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Sample records for advanced aerospace applications

  1. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  2. Aerospace applications of advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellman, D. J.; Langenbeck, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced metallic materials within the Al-base family are being developed for applications on current and future aerospace vehicles. These advanced materials offer significant improvements in density, strength, stiffness, fracture resistance, and/or higher use temperature which translates into improved vehicle performance. Aerospace applications of advanced metallic materials include space structures, fighters, military and commercial transport aircraft, and missiles. Structural design requirements, including not only static and durability/damage tolerance criteria but also environmental considerations, drive material selections. Often trade-offs must be made regarding strength, fracture resistance, cost, reliability, and maintainability in order to select the optimum material for a specific application. These trade studies not only include various metallic materials but also many times include advanced composite materials. Details of material comparisons, aerospace applications, and material trades will be presented.

  3. Advanced lightweight alloys for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.; Lee, Eui W.; Donnellan, Mary E.; Thompson, James J.

    1989-05-01

    The design requirements of the next generation of advanced aerospace vehicles and propulsion systems necessitate the development of structural materials with properties vastly superior to those which are currently achievable. Recognizing that each class of materials possesses its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages, the designers of tomorrow's aircraft must choose wisely from the plethora of available alloys.

  4. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  5. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  6. Advanced aerospace remote sensing systems for global resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    The Landsat program, which was concerned with testing the use of satellite data for global resource observations, has been an unqualified success, and users of Landsat data demand now that repetitive global multispectral data be provided on a routine basis for a wide variety of applications. A review is provided of the current status of NASA's land observation program, new developments in advanced aerospace remote sensing techniques, and issues related to the development and testing of new prototype systems by the U.S. The current Landsat program is considered along with developments in solid-state imaging technology, short wave infrared research using the Space Shuttle, the Shuttle Orbiter camera payload system large format camera, and advanced research in thermal remote sensing. Attention is also given to the potential of imaging radar for global resource observations, and research related to geopotential field mapping.

  7. Engineering derivatives from biological systems for advanced aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfield, Daniel L.; Hering, Dean H.; Cole, David

    1991-01-01

    The present study consisted of a literature survey, a survey of researchers, and a workshop on bionics. These tasks produced an extensive annotated bibliography of bionics research (282 citations), a directory of bionics researchers, and a workshop report on specific bionics research topics applicable to space technology. These deliverables are included as Appendix A, Appendix B, and Section 5.0, respectively. To provide organization to this highly interdisciplinary field and to serve as a guide for interested researchers, we have also prepared a taxonomy or classification of the various subelements of natural engineering systems. Finally, we have synthesized the results of the various components of this study into a discussion of the most promising opportunities for accelerated research, seeking solutions which apply engineering principles from natural systems to advanced aerospace problems. A discussion of opportunities within the areas of materials, structures, sensors, information processing, robotics, autonomous systems, life support systems, and aeronautics is given. Following the conclusions are six discipline summaries that highlight the potential benefits of research in these areas for NASA's space technology programs.

  8. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Workshop: Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Robin C. (Editor); Simpson, Joycelyn O. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Smart Materials for Aerospace Applications was to provide a forum for technical dialogue on numerous topics in the area of smart materials. The proceedings presented herein represent the technical contributions of the participants of the workshop. Topics addressed include shape memory alloys, ferroelectrics, fiber optics, finite element simulation, and active control.

  9. Development of an advanced high-temperature fastener system for advanced aerospace vehicle application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kull, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a program to develop a lightweight high temperature reusable fastening system for aerospace vehicle thermal protection system applications are documented. This feasibility program resulted in several fastener innovations which will meet the specific needs of the heat shield application. Three systems were designed from Hayes 188 alloy and tested by environmental exposure and residual mechanical properties. The designs include a clinch stud with a collar retainer, a weld stud with a split ring retainer, and a caged stud with a collar retainer. The results indicated that a lightweight, reusable, high temperature fastening system can be developed for aerospace vehicle application.

  10. Mechanical Behavior of Advanced Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, Ignancy (Technical Monitor); Kantzos, Peter; Shannon, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) loading has any deleterious synergistic effect on life when combined with the typical Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) loading present in engine disks. This interaction is particularly important in the rim region of blisk applications, where fatigue initiations from vibratory stresses (HCF) may be propagated to the disk by LCF. The primary effort in this study was focused on determining and documenting initiation sites and damage mechanisms. Under LCF loading conditions the failures were predominantly surface initiated, while HCF loading favored internal initiations. Deleterious HCF/LCF interactions would always result in a transition from internal to surface initiations. The results indicated that under the relative stress conditions evaluated there was no interaction between HCF and LCF. In FY99 this effort was extended to investigate several other loading conditions (R-ratio effects) as well as interactions between LCF and two-hour tensile dwells. The results will be published as a NASA Technical Memorandum.

  11. Recent advances in AM OLED technologies for application to aerospace and military systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.; Roush, Jerry; Chanley, Charles

    2012-06-01

    While initial AM OLED products have been introduced in the market about a decade ago, truly successful commercialization of OLEDs has started only a couple of years ago, by Samsung Mobile Display (SMD), with small high performance displays for smart phone applications. This success by Samsung has catalyzed significant interest in AM OLED technology advancement and commercialization by other display manufacturers. Currently, significant manufacturing capacity for AM OLED displays is being established by the industry to serve the growing demand for these displays. The current development in the AM OLED industry are now focused on the development and commercialization of medium size (~10") AM OLED panels for Tablet PC applications and large size (~55") panels for TV applications. This significant progress in commercialization of AM OLED technology is enabled by major advances in various enabling technologies that include TFT backplanes, OLED materials and device structures and manufacturing know-how. In this paper we will discuss these recent advances, particularly as they relate to supporting high performance applications such as aerospace and military systems, and then discuss the results of the OLED testing for aerospace applications.

  12. Advances in SiC/SiC Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, supported by a variety of materials development programs, NASA Glenn Research Center has significantly increased the thermostructural capability of SiC/SiC composite materials for high-temperature aerospace applications. These state-of-the-art advances have occurred in every key constituent of the composite: fiber, fiber coating, matrix, and environmental barrier coating, as well as processes for forming the fiber architectures needed for complex-shaped components such as turbine vanes for gas turbine engines. This presentation will briefly elaborate on the nature of these advances in terms of performance data and underlying mechanisms. Based on a list of first-order property goals for typical high-temperature applications, key data from a variety of laboratory tests are presented which demonstrate that the NASA-developed constituent materials and processes do indeed result in SiC/SiC systems with the desired thermal and structural capabilities. Remaining process and microstructural issues for further property enhancement are discussed, as well as on-going approaches at NASA to solve these issues. NASA efforts to develop physics-based property models that can be used not only for component design and life modeling, but also for constituent material and process improvement will also be discussed.

  13. Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composite Blade Damping Characteristics for Aerospace Turbomachinery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Harris, Donald L.; Ting, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    For advanced aerospace propulsion systems, development of ceramic matrix composite integrally-bladed turbine disk technology is attractive for a number of reasons. The high strength-to-weight ratio of ceramic composites helps to reduce engine weight and the one-piece construction of a blisk will result in fewer parts count, which should translate into reduced operational costs. One shortcoming with blisk construction, however, is that blisks may be prone to high cycle fatigue due to their structural response to high vibration environments. Use of ceramic composites is expected to provide some internal damping to reduce the vibratory stresses encountered due to unsteady flow loads through the bladed turbine regions. A goal of our research was to characterize the vibration viscous damping behavior of C/SiC composites. The vibration damping properties were measured and calculated. Damping appeared to decrease with an increase in the natural frequency. While the critical damping amount of approximately 2% is required for typical aerospace turbomachinery engines, the C/SiC damping at high frequencies was less than 0.2% from our study. The advanced high-performance aerospace propulsion systems almost certainly will require even more damping than what current vehicles require. A purpose of this paper is to review some work on C/SiC vibration damping by the authors for the NASA CMC turbine blisk development program and address an importance of the further investigation of the blade vibration damping characteristics on candidate CMC materials for the NASA s advanced aerospace turbomachinery engine systems.

  14. Aerospace Power Technology for Potential Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace technology that is being developed for space and aeronautical applications has great potential for providing technical advances for terrestrial power systems. Some recent accomplishments arising from activities being pursued at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Centers is described in this paper. Possible terrestrial applications of the new aerospace technology are also discussed.

  15. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  16. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Doris J.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Transfer Team is to assist NASA in achieving widespread utilization of aerospace technology in terrestrial applications. Widespread utilization implies that the application of NASA technology is to benefit a significant sector of the economy and population of the Nation. This objective is best attained by stimulating the introduction of new or improved commercially available devices incorporating aerospace technology. A methodology is presented for the team's activities as an active transfer agent linking NASA Field Centers, industry associations, user groups, and the medical community. This methodology is designed to: (1) identify priority technology requirements in industry and medicine, (2) identify applicable NASA technology that represents an opportunity for a successful solution and commercial product, (3) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process, and (4) successfully develop a new product based on NASA technology.

  17. Advances in processing of NiAl intermetallic alloys and composites for high temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochenek, Kamil; Basista, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades intermetallic compounds such as NiAl have been considered as potential high temperature structural materials for aerospace industry. A large number of investigations have been reported describing complex fabrication routes, introducing various reinforcing/alloying elements along with theoretical analyses. These research works were mainly focused on the overcoming of main disadvantage of nickel aluminides that still restricts their application range, i.e. brittleness at room temperature. In this paper we present an overview of research on NiAl processing and indicate methods that are promising in solving the low fracture toughness issue at room temperature. Other material properties relevant for high temperature applications are also addressed. The analysis is primarily done from the perspective of NiAl application in aero engines in temperature regimes from room up to the operating temperature (over 1150 °C) of turbine blades.

  18. Predicted reliability of aerospace electronics: Application of two advanced probabilistic concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    Two advanced probabilistic design-for-reliability (PDfR) concepts are addressed and discussed in application to the prediction, quantification and assurance of the aerospace electronics reliability: 1) Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) model, which is an extension of the currently widely used Arrhenius model and, in combination with the exponential law of reliability, enables one to obtain a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful formula for the evaluation of the probability of failure (PoF) of a material or a device after the given time in operation at the given temperature and under the given stress (not necessarily mechanical), and 2) Extreme Value Distribution (EVD) technique that can be used to assess the number of repetitive loadings that result in the material/device degradation and eventually lead to its failure by closing, in a step-wise fashion, the gap between the bearing capacity (stress-free activation energy) of the material or the device and the demand (loading). It is shown that the material degradation (aging, damage accumulation, flaw propagation, etc.) can be viewed, when BAZ model is considered, as a Markovian process, and that the BAZ model can be obtained as the ultimate steady-state solution to the well-known Fokker-Planck equation in the theory of Markovian processes. It is shown also that the BAZ model addresses the worst, but a reasonably conservative, situation. It is suggested therefore that the transient period preceding the condition addressed by the steady-state BAZ model need not be accounted for in engineering evaluations. However, when there is an interest in understanding the transient degradation process, the obtained solution to the Fokker-Planck equation can be used for this purpose. As to the EVD concept, it attributes the degradation process to the accumulation of damages caused by a train of repetitive high-level loadings, while loadings of levels that are considerably lower than their extreme values do not contribute

  19. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  20. Advanced materials for aerospace and biomedical applications: New glasses for hermetic titanium seals

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R.; Crowder, S.V.

    1996-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance and so are materials of choice for a variety of aerospace and biomedical applications. Such applications are limited by the lack of a viable hermetic glass sealing technology. Conventional silicate sealing glasses are readily reduced by titanium to form interfacial silicides that are incompatible with a robust glass/metal seal. Borate-based glasses undergo a similar thermochemistry and are reduced to a titanium boride. The kinetics of this reactions, however, are apparently slower and so a deleterious interface does not form. Chemically durable lanthanoborate glasses were examined as candidate sealing compositions. The compositions, properties, and structures of several alkaline earth, alumina, and titania lanthanoborate glass forming systems were evaluated and this information was used as the basis for a designed experiment to optimize compositions for Ti-sealing. A number of viable compositions were identified and sealing procedures established. Finally, glass formation, properties, and structure of biocompatible Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and TiO{sub 2}-doped calcium phosphate systems were also evaluated.

  1. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  2. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  3. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  4. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  5. Mobile Computing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alena, Richard; Swietek, Gregory E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The use of commercial computer technology in specific aerospace mission applications can reduce the cost and project cycle time required for the development of special-purpose computer systems. Additionally, the pace of technological innovation in the commercial market has made new computer capabilities available for demonstrations and flight tests. Three areas of research and development being explored by the Portable Computer Technology Project at NASA Ames Research Center are the application of commercial client/server network computing solutions to crew support and payload operations, the analysis of requirements for portable computing devices, and testing of wireless data communication links as extensions to the wired network. This paper will present computer architectural solutions to portable workstation design including the use of standard interfaces, advanced flat-panel displays and network configurations incorporating both wired and wireless transmission media. It will describe the design tradeoffs used in selecting high-performance processors and memories, interfaces for communication and peripheral control, and high resolution displays. The packaging issues for safe and reliable operation aboard spacecraft and aircraft are presented. The current status of wireless data links for portable computers is discussed from a system design perspective. An end-to-end data flow model for payload science operations from the experiment flight rack to the principal investigator is analyzed using capabilities provided by the new generation of computer products. A future flight experiment on-board the Russian MIR space station will be described in detail including system configuration and function, the characteristics of the spacecraft operating environment, the flight qualification measures needed for safety review, and the specifications of the computing devices to be used in the experiment. The software architecture chosen shall be presented. An analysis of the

  6. Aerospace materials for nonaerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. L.; Dawn, F. S.

    1974-01-01

    Many of the flame-resistant nonmetallic materials that were developed for the Apollo and Skylab programs are discussed for commercial and military applications. Interchanges of information are taking place with the government agencies, industries, and educational institutions, which are interested in applications of fire-safe nonmetallic materials. These materials are particularly applicable to the design of aircraft, mass transit interiors, residential and public building constructions, nursing homes and hospitals, and to other fields of fire safety applications. Figures 22, 23 and 24 show the potential nonaerospace applications of flame-resistant aerospace materials are shown.

  7. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  8. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  9. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  10. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Anechoic Chambers: Aerospace Applications. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, performance, and applications of anechoic chambers in the aerospace industry. Anechoic chamber testing equipment, techniques for evaluation of aerodynamic noise, microwave and radio antennas, and other acoustic measurement devices are considered. Shock wave studies on aircraft models and components, electromagnetic measurements, jet flow studies, and antenna radiation pattern measurements for industrial and military aerospace equipment are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Cleland, John; Lehrman, Stephen; Trachtman, Lawrence; Wallace, Robert; Winfield, Daniel; Court, Nancy; Maggin, Bernard; Barnett, Reed

    1987-01-01

    Highlights are presented for the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter. Progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized, along with the status of the eight add-on tasks. New problem statements are presented. Transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are included.

  13. Cognitive engineering in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    The progress that was made with respect to the objectives and goals of the research that is being carried out in the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory (CSEL) under a Cooperative Agreement with NASA Ames Research Center is described. The major objective of this project is to expand the research base in Cognitive Engineering to be able to support the development and human-centered design of automated systems for aerospace applications. This research project is in support of the Aviation Safety/Automation Research plan and related NASA research goals in space applications.

  14. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  15. Recent advancement in optical fiber sensing for aerospace composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Takeda, Nobuo

    2013-12-01

    Optical fiber sensors have attracted considerable attention in health monitoring of aerospace composite structures. This paper briefly reviews our recent advancement mainly in Brillouin-based distributed sensing. Damage detection, life cycle monitoring and shape reconstruction systems applicable to large-scale composite structures are presented, and new technical concepts, "smart crack arrester" and "hierarchical sensing system", are described as well, highlighting the great potential of optical fiber sensors for the structural health monitoring (SHM) field.

  16. Novel Nanolaminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin; Mazuruk, consty

    2006-01-01

    Nanolaminate manufacturing (NLM) is a new way of developing materials whose properties can far exceed those of homogeneous materials. Traditional alloys, composites and bulk laminates tend to average the properties of the materials from which they were made. With nanostructured materials, the high density of interfaces between dissimilar materials results in novel material properties. For example, materials made -from alternating nanoscale layers of metals and oxides have exhibited thermal conductivities far below those of the oxides themselves. Also, metallic nanolaminates can have peak strengths 100 times lager than the bulk constituent metals. Recent work at MSFC has focused on the development of nickel/aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3)) nanolaminates. Ni/Al2O3 nanolaminates are expected to have better strength, creep and fatigue resistance, oxygen compatibility, and corrosion resistance than the traditional metal-matrix composites of this material, which has been used in a variety of aerospace applications. A chemical vapor deposition (CW) system has been developed and optimized for the deposition of nanolaminates. Nanolaminates with layer thicknesses between 10 and 300 nm have been successfully grown and characterization has included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) Nanolaminates have a large variety of potential applications. They can be tailored to have both very small and anisotropic thermal conductivities and are promising as thermal coatings for both rock$ engine components and aerobraking structures. They also have the potential to be used in aerospace applications where strength at high temperatures, corrosion resistance or resistance to hydrogen embrittlement is important. Both CVD and magnetron sputtering facilities are available for the deposition of nanolayered materials. Characterization equipment includes SEM, AFM, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and mechanical tensile pull

  17. Development of Advanced Verification and Validation Procedures and Tools for the Certification of Learning Systems in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen; Schumann, Johann; Gupta, Pramod; Richard, Michael; Guenther, Kurt; Soares, Fola

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable automatic flight control and vehicle recovery, autonomous flight, and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments. In order for adaptive control systems to be used in safety-critical aerospace applications, they must be proven to be highly safe and reliable. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification and validation must be developed to ensure that control system software failures will not occur. Of central importance in this regard is the need to establish reliable methods that guarantee convergent learning, rapid convergence (learning) rate, and algorithm stability. This paper presents the major problems of adaptive control systems that use learning to improve performance. The paper then presents the major procedures and tools presently developed or currently being developed to enable the verification, validation, and ultimate certification of these adaptive control systems. These technologies include the application of automated program analysis methods, techniques to improve the learning process, analytical methods to verify stability, methods to automatically synthesize code, simulation and test methods, and tools to provide on-line software assurance.

  18. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  19. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  20. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  1. Development of Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Computer power to process large amounts of data is no longer the prevailing issue; thus multiple and redundant sensors can be used to obtain more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. The successful integration and commercialization of micro- and nanotechnology for aerospace applications require that a close and interactive relationship be developed between the technology provider and the end user early in the project. Close coordination between the developers and the end users is critical since qualification for flight is time-consuming and expensive. The successful integration of micro- and nanotechnology into space vehicles requires a coordinated effort throughout the design, development, installation, and integration processes

  2. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  3. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Energy and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Ralph N.

    2007-01-01

    Robust and affordable integration technologies for advanced ceramics are required to improve the performance, reliability, efficiency, and durability of components, devices, and systems based on them in a wide variety of energy, aerospace, and environmental applications. Many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors including joint design, analysis, and optimization must be considered in integration of similar and dissimilar material systems.

  4. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  5. Mishap risk control for advanced aerospace/composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Although advanced aerospace materials and advanced composites provide outstanding performance, they also present several unique post-mishap environmental, safety, and health concerns. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on some of the unique hazards and concerns associated with these materials when damaged by fire, explosion, or high-energy impact. Additionally, recommended procedures and precautions are addressed as they pertain to all phases of a composite aircraft mishap response, including fire-fighting, investigation, recovery, clean-up, and guidelines are general in nature and not application-specific. The goal of this project is to provide factual and realistic information which can be used to develop consistent and effective procedures and policies to minimize the potential environmental, safety, and health impacts of a composite aircraft mishap response effort.

  6. Aerospace Applications of Integer and Combinatorial Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  7. Aerospace applications on integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in formulating and solving integer and combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem. for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on an orbiting platform and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  8. Aerospace applications of integer and combinatorial optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, S. L.; Kincaid, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Research supported by NASA Langley Research Center includes many applications of aerospace design optimization and is conducted by teams of applied mathematicians and aerospace engineers. This paper investigates the benefits from this combined expertise in solving combinatorial optimization problems. Applications range from the design of large space antennas to interior noise control. A typical problem, for example, seeks the optimal locations for vibration-damping devices on a large space structure and is expressed as a mixed/integer linear programming problem with more than 1500 design variables.

  9. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  10. Large stable aluminum optics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Schaefer, John P.

    2011-09-01

    Aluminum mirrors offer the advantages of lower cost, shorter fabrication time, more rugged mounting, and same material athermalization when compared to classical glass mirrors. In the past these advantages were offset by controversial dimensional stability and high surface scatter, limiting applications to IR systems. Raytheon developed processes to improve long term stability, and reduce surface scatter. Six 380 mm aperture aluminum mirrors made using these processes showed excellent stability, with figure changes of less than 0.01 wave RMS(1 wave = 633 nm) when cycled 10 times between -51 and +71 deg. C. The VQ process developed at ELCAN reduces surface scatter in bare aluminum mirrors to below 20 angstroms RMS, and has been used in thousands of production mirrors up to 300 mm aperture. These processes were employed in the fabrication of two lightweight single arch 600 mm aluminum mirrors. The two mirrors were produced in four months, with a mounted surface figure of 0.22 waves RMS and surface roughness of 20 angstroms. Mounted fundamental frequency was 218 Hz, and no figure distortion was observed at preload levels four times higher than design. Subsequently the mirrors performed well when subjected to severe environmental loadings in a Raytheon test system. This technology is being extended to ultra-lightweight sandwich mirrors, which are competitive with other material technologies used in advanced aerospace applications such as high-altitude UAV surveillance systems and satellite optics.

  11. Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

    2008-08-01

    Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process "hot gas assisted."

  12. Recent GRC Aerospace Technologies Applicable to Terrestrial Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, David; Lyons, Valerie J.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Tacina, Robert R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an overview of a wide range of recent aerospace technologies under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. The focused areas are space solar power, advanced power management and distribution systems, Stirling cycle conversion systems, fuel cells, advanced thin film photovoltaics and batteries, and combustion technologies. The aerospace-related objectives of the technologies are generation of space power, development of cost-effective and reliable, high performance power systems, cryogenic applications, energy storage, and reduction in gas-turbine emissions, with attendant clean jet engines. The terrestrial energy applications of the technologies include augmentation of bulk power in ground power distribution systems, and generation of residential, commercial and remote power, as well as promotion of pollution-free environment via reduction in combustion emissions.

