins and Gd 2O3 concentrations for each fresh fuel location in the core are the decision variables and the total amount of the Gd in the core and maximum peak pin power during core depletion are in the fitness functions. The use of different fitness function definition and forcing the solution movement towards to desired region in the solution space accelerated the GA runs. Special emphasize is given to minimizing the residual binding to increase core lifetime as

  10. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Florian; Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) - one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government's deforestation map and a global deforestation map.

  11. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  12. Development and Deployment of Advanced Corrosion Monitoring Systems for High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest--in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and AEA Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  13. Development and deployment of advanced corrosion monitoring systems for high-level waste tanks.

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, M. T.; Edgemon, G. L.; Mickalonis, J. I.; Mizia, R. E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a collaborative technology development program, sponsored by the Tanks Focus Area, to use electrochemical noise (EN) for corrosion monitoring in underground storage tanks. These tanks, made of carbon or stainless steels, contain high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) generated by weapons production or radioactive liquid waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The term EN is used to describe low frequency fluctuations in current and voltage measurements associated with corrosion. In their most basic form, EN-based corrosion monitoring systems measure and record these fluctuations over time from electrodes immersed in the environment of interest - in this case, radioactive tank waste. The resulting EN signals have characteristic patterns for different corrosion mechanisms. In recent years, engineers and scientists from several DOE sites, in collaboration with several private companies, have conducted laboratory studies and field applications to correlate the EN signals with corrosion mechanisms active in the radioactive waste tanks. The participating DOE sites are Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge Reservation and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The commercial vendors have included HiLine Engineering and Fabrication, Inc., EIC Laboratories, Inc., and M A Technologies. Successful deployment of the EN technology will yield improved information of waste tank corrosion conditions, better tank management, and lower overall cost.

  14. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Gregory P; Joseph, Shijo

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

  15. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  16. Advanced Treatment Monitoring for Olympic-Level Athletes Using Unsupervised Modeling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Siedlik, Jacob A.; Bergeron, Charles; Cooper, Michael; Emmons, Russell; Moreau, William; Nabhan, Dustin; Gallagher, Philip; Vardiman, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Context Analysis of injury and illness data collected at large international competitions provides the US Olympic Committee and the national governing bodies for each sport with information to best prepare for future competitions. Research in which authors have evaluated medical contacts to provide the expected level of medical care and sports medicine services at international competitions is limited. Objective To analyze the medical-contact data for athletes, staff, and coaches who participated in the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico, using unsupervised modeling techniques to identify underlying treatment patterns. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Pan American Games. Patients or Other Participants A total of 618 US athletes (337 males, 281 females) participated in the 2011 Pan American Games. Main Outcome Measure(s) Medical data were recorded from the injury-evaluation and injury-treatment forms used by clinicians assigned to the central US Olympic Committee Sport Medicine Clinic and satellite locations during the operational 17-day period of the 2011 Pan American Games. We used principal components analysis and agglomerative clustering algorithms to identify and define grouped modalities. Lift statistics were calculated for within-cluster subgroups. Results Principal component analyses identified 3 components, accounting for 72.3% of the variability in datasets. Plots of the principal components showed that individual contacts focused on 4 treatment clusters: massage, paired manipulation and mobilization, soft tissue therapy, and general medical. Conclusions Unsupervised modeling techniques were useful for visualizing complex treatment data and provided insights for improved treatment modeling in athletes. Given its ability to detect clinically relevant treatment pairings in large datasets, unsupervised modeling should be considered a feasible option for future analyses of medical-contact data from international competitions. PMID