  13. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  14. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

  15. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to determine the feasibility of utilizing controllable mechanical seals for aerospace applications. A potential application was selected as a demonstration case: the buffer gas seal in a LOX (liquid oxygen) turbopump. Currently, floating ring seals are used in this application. Their replacement with controllable mechanical seals would result in substantially reduced leakage rates. This would reduce the required amount of stored buffer gas, and therefore increase the vehicle payload. For such an application, a suitable controllable mechanical seal was designed and analyzed.

  16. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  17. Aerospace Sensor Systems: From Sensor Development To Vehicle Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of years of sensor system development and application for aerospace systems. The emphasis of this work is on developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion and crew vehicle systems as well as monitoring the safety of those systems. Specific areas of work include chemical species sensors, thin film thermocouples and strain gages, heat flux gages, fuel gages, SiC based electronic devices and sensors, space qualified electronics, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) as well as integrated and multifunctional sensor systems. Each sensor type has its own technical challenges related to integration and reliability in a given application. The general approach has been to develop base sensor technology using microfabrication techniques, integrate sensors with "smart" hardware and software, and demonstrate those systems in a range of aerospace applications. Descriptions of the sensor elements, their integration into sensors systems, and examples of sensor system applications will be discussed. Finally, suggestions related to the future of sensor technology will be given. It is concluded that smart micro/nano sensor technology can revolutionize aerospace applications, but significant challenges exist in maturing the technology and demonstrating its value in real-life applications.

  18. Sputtering and ion plating for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    Sputtering and ion plating technologies are reviewed in terms of their potential and present uses in the aerospace industry. Sputtering offers great universality and flexibility in depositing any material or in the synthesis of new ones. The sputter deposition process has two areas of interest: thin film and fabrication technology. Thin film sputtering technology is primarily used for aerospace mechanical components to reduce friction, wear, erosion, corrosion, high temperature oxidation, diffusion and fatigue, and also to sputter-construct temperature and strain sensors for aircraft engines. Sputter fabrication is used in intricate aircraft component manufacturing. Ion plating applications are discussed in terms of the high energy evaporant flux and the high throwing power. Excellent adherence and 3 dimensional coverage are the primary attributes of this technology.

  19. Aerospace Applications of Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Gumbert, Clyde; Li, Wu

    2003-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center develops new methods and investigates opportunities for applying optimization to aerospace vehicle design. This paper describes MDO Branch experiences with three applications of optimization under uncertainty: (1) improved impact dynamics for airframes, (2) transonic airfoil optimization for low drag, and (3) coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization of a 3-D wing. For each case, a brief overview of the problem and references to previous publications are provided. The three cases are aerospace examples of the challenges and opportunities presented by optimization under uncertainty. The present paper will illustrate a variety of needs for this technology, summarize promising methods, and uncover fruitful areas for new research.

  20. Aerospace Applications of Optimization under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon; Gumbert, Clyde; Li, Wu

    2006-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) Branch at NASA Langley Research Center develops new methods and investigates opportunities for applying optimization to aerospace vehicle design. This paper describes MDO Branch experiences with three applications of optimization under uncertainty: (1) improved impact dynamics for airframes, (2) transonic airfoil optimization for low drag, and (3) coupled aerodynamic/structures optimization of a 3-D wing. For each case, a brief overview of the problem and references to previous publications are provided. The three cases are aerospace examples of the challenges and opportunities presented by optimization under uncertainty. The present paper will illustrate a variety of needs for this technology, summarize promising methods, and uncover fruitful areas for new research.

  1. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  2. Aerospace applications of pulsed plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    The use of a thermal equilibrium plasma for combustion control dates back more than a hundred years to the advent of internal combustion (IC) engines and spark ignition systems. The same principles are still applied today to achieve high efficiency in various applications. Recently, the potential use of nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion control has garnered increasing interest due to the possibility of plasma-assisted approaches for ignition and flame stabilization. During the past decade, significant progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms of plasma chemistry interactions, energy redistribution and the nonequilibrium initiation of combustion. In addition, a wide variety of fuels have been examined using various types of discharge plasmas. Plasma application has been shown to provide additional combustion control, which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine (GTE) relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines (PDE) and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition (HCCI) engines, among others. The present paper describes the current understanding of the nonequilibrium excitation of combustible mixtures by electrical discharges and plasma-assisted ignition and combustion. Nonequilibrium plasma demonstrates an ability to control ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and appears to be an extremely promising technology for a wide range of applications, including aviation GTEs, piston engines, ramjets, scramjets and detonation initiation for pulsed detonation engines. To use nonequilibrium plasma for ignition and combustion in real energetic systems, one must understand the mechanisms of plasma-assisted ignition and combustion and be able to numerically simulate the discharge and combustion processes under various conditions.

  3. Advances in Computational Stability Analysis of Composite Aerospace Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, R.; Araujo, F. C. de

    2010-09-30

    European aircraft industry demands for reduced development and operating costs. Structural weight reduction by exploitation of structural reserves in composite aerospace structures contributes to this aim, however, it requires accurate and experimentally validated stability analysis of real structures under realistic loading conditions. This paper presents different advances from the area of computational stability analysis of composite aerospace structures which contribute to that field. For stringer stiffened panels main results of the finished EU project COCOMAT are given. It investigated the exploitation of reserves in primary fibre composite fuselage structures through an accurate and reliable simulation of postbuckling and collapse. For unstiffened cylindrical composite shells a proposal for a new design method is presented.

  4. Implications of Pb-free microelectronics assembly in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A. A.; Bonner, J. K.; Ogunseitan, D.; Saphores, J. D.; Schoenung, J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial microelectronics industry is rapidly moving to completely Pb-free assembly strategies within the next decade. This trend is being driven by existing and proposed legislation in Europe and in Japan. The microelectronics industry has become truly global, as indicated by major U .S. firms who already adopted Pb-free implementation programs. Among these forward-looking firms are AT&T, IBM, Motorola, HP and Intel to name a few.Following Moore's law, advances in microelectronics are happening very rapidly. In many cases, commercial industry is ahead of the aerospace sector in technology. Progress by commercial industry, along with cost, drives the use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts for military and space applications. We can thus anticipate that the aerospace industry will, at some point, be forced to use Pb-free components and subsystems as part of their standard business practices. In this paper we attempt to provide a snapshot of the commercial industry trends and how they may impact electronics in the aerospace environment. In addition, we also look at different strategies for implementation. Finally we present data collected on a recent NASA project to focus on finding suitable alternatives to eutectic tin-lead solders and solder pastes. The world is moving toward implementation of environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques. The aerospace industry will be forced to deal with issues related with Pb free assembly, either by availability or legislation. This paper provides some insight into some of the tradeoffs that should be considered.

  5. Methods for integrating optical fibers with advanced aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Stephen H.; May, Russell G.; Murphy, Kent A.; Claus, Richard O.; Tran, Tuan A.; Miller, Mark S.

    1993-07-01

    Optical fibers are attractive candidates for sensing applications in near-term smart materials and structures, due to their inherent immunity to electromagnetic interference and ground loops, their capability for distributed and multiplexed operation, and their high sensitivity and dynamic range. These same attributes also render optical fibers attractive for avionics busses for fly-by-light systems in advanced aircraft. The integration of such optical fibers with metal and composite aircraft and aerospace materials, however, remains a limiting factor in their successful use in such applications. This paper first details methods for the practical integration of optical fiber waveguides and cable assemblies onto and into materials and structures. Physical properties of the optical fiber and coatings which affect the survivability of the fiber are then considered. Mechanisms for the transfer of the strain from matrix to fiber for sensor and data bus fibers integrated with composite structural elements are evaluated for their influence on fiber survivability, in applications where strain or impact is imparted to the assembly.

  6. Materials Control for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials

  7. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  8. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  9. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Actively controlled mechanical seals have recently been developed for industrial use. This study investigates the feasibility of using such seals for aerospace applications. In a noncontacting mechanical seal, the film thickness depends on the geometry of the seal interface. The amount of coning, which is a measure of the radial convergence or divergence of the seal interface, has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the coning with a piezoelectric material. A mathematical model has been formulated to predict the performance of an actively controlled mechanical seal.

  10. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

  11. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Current research in optical processing is reviewed. Its role in future aerospace systems is determined. The development of optical devices and components demonstrates that system concepts can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  12. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

  13. High Performance Fortran for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of High Performance Fortran (HPF) for important classes of algorithms employed in aerospace applications. HPF is a set of Fortran extensions designed to provide users with a high-level interface for programming data parallel scientific applications, while delegating to the compiler/runtime system the task of generating explicitly parallel message-passing programs. We begin by providing a short overview of the HPF language. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the efficient use of HPF for applications involving multiple structured grids such as multiblock and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) codes as well as unstructured grid codes. We focus on the data structures and computational structures used in these codes and on the high-level strategies that can be expressed in HPF to optimally exploit the parallelism in these algorithms.

  14. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  15. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    A program designed to find second applications for space technology in the medical field is described. Illustrative examples and clinical test results are included for prosthetic urethral devices, ear oximeter for monitoring leukemia patients, devices for measuring low level CO effects on automobile drivers, radiation dosimeter probe for detecting radiation levels in cancerous areas, and electromyographic muscle trainer.

  16. Graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewo, K. M.; Bacon, J. F.; Dicus, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composite system is described. Although this composite is not yet a mature material, it possesses low density, attractive mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, and good environmental stability. Properties are reported for a borosilicate glass matrix unidirectionally reinforced with 60 volume percent HMS graphite fiber. The flexural strength and fatigue characteristics at room and elevated temperature, resistance to thermal cycling and continuous high temperature oxidation, and thermal expansion characteristics of the composite are reported. The properties of this new composite are compared to those of advanced resin and metal matrix composites showing that graphite fiber reinforced glass matrix composites are attractive for aerospace applications.

  17. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  18. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  19. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  20. Artificial Immune System Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) combine a priori knowledge with the adapting capabilities of biological immune system to provide a powerful alternative to currently available techniques for pattern recognition, modeling, design, and control. Immunology is the science of built-in defense mechanisms that are present in all living beings to protect against external attacks. A biological immune system can be thought of as a robust, adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. Biological immune systems use a finite number of discrete "building blocks" to achieve this adaptiveness. These building blocks can be thought of as pieces of a puzzle which must be put together in a specific way-to neutralize, remove, or destroy each unique disturbance the system encounters. In this paper, we outline AIS models that are immediately applicable to aerospace problems and identify application areas that need further investigation.

  1. Advancing Sensor Technology for Aerospace Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) participate in the development of technologies for propulsion testing and propulsion applications in air and space transportation. Future transportation systems and the test facilities needed to develop and sustain them are becoming increasingly complex. Sensor technology is a fundamental pillar that makes possible development of complex systems that must operate in automatic mode (closed loop systems), or even in assisted-autonomous mode (highly self-sufficient systems such as planetary exploration spacecraft). Hence, a great deal of effort is dedicated to develop new sensors and related technologies to be used in research facilities, test facilities, and in vehicles and equipment. This paper describes sensor technologies being developed and in use at SSC and GRC, including new technologies in integrated health management involving sensors, components, processes, and vehicles.

  2. Advanced Electromagnetic Methods for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Polycarpou, Anastasis; Birtcher, Craig R.; Georgakopoulos, Stavros; Han, Dong-Ho; Ballas, Gerasimos

    1999-01-01

    The imminent destructive threats of Lightning on helicopters and other airborne systems has always been a topic of great interest to this research grant. Previously, the lightning induced currents on the surface of the fuselage and its interior were predicted using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method as well as the NEC code. The limitations of both methods, as applied to lightning, were identified and extensively discussed in the last meeting. After a thorough investigation of the capabilities of the FDTD, it was decided to incorporate into the numerical method a subcell model to accurately represent current diffusion through conducting materials of high conductivity and finite thickness. Because of the complexity of the model, its validity will be first tested for a one-dimensional FDTD problem. Although results are not available yet, the theory and formulation of the subcell model are presented and discussed here to a certain degree. Besides lightning induced currents in the interior of an aircraft, penetration of electromagnetic fields through apertures (e.g., windows and cracks) could also be devastating for the navigation equipment, electronics, and communications systems in general. The main focus of this study is understanding and quantifying field penetration through apertures. The simulation is done using the FDTD method and the predictions are compared with measurements and moment method solutions obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center. Cavity-backed slot (CBS) antennas or slot antennas in general have many applications in aircraft-satellite type of communications. These can be flushmounted on the surface of the fuselage and, therefore, they retain the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft. In the past, input impedance and radiation patterns of CBS antennas were computed using a hybrid FEM/MoM code. The analysis is now extended to coupling between two identical slot antennas mounted on the same structure. The predictions are performed

  3. Physics in Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tat, Hong

    2006-12-01

    Aerospace, which includes both commercial and military applications, provides a wide variety of challenging opportunities in physics. I have worked primarily in the area of sensors with projects including airport baggage scanners and defect detection for the Space Shuttle. In my current role on the Army's Future Combat Systems, we use physical models to predict battlefield sensor performance. This talk will focus on the physical principles involved in modeling electro-optical sensor performance, including the fundamental concept of minimum resolvable contrast and minimum resolvable temperature curves. I will also touch upon my experiences at Boeing and give an overview of the range of physics-related projects at Boeing. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, TACOM 15 SEP 2006, case 06-188

  4. Aerospace Flywheel Technology Development for IPACS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLallin, Kerry L.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Fausz, Jerry; Bauer, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) are cooperating under a space act agreement to sponsor the research and development of aerospace flywheel technologies to address mutual future mission needs. Flywheel technology offers significantly enhanced capability or is an enabling technology. Generally these missions are for energy storage and/or integrated power and attitude control systems (IPACS) for mid-to-large satellites in low earth orbit. These missions require significant energy storage as well as a CMG or reaction wheel function for attitude control. A summary description of the NASA and AFRL flywheel technology development programs is provided, followed by specific descriptions of the development plans for integrated flywheel system tests for IPACS applications utilizing both fixed and actuated flywheel units. These flywheel system development tests will be conducted at facilities at AFRL and NASA Glenn Research Center and include participation by industry participants Honeywell and Lockheed Martin.

  5. Hybrid planar lightwave circuits for defense and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Bidnyk, Serge; Yang, Shiquan; Balakrishnan, Ashok; Pearson, Matt; O'Keefe, Sean

    2010-04-01

    We present innovations in Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLCs) that make them ideally suited for use in advanced defense and aerospace applications. We discuss PLCs that contain no micro-optic components, no moving parts, pose no spark or fire hazard, are extremely small and lightweight, and are capable of transporting and processing a range of optical signals with exceptionally high performance. This PLC platform is designed for on-chip integration of active components such as lasers and detectors, along with transimpedance amplifiers and other electronics. These active components are hybridly integrated with our silica-on-silicon PLCs using fully-automated robotics and image recognition technology. This PLC approach has been successfully applied to the design and fabrication of multi-channel transceivers for aerospace applications. The chips contain hybrid DFB lasers and high-efficiency detectors, each capable of running over 10 Gb/s, with mixed digital and analog traffic multiplexed to a single optical fiber. This highlyintegrated functionality is combined onto a silicon chip smaller than 4 x 10 mm, weighing < 5 grams. These chip-based transceivers have been measured to withstand harsh g-forces, including sinusoidal vibrations with amplitude of 20 g acceleration, followed by mechanical shock of 500 g acceleration. The components operate over a wide range of temperatures, with no device failures after extreme temperature cycling through a range of > 125 degC, and more than 2,000 hours operating at 95 degC ambient air temperature. We believe that these recent advancements in planar lightwave circuits are poised to revolutionize optical communications and interconnects in the aerospace and defense industries.

  6. Aerospace Engineering Systems and the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: 1) Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; 2) Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; 3) Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and 4) Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. The Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) activity at NASA Ames Research Center was initiated to study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities are reported.

  7. Optical Information Processing for Aerospace Applications 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stermer, R. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Current research in optical processing, and determination of its role in future aerospace systems was reviewed. It is shown that optical processing offers significant potential for aircraft and spacecraft control, pattern recognition, and robotics. It is demonstrated that the development of optical devices and components can be implemented in practical aerospace configurations.

  8. The pultrusion process for structures on advanced aerospace transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Macconochie, Ian O.; Johnson, Gary S.

    1986-01-01

    The pultrusion process, which has the potential for use in the manufacture of structures for aerospace hardware, is described. In this process, reinforcing fibers are pulled continuously through a resin system for wetting and subsequently through a heated die for polymerization. By using this process, fabrication of very long lengths of high strength, lightweight structures with consistently high quality for aerospace applications is possible. The more conventional processes involve hand lay-up, vacuum bagging, autoclaving or oven curing techniques such that lengths of structural elements produced are limited by the lengths of autoclaves or curing ovens. Several types of developmental structural elements are described in which fiberglass, aramid, graphite, and hybrid fiber systems have been used as reinforcements in an epoxy matrix and their flexural properties compared. Reinforcement fibers having tailor-made orientations which achieve tailor-made strength in the pultrusions are described. The potential aerospace applications for the pultruded products are described with advantages cited over conventional hand lay-up methods.

  9. Advanced composites: Design and application. Proceedings of the meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R.; Willard, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The design and application of advanced composites is discussed with emphasis on aerospace, aircraft, automotive, marine, and industrial applications. Failure modes in advanced composites are also discussed.

  10. Biomimetic optical sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Gorospe, George E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a fiber optic sensor based on the physiological aspects of the eye and vision-related neural layers of the common housefly (Musca domestica) that has been developed and built for aerospace applications. The intent of the research is to reproduce select features from the fly's vision system that are desirable in image processing, including high functionality in low-light and low-contrast environments, sensitivity to motion, compact size, lightweight, and low power and computation requirements. The fly uses a combination of overlapping photoreceptor responses that are well approximated by Gaussian distributions and neural superposition to detect image features, such as object motion, to a much higher degree than just the photoreceptor density would imply. The Gaussian overlap in the biomimetic sensor comes from the front-end optical design, and the neural superposition is accomplished by subsequently combining the signals using analog electronics. The fly eye sensor is being developed to perform real-time tracking of a target on a flexible aircraft wing experiencing bending and torsion loads during flight. We report on results of laboratory experiments using the fly eye sensor to sense a target moving across its field of view.

  11. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    Participants in the investigation of problem areas in oil exploration are listed and the data acquisition methods used to determine categories to be studied are described. Specific aerospace techniques applicable to the tasks identified are explained and their costs evaluated.

  12. Fiber optic interferometric sensors for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses two fiber optic sensor development programs in the Photonics Laboratory, NASA Ames Research Center, one in progress and the other being initiated. The ongoing program involves development of advanced acoustic sensors for wind tunnel applications. The new undertaking involves development of a novel sensor technique for studies of aerodynamic transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

  13. A review of multifunctional structure technology for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairajan, K. K.; Aglietti, G. S.; Mani, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    The emerging field of multifunctional structure (MFS) technologies enables the design of systems with reduced mass and volume, thereby improving their overall efficiency. It requires developments in different engineering disciplines and their integration into a single system without degrading their individual performances. MFS is particularly suitable for aerospace applications where mass and volume are critical to the cost of the mission. This article reviews the current state of the art of multifunctional structure technologies relevant to aerospace applications.

  14. Lightweight acoustic treatments for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naify, Christina Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Increase in the use of composites for aerospace applications has the benefit of decreased structural weight, but at the cost of decreased acoustic performance. Stiff, lightweight structures (such as composites) are traditionally not ideal for acoustic insulation applications because of high transmission loss at low frequencies. A need has thus arisen for effective sound insulation materials for aerospace and automotive applications with low weight addition. Current approaches, such as the addition of mass law dominated materials (foams) also perform poorly when scaled to small thickness and low density. In this dissertation, methods which reduce sound transmission without adding significant weight are investigated. The methods presented are intended to be integrated into currently used lightweight structures such as honeycomb sandwich panels and to cover a wide range of frequencies. Layering gasses of differing acoustic impedances on a panel substantially reduced the amount of sound energy transmitted through the panel with respect to the panel alone or an equivalent-thickness single species gas layer. The additional transmission loss derives from successive impedance mismatches at the interfaces between gas layers and the resulting inefficient energy transfer. Attachment of additional gas layers increased the transmission loss (TL) by as much as 17 dB at high (>1 kHz) frequencies. The location and ordering of the gasses with respect to the panel were important factors in determining the magnitude of the total TL. Theoretical analysis using a transfer matrix method was used to calculate the frequency dependence of sound transmission for the different configurations tested. The method accurately predicted the relative increases in TL observed with the addition of different gas layer configurations. To address low-frequency sound insulation, membrane-type locally resonant acoustic materials (LRAM) were fabricated, characterized, and analyzed to understand their

  15. Aerospace Applications Of High Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.

    1988-05-01

    The existence of superconductors with TcOOK (which implies device operating temper-atures the order of Top ≍45K) opens up a variety of potential applications within the aerospace/defense industry. This is partly due to the existence of well developed cooler technologies to reach this temperature regime and partly due to the present operation of some specialized components at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, LWIR focal planes may operate at 10K with some of the signal processing electronics at an intermediate temperature of 40K. Addition of high Tc superconducting components in the latter system may be "free" in the sense of additional system complexity required. The established techniques for cooling in the 20K to 50K temperature regime are either open cycle, expendable material (stored gas with Joule-Thomson expansion, liquid cryogen or solid cryogen) or mechanical refrigerators (Stirling cycle, Brayton cycle or closed cycle Joule-Thomson). The high Tc materials may also contribute to the development of coolers through magnetically levitated bearings or providing the field for a stage of magnetic refrigeration. The discovery of materials with Tc, 90K has generated a veritable shopping list of applications. The superconductor properties which are of interest for applications are (1) zero resistance, (2) Meissner effect, (3) phase coherence and (4) existence of an energy gap. The zero resistance property is significant in the development of high field magnets requiring neglible power to maintain the field. In addition to the publicized applications to rail guns and electromagnetic launcher, we can think of space born magnets for charged particle shielding or whistler mode propagation through a plasma sheath. Conductor losses dominate attenuation and dispersion in microstrip transmission lines. While the surface impedance of a superconductor is non vanishing, significant improvements in signal transmission may be obtained. The Meissner effect may be utilized

  16. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-12-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  17. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  18. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  19. ASRC Aerospace Corporation Selects Dynamically Reconfigurable Anadigm(Registered Trademark) FPAA For Advanced Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos T.

    2003-01-01

    Anadigm(registered trademark) today announced that ASRC Aerospace Corporation has designed Anadigm's dynamically reconfigurable Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA) technology into an advanced data acquisition system developed under contract for NASA. ASRC Aerospace designed in the Anadigm(registered trademark) FPAA to provide complex analog signal conditioning in its intelligent, self-calibrating, and self-healing advanced data acquisition system (ADAS). The ADAS has potential applications in industrial, manufacturing, and aerospace markets. This system offers highly reliable operation while reducing the need for user interaction. Anadigm(registered trademark)'s dynamically reconfigurable FPAAs can be reconfigured in-system by the designer or on the fly by a microprocessor. A single device can thus be programmed to implement multiple analog functions and/or to adapt on-the-fly to maintain precision operation despite system degradation and aging. In the case of the ASRC advanced data acquisition system, the FPAA helps ensure that the system will continue to operating at 100% functionality despite changes in the environment, component degradation, and/or component failures.

  20. High-Temperature Strain Sensing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony; Richards, Lance W.; Hudson, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are utilizing advanced materials that operate at temperatures that exceed abilities to measure structural performance. Robust strain sensors that operate accurately and reliably beyond 1800 F are needed but do not exist. These shortcomings hinder the ability to validate analysis and modeling techniques and hinders the ability to optimize structural designs. This presentation examines high-temperature strain sensing for aerospace applications and, more specifically, seeks to provide strain data for validating finite element models and thermal-structural analyses. Efforts have been made to develop sensor attachment techniques for relevant structural materials at the small test specimen level and to perform laboratory tests to characterize sensor and generate corrections to apply to indicated strains. Areas highlighted in this presentation include sensors, sensor attachment techniques, laboratory evaluation/characterization of strain measurement, and sensor use in large-scale structures.

  1. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100 C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changed suddenly.

  2. Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.

  3. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  4. Titanium/beryllium laminates - Fabrication, mechanical properties, and potential aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation to assess the fabricability, mechanical properties, and possible aerospace applications of adhesively-bonded titanium/beryllium Tiber laminates. The results of the investigation indicate that structural laminates can be made which have: a modulus of elasticity comparable to steel, fracture strength comparable to the yield strength of titanium, density comparable to aluminum, impact resistance comparable to titanium, and little or no notch sensitivity. These laminates can have stiffness and weight advantages over other materials, including advanced fiber composites, in some aerospace applications where buckling resistance, vibration frequencies, and weight considerations control the design.

  5. Actively Controlled Shaft Seals for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salant, Richard F.; Wolff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  6. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on aerospace applications of magnetic suspension technology are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: pointing and isolation systems; microgravity and vibration isolation; bearing applications; wind tunnel model suspension systems; large gap magnetic suspension systems; control systems; rotating machinery; science and application of superconductivity; and sensors.

  7. Ethernet for Aerospace Applications - Ethernet Heads for the Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of aerospace applications is to reduce the cost and complexity of avionic systems. Ethernet is a highly scalable, flexible, and popular protocol. The aerospace market is large, with a forecasted production of over 50,000 turbine-powered aircraft valued at $1.7 trillion between 2012 and 2022. Boeing estimates demand for commercial aircraft by 2033 to total over 36,000 with a value of over $5 trillion. In 2014 US airlines served over 750 million passengers and this is growing over 2% yearly. Electronic fly-by-wire is now used for all airliners and high performance aircraft. Although Ethernet has been widely used for four decades, its use in aerospace applications is just beginning to become common. Ethernet is the universal solution in commercial networks because of its high bandwidths, lower cost, openness, reliability, maintainability, flexibility, and interoperability. However, when Ethernet was designed applications with time-critical, safety relevant and deterministic requirements were not given much consideration. Many aerospace applications use a variety of communication architectures that add cost and complexity. Some of them are SpaceWire, MIL-STD-1553, Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE). Aerospace network designers desire to decrease the number of networks to reduce cost and effort while improving scalability, flexibility, openness, maintainability, and reliability. AFDX and TTE are being considered more for critical aerospace systems because they provide redundancy, failover protection, guaranteed timing, and frame priority and are based on Ethernet IEEE 802.3. This paper explores the use of AFDX and TTE for aerospace applications.

  8. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  9. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  10. Fiber optic smart structures for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    Fiber optic smart structures as applied to aerospace platforms are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on advantages of these structures which include weight saving for equivalent performance, immunity to electromagnetic interference, the ability to multiplex a number of fiber optic sensors along a single line, the inherent high bandwidth of fiber optic sensors and the data links supporting them, the ability to perform in extremely hostile environments at high temperatures, vibration, and shock loadings. It is concluded that fiber optic smart structures have a considerable potential to enhance the value of future aircraft and spacecraft through improved reliability, maintainability, and flight performance augmentation.

  11. A standardized diode cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2016-03-01

    The model DT-670-SD cryogenic diode temperature sensor, manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has been used on numerous aerospace space missions since its introduction nearly 15 years ago. While the sensing element is a diode, it is operated in a non-standard manner when used as a temperature sensor over the 1.4-500 K temperature range. For this reason, the NASA and MIL-type test and performance standards designed to ensure high reliability of diode aerospace parts don't properly define the inspection and test protocol for the DT-670-SD temperature sensor as written. This requires each aerospace application to develop unique test and inspection protocols for the project, typically for a small number of sensors, resulting in expensive sensors with a long lead time. With over 30 years of experience in supplying cryogenic temperature sensors for aerospace applications, Lake Shore has developed screening and qualification inspection and test protocols to provide "commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)" DT-670-SD temperature sensors that should meet the requirements of most high-reliability applications including aerospace. Parts from acceptance and qualified lots will be available at a base sensor level with the ability to specify an interchangeability tolerance, calibration range, mounting adaptor, and/or lead extension for final configuration. This work presents details of this acceptance and qualification inspection and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of the DT-670-SD cryogenic temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  12. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  13. A standardized Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, Samuel Scott

    2014-11-01

    The success of any aerospace mission depends upon the reliability of the discrete components comprising the instrument. To this end, many test standards have been developed to define test protocols and methods for the parts used in these missions. To date, no recognized MIL-type standard exists for cryogenic temperature sensors that are used from room temperature to 20 K or below. The aerospace applications utilizing these sensors require the procuring entity to develop a specification which the sensor manufacturer uses to screen and qualify a single build lot for flight use. The individual applications often require only a small number of sensors with the end result being a relatively high cost and long delivery time. Over the past two decades, Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. has worked with many aerospace companies to supply Cernox™ cryogenic temperature sensors for numerous missions. The experience gained from this work has led to the development of a manufacturing and test protocol resulting in 'off-the-shelf' cryogenic temperature sensors that should meet the requirements for many aerospace applications. Sensors will be available at the base part level with the ability to configure the delivered part with regard to lead wire material, package adapter, lead wire extensions, and calibration as appropriate or necessary for the application. This work presents details of this manufacturing, inspection, and test protocol as well as performance characteristics of Cernox™ temperature sensors when inspected and tested to this protocol.

  14. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  15. Some contributions to energetics by the Lewis Research Center and a review of their potential non-aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Gutstein, M. U.

    1972-01-01

    The primary technology areas are aerospace propulsion, power and materials. As examples in these technologies, the programs in the fields of cryogenics and liquid metals are reviewed and potential non-aerospace applications for the results of these programs are discussed. These include such possibilities as: hydrogen as a non-polluting industrial fuel; more efficient central power stations; and powerplants for advanced ground transportation.

  16. Aerospace Applications of Magnetic Suspension Technology, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Editor); Britcher, Colin P. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In order to examine the state of technology of all areas of magnetic suspension with potential aerospace applications, and to review related recent developments in sensors and control approaches, superconducting technology, and design/implementation practices, a workshop was held at NASA-Langley. Areas of concern are pointing and isolation systems, microgravity and vibration isolation, bearing applications, wind tunnel model suspension systems, large gap magnetic suspension systems, controls, rotating machinery, science and applications of superconductivity, and sensors. Papers presented are included.

  17. Titanium cholla : lightweight, high-strength structures for aerospace applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Taggart, David G.; Gill, David Dennis; Robbins, Joshua H.; Dewhurst, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Aerospace designers seek lightweight, high-strength structures to lower launch weight while creating structures that are capable of withstanding launch loadings. Most 'light-weighting' is done through an expensive, time-consuming, iterative method requiring experience and a repeated design/test/redesign sequence until an adequate solution is obtained. Little successful work has been done in the application of generalized 3D optimization due to the difficulty of analytical solutions, the large computational requirements of computerized solutions, and the inability to manufacture many optimized structures with conventional machining processes. The Titanium Cholla LDRD team set out to create generalized 3D optimization routines, a set of analytically optimized 3D structures for testing the solutions, and a method of manufacturing these complex optimized structures. The team developed two new computer optimization solutions: Advanced Topological Optimization (ATO) and FlexFEM, an optimization package utilizing the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) software for stress analysis. The team also developed several new analytically defined classes of optimized structures. Finally, the team developed a 3D capability for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) additive manufacturing process including process planning for 3D optimized structures. This report gives individual examples as well as one generalized example showing the optimized solutions and an optimized metal part.

  18. High efficiency pulse tube cryocoolers for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haizheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for aerospace applications in the author's group. Due to the special environment featuring the limited power supply and adverse rejection condition, high cooler efficiencies are emphasized and thus the approaches to realize them are stressed. The cold fingers involve three geometries, and designs and optimizations on key dimensional parameters of coaxial and in-line ones for given compressors are discussed and compared. The high performance moving-coil linear compressors are studied, and the optimizations on linear motor and flexure springs are briefly reviewed as examples of studies on the key compressor technologies. The mature single-stage coolers cover 25-200 K with the capacities varying from milliwatt levels to over 30 W, and the high efficiencies at typical temperatures such as 40 K, 60 K, 80 K and 95 K are presented. The two-stage arrangement is becoming another trend to achieve cooling below 25 K and also to simultaneously provide cooling powers at both stages. Some typical development programs are introduced and a brief overview of the data package is updated.

  19. Sensors Applications, Volume 6, Sensors in Aerospace Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Hans Peter; von Schoenermark, Maria; Young, Erick T.

    2005-08-01

    This volume gives a detailed overview of the sensor systems employed in aerospace technology, such as sensors for different spectral ranges from the UV to NIR, temperature measuring, radio- and microwave detection and satellite positioning systems. Furthermore, atmospheric measurements for meteorological and deep space exploration purposes as well as land surveys and geological applications are treated in detail. The book series Sensors Applications covers the application of up-to-date sensor principles in key areas, such as process monitoring, building control, household appliances, health care, automobile, aerospace, or environmental technology. Microelectronics have become indispensable in measurement and control technology, meeting the increasing demand for sophisticated sensor systems. The series covers the growing need for comprehensive information on the wide variety of available systems and their purposes, potentials, applications and limitations.

  20. Key Issues for Aerospace Applications of Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Levine, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) offer significant advantages for future aerospace applications including turbine engine and liquid rocket engine components, thermal protection systems, and "hot structures". Key characteristics which establish ceramic matrix composites as attractive and often enabling choices are strength retention at high temperatures and reduced weight relative to currently used metallics. However, due to the immaturity of this class of materials which is further compounded by the lack of experience with CMC's in the aerospace industry, there are significant challenges involved in the development and implementation of ceramic matrix composites into aerospace systems. Some of the more critical challenges are attachment and load transfer methodologies; manufacturing techniques, particularly scale up to large and thick section components; operational environment resistance; damage tolerance; durability; repair techniques; reproducibility; database availability; and the lack of validated design and analysis tools. The presentation will examine the technical issues confronting the application of ceramic matrix composites to aerospace systems and identify the key material systems having potential for substantial payoff relative to the primary requirements of light weight and reduced cost for future systems. Current programs and future research opportunities will be described in the presentation which will focus on materials and processes issues.

  1. Titanium/beryllium laminates: Fabrication, mechanical properties, and potential aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lark, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation indicated that structural laminates can be made which have: a modulus of elasticity comparable to steel, fracture strength of comparable to the yield strength of titanium, density comparable to aluminum, impact resistance comparable to titanium, and little or no notch sensitivity. These laminates can have stiffness and weight advantages over other materials including advanced fiber composites, in some aerospace applications where buckling resistance, vibration frequencies, and weight considerations control the design.

  2. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  3. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  4. PMR polyimide composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    Fiber reinforced PMR polyimides are finding increased acceptance as engineering materials for high performance structural applications. Prepreg materials based on this novel class of highly processable, high temperature resistant polyimides, are commercially available and the PMR concept was incorporated in several industrial applications. The status of PMR polyimides is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the chemistry, processing, and applications of the first generation PMR polyimides known as PMR-15.

  5. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinen, V. O.; Connolly, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Space application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials may occur before most terrestrial applications because of the passive cooling possibilities in space and because of the economic feasibility of introducing an expensive new technology which has a significant system benefit in space. NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of HTS materials. The applications being pursued include space communications, power and propulsion systems, and magnetic bearings. In addition, NASA Lewis is pursuing materials research to improve the performance of HTS materials for space applications.

  6. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.; Heinen, V. O.; Aron, P. R.; Lazar, J.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of all the applications that are part of the NASA program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of high temperature superconducting materials. The applications in three major areas are being pursued: sensors and cryogenic systems, space communications, and propulsion and power systems. This review places emphasis on space communications applications and the propulsion and power applications. It is concluded that the power and propulsion applications will eventually be limited by structural considerations rather than by the availability of suitable superconductors. A cursory examination of structural limitations implied by the virial theorem suggested that there is an upper limit to the size of high field magnetic systems that are feasible in space.

  7. Wear Characteristics of Oleophobic Coatings in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Saleem, Sajid

    This paper investigates the wear characteristics of oleophobic coatings when applied over Inconel 718, which has widespread applications in the aerospace industry. Coatings once applied were selectively exposed to controlled uni-and then multi-directional stand storm conditions. Size and speed of sand particles colliding with the work surface were carefully moderated to simulate sand storm conditions. Study of friction was performed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) coupled with standard optical microscopy. The analysis has been used to devise a coefficient of friction value and in turn suggest wear behavior of the coated surface including the time associated with exposure of the base substrate. The analysis after validation aims to suggest methods for safe usage of these coatings for aerospace applications.

  8. Wear Characteristics of Oleophobic Coatings in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Hamza; Basit, Kanza

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the wear characteristics of oleophobic coatings when applied over Inconel 718, which has widespread applications in the aerospace industry. Coatings once applied were selectively exposed to controlled uni-and then multi-directional stand storm conditions. Size and speed of sand particles colliding with the work surface were carefully moderated to simulate sand storm conditions. Study of friction was performed using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM) coupled with standard optical microscopy. The analysis has been used to devise a coefficient of friction value and in turn suggest wear behavior of the coated surface including the time associated with exposure of the base substrate. The analysis after validation aims to suggest methods for safe usage of these coatings for aerospace applications.

  9. Magnetic Gearing Versus Conventional Gearing in Actuators for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchhammer, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic geared actuators (MGA) are designed to perform highly reliable, robust and precise motion on satellite platforms or aerospace vehicles. The design allows MGA to be used for various tasks in space applications. In contrast to conventional geared drives, the contact and lubrication free force transmitting elements lead to a considerable lifetime and range extension of drive systems. This paper describes the fundamentals of magnetic wobbling gears (MWG) and the deduced inherent characteristics, and compares conventional and magnetic gearing.

  10. Biomechanics finds practical applications in aerospace research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanghe, X.

    1984-10-01

    Biomechanics is a branch of science which studies the mechanical properties of biological parts using the basic principles of mechanics and engineering. Formulas and quantitative calculations are used to analyze and understand physiological phenomena. Problems caused by weightlessness, coronary heart disease, blood circulation, use of medication, and application of biomechanics in aviation rescue are discussed.

  11. Electrically conducting polymers for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Gaier, James R.; Good, Brian S.; Sharp, G. R.; Meador, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Current research on electrically conducting polymers from 1974 to the present is reviewed focusing on the development of materials for aeronautic and space applications. Problems discussed include extended pi-systems, pyrolytic polymers, charge-transfer systems, conductive matrix resins for composite materials, and prospects for the use of conducting polymers in space photovoltaics.

  12. Electrospun Electroactive Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlowski, Kristin J.; St.Clair, Tyler L.; McReynolds, Amber C.; Park, Cheol; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Electrospun piezoelectric polymers are being developed for use as a component on lightweight wings for micro-air vehicles (MAV). The goal is to incorporate fibers with tailored properties to permit dynamic control and maneuverability during flight. In particular, electrospun fiber mats of two piezoelectric polymers were investigated to ascertain their potential for the MAV application. In the work reported here, the typical experimental set-up for electrospinning was modified to induce fiber orientation in the spun mats. The morphologies of the resulting fibers and fiber mats were evaluated for various experimental conditions, and a comparison between oriented and unoriented fiber mats was carried out.

  13. Gaseous fuel reactor systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.

    1977-01-01

    Research on the gaseous fuel nuclear rocket concept continues under the programs of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office for Aeronautics and Space Technology and now includes work related to power applications in space and on earth. In a cavity reactor test series, initial experiments confirmed the low critical mass determined from reactor physics calculations. Recent work with flowing UF6 fuel indicates stable operation at increased power levels. Preliminary design and experimental verification of test hardware for high-temperature experiments have been accomplished. Research on energy extraction from fissioning gases has resulted in lasers energized by fission fragments. Combined experimental results and studies indicate that gaseous-fuel reactor systems have significant potential for providing nuclear fission power in space and on earth.

  14. Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Their Impact on Future Aerospace Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and their impact on Future Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at the Peninsula Workforce Development Center, Hampton, Virginia, April 2 3, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to: 1) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to advanced learning technologies and learning environments, and 2) identify future directions for research that have high potential for aerospace workforce development. Eighteen half-hour overviewtype presentations were made at the workshop.

  15. Advanced Aerospace Tribological Systems - Current Status and Future Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The state of the art of space and aeronautics tribology, the current and future technology problems, and perceived needs for future missions are discussed. Mechanisms of liquid and solid lubrication, and liquid- and solid-lubrication factors are examined. Such current and future tribological problem areas as aerospace plane, space simulation, and accelerated testing are addressed. Consideration is also given to the following novel lubrication technologies: inerted lubrication systems, mist lubrication, vapor deposition, catalytically gas-generated carbon, dense thin films of solid lubricants, powder lubrication, and gas and magnetic bearings. Recommendations for ensuring the success of current and future space and aeronautics missions are presented.

  16. Aerospace applications of beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Rodney R.

    1994-07-01

    Beta alloys are beginning to play a significant role in both military and commercial aircraft. Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al forgings, for example, play major roles in the McDonnell Douglas C-17 and the Boeing 777. The attractive properties of Beta-C are increasing the use of titanium, rather than steel, in aircraft springs. Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn is subject to increasing usage primarily because of its strip producibility and formability. Beta-21S is gaining importance for high-temperature applications. New alloys such as β-CEZ, SP-700, and Timetal® LCB could become important because of advantageous costs, processing, and/or properties. In the past, the use of beta alloys has largely been driven by their superior properties and weight-savings potential. In the future, cost will become more important. As a result, a greater emphasis will be placed on lower cost alloys and/or taking advantage of the improved processing capabilities of these alloys to minimize final component costs.

  17. Micro/Nanoscale Chemicalsensor Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary; Xu, Jennifer; Evans, Laura; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Ward, Benjamin; Rowe, Scott; Makel, Darby; Liu, Chung Chiun; Dutta, Prabir; Berger, Gordon; VanderWal, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires development of a range of chemical-sensor technologies for applications including emissions monitoring as well as fuel-leak and fire detection. Improvements in sensing technology are necessary to increase safety, reduce emissions, and increase performance. The overall aim is to develop intelligent-vehicle systems that can autonomously monitor their state and respond to environmental changes. A range of chemical sensors is under development to meet these needs, based in part on microfabrication technology which produces sensors of minimal size, weight, and power consumption. We have fabricated a range of sensor platforms, integrated them with hardware to form complete sensor systems, and demonstrated their applicability.

  18. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are reported. A survey of more than 300 major medical device manufacturers has been initiated for the purpose of determining their interest and opinions in regard to participating in the NASA Technology Utilization Program. Design and construction has been commissioned of a permanent exhibit of NASA Biomedical Application Team accomplishments for the aerospace building of the North Carolina Museum of Life and Science at Durham, North Carolina. The team has also initiated an expansion of its activities into the Northeastern United States.

  19. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  20. Amplified piezoelectric actuators: from aerospace to underwater applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchilloux, Philippe; Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan

    2004-07-01

    Aerospace and underwater applications typically require actuators capable of large displacements, precise positioning, and fast response times. To meet these requirements, several classes of actuators based on low-voltage piezoelectric materials have been developed, and, in the case of the Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators (APA series), space qualified. The APA actuators offer large displacements (up to 1mm), large deformations (up to 3%), and large forces (up to 1kN) at low electrical power. These actuators can withstand large external forces and have successfully passed severe qualification tests such as centrifugal accelerations and vibration forces encountered during space launch. Aerospace applications of APAs include scientific instrumentation, such as telescopes and microscopes, microsatellite propulsion valves, and structural vibration control. Aeronautical applications include active flap control in aircraft wings and helicopter blades. Underwater applications focus on the silencing of ships, the piezodiagnostic (NDE) of structural defects in pipelines and hulls, and guidance systems of unmanned vehicles. This paper reviews the use of piezoelectric actuators, in particular APAs, in such applications. Qualification results, when available, are presented and discussed.

  1. Advanced EVA Capabilities: A Study for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concept Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study carried out as part of NASA s Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts Program examining the future technology needs of extravehicular activities (EVAs). The intent of this study is to produce a comprehensive report that identifies various design concepts for human-related advanced EVA systems necessary to achieve the goals of supporting future space exploration and development customers in free space and on planetary surfaces for space missions in the post-2020 timeframe. The design concepts studied and evaluated are not limited to anthropomorphic space suits, but include a wide range of human-enhancing EVA technologies as well as consideration of coordination and integration with advanced robotics. The goal of the study effort is to establish a baseline technology "road map" that identifies and describes an investment and technical development strategy, including recommendations that will lead to future enhanced synergistic human/robot EVA operations. The eventual use of this study effort is to focus evolving performance capabilities of various EVA system elements toward the goal of providing high performance human operational capabilities for a multitude of future space applications and destinations. The data collected for this study indicate a rich and diverse history of systems that have been developed to perform a variety of EVA tasks, indicating what is possible. However, the data gathered for this study also indicate a paucity of new concepts and technologies for advanced EVA missions - at least any that researchers are willing to discuss in this type of forum.