  17. DC-9/JT8D refan, Phase 1. [technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting DC-9 aircraft with refan engine to achieve desired acoustic levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Analyses and design studies were conducted on the technical and economic feasibility of installing the JT8D-109 refan engine on the DC-9 aircraft. Design criteria included minimum change to the airframe to achieve desired acoustic levels. Several acoustic configurations were studied with two selected for detailed investigations. The minimum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 608 kg (1,342 lb) and the maximum selected acoustic treatment configuration results in an estimated aircraft weight increase of 809 kg (1,784 lb). The range loss for the minimum and maximum selected acoustic treatment configurations based on long range cruise at 10 668 m (35,000 ft) altitude with a typical payload of 6 804 kg (15,000 lb) amounts to 54 km (86 n. mi.) respectively. Estimated reduction in EPNL's for minimum selected treatment show 8 EPNdB at approach, 12 EPNdB for takeoff with power cutback, 15 EPNdB for takeoff without power cutback and 12 EPNdB for sideline using FAR Part 36. Little difference was estimated in EPNL between minimum and maximum treatments due to reduced performance of maximum treatment. No major technical problems were encountered in the study. The refan concept for the DC-9 appears technically feasible and economically viable at approximately $1,000,000 per airplane. An additional study of the installation of JT3D-9 refan engine on the DC-8-50/61 and DC-8-62/63 aircraft is included. Three levels of acoustic treatment were suggested for DC-8-50/61 and two levels for DC-8-62/63. Results indicate the DC-8 technically can be retrofitted with refan engines for approximately $2,500,000 per airplane.

  18. I-NERI-2007-004-K, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FORMS FOR ACHIEVING WASTE MINIMIZATION FROM PYROPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2011-09-01

    Work describe in this report represents the final year activities for the 3-year International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI) project: Development and Characterization of New High-Level Waste Forms for Achieving Waste Minimization from Pyroprocessing. Used electrorefiner salt that contained actinide chlorides and was highly loaded with surrogate fission products was processed into three candidate waste forms. The first waste form, a high-loaded ceramic waste form is a variant to the CWF produced during the treatment of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II used fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The two other waste forms were developed by researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). These materials are based on a silica-alumina-phosphate matrix and a zinc/titanium oxide matrix. The proposed waste forms, and the processes to fabricate them, were designed to immobilize spent electrorefiner chloride salts containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide, and halide fission products that accumulate in the salt during the processing of used nuclear fuel. This aspect of the I-NERI project was to demonstrate 'hot cell' fabrication and characterization of the proposed waste forms. The outline of the report includes the processing of the spent electrorefiner salt and the fabrication of each of the three waste forms. Also described is the characterization of the waste forms, and chemical durability testing of the material. While waste form fabrication and sample preparation for characterization must be accomplished in a radiological hot cell facility due to hazardous radioactivity levels, smaller quantities of each waste form were removed from the hot cell to perform various analyses. Characterization included density measurement, elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and the Product Consistency Test, which is a leaching method to measure chemical durability. Favorable results from this demonstration project

  19. How does achievement motivation influence mental effort mobilization? Physiological evidence of deteriorative effects of negative affects on the level of engagement.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Audiffren, Michel

    2009-12-01

    We tested whether the effect of achievement motivation on effort is modulated by two possible factors of the motivational intensity theory (Wright and Kirby, 2001): perceived difficulty and maximally justified effort. Approach-driven (N=16) and avoidance-driven (N=16) participants were first instructed to perform a reaction time task to the best of their abilities. Next, the participants were instructed to consistently beat their performance standard established in the first condition. Approach-driven participants showed a stronger decrease of midfrequency band of heart rate variability, which was used as an index of mental effort, than avoidance-driven participants in the second instruction condition. Moreover, avoidance-driven participants showed a higher corrugator supercilii reactivity, which was used as an index of negative affects, than approach-driven participants in the second instruction condition. No difference of perceived difficulty between groups was observed. Results suggested that avoidance-driven participants developed negative affects in the second instruction condition decreasing the maximally justified effort and their level of engagement.