  2. The Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory: A BITBUS networking application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Oneill-Rood, Nora

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility developed a computerized aircraft battery servicing facility called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL). This system employs distributed processing with communications provided by a 2.4-megabit BITBUS local area network. Customized handlers provide real time status, remote command, and file transfer protocols between a central system running the iRMX-II operating system and ten slave stations running the iRMX-I operating system. The hardware configuration and software components required to implement this BITBUS application are required.

  3. Thermal insulation of materials with possible aerospace application.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, W C; Bothe, D J

    1986-10-01

    Thermal insulation values for several materials that may have aerospace applications have been determined by a single method. Heat transfer across a specimen on a constant temperature heat source was measured by heat flow disc, and temperature on each side of the specimen was measured by thermistor. The data demonstrate that, with various thermal insulating materials, the primary factor in thermal insulation is the entrapped air. Where convective air currents were sufficiently reduced, insulative values for different materials varied only slightly. Reflective and nonreflective materials sandwiched into the insulators made little difference in these experiments, but if employed differently, might increase insulative values significantly. PMID:3778398

  4. A Survey of Power Electronics Applications in Aerospace Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. David; Elbuluk, Malik E.

    2001-01-01

    The insertion of power electronics in aerospace technologies is becoming widespread. The application of semiconductor devices and electronic converters, as summarized in this paper, includes the International Space Station, satellite power system, and motor drives in 'more electric' technology applied to aircraft, starter/generators and reusable launch vehicles. Flywheels, servo systems embodying electromechanical actuation, and spacecraft on-board electric propulsion are discussed. Continued inroad by power electronics depends on resolving incompatibility of using variable frequency for 400 Hz-operated aircraft equipment. Dual-use electronic modules should reduce system development cost.

  5. A fiber optic temperature sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Tilstra, Shelle D.; Barnabo, Geoffrey A.; Thomas, David C.; Phillips, Richard W.

    1991-02-01

    A fiber-optic temperature sensor has been developed for aerospace applications on the basis of the time rate of decay (TRD) principle, with a view to an operational temperature range of -60 to 350 C. This TRD system has completed qualification testing and will then undergo flight tests. Attention is presently given to the design and performance of four low temperature sensors that are subelements of the larger sensor system; in order to convert analog signals into over/under temperature indications, simple comparators are implemented in software.

  6. Fiber optic connectors for harsh environment of aviation and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic connector technology is making significant advances for use in aviation and aerospace applications. This increasingly user friendly system has contributed to more novel extremely small multifiber connectors for fiber optic interconnection. With low insertion loss and excellent environmental endurance in harsh environments they meet the requirements of higher integration in optical backplanes. There are two main methods of transmitting an optical signal between two fibers: (1) Physical Contact (PC) and (2) Non-Physical Contact Connectors, Expanded Beam (EB). Expanded beam connectors have been shown to withstand extreme environments without the need for special servicing or cleaning equipment. Protecting the optical fibers behind the lenses ensures that no damage or degradation can occur to the fiber ends. Severe conditions, extreme surroundings, rough weather, rugged and unforgiving environment call for the use of high-performance fiber optic connectors. Appropriate connector selection is essential to assure adequate optical, environmental and mechanical performance. The choice of these items should be specific to the requirements of the system when considering environmental and mechanical limitations. Proper installation, maintenance and repair training is essential. This paper outlines the attributes, environments, requirements, technologies and solutions of fiber optic connectors for harsh environment for aviation and aerospace applications. Furthermore, it describes various state-of-the-art technologies, particularly for aviation industry. Discussion will also place emphasis on physical contact and expanded beam designs which are the fiber optic technologies being used in harsh environments of aviation and aerospace applications. Key

  7. Smart Sensor Systems for Aerospace Applications: From Sensor Development to Application Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Dungan, L. K.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Williams, J.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Chang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Smart Sensor Systems for aerospace applications is a multidisciplinary process consisting of sensor element development, element integration into Smart Sensor hardware, and testing of the resulting sensor systems in application environments. This paper provides a cross-section of these activities for multiple aerospace applications illustrating the technology challenges involved. The development and application testing topics discussed are: 1) The broadening of sensitivity and operational range of silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky gas sensor elements; 2) Integration of fire detection sensor technology into a "Lick and Stick" Smart Sensor hardware platform for Crew Exploration Vehicle applications; 3) Extended testing for zirconia based oxygen sensors in the basic "Lick and Stick" platform for environmental monitoring applications. It is concluded that that both core sensor platform technology and a basic hardware platform can enhance the viability of implementing smart sensor systems in aerospace applications.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, H. C.; Beadles, R. L.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Rouse, D. J.; Scearce, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Medical products utilizing and incorporating aerospace technology were studied. A bipolar donor-recipient model for medical transfer is presented. The model is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology which constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology.

  9. Perspectives on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the advanced learning technologies is given in this presentation along with a brief description of their impact on future aerospace workforce development. The presentation is divided into five parts (see Figure 1). In the first part, a brief historical account of the evolution of learning technologies is given. The second part describes the current learning activities. The third part describes some of the future aerospace systems, as examples of high-tech engineering systems, and lists their enabling technologies. The fourth part focuses on future aerospace research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on learning technologies and learning networks.

  10. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  11. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-01

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  12. Advances in powder metallurgy - 1991. Vol. 6 - Aerospace, refractory and advanced materials; Proceedings of the Powder Metallurgy Conference and Exhibition, Chicago, IL, June 9-12, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, L.F. III; Sansoucy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on aerospace, refractory, and advanced materials are presented. Individual topics addressed include: nonequilibrium processing of powder alloys for aerospace applications, chemical conditioning of rapidly solidified aluminum alloy particulate, fabrication of rapidly solidified high temperature aluminum alloys, fatigue and fracture of an advanced PM-aluminum alloy, thermal and mechanical properties of extruded 7075-Al P/M alloys, reactive sintering and reactive hot isostatic pressing of iron aluminides, P/M processing and applications of Fe3Al-based intermetallics, properties of plasma atomized NiAl powders, processing of continuous fiber reinforced NiAl matrix composite. Also discussed are: powder forging process on an alumimum alloy, P/M magnesium particle composites, P/M short-fiber-reinforced magnesium, mechanical properties of a TiAl6V4 alloy processed by powder metallurgy, porous core/Be Ti-6-4 development for aerospace structures, consolidation and plasticity of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors, development of a new W-Ni-Mn heavy alloy.

  13. A Knowledge-Based System Developer for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, George Z.; Wu, Kewei; Fensky, Connie S.; Lo, Ching F.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype Knowledge-Based System Developer (KBSD) has been developed for aerospace applications by utilizing artificial intelligence technology. The KBSD directly acquires knowledge from domain experts through a graphical interface then builds expert systems from that knowledge. This raises the state of the art of knowledge acquisition/expert system technology to a new level by lessening the need for skilled knowledge engineers. The feasibility, applicability , and efficiency of the proposed concept was established, making a continuation which would develop the prototype to a full-scale general-purpose knowledge-based system developer justifiable. The KBSD has great commercial potential. It will provide a marketable software shell which alleviates the need for knowledge engineers and increase productivity in the workplace. The KBSD will therefore make knowledge-based systems available to a large portion of industry.

  14. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  15. Studies in automatic speech recognition and its application in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael Robinson

    Human communication is characterized in terms of the spectral and temporal dimensions of speech waveforms. Electronic speech recognition strategies based on Dynamic Time Warping and Markov Model algorithms are described and typical digit recognition error rates are tabulated. The application of Direct Voice Input (DVI) as an interface between man and machine is explored within the context of civil and military aerospace programmes. Sources of physical and emotional stress affecting speech production within military high performance aircraft are identified. Experimental results are reported which quantify fundamental frequency and coarse temporal dimensions of male speech as a function of the vibration, linear acceleration and noise levels typical of aerospace environments; preliminary indications of acoustic phonetic variability reported by other researchers are summarized. Connected whole-word pattern recognition error rates are presented for digits spoken under controlled Gz sinusoidal whole-body vibration. Correlations are made between significant increases in recognition error rate and resonance of the abdomen-thorax and head subsystems of the body. The phenomenon of vibrato style speech produced under low frequency whole-body Gz vibration is also examined. Interactive DVI system architectures and avionic data bus integration concepts are outlined together with design procedures for the efficient development of pilot-vehicle command and control protocols.

  16. The FASST Aerospace Student Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Describes a three-day Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), at which students from 20 colleges and universities and six Soviet students discussed the application of aerospace technology to the problems of society. (MLH)

  17. Novel atmospheric extinction measurement techniques for aerospace laser system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for manned and unmanned aerospace vehicle applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 kHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  18. Electrically small, mixed modal antenna (MMA) array for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Hwoon; Grimes, Dale M.; Crimes, Craig A.

    Based on the modal antenna analysis due to Grimes (1986) near-field interaction between elements of an antenna ensemble wave used to produce resonant, directed radiation from a small antenna. By previous theory, mixed TE and TM modes are found to be orthogonal and, therefore, a small resonant and/or directional antenna is not possible. The authors recount the analysis showing that time-average power is orthogonal and reactive power is not. Nonorthogonal reactive power suggests that a small, resonant, directive antenna may be possible. Such an antenna is potentially useful for aerospace applications. This paper reports experimental progress to date. In agreement with the theory, it was found that the resonant frequency depends on the relative values of driving currents; the resonant frequency of the magnetic dipole decreased more than 30 percent when a 50-ohm resistive pad loaded the electric dipole.

  19. Evaluation of Li/CF(x)Cells For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Panasonic commercialized LiICF(x) cell technology in the 1970's. This technology was a promising primary battery for Aerospace applications such as: Exploration missions, Launch vehicles, Tools and more. This technology offers Wide operation temperature range, Low self-discharge and High specific energy CF(x) cathode material has a theoretical specific energy of 2260 Wh/Kg. Specific energy however achieved as of now is only 10% of theoretical value unless used at a very low rate of C/1000. Research both at Government Labs and Industries is currently in progress to improve the performance. This viewgraph presentation describes the cells, and reviews the results of some of the research using tables and charts.

  20. Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

  1. Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Vanommering, G.; Puester, N. H.; Puglisi, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery which effectively addresses all key requirements for a spacecraft power system, including long-term reliability and low mass, is discussed. The design of this battery is discussed in the context of system requirements and nickel-hydrogen battery technology in general. To achieve the ultimate goal of an aerospace application of a bipolar Ni-H2 battery several objectives must be met in the design and development of the system. These objectives include: maximization of reliability and life; high specific energy and energy density; reasonable cost of manufacture, test, and integration; and ease in scaling for growth in power requirements. These basic objectives translate into a number of specific design requirements, which are discussed.

  2. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  3. Development of lightweight structural health monitoring systems for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Matthew

    This thesis investigates the development of structural health monitoring systems (SHM) for aerospace applications. The work focuses on each aspect of a SHM system covering novel transducer technologies and damage detection techniques to detect and locate damage in metallic and composite structures. Secondly the potential of energy harvesting and power arrangement methodologies to provide a stable power source is assessed. Finally culminating in the realisation of smart SHM structures. 1. Transducer Technology A thorough experimental study of low profile, low weight novel transducers not normally used for acoustic emission (AE) and acousto-ultrasonics (AU) damage detection was conducted. This included assessment of their performance when exposed to aircraft environments and feasibility of embedding these transducers in composites specimens in order to realise smart structures. 2. Damage Detection An extensive experimental programme into damage detection utilising AE and AU were conducted in both composites and metallic structures. These techniques were used to assess different damage mechanism within these materials. The same transducers were used for novel AE location techniques coupled with AU similarity assessment to successfully detect and locate damage in a variety of structures. 3. Energy Harvesting and Power Management Experimental investigations and numerical simulations were undertaken to assess the power generation levels of piezoelectric and thermoelectric generators for typical vibration and temperature differentials which exist in the aerospace environment. Furthermore a power management system was assessed to demonstrate the ability of the system to take the varying nature of the input power and condition it to a stable power source for a system. 4. Smart Structures The research conducted is brought together into a smart carbon fibre wing showcasing the novel embedded transducers for AE and AU damage detection and location, as well as vibration energy

  4. Leak Detection and Location Technology Assessment for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Coffey, Neil C.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2008-01-01

    Micro Meteoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) and other impacts can cause leaks in the International Space Station and other aerospace vehicles. The early detection and location of leaks is paramount to astronaut safety. Therefore this document surveys the state of the art in leak detection and location technology for aerospace vehicles.

  5. Advanced in aerospace lubricant and wear metal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, C.S.; Centers, P.W.

    1995-09-01

    Wear metal analysis continues to play an effective diagnostic role for condition monitoring of gas turbine engines. Since the early 1960s the United States` military services have been using spectrometric oil analysis program (SOAP) to monitor the condition of aircraft engines. The SOAP has proven to be effective in increasing reliability, fleet readiness and avoiding losses of lives and machinery. Even though historical data have demonstrated the success of the SOAP in terms of detecting imminent engine failure verified by maintenance personnel, the SOAP is not a stand-alone technique and is limited in its detection of large metallic wear debris. In response, improved laboratory, portable, in-line and on-line diagnostic techniques to perfect SOAP and oil condition monitoring have been sought. The status of research and development as well as the direction of future developmental activities in oil analysis due to technological opportunities, advanced in engine development and changes in military mission are reviewed and discussed. 54 refs.

  6. Metals Technology for Aerospace Applications in 2020: Development of High Temperature Aluminum Alloys For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The role of trace additions on the nucleation and stability of the primary strengthening phase, omega, is of paramount importance for the enhancement of mechanical properties for moderate temperature application of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag) alloys. In order to better understand the competition for solute, which governs the microstructural evolution of these alloys, a series of Al-Cu-Mg-Si quaternary alloys were prepared to investigate the role of trace Si additions on the nucleation of the omega phase. Si additions were found to quell omega nucleation in conjunction with the enhanced matrix precipitation of competing phases. These initial results indicate that it is necessary to overcome a critical Mg/Si ratio for omega precipitation, rather than a particular Si content.

  7. Electron Beam Irradiated Intercalated CNT Yarns For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Gaier, James R.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Lopez Calero, Johnny E.; Ramirez, Christopher; Meador, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled CNT yarns have been experimentally and commercially created to yield lightweight, high conductivity fibers with good tensile properties for application as electrical wiring and multifunctional tendons. Multifunctional tendons are needed as the cable structures in tensegrity robots for use in planetary exploration. These lightweight robust tendons can provide mechanical strength for movement of the robot in addition to power distribution and data transmission. In aerospace vehicles, such as Orion, electrical wiring and harnessing mass can approach half of the avionics mass. Use of CNT yarns as electrical power and data cables could reduce mass of the wiring by thirty to seventy percent. These fibers have been intercalated with mixed halogens to increase their specific electrical conductivity to that near copper. This conductivity, combined with the superior strength and fatigue resistance makes it an attractive alternative to copper for wiring and multifunctional tendon applications. Electron beam irradiation has been shown to increase mechanical strength in pristine CNT fibers through increased cross-linking. Both pristine and intercalated CNT yarns have been irradiated using a 5-megavolt electron beam for various durations and the conductivities and tensile properties will be discussed. Structural information obtained using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy will correlate microstructural details with bulk properties.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of NASA technology and its application to medicine is discussed. The introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products and incorporation of aerospace technology is outlined. A biopolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the methodology. The methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the ocular screening device, a system for quick detection of vision problems in preschool children, and Porta-Fib III, a hospital monitoring unit. Two institutional transfers were completed: implant materials testing, the application of NASA fracture control technology to improve reliability of metallic prostheses, and incinerator monitoring, a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor combustion products of municipal incinerators. Mobility aids for the blind and ultrasound diagnosis of burn depth are also studied.

  9. Aerospace applications of sodium batteries using novel cathode materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary fundamental investigations aimed at evaluating sodium metal chloride systems for future aerospace applications are described. Since the sodium metal chloride systems are relatively new, the approach has been to characterize their fundamental properties in order to understand their limitations. To this end, a series of fundamental electrochemical investigations have been carried out, the results of which are reported here. The metal chloride cathodes show high exchange current densities which corroborate their good reversibility in a battery application. The reduction mechanisms appear to be complex and involve multielectron transfer steps and intermediates. Such intermediates in the reaction mechanism have already been identified in the case of FeCl2. Similar mechanisms may be operative in the case of NiCl2. CuCl2, however, exhibits a second relaxation loop in the impedance plot at low frequencies and also a sloping discharge curve, unlike FeCl2 and NiCl2, which may indicate the existence of monovalent copper in the reduction mechanism.

  10. High efficiency digital cooler electronics for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Luong, T. T.; Shaw, L. S.; Murphy, J. B.; Moody, E. A.; Lisiecki, A. L.; Ellis, M. J.

    2014-06-01

    Closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, or cryocoolers, are an enabling technology for a wide range of aerospace applications, mostly related to infrared (IR) sensors. While the industry focus has tended to be on the mechanical cryocooler thermo mechanical unit (TMU) alone, implementation on a platform necessarily consists of the combination of the TMU and a mating set of command and control electronics. For some applications the cryocooler electronics (CCE) are technologically simple and low cost relative to the TMU, but this is not always the case. The relative cost and complexity of the CCE for a space-borne application can easily exceed that of the TMU, primarily due to the technical constraints and cost impacts introduced by the typical space radiation hardness and reliability requirements. High end tactical IR sensor applications also challenge the state of the art in cryocooler electronics, such as those for which temperature setpoint and frequency must be adjustable, or those where an informative telemetry set must be supported, etc. Generally speaking for both space and tactical applications, it is often the CCE that limits the rated lifetime and reliability of the cryocooler system. A family of high end digital cryocooler electronics has been developed to address these needs. These electronics are readily scalable from 10W to 500W output capacity; experimental performance data for nominally 25W and 100W variants are presented. The combination of a FPGA-based controller and dual H-bridge motor drive architectures yields high efficiency (>92% typical) and precision temperature control (+/- 30 mK typical) for a wide range of Stirling-class mechanical cryocooler types and vendors. This paper focuses on recent testing with the AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) SX030 and AIM SF100 cryocoolers.

  11. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  12. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; Owen, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  13. Study on application of aerospace technology to improve surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Youngblood, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The areas where aerospace technology could be used to improve the reliability and performance of metallic, orthopedic implants was assessed. Specifically, comparisons were made of material controls, design approaches, analytical methods and inspection approaches being used in the implant industry with hardware for the aerospace industries. Several areas for possible improvement were noted such as increased use of finite element stress analysis and fracture control programs on devices where the needs exist for maximum reliability and high structural performance.

  14. An overview of SAFENET and its implications for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, George C.; Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    The survivable, adaptable fiber optic embeddable network (SAFENET) is a draft standard for local area networking (LAN) developed by the Navy which, when adopted, will become a military standard. The standard is being developed for procurement specifications of computer resources to be used on ships and aircraft and has some of the real-time concerns that network standards for space vehicles have. Architecture and survivability are considered. It is noted that the token-ring LAN must implement the IEEE 802.5 recommended practice for dual ring reconfiguration, which is currently being reviewed for inclusion into the IEEE standard. A trunk coupling unit is used at each station to isolate a station from the ring in case of failure. Up to five stations can be bypassed in this fashion. Communication architecture has an OSI profile but differs from the standard concept of the seven layers by allowing alternate suits and breaking the layers into three groupings of services to allow for physical interfacing. It also provides several paths, even if only one profile is used. Management and synchronization protocols are discussed and security issues are addressed. Implications for aerospace applications are considered and it is projected that interoperability with the Navy and other U.S. Government systems may require SAFENET specifications for NASA systems.

  15. Finite element analysis of composites materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhaniza, M.; Ariffin, M. K. A.; Ali, Aidy; Mustapha, F.; Noraini, A. W.

    2010-05-01

    Composites materials are intended to be used more extensively as an alternative of aluminum structure in aircraft and aerospace applications. This is due to their attractive properties as high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness-to-weight ratio. Besides that it clarifies the growing interest for composites materials due to advantages of lightweight, high strength, high stiffness, superior fatigue life, tremendous corrosion resistance and low cost manufacturing. In this study, a finite element analysis (FEA) of fiberglass unidirectional E-type was analyzed in the framework of ABAQUS finite element commercial software. The analysis was done to quantify the mechanical properties and response of unidirectional E-glass in term of tensile, compression and thermal responses. From the analysis, the maximum and minimum values of stress and strain for E-glass 21xK43 Gevetex and Silenka E-glass 1200tex were obtained and stress-strain curve is presented. The ultimate load of failure, elastic behavior, tensile strength and other properties for each laminated plates under tensile and thermal-stress are determined from stress-strain curves. The simulation will run twice for each material where the first simulation based on orientation angles of 45° for ply-1, -45° for ply-2 and 90° for ply-3 while the second simulation, the orientation angles is 0° for all plies. The simulation is successfully conducted and verified by experimental data.

  16. Puncture Self-Healing Polymers for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Penner, Ronald K.; Bogert, Phil B.; Yost, W. T.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2011-01-01

    Space exploration launch costs on the order of $10K per pound provide ample incentive to seek innovative, cost-effective ways to reduce structural mass without sacrificing safety and reliability. Damage-tolerant structural systems can provide a route to avoiding weight penalty while enhancing vehicle safety and reliability. Self-healing polymers capable of spontaneous puncture repair show great promise to mitigate potentially catastrophic damage from events such as micrometeoroid penetration. Effective self-repair requires these materials to heal instantaneously following projectile penetration while retaining structural integrity. Poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMMA), also known as Surlyn is an ionomer-based copolymer that undergoes puncture reversal (self-healing) following high impact puncture at high velocities. However EMMA is not a structural engineering polymer, and will not meet the demands of aerospace applications requiring self-healing engineering materials. Current efforts to identify candidate self-healing polymer materials for structural engineering systems are reported. Rheology, high speed thermography, and high speed video for self-healing semi-crystalline and amorphous polymers will be reported.

  17. Current Trends on the Applicability of Ground Aerospace Materials Test Data to Space System Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the application of testing aerospace materials to the environment of space for flammability. Test environments include use of drop towers, and the parabolic flight to simulate the low gravity environment of space.

  18. SEPEC conference proceedings: Hypermedia and Information Reconstruction. Aerospace applications and research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference on hypermedia and information reconstruction are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: real-world hypermedia projects, aerospace applications, and future directions in hypermedia research and development.

  19. IPAD applications to the design, analysis, and/or machining of aerospace structures. [Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, C. L.; Dovi, A. R.; Kurtze, W. L.; Storaasli, O. O.

    1981-01-01

    A computer software system for the processing and integration of engineering data and programs, called IPAD (Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design), is described. The ability of the system to relieve the engineer of the mundane task of input data preparation is demonstrated by the application of a prototype system to the design, analysis, and/or machining of three simple structures. Future work to further enhance the system's automated data handling and ability to handle larger and more varied design problems are also presented.

  20. Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Hall, G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  1. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  2. Electronic Components for use in Extreme Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power management and control systems designed for use in planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electronics that are capable of efficient and reliable operation under extreme temperature conditions. Space-based infra-red satellites, all-electric ships, jet engines, electromagnetic launchers, magnetic levitation transport systems, and power facilities are also typical examples where the electronics are expected to be exposed to harsh temperatures and to operate under severe thermal swings. Most commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are not designed to function under such extreme conditions and, therefore, new parts must be developed or the conventional devices need to be modified. For example, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. At the other end, built-in radiators and coolers render the operation of electronics possible under hot conditions. These thermal measures lead to design complexity, affect development costs, and increase size and weight. Electronics capable of operation at extreme temperatures, thus, will not only tolerate the hostile operational environment, but also make the overall system efficient, more reliable, and less expensive. The Extreme Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electronics suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices, including COTS parts, for potential use under extreme temperatures. These components include semiconductor switching devices, passive devices, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators. An overview of the program will be presented along with some experimental findings.

  3. NASA technology applications team. Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the activities of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1990 through 30 September 1991. Topics researched include automated data acquisition and analysis of highway pavement cracking, thermal insulation for refrigerators, the containment of paint removed from steel structures, improved technologies for Kuwait oil well control, sprayed zinc coatings for corrosion control of reinforcing steel in bridges, and the monitoring and life support of medically fragile children in the educational setting.

  4. NASA technology applications team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two critical aspects of the Applications Engineering Program were especially successful: commercializing products of Application Projects; and leveraging NASA funds for projects by developing cofunding from industry and other agencies. Results are presented in the following areas: the excimer laser was commercialized for clearing plaque in the arteries of patients with coronary artery disease; the ultrasound burn depth analysis technology is to be licensed and commercialized; a phased commercialization plan was submitted to NASA for the intracranial pressure monitor; the Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System (FARMS) is making progress in the development of sensors and a customized end effector for a roboticized greenhouse operation; a dual robot are controller was improved; a multisensor urodynamic pressure catherer was successful in clinical tests; commercial applications were examined for diamond like carbon coatings; further work was done on the multichannel flow cytometer; progress on the liquid airpack for fire fighters; a wind energy conversion device was tested in a low speed wind tunnel; and the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System was reviewed.

  5. NASA technology applications team: Applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. The work reported herein was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Contract No. NASW-4367. Highlights of the RTI Applications Team activities over the past year are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. Appendix B includes Technology Opportunity Announcements and Spinoff! Sheets prepared by the Team while Appendix C contains a series of technology transfer articles prepared by the Team.

  6. Multi-application controls: Robust nonlinear multivariable aerospace controls applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enns, Dale F.; Bugajski, Daniel J.; Carter, John; Antoniewicz, Bob

    1994-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the general methodology used to apply Honywell's Multi-Application Control (MACH) and the specific application to the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) including piloted simulation handling qualities evaluation. The general steps include insertion of modeling data for geometry and mass properties, aerodynamics, propulsion data and assumptions, requirements and specifications, e.g. definition of control variables, handling qualities, stability margins and statements for bandwidth, control power, priorities, position and rate limits. The specific steps include choice of independent variables for least squares fits to aerodynamic and propulsion data, modifications to the management of the controls with regard to integrator windup and actuation limiting and priorities, e.g. pitch priority over roll, and command limiting to prevent departures and/or undesirable inertial coupling or inability to recover to a stable trim condition. The HARV control problem is characterized by significant nonlinearities and multivariable interactions in the low speed, high angle-of-attack, high angular rate flight regime. Systematic approaches to the control of vehicle motions modeled with coupled nonlinear equations of motion have been developed. This paper will discuss the dynamic inversion approach which explicity accounts for nonlinearities in the control design. Multiple control effectors (including aerodynamic control surfaces and thrust vectoring control) and sensors are used to control the motions of the vehicles in several degrees-of-freedom. Several maneuvers will be used to illustrate performance of MACH in the high angle-of-attack flight regime. Analytical methods for assessing the robust performance of the multivariable control system in the presence of math modeling uncertainty, disturbances, and commands have reached a high level of maturity. The structured singular value (mu) frequency response methodology is presented

  7. Advantage of resonant power conversion in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I. G.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic, sinusoidal aerospace power distribution system is shown to have many advantages over other candidate power systems. These advantages include light weight, ease of fault clearing, versatility in handling many loads including motors, and the capability of production within the limits of present technology. References are cited that demonstrate the state of resonant converter technology and support these conclusions.

  8. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  9. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  10. Applications of aerospace technology in the public interest: Pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.; Johnson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study of selected NASA contributions to the improvement of pollution measurement examines the pervasiveness and complexity of the economic, political, and social issues in the environmental field; provides a perspective on the relationship between the conduct of aerospace R and D and specific improvements in on site air pollution monitoring equipment now in use; describes the basic relationship between the development of satellite-based monitoring systems and their influence on long-term progress in improving environmental quality; and comments on how both instrumentation and satellite remote sensing are contributing to an improved environment. Examples of specific gains that have been made in applying aerospace R and D to environmental problem-solving are included.

  11. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  12. Measurement techniques and applications of charge transfer to aerospace research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique of developing high-velocity low-intensity neutral gas beams for use in aerospace research problems is described. This technique involves ionization of gaseous species with a mass spectrometer and focusing the resulting primary ion beam into a collision chamber containing a static gas at a known pressure and temperature. Equations are given to show how charge-transfer cross sections are obtained from a total-current measurement technique. Important parameters are defined for the charge-transfer process.

  13. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael; Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Reported nanoscale mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suggest that their use may enable the fabrication of significantly lighter structures for use in space applications. To be useful in the fabrication of large structures, however, their attractive nanoscale properties must be retained as they are scaled up to bulk materials and converted into practically useful forms. Advances in CNT production have significantly increased the quantities available for use in manufacturing processes, but challenges remain with the retention of nanoscale properties in larger assemblies of CNTs. This work summarizes recent progress in producing carbon nanotube composites with tensile properties approaching those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. These advances were achieved in nanocomposites with CNT content of 70% by weight. The processing methods explored to yield these CNT composite properties will be discussed, as will the characterization and test methods that were developed to provide insight into the factors that contribute to the enhanced tensile properties. Technology maturation was guided by parallel advancements in computational modeling tools that aided in the interpretation of experimental data.

  14. NAS Applications and Advanced Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Biswas, Rupak; VanDerWijngaart, Rob; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the applications most commonly run on the supercomputers at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation (NAS) facility. It analyzes the extent to which such applications are fundamentally oriented to vector computers, and whether or not they can be efficiently implemented on hierarchical memory machines, such as systems with cache memories and highly parallel, distributed memory systems.

  15. Modular photonic power and VCSEL-based data links for aerospace and military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    If photonic data and power transfer links are constructed in a modular fashion, they can be easily adapted into various forms to meet a wide range of needs for aerospace and military applications. The performance specifications associated with these needs can vary widely according to application. Alignment tolerance needs also tend to vary greatly, as can requirements on power consumption. An example of a modular photonic data and/or power transfer link that can be applied to military and aerospace needs is presented. In this approach, a link is designed for low (<10 kb/s) data rates, ultra-low electrical power consumption, large alignment tolerance, and power transfer to provide complete electrical shielding in a remote module that might be found in a military or aerospace application.

  16. Braided Composites for Aerospace Applications. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, fabrication, and testing of structural composites formed by braiding machines. Topics include computer aided design and associated computer aided manufacture of braided tubular and flat forms. Applications include aircraft and spacecraft structures, where high shear strength and stiffness are required.

  17. Prospect of HIP application in aerospace and power plant industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, B.I.; Genrikh, G.S.; Oleg, F.Ch.

    1996-12-31

    Technology used in production of PM superalloy disks and shafts for military and civil aircraft engines was proposed in published works of Academicians A.F. Bewlov, A.I. Tselicov, Professor N.F. Anoshkin, their disciples and associates about 20 years ago. This technology determined progress in this field for all preceding years and played a remarkable role in both aviation material science and aerospace. This technology contributed to successful development of gas turbine engines for such dazzling specimens of Soviet aircraft and space vehicles as MiG-29, MiG-31, IL-096, TU-204, IL-114, Energia-Buran rocket-space shuttle system, etc.

  18. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  19. Production Strategies for Production-Quality Parts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Best, J. E.; Liu, Z.; Eckel, A. J.; Reed, B. D.; Fox, D. S.; Bhatt, R.; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A combination of rapid prototyping processes (3D Systems' stereolithography and Sanders Prototyping's ModelMaker) are combined with gelcasting to produce high quality silicon nitride components that were performance tested under simulated use conditions. Two types of aerospace components were produced, a low-force rocket thruster and a simulated airfoil section. The rocket was tested in a test stand using varying mixtures of H2 and O2, whereas the simulated airfoil was tested by subjecting it to a 0.3 Mach jet-fuel burner flame. Both parts performed successfully, demonstrating the usefulness of the rapid prototyping in efforts to effect materials substitution. In addition, the simulated airfoil was used to explore the possibility of applying thermal/environmental barrier coatings and providing for internal cooling of ceramic parts. It is concluded that this strategy for processing offers the ceramic engineer all the flexibility normally associated with investment casting of superalloys.

  20. Standardization of shape memory alloy test methods toward certification of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, D. J.; Mabe, J. H.; Benafan, O.; Coda, A.; Conduit, B.; Padan, R.; Van Doren, B.

    2015-08-01

    The response of shape memory alloy (SMA) components employed as actuators has enabled a number of adaptable aero-structural solutions. However, there are currently no industry or government-accepted standardized test methods for SMA materials when used as actuators and their transition to commercialization and production has been hindered. This brief fast track communication introduces to the community a recently initiated collaborative and pre-competitive SMA specification and standardization effort that is expected to deliver the first ever regulatory agency-accepted material specification and test standards for SMA as employed as actuators for commercial and military aviation applications. In the first phase of this effort, described herein, the team is working to review past efforts and deliver a set of agreed-upon properties to be included in future material certification specifications as well as the associated experiments needed to obtain them in a consistent manner. Essential for the success of this project is the participation and input from a number of organizations and individuals, including engineers and designers working in materials and processing development, application design, SMA component fabrication, and testing at the material, component, and system level. Going forward, strong consensus among this diverse body of participants and the SMA research community at large is needed to advance standardization concepts for universal adoption by the greater aerospace community and especially regulatory bodies. It is expected that the development and release of public standards will be done in collaboration with an established standards development organization.

  1. Final Report for the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) from Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volmer, Paul; Sullivan, Pam (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys ACS was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia just before dawn on March 1, 2002. After successfully docking with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), several components were replaced. One of the components was the Advanced Camera for Surveys built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) in Boulder, Colorado. Over the life of the HST contract at BATC hundreds of employees had the pleasure of working on the concept, design, fabrication, assembly and test of ACS. Those employees thank NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center and the science team at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) for the opportunity to participate in building a great science instrument for HST. After installation in HST a mini-functional test was performed and later a complete functional test. ACS performed well and has continued performing well since then. One of the greatest rewards for the BATC employees is a satisfied science team. Following is an excerpt from the JHU final report, "The foremost promise of ACS was to increase Hubble's capability for surveys in the near infrared by a factor of 10. That promise was kept. "

  2. Advanced materials for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2007-12-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency—nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  3. Advanced Materials for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Curto, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Since NASA was created in 1958, over 6400 patents have been issued to the agency--nearly one in a thousand of all patents ever issued in the United States. A large number of these inventions have focused on new materials that have made space travel and exploration of the moon, Mars, and the outer planets possible. In the last few years, the materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center embody breakthroughs in performance and properties that will enable great achievements in space. The examples discussed below offer significant advantages for use in small satellites, i.e., those with payloads under a metric ton. These include patented products such as LaRC SI, LaRC RP 46, LaRC RP 50, PETI-5, TEEK, PETI-330, LaRC CP, TOR-LM and LaRC LCR (patent pending). These and other new advances in nanotechnology engineering, self-assembling nanostructures and multifunctional aerospace materials are presented and discussed below, and applications with significant technological and commercial advantages are proposed.

  4. A preliminary investigation of the potential applicability of the IPAD system to non-aerospace industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulbert, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the applicability of the planned Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system to the design activities of non-aerospace industries was carried out. It was determined that IPAD could be of significant benefit to a number of industries, with the most likely users being the heavy construction and automotive industries. Two additional short studies were initiated to investigate the possible impact of IPAD on a national energy program and on urban and regional planning activities of local and state governments. These initial studies indicated the possibility of significant payoff in these areas and the need for further investigations. It was also determined that utilization of IPAD by non-aerospace industries will probably involve a long stepwise process, since these industries maintain a policy of gradual introduction of new technology.

  5. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a high-temperature, low-volatility phosphate additive for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gschwender, L.J.; Snyder, C.E., Jr.; Fultz, G.W.; Chen, L.S. Dayton, University, OH )

    1991-11-01

    Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is a widely used and effective antiwear additive for a variety of lubricants used in aerospace military applications. However, for a high-temperature gas turbine engine oil (GTO) application, volatility and thermo-oxidative stability limitations preclude the use of TCP. For this GTO application, high molecular weight, and thermally and thermo-oxidatively stable groups were incorporated into a phosphate-based additive. This paper describes the synthesis of this additive and its successful performance. 3 refs.

  7. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, B.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Eakes, R. E.; Kizakevich, P. N.; Mccartney, M.; Rouse, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilization of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) technology in medicine is discussed. The objective is best obtained by stimulation of the introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products incorporating aerospace technology. A bipolar donor/recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the team's methodology. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the Stowaway, a lightweight wheelchair that provides mobility for the disabled and elderly in the cabin of commercial aircraft, and Micromed, a portable medication infusion pump for the reliable, continuous infusion of medications such as heparin or insulin. The marketing and manufacturing factors critical to the commercialization of the lightweight walker incorporating composite materials were studied. Progress was made in the development and commercialization of each of the 18 currently active projects.

  9. Prediction of three sigma maximum dispersed density for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Terri L.; Nitschke, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    Free molecular heating (FMH) is caused by the transfer of energy during collisions between the upper atmosphere molecules and a space vehicle. The dispersed free molecular heating on a surface is an important constraint for space vehicle thermal analyses since it can be a significant source of heating. To reduce FMH to a spacecraft, the parking orbit is often designed to a higher altitude at the expense of payload capability. Dispersed FMH is a function of both space vehicle velocity and atmospheric density, however, the space vehicle velocity variations are insignificant when compared to the atmospheric density variations. The density of the upper atmosphere molecules is a function of altitude, but also varies with other environmental factors, such as solar activity, geomagnetic activity, location, and time. A method has been developed to predict three sigma maximum dispersed density for up to 15 years into the future. This method uses a state-of-the-art atmospheric density code, MSIS 86, along with 50 years of solar data, NASA and NOAA solar activity predictions for the next 15 years, and an Aerospace Corporation correlation to account for density code inaccuracies to generate dispersed maximum density ratios denoted as 'K-factors'. The calculated K-factors can be used on a mission unique basis to calculate dispersed density, and hence dispersed free molecular heating rates. These more accurate K-factors can allow lower parking orbit altitudes, resulting in increased payload capability.

  10. Fiber optic liquid level sensor system for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Yang, Chenging; Chen, Shiping

    2014-09-01

    Detection of the liquid level in fuel tank becomes a critical element for the safety and efficiency in aerospace operations. Two liquid level sensing techniques are presented in this paper. The first technique is based on optical fiber Long Period Gratings (LPG). In this system, the full length of a specially fabricated fiber is the body of the probe because the length of the sensing fiber that is submerged in the liquid can be detected by the interrogation system. The second system based on Total Internal Reflection (TIR) uses optical fibers to guide light to and from an array of point probes. These probes are specially fabricated, miniature optical components which reflects a substantial amount of light back into the lead fiber when the probe is gas but almost no light when it is in liquid. A detailed theoretical study by computer simulation was carried out on these two techniques in order to determine which technique was more suitable for experimental investigation. The study revealed that although the first technique may provide more potential benefits in terms of weight and easy installation; a number of technical challenges make it not suitable for a short term solution. The second, probe array based technique, on the other hand, is more mature technically. The rest of the research program was therefore focused on the experimental investigation of the probe array detection technique and the test results are presented in this paper.

  11. High Resolution Aerospace Applications using the NASA Columbia Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the parallel performance of two high-performance aerodynamic simulation packages on the newly installed NASA Columbia supercomputer. These packages include both a high-fidelity, unstructured, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver, and a fully-automated inviscid flow package for cut-cell Cartesian grids. The complementary combination of these two simulation codes enables high-fidelity characterization of aerospace vehicle design performance over the entire flight envelope through extensive parametric analysis and detailed simulation of critical regions of the flight envelope. Both packages. are industrial-level codes designed for complex geometry and incorpor.ats. CuStomized multigrid solution algorithms. The performance of these codes on Columbia is examined using both MPI and OpenMP and using both the NUMAlink and InfiniBand interconnect fabrics. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability on up to 2016 CPUs using the NUMAIink4 interconnect, with measured computational rates in the vicinity of 3 TFLOP/s, while InfiniBand showed some performance degradation at high CPU counts, particularly with multigrid. Nonetheless, the results are encouraging enough to indicate that larger test cases using combined MPI/OpenMP communication should scale well on even more processors.

  12. Multifunctional Nanotube Polymer Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications: Adhesion between SWCNT and Polymer Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Cheol; Wise, Kristopher E.; Kang, Jin Ho; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Lowther, Sharon E.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Smith, Michael W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Jordan, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctional structural materials can enable a novel design space for advanced aerospace structures. A promising route to multifunctionality is the use of nanotubes possessing the desired combination of properties to enhance the characteristics of structural polymers. Recent nanotube-polymer nanocomposite studies have revealed that these materials have the potential to provide structural integrity as well as sensing and/or actuation capabilities. Judicious selection or modification of the polymer matrix to promote donor acceptor and/or dispersion interactions can improve adhesion at the interface between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix significantly. The effect of nanotube incorporation on the modulus and toughness of the polymer matrix will be presented. Very small loadings of single wall nanotubes in a polyimide matrix yield an effective sensor material that responds to strain, stress, pressure, and temperature. These materials also exhibit significant actuation in response to applied electric fields. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that physical properties of multifunctional material systems can be tailored for specific applications by controlling nanotube treatment (different types of nanotubes), concentration, and degree of alignment.

  13. Optimisation of EDM fast hole drilling for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leao, F. N.

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) fast hole drilling is a thermo-electric manufacturing process in which material removal is achieved by sparks taking place between a tool electrode and the workpiece being drilled; both covered in dielectric fluid and connected to a generator delivering periodic pulses of energy at very high frequencies. There is no physical contact between the workpiece and the electrode, and the small gap separating them is maintained under servo control. EDM fast hole drilling plays a vital role in the aerospace industry. The operating temperatures of aero-engine often exceed the melting point of the materials used in its components. Hence, it is required to artificially cool different types of components including turbine blades. This is accomplished by directing bypass air into internal passages of the blade; the air flows continuality through small holes, having diameters ranging from 0.4 to 3mm and are drilled at steep angles to the baled surfaces. With EDM it is possible to drill these holes. The EDM drilling, however, operates with very high levels of relative electrode wear and high variations in cycle times making the process rather inconsistent. Using the DOE (Design of Experiments) approach, a series of studies have been carried out with the purpose of optimising the drilling process through the evaluation of water-based dielectric fluids and electrode materials, via analysis of drilling time, electrode wear, surface integrity, dimensional accuracy and costs. Factors such as the electrode length, geometry and dielectric flushing have also been studied. This work has shown that drilling times and electrode wear can be reduced by 50% and 35% respectively depending on the type of dielectric fluid/electrode material used and on the optimisation criteria employed. Significant reductions in the variations of drilling times have also been observed. Moreover, drilling time and electrode wear can be decreased by 165% and 25% respectively

  14. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute. Fourteen medical organizations are presently participating in the RTI Application Team Program: The accomplishments of the Research Triangle Institute Application Team during the reporting period were as follows: The team identified 21 new problems for investigation, accomplished 4 technology applications and 3 potential technology applications, closed 21 old problems, and on February 28, 1973, had a total of 57 problems under active investigation.

  15. The design and fabrication of microstrip omnidirectional array antennas for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, T. G.; Appleton, M. W.; Lusby, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    A microstrip antenna design concept was developed that will provide quasi-omnidirectional radiation pattern characteristics about cylindrical and conical aerospace structures. L-band and S-band antenna arrays were designed, fabricated, and, in some cases, flight tested for rocket, satellite, and aircraft drone applications. Each type of array design is discussed along with a thermal cover design that was required for the sounding rocket applications.

  16. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute. The accomplishments of the Research Triangle Institute Application Team during the reporting period are as follows: The team has identified 44 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 8 technology applications and 8 potential technology applications, has closed 88 old problems, and reactivated 3 old problems, and on August 31, 1972, has a total of 57 problems under active investigation.

  17. Advanced fusion welding processes, solid state joining and a successful marriage. [production of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    Joining processes for aerospace systems combine fusion welding and solid state joining during production of metal structures. Detailed characteristics of electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, diffusion welding, inertia welding and weldbond processes are discussed.

  18. Potential and prospective implementation of carbon nanotubes on next generation aircraft and space vehicles: A review of current and expected applications in aerospace sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Omid; Elola, Maialen Chapartegui; Elizetxea, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes have instigated the interest of many different scientific fields since their authenticated introduction, more than two decades ago. Particularly in aerospace applications, the potential implementations of these advanced materials have been predicted to have a large impact on future aircraft and space vehicles, mainly due to their distinct features, which include superior mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This article provides the very first consolidated review of the imminent prospects of utilizing carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles in aerospace sciences, based on their recent implementations and predicted future applications. Explicitly, expected carbon nanotube employment in aeronautics and astronautics are identified for commercial aircraft, military aircraft, rotorcraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, satellites, and space launch vehicles. Attention is devoted to future utilization of carbon nanotubes, which may comprise hydrogen storage encapsulation, composite material implementation, lightning protection for aircraft, aircraft icing mitigation, reduced weight of airframes/satellites, and alleviation of challenges related to future space launch. This study further sheds light onto recent actualized implementations of carbon nanotubes in aerospace applications, as well as current and prospective challenges related to their usage in aerospace sciences, encompassing health and safety hazards, large scale manufacturing, achievement of optimum properties, recycling, and environmental impacts.