  20. An Investigation of the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Career Development and Advancement of Mid-Level Women in Student Affairs Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corral, Christine R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the performance appraisal experience of 14 mid-level women in student affairs administration at four-year colleges and universities in Northern Illinois using a qualitative research approach involving personal interviews. Previous research on career development and advancement of mid-level women in student…

  1. Self Regulated and Communal Learning Contexts as They Relate to Math Achievement and Math Self Efficacy among African American Elementary Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley Faye Jackson

    2012-01-01

    For decades, African American students, nationwide, have consistently scored much lower on math and reading achievement tests than their European counterparts, creating what is known as the "White-Black Achievement Gap". The purpose of the research was to determine if self regulated learning and communal learning contexts, either…

  2. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  3. Iron Levels in Hepatocytes and Portal Tract Cells Predict Progression and Outcome of Patients with Advanced Chronic Hepatitis C1

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Richard W.; Sterling, Richard K.; Naishadham, Deepa; Stoddard, Anne M.; Rogers, Thomas; Morishima, Chihiro; Morgan, Timothy R.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Iron might influence severity and progression of non-hemochromatotic liver diseases. We assessed the relationships between iron, variants in HFE, and progression and outcomes using data from the HALT-C Trial. We determined whether therapy with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) affects iron variables. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to groups given long-term therapy with PegIFN (n=400) or no therapy (n=413) for 3.5 y and followed for up to 8.7 y (median 6.0 y). Associations between patient characteristics and iron variables, at baseline and over time, were made using Kaplan-Meier analyses, Cox regression models, and repeated measures analysis of covariance. Iron was detected by Prussian blue staining. Results Patients with poor outcomes (increase in Child-Turcotte-Pugh score to ≥ 7, development of ascites, encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, death) had significantly higher baseline scores for stainable iron in hepatocytes and cells in portal tracts than those without outcomes. Staining for iron in portal triads correlated with lobular and total Ishak inflammatory and fibrosis scores (P<0.0001). High baseline levels of iron in triads increased the risk for poor outcome (hazard ratio=1.35, P=0.02). Iron staining decreased in hepatocytes but increased in portal stromal cells over time (P<0.0001). Serum levels of iron and total iron binding capacity decreased significantly over time (P <0.0001), as did serum ferritin (P=0.0003). Long-term therapy with PegIFN did not affect levels of iron staining. Common variants in HFE did not correlate with outcomes, including development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions Degree of stainable iron in hepatocytes and portal tract cells predicts progression and clinical and histological outcomes of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis C. Long-term therapy with low-dose PegIFN did not improve outcomes or iron variables. PMID:21335007

  4. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as “incurable” diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy. PMID:24179708

  5. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  6. Pushing CT and MR Imaging to the Molecular Level for Studying the “Omics”: Current Challenges and Advancements

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Shih, Yi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, medical imaging has made the transition from anatomical imaging to functional and even molecular imaging. Such transition provides a great opportunity to begin the integration of imaging data and various levels of biological data. In particular, the integration of imaging data and multiomics data such as genomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and pharmacogenomics may open new avenues for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine. However, to promote imaging-omics integration, the practical challenge of imaging techniques should be addressed. In this paper, we describe key challenges in two imaging techniques: computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and then review existing technological advancements. Despite the fact that CT and MRI have different principles of image formation, both imaging techniques can provide high-resolution anatomical images while playing a more and more important role in providing molecular information. Such imaging techniques that enable single modality to image both the detailed anatomy and function of tissues and organs of the body will be beneficial in the imaging-omics field. PMID:24738056

  7. Contrasts in Relationships Between School Achievement and Background, Ability and Personality Factors for Groups Differing in Sex and Race at the Primary School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    The position advanced in this paper is that the nature of the confrontation between the institution of school and the children who attend it is different and is experienced differently by the four sex-color groups: white girls, white boys, black girls, and black boys. Data for this study were collected from approximately 475 children at the…

  8. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  9. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  10. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  11. Evaluation of plasma microRNA levels to predict insensitivity of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinomas to pemetrexed and platinum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinghua; Qi, Yuhua; Wu, Jianzhong; Shi, Meiqi; Feng, Jifeng; Chen, Longbang