  19. Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  20. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are presented. The RTI team, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, acted as an information and technology interface between NASA and individuals, institutions, and agencies involved in biomedical research and clinical medicine. The Team has identified 40 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 6 potential technology application, 4 impacts, has closed 54 old problems, and has a total of 47 problems under active investigation.

  2. Spectroscopic Challenges in the Modelling and Diagnostics of High Temperature Air Plasma Radiation for Aerospace Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, Christophe O.

    2007-04-06

    State-of-the-art spectroscopic models of the radiative transitions of interest for Earth re-entry and ground-based diagnostic facilities for aerospace applications are reviewed. The spectral range considered extends from the vacuum ultraviolet to the mid-infrared range (80 nm to 5.5 {mu}m). The modeling results are compared with absolute intensity measurements of the ultraviolet-visible-infrared emission of a well-characterized high-temperature air plasma produced with a 50 kW inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma torch, and with high-resolution absorption spectra from the Center for Astrophysics in the vacuum ultraviolet. The Spectroscopic data required to better model the spectral features of interest for aerospace applications are discussed.

  3. Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

  4. Fracture mechanics /Dryden Lecture/. [aerospace structural design applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1974-01-01

    A historical outline of the engineering discipline of fracture mechanics is presented, and current analytical procedures are summarized. The current status of the discipline is assessed, and engineering applications are discussed, along with recommended directions for future study.

  5. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A benefits briefing notebook is presented for the NASA Technology Utilization Office in which 515 applications of NASA aerospace technology to other sections of the economy are described. An overview of technology transfer is given. Benefit cases are cited in 19 categories along with pertinent information, such as communication link, DRI transfer example file, and individual case number. General, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are provided.

  6. Transducer technology transfer to bio-engineering applications. [aerospace stress transducer for heart function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, E. N.; Lewis, G. W.; Feldstein, C.; Corday, E.; Meerbaum, S.; Lang, T.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a technology transfer of a miniature unidirectional stress transducer, developed for experimental stress analysis in the aerospace field, to applications in bioengineering are reported. By modification of the basic design and innovations in attachment techniques, the transducer was successfully used in vivo on the myocardium of large dogs to record the change in contractile force due to coronary occlusion, reperfusion, and intervention.

  7. Automotive applications for advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of nonaerospace applications for advanced composite materials with special emphasis on the automotive applications. The automotive industry has to satisfy exacting requirements to reduce the average fuel consumption of cars. A feasible approach to accomplish this involves the development of composites cars with a total weight of 2400 pounds and a fuel consumption of 33 miles per gallon. In connection with this possibility, the automotive companies have started to look seriously at composite materials. The aerospace industry has over the past decade accumulated a considerable data base on composite materials and this is being made available to the nonaerospace sector. However, the automotive companies will place prime emphasis on low cost resins which lend themselves to rapid fabrication techniques.

  8. Applications of aerospace technology in the environmental sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed information is reported on the operations and accomplishments of the RTI Technology Application Team for the period October 11, 1971 to March 10, 1972. Mathematical models for prediction of pollutant formation during combustion are discussed along with generic areas of air pollution problems, which NASA technology offers a high potential for solving. Recommendations for future work are included.

  9. Thick Films: Electronic Applications. (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, fabrication, and evaluation of thick film electronic devices. Thick film solar cells, thick films for radiation conduction, deposition processes, conductive inks are among the topics discussed. Applications in military and civilian avionics are examined.

  10. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. D.; Heins, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Existing applications of NASA contributions to disciplines such as combustion engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science, quality assurance and computer control are outlined to illustrate how space technology is used in the electric power industry. Corporate strategies to acquire relevant space technology are described.

  11. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  12. Characteristics Of Quallion's Lithium-Ion Cells For Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Hisashi; Beach, Paul; Visco, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Rechargeable batteries that are presently in use in space missions include: Silver-Zinc (Ag-Zn), Nickel- Cadmium (Ni-Cd), Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2), and more recently, Lithium-Ion batteries. In space applications, lithium-ion batteries offer significant mass and volume advantages (three- to four-fold) compared to standard Ni-Cd and Ni-H2 batteries. To address this need, Quallion LLC has developed custom true prismatic Li ion cells for use in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) & Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) applications: a 15Ah cell (QL015KA) and a 72Ah cell (QL075KA). In addition to using Quallion's patented long life lithium-ion chemistry, these cells are also Zero-VoltTM enabled, allowing for battery recovery in loss of spacecraft attitude and lower maintenance before launching.

  13. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  14. Materials for defense/aerospace applications (NON-SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    Through this effort, Sandia and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM Aero) sought to assess the feasibility of (1) applying special materials to a defense application; (2) developing a piezoelectric-based micro thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell; and (3) building and delivering a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. This project supported the Stockpile Research & Development Program by contributing to the development of radio frequency (RF) MEMS- and optical MEMS-based components - such as switches, phase shifters, oscillators, and filters - with improved performance and reduced weight and size. Investigation of failure mechanisms and solutions helped to ensure that MEMS-based technology will meet performance requirements and long term reliability goals in the specified environments dictated by Lockheed Martin's commercial and defense applications. The objectives of this project were to (1) fabricate and test materials for military applications; (2) perform a feasibility study of a piezoelectric-based micro TPV cell; and (3) build and deliver a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. Sandia fabricated and tested properties of materials, studied options for manufacturing scale-up, and delivered a prototype IR Emissometer. LM Aero provided material requirements and designs. Both participated in the investigation of attachment methods and environmental effects on material performance, a feasibility study of piezoelectric TPV cells, an investigation and development of new approaches to implement the required material functionality, and analysis and validation of material performance physics, numerical models, and experimental metrology.

  15. Materials for aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    Early last year the US Office of Science and Technology put forward an agenda for American aerospace activity in the coming decades. The plan established goals for subsonic, supersonic and transatmospheric hypersonic flight. Those goals, together with Reagan Administration's programs for a space station and the Strategic Defense Initiative, serve as a driving force for extensive improvements in the materials that enable airplanes and spacecraft to function efficiently. The development of materials, together with advances in the technology of fabricating parts, will play a key role in aerospace systems of the future. Among the materials developments projected for the year 2000 are new composites and alloys for structural members; superalloys, ceramics and glass composites for propulsion systems, and carbon-carbon composites (carbon fibers in a carbon matrix) for high-temperature applications in places where resistance to heat and ablation is critical. 5 figures.

  16. Mechanically Strong Lightweight Materials for Aerospace Applications (x-aerogels)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The X-Aerogel is a new NASA-developed strong lightweight material made by reacting the mesoporous surfaces of 3-D networks of inorganic nanoparticles with polymeric crosslinkers. Since the relative amount of the crosslinker and the backbone are comparable, X-Aerogels can be viewed either as aerogels modified by templated accumulation of polymer on the skeletal nanoparticles, or as nanoporous polymers made by templated casting of polymeric precursors on a nanostructured framework. The most striking feature of X-Aerogels is that for a nominal 3-fold increase in density (still a ultralightweight material), the mechanical strength can be up to 300 times higher than the strength of the underlying native aerogel. Thus, X-Aerogels combine a multiple of the specific compressive strength of steel, with the thermal conductivity of styrofoam. XAerogels have been demonstrated with several polymers such as polyurethanes/polyureas, epoxies and polyolefins, while crosslinking of approximately 35 different oxide aerogels yields a wide variety of dimensionally stable, porous lightweight materials with interesting structural, magnetic and optical properties. X-Aerogels are evaluated for cryogenic rocket fuel storage tanks and for Advanced EVA suits, where they will play the dual role of the thermal insulator/structural material. Along the same lines, major impact is also expected by the use of X-Aerogels in structural components/thermal protection for small satellites, spacecrafts, planetary vehicles and habitats.

  17. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-01

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  18. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  19. X-ray backscatter imaging for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shedlock, Daniel; Edwards, Talion; Toh, Chin

    2011-06-23

    Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

  20. X-Ray Backscatter Imaging for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedlock, Daniel; Edwards, Talion; Toh, Chin

    2011-06-01

    Scatter x-ray imaging (SXI) is a real time, digital, x-ray backscatter imaging technique that allows radiographs to be taken from one side of an object. This x-ray backscatter imaging technique offers many advantages over conventional transmission radiography that include single-sided access and extremely low radiation fields compared to conventional open source industrial radiography. Examples of some applications include the detection of corrosion, foreign object debris, water intrusion, cracking, impact damage and leak detection in a variety of material such as aluminum, composites, honeycomb structures, and titanium.

  1. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints is reported. The program consists of two concurrent tasks: (1) design and test of specific built up attachments; and (2) evaluation of standard advanced bonded joint concepts. A data base for the design and analysis of advanced composite joints for use at elevated temperatures (561K (550 deg F)) to design concepts for specific joining applications, and the fundamental parameters controlling the static strength characteristics of such joints are evaluated. Data for design and build GR/PI of lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Results for compression and interlaminar shear strengths of Celion 6000/PMR-15 laminates are given. Static discriminator test results for type 3 and type 4 bonded and bolted joints and final joint designs for TASK 1.4 scale up fabrication and testing are presented.

  2. Application of thermal life prediction model to high-temperature aerospace alloys B1900+Hf and Haynes 188

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.; Saltsman, James F.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Arya, Vinod K.

    1990-01-01

    The results of the application of a newly proposed thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction method to a series of laboratory TMF results on two high-temperature aerospace engine alloys are presented. The method, referred to as TMF/TS-SRP, is based on three relatively recent developments: the total strain version of the method of Strainrange Partitioning (TS-SRP), the bithermal testing technique for characterizing TMF behavior, and advanced viscoplastic constitutive models. The high-temperature data reported in a companion publication are used to evaluate the constants in the model and to provide the TMF verification data to check its accuracy. Predicted lives are in agreement with the experimental lives to within a factor of approximately 2.

  3. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low- and high-voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically EMI (electromagnetic interference) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The authors report on the technology contained in the sensor and also relate the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range. The results of early EMI tests are shown.

  4. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology used in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  5. High Volume Fraction Carbon Nanotube Composites for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, E. J.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Cano, R. J.; Wincheski, R. A.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Czabaj, M.

    2016-01-01

    Reported mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at the nanoscale suggest their potential to enable significantly lighter structures of interest for space applications. However, their utility depends on the retention of these properties in bulk material formats that permit practical fabrication of large structures. This presentation summarizes recent progress made to produce carbon nanotube composites with specific tensile properties that begin to rival those of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. CNT content in these nanocomposites was greater than 70% by weight. Tested nanocomposite specimens were fabricated from kilometers or tens of square meters of CNT, depending on the starting material format. Processing methods to yield these results, and characterization and testing to evaluate the performance of these composites will be discussed. The final objective is the demonstration of a CNT composite overwrapped pressure vessel to be flight tested in the Fall of 2016.

  6. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    A robust, accurate, broad-band, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60 Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400 Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology contained in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  7. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1990-12-01

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology used in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  8. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    A robust, accurate, broadband, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low- and high-voltage 60-Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400-Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically EMI (electromagnetic interference) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The authors report on the technology contained in the sensor and also relate the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range. The results of early EMI tests are shown.

  9. A fiber-optic current sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    A robust, accurate, broad-band, alternating current sensor using fiber optics is being developed for space applications at power frequencies as high as 20 kHz. It can also be used in low and high voltage 60 Hz terrestrial power systems and in 400 Hz aircraft systems. It is intrinsically electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and has the added benefit of excellent isolation. The sensor uses the Faraday effect in optical fiber and standard polarimetric measurements to sense electrical current. The primary component of the sensor is a specially treated coil of single-mode optical fiber, through which the current carrying conductor passes. Improved precision is accomplished by temperature compensation by means of signals from a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor embedded in the sensing head. The technology contained in the sensor is examined and the results of precision tests conducted at various temperatures within the wide operating range are given. The results of early EMI tests are also given.

  10. Low cost split stirling cryogenic cooler for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Zechtzer, Semeon; Pundak, Nachman; Riabzev, Sergey; Kirckconnel, C.; Freeman, Jeremy

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic coolers are used in association with sensitive electronics and sensors for military, commercial or scientific space payloads. The general requirements are high reliability and power efficiency, low vibration export and ability to survive launch vibration extremes and long-term exposure to space radiation. A long standing paradigm of using exclusively space heritage derivatives of legendary "Oxford" cryocoolers featuring linear actuators, flexural bearings, contactless seals and active vibration cancellation is so far the best known practice aiming at delivering high reliability components for the critical and usually expensive space missions. The recent tendency of developing mini and micro satellites for the budget constrained missions has spurred attempts to adapt leading-edge tactical cryogenic coolers to meet the space requirements. The authors are disclosing theoretical and practical aspects of a collaborative effort on developing a space qualified cryogenic refrigerator based on the Ricor model K527 tactical cooler and Iris Technology radiation hardened, low cost cryocooler electronics. The initially targeted applications are cost-sensitive flight experiments, but should the results show promise, some long-life "traditional" cryocooler missions may well be satisfied by this approach.

  11. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  12. Mechanical Characterization of Composites and Foams for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, D. R.; Glinsey, C.; Webb, M. M.; Norman, M.; Meador, Michael A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies to investigate the mechanical properties of ultra-lightweight polyimide foams for space applications, compression after impact (CAI) properties for low velocity impact of sandwich composites, and aspen fiber/polypropylene composites containing an interface adhesive additive, Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polypropylene (MAPP), were performed at Clark Atlanta University. Tensile, compression, flexural, and shear modulus tests were performed on TEEK foams categorized by their densities and relative cost according to ASTM specifications. Results showed that the mechanical properties of the foams increased as a function of higher price and increasing density. The CAI properties of Nomex/phenolic honeycomb core, fiberglass/epoxy facesheet sandwich composites for two damage arrangements were compared using different levels of impact energy ranging from 0 - 452 Joules. Impact on the thin side showed slightly more retention of CAI strength at low impact levels, whereas higher residual compressive strength was observed from impact on the thick side at higher impact levels. The aspen fiber/polypropylene composites studied are composed of various percentages (by weight) of aspen fiber and polypropylene ranging from 30%-60% and 40%-100%, respectively. Results showed that the MAPP increases tensile and flexural strength, while having no significant influence on tensile and flexural modulus.

  13. Structural Efficiency of Composite Struts for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Wu, K. Chauncey; McKenney, Martin J.; Oremont, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The structural efficiency of carbon-epoxy tapered struts is considered through trade studies, detailed analysis, manufacturing and experimentation. Since some of the lunar lander struts are more highly loaded than struts used in applications such as satellites and telescopes, the primary focus of the effort is on these highly loaded struts. Lunar lander requirements include that the strut has to be tapered on both ends, complicating the design and limiting the manufacturing process. Optimal stacking sequences, geometries, and materials are determined and the sensitivity of the strut weight to each parameter is evaluated. The trade study results indicate that the most efficient carbon-epoxy struts are 30 percent lighter than the most efficient aluminum-lithium struts. Structurally efficient, highly loaded struts were fabricated and loaded in tension and compression to determine if they met the design requirements and to verify the accuracy of the analyses. Experimental evaluation of some of these struts demonstrated that they could meet the greatest Altair loading requirements in both tension and compression. These results could be applied to other vehicles requiring struts with high loading and light weight.

  14. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

  15. Advanced information processing system - Status report. [for fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, L. D.; Lala, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles. The AIPS architecture also has attributes to enhance system effectiveness such as graceful degradation, growth and change tolerance, integrability, etc. Two key building blocks being developed by the AIPS program are a fault and damage tolerant processor and communication network. A proof-of-concept system is now being built and will be tested to demonstrate the validity and performance of the AIPS concepts.

  16. An Integrated MEMS Sensor Cluster System for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, Seun; Scott, Michael A.; Beeler, George B.; Bartlett, James E.; Collins, Richard S.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to reduce viscous drag on airfoils could results in a considerable saving for the operation of flight vehicles including those of space transportation. This reduction of viscous drag effort requires measurement and active control of boundary layer flow property on an airfoil. Measurement of viscous drag of the boundary layer flow over an airfoil with minimal flow disturbance is achievable with newly developed MEMS sensor clusters. These sensor clusters provide information that can be used to actively control actuators to obtain desired flow properties or design a vehicle to satisfy particular boundary layer flow criteria. A series of MEMS sensor clusters has been developed with a data acquisition and control module for local measurements of shear stress, pressure, and temperature on an airfoil. The sensor cluster consists of two shear stress sensors, two pressure sensors, and two temperature sensors on a surface area of 1.24 mm x 1.86 mm. Each sensor is 300 microns square and is placed on a flexible polyimide sheet. The shear stress sensor is a polysilicon hot-film resistor, which is insulated by a vacuum cavity of 200 x 200 x 2 microns. The pressure sensors are silicon piezoresistive type, and the temperature sensors are also hot film polysilicon resistors. The total size of the cluster including sensors and electrical leads is 1 Omm x 1 Omm x 0.1 mm. A typical sensitivity of shear stress sensor is 150 mV/Pascal, the pressure sensors are an absolute type with a measurement range from 9 to 36 psia with 0.8mV/V/psi sensitivity, and the temperature sensors have a measurement resolution of 0.1 degree C. The sensor clusters are interfaced to a data acquisition and control module that consists of two custom ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and a micro-controller. The data acquisition and control module transfers data to a host PC that configures and controls a total of three sensor clusters. Functionality of the entire system has been tested in

  17. NASA biomedical applications team. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, D. J.; Beadles, R.; Beall, H. C.; Brown, J. N., Jr.; Clingman, W. H.; Courtney, M. W.; Mccartney, M.; Scearce, R. W.; Wilson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a bipolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented. That methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and aerospace technology that in combination constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on aerospace technology. Problem descriptions and activity reports and the results of a market study on the tissue freezing device are presented.

  18. A Briefing on Metrics and Risks for Autonomous Decision-Making in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai Frank; Galvan, Jose Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Significant technology advances will enable future aerospace systems to safely and reliably make decisions autonomously, or without human interaction. The decision-making may result in actions that enable an aircraft or spacecraft in an off-nominal state or with slightly degraded components to achieve mission performance and safety goals while reducing or avoiding damage to the aircraft or spacecraft. Some key technology enablers for autonomous decision-making include: a continuous state awareness through the maturation of the prognostics health management field, novel sensor development, and the considerable gains made in computation power and data processing bandwidth versus system size. Sophisticated algorithms and physics based models coupled with these technological advances allow reliable assessment of a system, subsystem, or components. Decisions that balance mission objectives and constraints with remaining useful life predictions can be made autonomously to maintain safety requirements, optimal performance, and ensure mission objectives. This autonomous approach to decision-making will come with new risks and benefits, some of which will be examined in this paper. To start, an account of previous work to categorize or quantify autonomy in aerospace systems will be presented. In addition, a survey of perceived risks in autonomous decision-making in the context of piloted aircraft and remotely piloted or completely autonomous unmanned autonomous systems (UAS) will be presented based on interviews that were conducted with individuals from industry, academia, and government.

  19. The development of nickel-metal hydride technology for use in aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampel, Guy; Johnson, Herschel; dell, Dan; Wu, Tony; Puglisi, Vince

    1992-02-01

    The nickel metal hydride technology for battery application is relatively immature even though this technology was made widely known by Philips' scientists as long ago as 1970. Recently, because of the international environmental regulatory pressures being placed on cadmium in the workplace and in disposal practices, battery companies have initiated extensive development programs to make this technology a viable commercial operation. These hydrides do not pose a toxilogical threat as does cadmium. Also, they provide a higher energy density and specific energy when compared to the other nickel based battery technologies. For these reasons, the nickel metal hydride electrochemisty is being evaluated as the next power source for varied applications such as laptop computers, cellular telephones, electric vehicles, and satellites. A parallel development effort is under way to look at aerospace applications for nickel metal hydride cells. This effort is focused on life testing of small wound cells of the commercial type to validate design options and development of prismatic design cells for aerospace applications.

  20. The development of nickel-metal hydride technology for use in aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampel, Guy; Johnson, Herschel; Dell, Dan; Wu, Tony; Puglisi, Vince

    1992-01-01

    The nickel metal hydride technology for battery application is relatively immature even though this technology was made widely known by Philips' scientists as long ago as 1970. Recently, because of the international environmental regulatory pressures being placed on cadmium in the workplace and in disposal practices, battery companies have initiated extensive development programs to make this technology a viable commercial operation. These hydrides do not pose a toxilogical threat as does cadmium. Also, they provide a higher energy density and specific energy when compared to the other nickel based battery technologies. For these reasons, the nickel metal hydride electrochemisty is being evaluated as the next power source for varied applications such as laptop computers, cellular telephones, electric vehicles, and satellites. A parallel development effort is under way to look at aerospace applications for nickel metal hydride cells. This effort is focused on life testing of small wound cells of the commercial type to validate design options and development of prismatic design cells for aerospace applications.

  1. Weight and power savings shaft encoder interfacing techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breslow, Donald H.

    1986-01-01

    Many aerospace applications for shaft angle digitizers such as optical shaft encoders require special features that are not usually required on commercial products. Among the most important user considerations are the lowest possible weight and power consumption. A variety of mechanical and electrical interface techniques that have large potential weight and power savings are described. The principles to be presented apply to a wide variety of encoders, ranging from 16 to 22 bit resolution and with diameters from 152 to 380 mm (6 to 15 in.).

  2. Morphology-Dependent Resonances and Their Applications to Sensing in Aerospace Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Otugen, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in Morphology-Dependent Resonance (MDR)-based sensors for aerospace applications. The sensor concept is based on the detection of small shifts of optical resonances (also called the whispering gallery modes or WGM) of dielectric spheres caused by external effects. Recent developments in MRD-based micro-optical sensors for temperature, force, pressure, and concentration are discussed. In addition to the experimental configurations used in each type of prototype sensor, a brief overview is also given for analytical approaches to describe the sensor principle.

  3. California four cities program, 1971 - 1973. [aerospace-to-urban technology application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macomber, H. L.; Wilson, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A pilot project in aerospace-to-urban technology application is reported. Companies assigned senior engineering professionals to serve as Science and Technology Advisors to participating city governments. Technical support was provided by the companies and JPL. The cities, Anaheim, Fresno, Pasadena, and San Hose, California, provided the working environment and general service support. Each city/company team developed and carried out one or more technical or management pilot projects together with a number of less formalized technology efforts and studies. An account and evaluation is provided of the initial two-year phase of the program.