    2016-12-01

    Pemetrexed combined with platinum is a first-line therapy used to treat patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that exhibit negative or unknown epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements. Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is the primary type of NSCLC. In order to prevent overtreatment, it is necessary to identify patients with LAC who may not benefit from certain chemotherapies. Patients recruited in the present study (n=129) were diagnosed with advanced LAC and received first-line pemetrexed and platinum-based chemotherapy. A microRNA (miR) microarray was used to screen the plasma miR expression profiles in a screening set of eight patients prior to and following treatment. Specifically, plasma miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b, miR-326, miR-483-5p and miR-920 were selected for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in a training set (n=44) prior to treatment. The screening and training set patients were all non-smokers with no prior history of serious or chronic disease. The ∆∆Cq values of these miRs were compared between the group that showed benefit from pemetrexed and platinum treatment and the group that did not. Consequently, the ∆∆Cq values of miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b and miR-326 were further determined in a validation set (n=77). The results of the present study demonstrate that plasma expression levels of miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b and miR-326, in the training and validation sets prior to treatment, were significantly different between the benefit and non-benefit groups (P≤0.001). The expression of miR-25, miR-21, miR-27b and miR-326 was upregulated in the non-benefit group and this elevation was positively correlated with decreased progression-free survival (PFS; P≤0.001). In addition, the predictive power of each miR was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic curves, in which miR-25 exhibited the highest degree of accuracy (area under

  12. A screening level fate model of organic contaminants from advanced water treatment in a potable water supply reservoir.

    PubMed

    Hawker, Darryl W; Cumming, Janet L; Neale, Peta A; Bartkow, Michael E; Escher, Beate I

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation of potable water sources by planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater is being widely considered to address growing water shortages. Environmental buffers such as lakes and dams may act as one of a series of barriers to potable water contamination stemming from micropollutants in wastewater. In South-East Queensland, Australia, current government policy is to begin indirect potable reuse of water from reverse osmosis equipped advanced water treatment plants (AWTPs) when the combined capacity of its major storages is at 40% capacity. A total of 15 organic contaminants including NDMA and bisphenol A have been publically reported as detected in recycled water from one of South-East Queensland's AWTPs, while another 98 chemicals were analysed for, but found to be below their detection limit. To assess the natural attenuation in Lake Wivenhoe, a Level III fugacity based evaluative fate model was constructed using the maximum concentrations of these contaminants detected as input data. A parallel aquivalence based model was constructed for those contaminants, such as dichloroacetic acid, dalapon and triclopyr, which are ionised in the environment of Lake Wivenhoe. A total of 247 organic chemicals of interest, including disinfection by-products, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, xenoestrogens and industrial chemicals, were evaluated with the model to assess their potential for natural attenuation. Out of the 15 detected chemicals, trihalomethanes are expected to volatilise with concentrations in the outflow from the dam approximately 400 times lower than influent from the AWTPs. Transformation processes in water are likely to be more significant for NDMA and pharmaceuticals such as salicylic acid and paracetamol as well as for caffeine and the herbicides dalapon and triclopyr. For hydrophobic contaminants such as cholesterol and phenolic xenoestrogens such as 4-nonylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol and bisphenol A, equilibrium between water

  13. Differential Impacts of Intensive District-Level Technical Assistance on Student Achievement: A Study of California's District Assistance and Intervention Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; McEachin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Building on Strunk, McEachin, and Westover (2011), the authors examine whether or not District Assistance and Intervention Teams (DAITs) have a differential impact on student performance across school and student characteristics. They use a quasi-experimental design to examine the impacts of DAITs on student achievement on math and English…

  14. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  15. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, April E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  16. Effects of Two Foreign Language Methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, on Beginning-Level Students' Achievement, Fluency, and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Donna E.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical studies exist comparing the effectiveness of the two prevalent foreign language methodologies, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS), at helping students achieve second language acquisition. In turn, the purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to…

  17. Is Authoritative Teaching Beneficial for All Students? A Multi-Level Model of the Effects of Teaching Style on Interest and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Bridget V.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the two facets of authoritative teaching--high academic press and caring for students--on student interest and achievement in mathematics for middle and high school students (N = 3,602 in 198 classrooms), and whether those effects are moderated by students' ethnicity (Hispanic, Vietnamese, and Caucasian…

  18. Assessing the Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Academic Achievement and College Preparation Efforts: Using Propensity Score Matching to Assess School-Level Data in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to…

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of Reading Achievement Levels in Grade Four--A Follow-Up of a Three Year Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collingwood, Madeline Duckworth

    This study was a follow-up of a three year longitudinal study of factors affecting learning to read. It examined the efficacy of four different approaches to beginning reading instruction on subsequent reading achievement in grade four. Major purposes were to determine what effect maturation and exposure to a non-experimental typical grade four…

  20. Project LEAP: The Labor Education Achievement Program. A Program To Improve the Literacy Level and Productivity of the Workforce. Final Project Report. April 1, 1990-June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Baltimore Council of AFL-CIO Unions, MD.

    The Labor Education Achievement Program (LEAP) exceeded its recruitment and enrollment goal for April 1990 to June 1991. The number of union workers receiving services was 697 in 59 classes at 20 sites. Recruitment success was made possible by the use of the communication networks of the Baltimore AFL-CIO Metropolitan Council of Unions and public…

  1. Engaging, Retaining, and Advancing African Americans in Executive-Level Positions: A Descriptive and Trend Analysis of Academic Administrators in Higher and Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.

    2004-01-01

    In spite of repeated considerations and positive action to engage, retain and advance African Americans in executive positions, there are only a few African Americans in executive level administration posts in colleges and universities. An analysis of the status of African Americans in higher and post secondary education shows that legislation…

  2. Incorporating a Comprehensive Drama Unit including a Theatre of the Absurd Component within the Advanced Placement English Program for Senior Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konaxis, Antoinette

    This practicum was designed to increase the experiences in the genre of world drama, to further develop student understanding of its evolution and impact on subsequently created drama, and to proffer a diverse collection of drama for senior level students pursuing the Advanced Placement (AP) English literature program. A comprehensive curriculum,…

  3. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) METOP Stress Analysis Report (Qual Level Random Vibration) A1 Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehitretter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module performed using the Meteorological Operational (METOP) Qualification Level 9.66 grms Random Vibration PSD Spectrum is presented. The random vibration structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions are summarized.

  4. Modes of Governmentality in an Online Space: A Case Study of Blog Activities in an Advanced Level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko M.; Sato, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the validity of the incorporation of online communication in language education classes as a practice free of power politics. By examining blog activities in an advanced-level Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom at a university in the USA, we show that the blog's postings and readers' comments evoke certain modes of…

  5. A Comparison of the Readability of Community College Social Science Textbooks with Student Reading Levels and the Effect on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertalan, John J.

    A determination of the reading grade placement levels (GPLs) and final course grades of community college students in relationship to the GPLs of their assigned social science textbooks was the focus of a study at Citrus Community College (Florida). Dale-Chall readability placement levels were calculated for eight textbooks used in 19 classes of…

  6. Trends of Science Ability in the National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA) of Korean Ninth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Heon; Kim, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The results of the National Assessment of Educational Achievement from 2010 to 2013 have shown a downward trend in ninth graders' science average achievement scores from 2011 to 2013. The percentage of students in the Advanced level decreased dramatically from 19.95% in 2010 to 11.48% in 2013, while the percentage of students in the Basic level…

  7. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  10. Correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor efficacy and circulating tumor cell levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Wenjie; Li, Wenhui; Jiang, Bo; Chang, Li; Jin, Congguo; Tu, Changlin; Li, Yunfen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy of EGFR-TKIs in reducing CTC counts in patients with advanced NSCLC was studied. Patients and methods A total of 66 patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled and divided into two groups (those with high CTC counts and those with low CTC counts) based on the patients’ median CTC counts. All the patients were treated with an EGFR-TKI, and the treatment efficacy and prognoses were compared. Results The treatment efficacies were 53.3% (16/30) and 27.8% (10/36) for the low CTC group and high CTC group, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median overall survival was 22.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.9–26.8 months) for the low CTC group and 18.3 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the high CTC group. The median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI: 8.1–15 months) and 5.6 months (95% CI: 2.9–8.2 months) for the low and high CTC groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion The CTC count can be used as an index for predicting the EGFR-TKI effect on patients with advanced NSCLC. Efficacy and prognosis of EGFR-TKI treatment and CTC count were considered important, and the CTC count could be used to predict the efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment and prognosis of advanced NSCLC. The change in CTC expression levels can be used as an index for evaluating the prognosis of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:28003764