  4. Evaluation of Sc-Bearing Aluminum Alloy C557 for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, Marcia S.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the Al-Mg-Sc alloy C557 was evaluated to assess its potential for a broad range of aerospace applications, including airframe and launch vehicle structures. Of specific interest were mechanical properties at anticipated service temperatures and thermal stability of the alloy. Performance was compared with conventional airframe aluminum alloys and with other emerging aluminum alloys developed for specific service environments. Mechanical properties and metallurgical structure were evaluated for commercially rolled sheet in the as-received H116 condition and after thermal exposures at 107 C. Metallurgical analyses were performed to de.ne grain morphology and texture, strengthening precipitates, and to assess the effect of thermal exposure.

  5. Smart Aerospace eCommerce: Using Intelligent Agents in a NASA Mission Services Ordering Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moleski, Walt; Luczak, Ed; Morris, Kim; Clayton, Bill; Scherf, Patricia; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how intelligent agent technology was successfully prototyped and then deployed in a smart eCommerce application for NASA. An intelligent software agent called the Intelligent Service Validation Agent (ISVA) was added to an existing web-based ordering application to validate complex orders for spacecraft mission services. This integration of intelligent agent technology with conventional web technology satisfies an immediate NASA need to reduce manual order processing costs. The ISVA agent checks orders for completeness, consistency, and correctness, and notifies users of detected problems. ISVA uses NASA business rules and a knowledge base of NASA services, and is implemented using the Java Expert System Shell (Jess), a fast rule-based inference engine. The paper discusses the design of the agent and knowledge base, and the prototyping and deployment approach. It also discusses future directions and other applications, and discusses lessons-learned that may help other projects make their aerospace eCommerce applications smarter.

  6. Overview of nickel metal hydride battery technology for aerospace applications. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasz, M.L.

    1996-08-22

    For thirty years, the scientific community has investigated using intermetallic metal hydrides as hydrogen reservoirs and electrodes for secondary batteries. They are now replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in small electronics and may become attractive for aerospace applications. Metal hydride batteries do not require high-pressure containers, and prismatic cell designs are possible. With alloying, a wide range of operational temperatures can be achieved; however, large batteries require thermal control to dissipate and supply heat during high-rate charging and discharging. Recent investigations have concentrated on optimizing electrode capacity and cycle life by manipulating alloy compositions, microstructures, particle sizes, crystallinity, and surface chemistry. Despite intensive efforts, the discharge capacity of the metal hydrides has not improved beyond 250-400 mAh/g, and inherent deterioration processes apparently related to the formation of the hydride phase make metal hydrides unreliable choices for satellite applications demanding more than 500-2000 cycles. Additionally, the long-term effects of exposure of these materials to the potassium-hydroxide electrolyte during low-cycle, long-life missions is not known. This review surveys the status of research and commercial development of metal-hydride cells and evaluates the potential advantages and applications of metal-hydride batteries for aerospace use.

  7. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes for cooling leading edges of high-speed aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Glass, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Heat pipes have been considered for use on wing leading edge for over 20 years. Early concepts envisioned metal heat pipes cooling a metallic leading edge. Several superalloy/sodium heat pipes were fabricated and successfully tested for wing leading edge cooling. Results of radiant heat and aerothermal testing indicate the feasibility of using heat pipes to cool the stagnation region of shuttle-type space transportation systems. The test model withstood a total seven radiant heating tests, eight aerothermal tests, and twenty-seven supplemental radiant heating tests. Cold-wall heating rates ranged from 21 to 57 Btu/sq ft-s and maximum operating temperatures ranged from 1090 to 1520 F. Follow-on studies investigated the application of heat pipes to cool the stagnation regions of single-stage-to-orbit and advanced shuttle vehicles. Results of those studies indicate that a 'D-shaped' structural design can reduce the mass of the heat-pipe concept by over 44 percent compared to a circular heat-pipe geometry. Simple analytical models for heat-pipe startup from the frozen state (working fluid initially frozen) were adequate to approximate transient, startup, and steady-state heat-pipe performance. Improvement in analysis methods has resulted in the development of a finite-element analysis technique to predict heat-pipe startup from the frozen state. However, current requirements of light-weight design and reliability suggest that metallic heat pipes embedded in a refractory composite material should be used. This concept is the concept presently being evaluated for NASP. A refractory-composite/heat-pipe-cooled wing leading edge is currently being considered for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). This concept uses high-temperature refractory-metal/lithium heat pipes embedded within a refractory-composite structure and is significantly lighter than an actively cooled wing leading edge because it eliminates the need for active cooling during ascent and descent. Since the

  8. Advanced Energetics for Aeronautical Applications. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David S.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has identified water vapor emission into the upper atmosphere from commercial transport aircraft, particularly as it relates to the formation of persistent contrails, as a potential environmental problem. Since 1999, MSE has been working with NASA-LaRC to investigate the concept of a transport-size emissionless aircraft fueled with liquid hydrogen combined with other possible breakthrough technologies. The goal of the project is to significantly advance air transportation in the next decade and beyond. The power and propulsion (P/P) system currently being studied would be based on hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) powering electric motors, which drive fans for propulsion. The liquid water reaction product is retained onboard the aircraft until a flight mission is completed. As of now, NASA-LaRC and MSE have identified P/P system components that, according to the high-level analysis conducted to date, are light enough to make the emissionless aircraft concept feasible. Calculated maximum aircraft ranges (within a maximum weight constraint) and other performance predictions are included in this report. This report also includes current information on advanced energy-related technologies, which are still being researched, as well as breakthrough physics concepts that may be applicable for advanced energetics and aerospace propulsion in the future.

  9. Shape memory polymers and their composites in aerospace applications: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanju; Du, Haiyang; Liu, Liwu; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-02-01

    As a new class of smart materials, shape memory polymers and their composites (SMPs and SMPCs) can respond to specific external stimulus and remember the original shape. There are many types of stimulus methods to actuate the deformation of SMPs and SMPCs, of which the thermal- and electro-responsive components and structures are common. In this review, the general mechanism of SMPs and SMPCs are first introduced, the stimulus methods are then discussed to demonstrate the shape recovery effect, and finally, the applications of SMPs and SMPCs that are reinforced with fiber materials in aerospace are reviewed. SMPC hinges and booms are discussed in the part on components; the booms can be divided again into foldable SMPC truss booms, coilable SMPC truss booms and storable tubular extendible member (STEM) booms. In terms of SMPC structures, the solar array and deployable panel, reflector antenna and morphing wing are introduced in detail. Considering the factors of weight, recovery force and shock effect, SMPCs are expected to have great potential applications in aerospace.

  10. Aerospace Community. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, V. V.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, emphasizes the two sides of aerospace--military aerospace and civilian aerospace. Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion on the organization of Air Force bases and missile sites in relation to their missions. Chapter 2 examines the community services provided by Air Force bases. The topics…

  11. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  12. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  13. Online Dectection and Modeling of Safety Boundaries for Aerospace Application Using Bayesian Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Yuning

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of complex aerospace systems is governed by numerous parameters. For safety analysis it is important to understand how the system behaves with respect to these parameter values. In particular, understanding the boundaries between safe and unsafe regions is of major importance. In this paper, we describe a hierarchical Bayesian statistical modeling approach for the online detection and characterization of such boundaries. Our method for classification with active learning uses a particle filter-based model and a boundary-aware metric for best performance. From a library of candidate shapes incorporated with domain expert knowledge, the location and parameters of the boundaries are estimated using advanced Bayesian modeling techniques. The results of our boundary analysis are then provided in a form understandable by the domain expert. We illustrate our approach using a simulation model of a NASA neuro-adaptive flight control system, as well as a system for the detection of separation violations in the terminal airspace.

  14. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  15. Development of a non-explosive release device for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, John D.; Purdy, William E.; Johnson, A. David

    1992-01-01

    A simple, non-explosive, high load capacity release mechanism using a shape memory alloy is currently being developed for space flight. This device, the Frangibolt, could replace most pyrotechnic devices in applications where the need for safety, reliability, non-destructive testing, and minimal mechanical shock is more crucial than the need for rapid actuation. Prototype hardware has been designed, tested, and proven in laboratory conditions. Orientation and demonstration of these devices evidenced reliable and repeatable performance, clearly indicating that extensive testing for flight qualification is warranted. Here, the Frangibolt design is discussed, recent test results of laboratory units are described, and the work that must be performed in the upcoming months to qualify the device for aerospace applications is addressed.

  16. Fuzzy Logic Approaches to Multi-Objective Decision-Making in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy logic allows for the quantitative representation of multi-objective decision-making problems which have vague or fuzzy objectives and parameters. As such, fuzzy logic approaches are well-suited to situations where alternatives must be assessed by using criteria that are subjective and of unequal importance. This paper presents an overview of fuzzy logic and provides sample applications from the aerospace industry. Applications include an evaluation of vendor proposals, an analysis of future space vehicle options, and the selection of a future space propulsion system. On the basis of the results provided in this study, fuzzy logic provides a unique perspective on the decision-making process, allowing the evaluator to assess the degree to which each option meets the evaluation criteria. Future decision-making should take full advantage of fuzzy logic methods to complement existing approaches in the selection of alternatives.

  17. Application of unsteady aeroelastic analysis techniques on the national aerospace plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S.; Spain, Charles V.; Soistmann, David L.; Noll, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    A presentation provided at the Fourth National Aerospace Plane Technology Symposium held in Monterey, California, in February 1988 is discussed. The objective is to provide current results of ongoing investigations to develop a methodology for predicting the aerothermoelastic characteristics of NASP-type (hypersonic) flight vehicles. Several existing subsonic and supersonic unsteady aerodynamic codes applicable to the hypersonic class of flight vehicles that are generally available to the aerospace industry are described. These codes were evaluated by comparing calculated results with measured wind-tunnel aeroelastic data. The agreement was quite good in the subsonic speed range but showed mixed agreement in the supersonic range. In addition, a future endeavor to extend the aeroelastic analysis capability to hypersonic speeds is outlined. An investigation to identify the critical parameters affecting the aeroelastic characteristics of a hypersonic vehicle, to define and understand the various flutter mechanisms, and to develop trends for the important parameters using a simplified finite element model of the vehicle is summarized. This study showed the value of performing inexpensive and timely aeroelastic wind-tunnel tests to expand the experimental data base required for code validation using simple to complex models that are representative of the NASP configurations and root boundary conditions are discussed.

  18. Atmospheric statistics for aerospace vehicle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analysis of atmospheric variables was performed for the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) design trade studies and the establishment of launch commit criteria. Atmospheric constraint statistics have been developed for the NASP test flight, the Advanced Launch System, and the National Launch System. The concepts and analysis techniques discussed in the paper are applicable to the design and operations of any future aerospace vehicle.

  19. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation with Solid Targets for Space and Aerospace Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, R. M.; Goncalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, G.; Baba, K.

    2009-01-05

    This paper describes successful results obtained by a new type of plasma source, named as Vaporization of Solid Targets (VAST), for treatment of materials for space and aerospace applications, by means of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Here, the solid element is vaporized in a high pressure glow discharge, being further ionized and implanted/deposited in a low pressure cycle, with the aid of an extra electrode. First experiments in VAST were run using lithium as the solid target. Samples of silicon and aluminum alloy (2024) were immersed into highly ionized lithium plasma, whose density was measured by a double Langmuir probe. Measurements performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed clear modification of the cross-sectioned treated silicon samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that lithium was implanted/deposited into/onto the surface of the silicon. Implantation depth profiles may vary according to the condition of operation of VAST. One direct application of this treatment concerns the protection against radiation damage for silicon solar cells. For the case of the aluminum alloy, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the appearance of prominent new peaks. Surface modification of A12024 by lithium implantation/deposition can lower the coefficient of friction and improve the resistance to fatigue of this alloy. Recently, cadmium was vaporized and ionized in VAST. The main benefit of this element is associated with the improvement of corrosion resistance of metallic substrates. Besides lithium and cadmium, VAST allows to performing PIII and D with other species, leading to the modification of the near-surface of materials for distinct purposes, including applications in the space and aerospace areas.

  20. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace Mechanism Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stanford, Malcolm; Padula, Santo A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hard materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, heavily loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing ball-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness, heavy loads and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress. In addition, mechanical component materials, such as tool steel or silicon nitride exhibit limited recoverable strain (typically less than 1 percent). These material attributes can lead to Brinell damage (e.g., denting) particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this paper, a superelastic alloy, 60NiTi, is considered for rolling element bearing applications. A series of Rockwell and Brinell hardness, compressive strength, fatigue and tribology tests are conducted and reported. The combination of high hardness, moderate elastic modulus, large recoverable strain, low density, and intrinsic corrosion immunity provide a path to bearings largely impervious to shock load damage. It is anticipated that bearings and components made from alloys with such attributes can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications.

  1. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  2. Application of advanced computational technology to propulsion CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuch, John R.

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center is combining the key elements of computational fluid dynamics, aerothermodynamic experiments, and advanced computational technology to bring internal computational fluid dynamics (ICFM) to a state of practical application for aerospace propulsion system design. This paper presents an overview of efforts underway at NASA Lewis to advance and apply computational technology to ICFM. These efforts include the use of modern, software engineering principles for code development, the development of an AI-based user-interface for large codes, the establishment of a high-performance, data communications network to link ICFM researchers and facilities, and the application of parallel processing to speed up computationally intensive and/or time-critical ICFM problems. A multistage compressor flow physics program is cited as an example of efforts to use advanced computational technology to enhance a current NASA Lewis ICFM research program.

  3. Activities of the NASA sponsored SRI technology applications team in transferring aerospace technology to the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, J. G.

    1971-01-01

    The organization and functions of an interdisciplinary team for the application of aerospace generated technology to the solution of discrete technological problems within the public sector are presented. The interdisciplinary group formed at Stanford Research Institute, California is discussed. The functions of the group are to develop and conduct a program not only optimizing the match between public sector technological problems in criminalistics, transportation, and the postal services and potential solutions found in the aerospace data base, but ensuring that appropriate solutions are acutally utilized. The work accomplished during the period from July 1, 1970 to June 30, 1971 is reported.

  4. The 1992 NASA Langley Measurement Technology Conference: Measurement Technology for Aerospace Applications in High-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J. (Editor); Antcliff, Richard R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    An intensive 2-day conference to discuss the current status of measurement technology in the areas of temperature/heat flux, stress/strain, pressure, and flowfield diagnostics for high temperature aerospace applications was held at Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, on April 22 and 23, 1993. Complete texts of the papers presented at the Conference are included in these proceedings.

  5. Ball Aerospace Advances in 35 K Cooling-The SB235E Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, J. S.; Glaister, D. S.; Gully, W.; Hendershott, P.; Marquardt, E.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the design, development, testing and performance of the Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. SB235E, a 2-stage long life space cryocooler optimized for 2 cooling loads. The SB235E model is designed to provide simultaneous cooling at 35 K (typically for HgCdTe detectors) and 85 K (typically for optics). The SB235E is a higher capacity model derivative of the SB235. Initial testing of the SB235E has shown performance of 2.13 W at 35 K and 8.14 W at 85 K for 200 W power at 289 K rejection temperature. These data equate to Carnot efficiency of 0.175 or nearly twice that of other published space cryocooler data. Qualification testing has been completed including full performance mapping and vibration export. Performance mapping with the cold-stage temperature varying from 20 K to 80 K and mid-stage temperature varying from 85 K to 175 K are presented. Two engineering models of the SB235E are currently in build.

  6. Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  7. Langley Research Highlights 1999: Advanced Aerospace Technology Clouds That Help Create the Ozone Hole Capturing Comet Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This report contains highlights of some of the major accomplishments and applications made by NASA Langley Research Center and its university partners and industry colleagues during 1999. The highlights illustrate the broad range of research and technology activities carried out by NASA Langley and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States' leadership in aeronautics and space research. The Center's historic national role since 1917 continues in Aerospace Technology research with an additional major role in Earth Science research. Langley also partners closely with other NASA Centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Space Science and the Human Exploration and Development of Space. A color version is available at http://larcpubs.larc.nasa.gov/randt/1999/. For further information, contact Dennis Bushnell, Senior Scientist, Mail Stop 110, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681-2199, (757)-864-8987, e-mail address: d.m.bushnell@larc.nasa.gov.

  8. Integrity assessment of preforms and thick textile reinforced composites for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboktakin Rizi, Abbasali

    Three-dimensional (3D) textile composites containing in-plane fibers and fibers oriented in the thickness direction offer some advantages over two-dimensional (2D) textile composites. These advantages include high delamination resistance and improved damage tolerance. Textile composites containing 3D textile preforms have mostly been developed by the aerospace industry for structural applications such as wing panels, landing gear, rocket nozzles, and the Orion capsule, and so forth. This thesis is devoted to structural integrity assessment of textile composites including 2D and 3D tufted composites by combining destructive and non-destructive techniques. In the first part of the thesis, non-destructive techniques including X-ray computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound-based techniques (UT) were used to detect two significant processinduced defects called fiber breakage and fabric misalignment. The second part focuses on studying of the influence of manufacturing defects introduced during the tufting process on the mechanical properties. Experimental results proved that X-ray CT facilitates the characterization of those two manufacturing defects as well as the architecture of the textile fabrics. Furthermore, mesoscale modeling of a 2D woven composite was successfully performed for the analysis of the fiber breakage defect influence and fiber architecture on wave propagation. Experimental results prove that tufting the preform assists in locking and restricting the yarn's movement in the preform. The threads used for tufting have a major influence on tensile strength, as stronger threads may give higher resistance. Tufting increases the compaction force due locking of fiber bundles, therefore, a higher compaction force is needed to obtain a fiber volume of up to 50 percent in comparison to an untufted preform. The drape behaviour of a tufted preform is influenced by tufting so that high drapability is observed for a tufted preform along with local variation of fiber

  9. Aerospace bibliography, seventh edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blashfield, J. F. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Space travel, planetary probes, applications satellites, manned spaceflight, the impacts of space exploration, future space activities, astronomy, exobiology, aeronautics, energy, space and the humanities, and aerospace education are covered.

  10. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report was prepared by Garrett Auxiliary Power Division (GAPD), a unit of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, a unit of Allied Signal, Inc. The report includes information provided by Garrett Ceramic Components, and the Norton Advanced Ceramics Company, (formerly Norton/TRW Ceramics), subcontractors to GAPD on the ATTAP. This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. through 31 Dec. 1992. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990's. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fifth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs, and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride materials and processes.

  11. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). Annual report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Garrett Auxiliary Power Division (GAPD), a unit of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, during calendar year 1992, toward development and demonstration of structural ceramic technology for automotive gas turbine engines. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) under National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Contract DEN3-335, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). GAPD utilized the AGT101 regenerated gas turbine engine developed under the previous DOE/NASA Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) program as the ATTAP test bed for ceramic engine technology demonstration. ATTAP focussed on improving AGT101 test bed reliability, development of ceramic design methodologies, and improvement of fabrication and materials processing technology by domestic US ceramics fabricators. A series of durability tests was conducted to verify technology advancements. This is the fifth in a series of technical summary reports published annually over the course of the five-year contract.

  12. The Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    The aerospace vehicle interactive design (AVID) is a computer aided design that was developed for the conceptual and preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. The AVID system evolved from the application of several design approaches in an advanced concepts environment in which both mission requirements and vehicle configurations are continually changing. The basic AVID software facilitates the integration of independent analysis programs into a design system where the programs can be executed individually for analysis or executed in groups for design iterations and parametric studies. Programs integrated into an AVID system for launch vehicle design include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, mass properties, and economics.

  13. Correlating Hardness Retention and Phase Transformations of Al and Mg Cast Alloys for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, W.; Czerwinski, F.; Niewczas, M.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    The methodology based on correlating hardness and phase transformations was developed and applied to determine the maximum temperature of hardness retention of selected Al-based and Mg-based alloys for aerospace applications. The Al alloys: A356, F357, and C355 experienced 34-66% reduction of the initial hardness, in comparison to 4-22% hardness reduction observed in Mg alloys: QE22A, EV31A, ZE41A, and WE43B after the same annealing to 450 °C. For Al alloys the hardness reduction showed a steep transition between 220 and 238 °C. In contrast, Mg alloys showed a gradual hardness decrease occurring at somewhat higher temperatures between 238 and 250 °C. The hardness data were correlated with corresponding phase transformation kinetics examined by dilatometer and electrical resistivity measurements. Although Mg alloys preserved hardness to higher temperatures, their room temperature tensile strength and hardness were lower than Al alloys. The experimental methodology used in the present studies appears to be very useful in evaluating the softening temperature of commercial Al- and Mg-based alloys, permitting to assess their suitability for high-temperature applications.

  14. Ormosil approach toward developing a completely reversible hydrogen sensor for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kisholoy; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2006-08-01

    Optical hydrogen sensors are intrinsically safe since they produce no arc or spark in an explosive environment caused by the leakage of hydrogen. Safety remains a top priority since leakage of hydrogen in air during production, storage, transfer and distribution creates an explosive atmosphere for concentrations between 4% (v/v) - the lower explosive limit (LEL) and 74.5% (v/v) - the upper explosive limit (UEL) at room temperature and pressure. Being a very small molecule, hydrogen is prone to leakage through seals and micro-cracks. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; public acceptance of hydrogen fuel would require the integration of a reliable hydrogen safety sensor. For detecting leakage of cryogenic fluids in spaceport facilities, Launch vehicle industry and NASA are currently relying heavily on the bulky mass spectrometers, which fill one or more equipment racks, and weigh several hundred kilograms. An optical sensor system can decrease pay load while monitoring multiple leak locations in situ and in real time. In this paper design of ormsoil approach for developing a completely reversible optical hydrogen sensors for aerospace application is being discussed.

  15. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum exploration. Volume 1: Efforts and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of applying aerospace techniques to help solve significant problems in petroleum exploration is studied. Through contacts with petroleum industry and petroleum service industry, important petroleum exploration problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified where possible. Topics selected for investigation include: seismic reflection systems; down-hole acoustic techniques; identification of geological analogies; drilling methods; remote geological sensing; and sea floor imaging and mapping. Specific areas of aerospace technology are applied to 21 concepts formulated from the topics of concern.

  16. The AEDC aerospace chamber 7V: An advanced test capability for infrared surveillance and seeker sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced sensor test capability is now operational at the Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) for calibration and performance characterization of infrared sensors. This facility, known as the 7V, is part of a broad range of test capabilities under development at AEDC to provide complete ground test support to the sensor community for large-aperture surveillance sensors and kinetic kill interceptors. The 7V is a state-of-the-art cryo/vacuum facility providing calibration and mission simulation against space backgrounds. Key features of the facility include high-fidelity scene simulation with precision track accuracy and in-situ target monitoring, diffraction limited optical system, NIST traceable broadband and spectral radiometric calibration, outstanding jitter control, environmental systems for 20 K, high-vacuum, low-background simulation, and an advanced data acquisition system.