  11. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  12. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  13. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse…

  14. The Impact of a One-to-One Laptop Computer Program on the Literacy Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students with Differing Measured Cognitive Skill Levels Who Are Eligible and Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a one-to-one laptop computer program on the literacy achievement of eighth-grade students with above average, average, and below average measured cognitive skill levels who are eligible and not eligible for free or reduced price lunch program participation. The study analyzed, student…

  15. Un modelo de coordinacion en la ensenanza del ingles en un mismo nivel de conocimientos (A Model of Coordination in the Teaching of English at a Given Level of Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregui S., Beto

    1971-01-01

    Coordination among English classes at any given level depends on a number of factors. The classes must have a common syllabus with respect to course content, course intensity, and textbooks. The learning conditions should be the same for all groups. All classes should be the same size and have the same average of achievement based on the results…

  16. Which Advanced Mathematics Courses Influence ACT Score? A State Level Analysis of the Iowa Class of 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between specific advanced mathematics courses and college readiness (as determined by ACT score). The ACT organization has found a consistent relationship between taking a minimum core number of mathematics courses and higher ACT scores (mathematics and composite) (ACT, Inc., 2012c). However, the extent to…

  17. Analysing Adjectives in Scientific Discourse: An Exploratory Study with Educational Applications for Spanish Speakers at Advanced University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Viviana

    2002-01-01

    Explores frequency and use of adjectives in five advanced scientific texts on biochemistry and analyzes the semantic implications of the observed occurrence. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the role of adjectives in research articles and to suggest how to guide Spanish-speaking students to effectively comprehend, read, write, and…

  18. Utilizing Computer and Multimedia Technology in Generating Choreography for the Advanced Dance Student at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Irma Amado

    This study describes a pilot program utilizing various multimedia computer programs on a MacQuadra 840 AV. The target group consisted of six advanced dance students who participated in the pilot program within the dance curriculum by creating a database of dance movement using video and still photography. The students combined desktop publishing,…

  19. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  20. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  1. CBM Reading, Mathematics, and Written Expression at the Secondary Level: Examining Latent Composite Relations among Indices and Unique Predictions with a State Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM…

  2. Grade Level, Study Time, and Grade Retention and Their Effects on Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, and Mathematics Achievement: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Valle, António; González-Pienda, Julio; Lourenço, Abílio

    2013-01-01

    The present study complements previous research findings with new data to improve our understanding of the relationship between motivational variables and academic performance in math mediated by self-regulated learning (SRL). A structural equation model with predictor (i.e., grade retention, grade level, and study time), process (i.e., perceived…

  3. Exploratory Study of Levels of Cognitive Skills in Achievement Goals Program, Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, and a Commercial Program Using the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego City Schools, CA. Evaluation Services Dept.

    Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956), this study explores whether the San Diego Schools are teaching and/or testing higher level cognitive skills. The Taxonomy arranges cognitive processes in ascending order in six areas; (1) recall of knowledge; (2) comprehension; (3) application; (4) analysis; (5) synthesis; and (6)…

  4. The Relationship between Approaches to Teaching and Approaches to Studying: A Two-Level Structural Equation Model for Biology Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Pedro; Nunez, Jose Carlos; Ferrando, Pere J.; Paiva, Maria Olimpia; Lourenco, Abilio; Cerezo, Rebeca; Valle, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, a large body of research has reported on the differences between deep and surface approaches to student learning. More recently, however, this metaphor for students' approaches to learning has been applied to the practice of teaching. Studies at the university level have identified two approaches to teaching: the information…

  5. Using a Multidimensional Approach to Measure the Impact of Classroom-Level Factors upon Student Achievement: A Study Testing the Validity of the Dynamic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic model does not only refer to different effectiveness factors and groupings of factors operating at different levels but also supports that each factor can be defined and measured using 5 dimensions: frequency, focus, stage, quality, and differentiation. The importance of taking each dimension into account is raised in this paper.…

  6. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  7. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  8. Increased level of Hsp90-beta in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid correlates with lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Biaoxue; Cai, Xiguang; Liu, Hua; Fu, Tian; Gao, Wenlong; Zhao, Chongchong; Lin, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this work is to explore the correlation between Hsp90-beta level in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung cancer. Methods: Hsp90-beta level was measured by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sensitivity and specificity of Hsp90-beta were calculated by receiver operator characteristic curve. Results: BALF in patients with lung cancer showed a higher expression of Hsp90-beta than those with benign lung disease (P<0.05). Elevated Hsp90-beta was closely related to lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of patients with lung cancer (P<0.05). The sensitivity of BALF Hsp90-beta for discerning lung cancer from patients with benign disease was 82.56% and specificity was 97.56%. Conclusion: Increased BALF Hsp90-beta correlates with lymphatic invasion and advanced stage of patients with lung cancer, suggesting it could be a diagnostic indicator for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27829999

  9. High-performance n-type organic semiconductors: incorporating specific electron-withdrawing motifs to achieve tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong H; Shin, Seunghoon; Yang, Hoichang; An, Byeong-Kwan; Yang, Lin; Park, Soo Young

    2012-02-14

    Novel π–conjugated cyanostilbene-based semiconductors (Hex-3,5-TFPTA and Hex-4-TFPTA) with tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels are synthesized. Hex-4-TFPTA exhibits high-performance n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties with electron mobilities as high as 2.14 cm2 V−1s−1 and on-off current ratios

  10. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1β can predict the efficacy of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsunaga, S; Ikeda, M; Shimizu, S; Ohno, I; Furuse, J; Inagaki, M; Higashi, S; Kato, H; Terao, K; Ochiai, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: With this study, we sought to characterise the impact of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the outcomes of gemcitabine monotherapy (GEM) in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods: Treatment-naive patients with advanced PC and no obvious infections were eligible for enrolment. All of the patients were scheduled to undergo systemic chemotherapy. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured using an electro-chemiluminescence assay method before chemotherapy. High cytokine levels were defined as values greater than the median. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Results: Sixty patients who received GEM were included in the analysis. High IL-6 and IL-1β levels were poor prognostic factors for overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P=0.011 and P=0.048, respectively). Patients with both a high IL-6 level and a high IL-1β level exhibited shortened overall and progression-free survival, a reduction in the tumour control rate, and a high dose intensity of GEM compared with patients with low levels of both IL-6 and IL-1β. Conclusion: The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1β predict the efficacy of GEM in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23591198

  11. Low educational level but not low income impairs the achievement of cytogenetic remission in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Monica Napoleão Fortes; Metze, Konradin; Lorand-Metze, Irene

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, imatinib mesylate is supplied as the first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase through the public universal healthcare program, Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). We studied the socio-demographic factors that influenced therapy success in a population in the northeast region of Brazil. METHODS: Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia from the state of Piauí were treated in only one reference center. Diagnosis was based on WHO 2008 criteria. Risk was assessed by Sokal, Hasford and EUTOS scores. Patients received 400 mg imatinib daily. We studied the influence of the following factors on the achievement of complete cytogenetic response within one year of treatment: age, clinical risk category, time interval between diagnosis and the start of imatinib treatment, geographic distance from the patient's home to the hospital, years of formal education and monthly income. RESULTS: Among 103 patients studied, the median age was 42 years; 65% of the patients had 2-9 years of formal education, and the median monthly income was approximately 100 US$. Imatinib was started in the first year after diagnosis (early chronic phase) in 69 patients. After 12 months of treatment, 68 patients had a complete cytogenetic response. The Hasford score, delay to start imatinib and years of formal education influenced the attainment of a complete cytogenetic response, whereas income and the distance from the home to the healthcare facility did not. CONCLUSION: Patients require additional healthcare information to better understand the importance of long-term oral anticancer treatment and to improve their compliance with the treatment. PMID:26039947

  12. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  13. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  14. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  15. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  16. Advanced methods for modeling water-levels and estimating drawdowns with SeriesSEE, an Excel add-in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith; Garcia, C. Amanda; Fenelon, Joe; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2012-12-21

    Water-level modeling is used for multiple-well aquifer tests to reliably differentiate pumping responses from natural water-level changes in wells, or “environmental fluctuations.” Synthetic water levels are created during water-level modeling and represent the summation of multiple component fluctuations, including those caused by environmental forcing and pumping. Pumping signals are modeled by transforming step-wise pumping records into water-level changes by using superimposed Theis functions. Water-levels can be modeled robustly with this Theis-transform approach because environmental fluctuations and pumping signals are simulated simultaneously. Water-level modeling with Theis transforms has been implemented in the program SeriesSEE, which is a Microsoft® Excel add-in. Moving average, Theis, pneumatic-lag, and gamma functions transform time series of measured values into water-level model components in SeriesSEE. Earth tides and step transforms are additional computed water-level model components. Water-level models are calibrated by minimizing a sum-of-squares objective function where singular value decomposition and Tikhonov regularization stabilize results. Drawdown estimates from a water-level model are the summation of all Theis transforms minus residual differences between synthetic and measured water levels. The accuracy of drawdown estimates is limited primarily by noise in the data sets, not the Theis-transform approach. Drawdowns much smaller than environmental fluctuations have been detected across major fault structures, at distances of more than 1 mile from the pumping well, and with limited pre-pumping and recovery data at sites across the United States. In addition to water-level modeling, utilities exist in SeriesSEE for viewing, cleaning, manipulating, and analyzing time-series data.

  17. Word-Level Reading Achievement and Behavioral Inattention: Exploring Their Overlap and Relations with Naming Speed and Phonemic Awareness in a Community Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency. PMID:25178628

  18. Effect of preannealing on the level of second-harmonic generation and defect sites achieved in poled low-water fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Leanne J.; Devilbiss, Alan D.; Tsai, Tsung E.

    1995-11-01

    The level of second-harmonic generation (SHG) in poled low-water fused silica was altered by preannealing in aqueous and dry-nitrogen atmospheres. The effect of water and heat was found to depend on the lot from which the material originated. The effect on the SHG of either a wet or a dry preanneal was sometimes found to be reversible by the opposite preannealing process. For both wet and dry preannealed samples the SHG was found to have both near-surface (< 25- mu m) and bulk ( \\approximately 1.5-mm) components. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data revealed the presence of Si and Ge E\\prime defect sites and showed that the relative concentrations of these sites was altered by the preannealing processes. EPR and SHG data provided evidence for a second-order bond effect along with a third-order hole-filling effect as sources of the nonlinearity. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  19. Word-level reading achievement and behavioral inattention: exploring their overlap and relations with naming speed and phonemic awareness in a community sample of children.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Grimbos, Teresa; Ferrari, Julia L S

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the contribution of naming speed and phonemic awareness to teacher inattention ratings and word-level reading proficiency in 79 first grade children (43 boys, 36 girls). Participants completed the cognitive and reading measures midway through the school year. Teacher ratings of inattention were obtained for each child at the same time point. A path analysis revealed that behavioral inattention had a significant direct effect on word reading proficiency as well as significant indirect effects through phonemic awareness and naming speed. For pseudoword reading proficiency, the effects of inattention were indirect only through phonemic awareness and naming speed. A regression analysis indicated that naming speed, but not phonemic awareness, was significantly associated with teacher inattention ratings controlling for word reading proficiency. The findings highlight the need to better understand the role of behavioral inattention in the development of emergent literacy skills and reading proficiency.

  20. 14 CFR Appendix H to Part 121 - Advanced Simulation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... simulator instructors and check airmen must include training policies and procedures, instruction methods... Simulation This appendix provides guidelines and a means for achieving flightcrew training in advanced... simulator, as appropriate. Advanced Simulation Training Program For an operator to conduct Level C or...