  17. The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

  18. The application of thermoelastic stress analysis to full-scale aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruehmann, R. K.; Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Quinn, S.; Peton-Walter, J.; Mousty, P. A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that can be applied in-situ are particularly relevant to the testing of large scale structures that cannot easily be taken into a laboratory for inspection. The application of established laboratory based techniques to the inspection of such structures therefore brings with it a new set of challenges associated with the change in operating environment between the laboratory and 'the field'. The current work investigates the use of thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) to inspect carbon fibre composite aerospace components for manufacturing defects and in-service damage. An initial study using single transient loads to obtain a measureable change in temperature that can be related to the change in the sum of the principal stresses showed a good agreement with the traditional methodology. However, for large structures, the energy required to obtain a sufficiently large stress change to obtain a resolvable measurement may require an actuator that is not easily portable. Hence a number of ideas have been proposed to reduce the power requirement and deal with small signal to noise ratios. This paper describes the use of natural frequency vibration modes to enable large stress changes to be generated with minimal power input. Established signal processing in the form of a lock-in amplifier and Fourier signal analysis is applied. Tests on a laboratory scale flat plate and full-scale representative wing skin and stringer specimen are presented.

  19. Structural weights analysis of advanced aerospace vehicles using finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Rehder, John J.; Naftel, J. Chris; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual/preliminary level structural design system has been developed for structural integrity analysis and weight estimation of advanced space transportation vehicles. The system includes a three-dimensional interactive geometry modeler, a finite element pre- and post-processor, a finite element analyzer, and a structural sizing program. Inputs to the system include the geometry, surface temperature, material constants, construction methods, and aerodynamic and inertial loads. The results are a sized vehicle structure capable of withstanding the static loads incurred during assembly, transportation, operations, and missions, and a corresponding structural weight. An analysis of the Space Shuttle external tank is included in this paper as a validation and benchmark case of the system.

  20. Validating finite element models of composite aerospace structures for damage detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, J. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.; Hemez, François M.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2006-03-01

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced-polymer (CFRP) composites represent the future for advanced lightweight aerospace structures. However, reliable and cost-effective techniques for structural health monitoring (SHM) are needed. Modal and vibration-based analysis, when combined with validated finite element (FE) models, can provide a key tool for SHM. Finite element models, however, can easily give spurious and misleading results if not finely tuned and validated. These problems are amplified in complex structures with numerous joints and interfaces. A small series of all-composite test pieces emulating wings from a lightweight all-composite Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) have been developed to support damage detection and SHM research. Each wing comprises two CFRP prepreg and Nomex honeycomb co-cured skins and two CFRP prepreg spars bonded together in a secondary process using a structural adhesive to form the complete wings. The first of the set is fully healthy while the rest have damage in the form of disbonds built into the main spar-skin bondline. Detailed FE models were created of the four structural components and the assembled structure. Each wing component piece was subjected to modal characterization via vibration testing using a shaker and scanning laser Doppler vibrometer before assembly. These results were then used to correlate the FE model on a component-basis, through fitting and optimization of polynomial meta-models. Assembling and testing the full wing provided subsequent data that was used to validate the numerical model of the entire structure, assembled from the correlated component models. The correlation process led to the following average percent improvement between experimental and FE frequencies of the first 20 modes for each piece: top skin 10.98%, bottom skin 45.62%, main spar 25.56%, aft spar 10.79%. The assembled wing model with no further correlation showed an improvement of 32.60%.

  1. Design, fabrication and test of graphite/polyimide composite joints and attachments for advanced aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental program to develop several types of graphite/polyimide (GR/PI) bonded and bolted joints for lightly loaded flight components for advanced space transportation systems and high speed aircraft are presented. Tasks accomplished include: a literature survey; design of static discriminator specimens; design allowables testing; fabrication of test panels and specimens; small specimen testing; and standard joint testing. Detail designs of static discriminator specimens for each of the four major attachment types are presented. Test results are given for the following: (1) transverse tension of Celion 3000/PMR-15 laminate; (2) net tension of a laminate for both a loaded and unloaded bolt hole; (3) comparative testing of bonded and co-cured doublers along with pull-off tests of single and double bonded angles; (4) single lap shear tests, transverse tension and coefficient of thermal expansion tests of A7F (LARC-13 amide-imide modified) adhesive; and (5) tension tests of standard single lap, double lap, and symmetric step lap bonded joints. Also, included are results of a finite element analysis of a single lap bonded composite joint.

  2. Use of a Multiwavelength Pyrometer in Several Elevated Temperature Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    2001-01-01

    A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface temperatures of ceramic zircomia thermal barrier coatings and alumina. The close agreement between pyrometer and thin film thermocouple temperatures provided an independent check. Other applications of the multiwavelength pyrometer are simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurements of a transparent material, and combustion gas temperature measurement using a special probe interfaced to the multiwavelength pyrometer via an optical fiber. The multiwavelength pyrometer determined temperature by transforming the radiation spectrum in a broad wavelength region to produce a straight line (in a certain spectral region), whose intercept in the vertical axis gives the temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength independent emissivity. Though the two data points of a two-color pyrometer similarly processed would result immediately in a similar straight line to give the unknown temperature, the two-color pyrometer lacks the greater data redundancy of the multiwavelength pyrometer, which enables it to do so with improved accuracy. It also confirms that emissivity is indeed wavelength independent, as evidenced by a multitude of the data lying on a simple straight line. The multiwavelength pyrometer was also used to study the optical transmission properties of a nanostructured material from which a quadratic exponential functional frequency dependence of its spectral transmission was determined. Finally, by operating the multiwavelength pyrometer in a very wide field of view mode, the surface temperature distribution of a large hot surface was obtained through measurement of just a single radiation spectrum.

  3. Low vibration microminiature split Stirling cryogenic cooler for infrared aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zechtzer, S.; Pundak, N.; Kirkconnel, C.; Freeman, J.; Riabzev, S.

    2011-06-01

    The operation of the thermo-mechanical unit of a cryogenic cooler may originate a resonant excitation of the spacecraft frame, optical bench or components of the optical train. This may result in degraded functionality of the inherently vibration sensitive space-borne infrared imager directly associated with the cooler or neighboring instrumentation typically requiring a quiet micro-g environment. The best practice for controlling cooler induced vibration relies on the principle of active momentum cancellation. In particular, the pressure wave generator typically contains two oppositely actuated piston compressors, while the single piston expander is counterbalanced by an auxiliary active counter-balancer. Active vibration cancellation is supervised by a dedicated DSP feed-forward controller, where the error signals are delivered by the vibration sensors (accelerometers or load cells). This can result in oversized, overweight and overpriced cryogenic coolers with degraded electromechanical performance and impaired reliability. The authors are advocating a reliable, compact, cost and power saving approach capitalizing on the combined application of a passive tuned dynamic absorber and a low frequency vibration isolator. This concept appears to be especially suitable for low budget missions involving mini and micro satellites, where price, size, weight and power consumption are of concern. The authors reveal the results of theoretical study and experimentation on the attainable performance using a fullscale technology demonstrator relying on a Ricor model K527 tactical split Stirling cryogenic cooler. The theoretical predictions are in fair agreement with the experimental data. From experimentation, the residual vibration export is quite suitable for demanding wide range of aerospace applications. The authors give practical recommendations on heatsinking and further maximizing performance.

  4. Use of a multiwavelength pyrometer in several elevated temperature aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Daniel; Fralick, Gustave

    2001-02-01

    A multiwavelength pyrometer was developed for applications unique to aerospace environments. It was shown to be a useful and versatile technique for measuring temperature, even when the emissivity is unknown. It has also been used to measure the surface temperatures of ceramic zircornia thermal barrier coatings and alumina. The close agreement between pyrometer and thin film thermocouple temperatures provided an independent check. Other applications of the multiwavelength pyrometer are simultaneous surface and bulk temperature measurements of a transparent material, and combustion gas temperature measurement using a special probe interfaced to the multiwavelength pyrometer via an optical fiber. The multiwavelength pyrometer determined temperature by transforming the radiation spectrum in a broad wavelength region to produce a straight line (in a certain spectral region), whose intercept in the vertical axis gives the temperature. Implicit in a two-color pyrometer is the assumption of wavelength independent emissivity. Though the two data points of a two-color pyrometer similarly processed would result immediately in a similar straight line to give the unknown temperature, the two-color pyrometer lacks the greater data redundancy of the multiwavelength pyrometer, which enables it to do so with improved accuracy. It also confirms that emissivity is indeed wavelength independent, as evidenced by a multitude of the data lying on a simple straight line. The multiwavelength pyrometer was also used to study the optical transmission properties of a nanostructured material from which a quadratic exponential functional frequency dependence of its spectral transmission was determined. Finally, by operating the multiwavelength pyrometer in a very wide field of view mode, the surface temperature distribution of a large hot surface was obtained through measurement of just a single radiation spectrum.

  5. System Engineering of Aerospace and Advanced Technology Programs at AN Astronautics Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Mike O.

    The purpose of this Record of Study is to document an internship with the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver, Colorado that was performed in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Engineering degree at Texas A&M University, and to demonstrate that the internship objectives have been met. The internship included assignments with two Martin Marietta companies, on three different programs and in four areas of engineering. The Record of Study takes a first-hand look at system engineering, SDI and advanced program management, and the way Martin Marietta conducts business. The five internship objectives were related to assignments in system modeling, system integration, engineering analysis and technical management. In support of the first objective, the effects of thermally and mechanically induced mirror surface distortions upon the wavefront intensity field of a high energy laser beam passing through the optical train of a space-based laser system were modeled. To satisfy the second objective, the restrictive as opposed to the broad interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty, and the capability of the Strategic Defense Initiative Zenith Star Program to comply with the Treaty were evaluated. For the third objective, the capability of Martin Marietta to develop an automated analysis system to integrate and analyze Superconducting Super Collider detector designs was investigated. For the fourth objective, the thermal models that were developed in support of the Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile flight tests were described. And in response to the fifth objective, the technical management role of the Product Integrity Engineer assigned to the Zenith Star spacecraft's Beam Control and Transfer Subsystem was discussed. This Record of Study explores the relationships between the engineering, business, security and social concerns associated with the practice of engineering and the management of programs by a major defense contractor.

  6. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  7. Aerospace Environment. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Smith, J. C.

    This book is one in the series on Aerospace Education I. It briefly reviews current knowledge of the universe, the earth and its life-supporting atmosphere, and the arrangement of celestial bodies in outer space and their physical characteristics. Chapter 1 includes a brief survey of the aerospace environment. Chapters 2 and 3 examine the…

  8. NASA Application Team Program: Application of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program in technology application for the reporting period September 1, 1972, to August 31, 1973 are reported. The accomplishments of the application team during the reporting period are as follows: The team has identified 39 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 4 potential technology applications, 2 impacts, has closed 38 old problems, and has a total of 59 problems under active investigation.

  9. Development of a Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid System Model for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeh, Joshua E.; Pratt, Joseph W.; Brouwer, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Recent interest in fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid applications for the aerospace industry has led to the need for accurate computer simulation models to aid in system design and performance evaluation. To meet this requirement, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and fuel processor models have been developed and incorporated into the Numerical Propulsion Systems Simulation (NPSS) software package. The SOFC and reformer models solve systems of equations governing steady-state performance using common theoretical and semi-empirical terms. An example hybrid configuration is presented that demonstrates the new capability as well as the interaction with pre-existing gas turbine and heat exchanger models. Finally, a comparison of calculated SOFC performance with experimental data is presented to demonstrate model validity. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Reformer, System Model, Aerospace, Hybrid System, NPSS

  10. A Unified Model for Predicting the Open Hole Tensile and Compressive Strengths of Composite Laminates for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Paul; Pineda, Evan J.; Heinrich, Christian; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The open hole tensile and compressive strengths are important design parameters in qualifying fiber reinforced laminates for a wide variety of structural applications in the aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a unified model that can be used for predicting both these strengths (tensile and compressive) using the same set of coupon level, material property data. As a prelude to the unified computational model that follows, simplified approaches, referred to as "zeroth order", "first order", etc. with increasing levels of fidelity are first presented. The results and methods presented are practical and validated against experimental data. They serve as an introductory step in establishing a virtual building block, bottom-up approach to designing future airframe structures with composite materials. The results are useful for aerospace design engineers, particularly those that deal with airframe design.

  11. Aerospace applications of SINDA/FLUINT at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Bellmore, Phillip E.; Andish, Kambiz K.; Keller, John R.

    1992-01-01

    SINDA/FLUINT has been found to be a versatile code for modeling aerospace systems involving single or two-phase fluid flow and all modes of heat transfer. Several applications of SINDA/FLUINT are described in this paper. SINDA/FLUINT is being used extensively to model the single phase water loops and the two-phase ammonia loops of the Space Station Freedom active thermal control system (ATCS). These models range from large integrated system models with multiple submodels to very detailed subsystem models. An integrated Space Station ATCS model has been created with ten submodels representing five water loops, three ammonia loops, a Freon loop and a thermal submodel representing the air loop. The model, which has approximately 800 FLUINT lumps and 300 thermal nodes, is used to determine the interaction between the multiple fluid loops which comprise the Space Station ATCS. Several detailed models of the flow-through radiator subsystem of the Space Station ATCS have been developed. One model, which has approximately 70 FLUINT lumps and 340 thermal nodes, provides a representation of the ATCS low temperature radiator array with two fluid loops connected only by conduction through the radiator face sheet. The detailed models are used to determine parameters such as radiator fluid return temperature, fin efficiency, flow distribution and total heat rejection for the baseline design as well as proposed alternate designs. SINDA/FLUINT has also been used as a design tool for several systems using pressurized gasses. One model examined the pressurization and depressurization of the Space Station airlock under a variety of operating conditions including convection with the side walls and internal cooling. Another model predicted the performance of a new generation of manned maneuvering units. This model included high pressure gas depressurization, internal heat transfer and supersonic thruster equations. The results of both models were used to size components, such as the

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The following areas of NASA's responsibilities are examined: (1) the Space Transportation System (STS) operations and evolving program elements; (2) establishment of the Space Station program organization and issuance of requests for proposals to the aerospace industry; and (3) NASA's aircraft operations, including research and development flight programs for two advanced X-type aircraft.

  13. Aerospace Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschke, Jean; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Sauk Rapids (Minnesota) High School aviation and aerospace curriculum that was developed by Curtis Olson and the space program developed by Gerald Mayall at Philadelphia's Northeast High School. Both were developed in conjunction with NASA. (JOW)

  14. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  15. New Method Developed To Purify Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes have attracted considerable attention because of their remarkable mechanical properties and electrical and thermal conductivities. Use of these materials as primary or secondary reinforcements in polymers or ceramics could lead to new materials with significantly enhanced mechanical strength and electrical and thermal conductivity. Use of carbon-nanotube-reinforced materials in aerospace components will enable substantial reductions in component weight and improvements in durability and safety. Potential applications for single wall carbon nanotubes include lightweight components for vehicle structures and propulsion systems, fuel cell components (bipolar plates and electrodes) and battery electrodes, and ultra-lightweight materials for use in solar sails. A major barrier to the successful use of carbon nanotubes in these components is the need for methods to economically produce pure carbon nanotubes in large enough quantities to not only evaluate their suitability for certain applications but also produce actual components. Most carbon nanotube synthesis methods, including the HiPCO (high pressure carbon monoxide) method developed by Smalley and others, employ metal catalysts that remain trapped in the final product. These catalyst impurities can affect nanotube properties and accelerate their decomposition. The development of techniques to remove most, if not all, of these impurities is essential to their successful use in practical applications. A new method has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to purify gram-scale quantities of single wall carbon nanotubes. This method, a modification of a gas phase purification technique previously reported by Smalley and others, uses a combination of high-temperature oxidations and repeated extractions with nitric and hydrochloric acid. This improved procedure significantly reduces the amount of impurities (catalyst and nonnanotube forms of carbon) within the nanotubes, increasing

  16. A Program of Research and Education in Aerospace Structures at the Joint Institute for Advancement of Flight Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, Robert H.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the cooperative effort with NASA was to conduct research related to aerospace structures and to increase the quality and quantity of highly trained engineers knowledgeable about aerospace structures. The program has successfully met the objectives and has been of significant benefit to NASA LARC, the GWU and the nation. The program was initiated with 3 students in 1994 under the direction of Dr. Robert Tolson as the Principal Investigator. Since initiation, 14 students have been involved in the program, resulting in 11 MS degrees with 2 more expected in 2000. The 11 MS theses and projects are listed. For technology transfer purposes some research is not reported in thesis form. Graduates from the program have been hired at aerospace and other companies across the nation, providing GWU and LARC with important industry and government contacts.

  17. Bibliographic Networks and Microcomputer Applications for Aerospace and Defense Scientific and Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartt, Richard W.

    This report discusses the characteristics, operations, and automation requirements of technical libraries providing services to organizations involved in aerospace and defense scientific and technical work, and describes the Local Automation Model project. This on-going project is designed to demonstrate the concept of a fully integrated library…

  18. Advances in uncooled systems applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Gonzalez, H.; Hegg, Ronald G.; Kostrzewa, K.; Le Pere, C.; Ton, S.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Miller, James E.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.

    2003-09-01

    The Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program recently demonstrated state-of-the-art imagery in a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 x 480 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The 640 x 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions. The intent of this DUS&T effort was to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging. In addition, the Advanced Uncooled Thermal Imaging Sensors (AUTIS) Program extended this development to light-weight, compact unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications.

  19. Ball Aerospace AMSD Progress Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, Mark; Brown, Robert; Chaney, David; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator program being performed by Ball Aerospace is presented. The hexagonal low-areal density Beryllium mirror blank has been fabricated and undergoing polishing at the time of this presentation.

  20. Applications of hybrid and digital computation methods in aerospace-related sciences and engineering. [problem solving methods at the University of Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Motard, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The computing equipment in the engineering systems simulation laboratory of the Houston University Cullen College of Engineering is described and its advantages are summarized. The application of computer techniques in aerospace-related research psychology and in chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, and mechanical engineering is described in abstracts of 84 individual projects and in reprints of published reports. Research supports programs in acoustics, energy technology, systems engineering, and environment management as well as aerospace engineering.

  1. Enzyme Mimics: Advances and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kuah, Evelyn; Toh, Seraphina; Yee, Jessica; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-13

    Enzyme mimics or artificial enzymes are a class of catalysts that have been actively pursued for decades and have heralded much interest as potentially viable alternatives to natural enzymes. Aside from having catalytic activities similar to their natural counterparts, enzyme mimics have the desired advantages of tunable structures and catalytic efficiencies, excellent tolerance to experimental conditions, lower cost, and purely synthetic routes to their preparation. Although still in the midst of development, impressive advances have already been made. Enzyme mimics have shown immense potential in the catalysis of a wide range of chemical and biological reactions, the development of chemical and biological sensing and anti-biofouling systems, and the production of pharmaceuticals and clean fuels. This Review concerns the development of various types of enzyme mimics, namely polymeric and dendrimeric, supramolecular, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics, with an emphasis on their synthesis, catalytic properties and technical applications. It provides an introduction to enzyme mimics and a comprehensive summary of the advances and current standings of their applications, and seeks to inspire researchers to perfect the design and synthesis of enzyme mimics and to tailor their functionality for a much wider range of applications. PMID:27062126

  2. Light-weight alloys for aerospace applications; Proceedings of the Symposium, Las Vegas, NV, Feb. 28-Mar. 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.W.; Chia, E.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on lightweight alloys for aerospace applications are presented. Individual topics addressed include: P/M-aluminum alloy for high-temperature application, elevated temperature behavior of RST Al-Ti-X alloys, microstructural characterization of rapidly solidified Al-Ze-V alloys, high-strength aluminum alloys for aerospace applications, oxidation behavior of some Mg-Li and Mg-Li-SI alloys, the effect of various environments on fatigue crack propagation in a 2090 Al-Li alloy, and surface-generated scratches and their effects on the fatigue life of Al-Li alloys. Consideration is given to the stretch formability of sheet Al-Li, hydrogen solution in Al-Li alloys, particle-reinforced aluminum-based composites, applications for discontinuously reinforced aluminum, age hardening of cast SiC-reinforced Mg-6Zn, superplasticity in high-strength aluminum alloys and in spray-deposited 7075 Al alloys, and superplastic behavior in an aluminum-lithium alloy.

  3. In-situ phosphatizing coatings for aerospace, OEM and coil coating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuder, Heather Aurelia

    dispersed into an ISPC and the performance of the final coating formulation is evaluated. Successful ISPCs formulated for multiple coating systems exhibited excellent adhesion, hardness and gloss, which supports their suitability as a chrome-free, single-step alternative for aerospace, original equipment manufacturing (OEM) and coil coating applications.

  4. Combinatorial Optimization Algorithms for Dynamic Multiple Fault Diagnosis in Automotive and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodali, Anuradha

    facility, respectively. The set-covering matrix encapsulates the relationship among the rows (tests or demand points) and columns (faults or locations) of the system at each time. By relaxing the coupling constraints using Lagrange multipliers, the DSC problem can be decoupled into independent subproblems, one for each column. Each subproblem is solved using the Viterbi decoding algorithm, and a primal feasible solution is constructed by modifying the Viterbi solutions via a heuristic. The proposed Viterbi-Lagrangian relaxation algorithm (VLRA) provides a measure of suboptimality via an approximate duality gap. As a major practical extension of the above problem, we also consider the problem of diagnosing faults with delayed test outcomes, termed delay-dynamic set-covering (DDSC), and experiment with real-world problems that exhibit masking faults. Also, we present simulation results on OR-library datasets (set-covering formulations are predominantly validated on these matrices in the literature), posed as facility location problems. Finally, we implement these algorithms to solve problems in aerospace and automotive applications. Firstly, we address the diagnostic ambiguity problem in aerospace and automotive applications by developing a dynamic fusion framework that includes dynamic multiple fault diagnosis algorithms. This improves the correct fault isolation rate, while minimizing the false alarm rates, by considering multiple faults instead of the traditional data-driven techniques based on single fault (class)-single epoch (static) assumption. The dynamic fusion problem is formulated as a maximum a posteriori decision problem of inferring the fault sequence based on uncertain outcomes of multiple binary classifiers over time. The fusion process involves three steps: the first step transforms the multi-class problem into dichotomies using error correcting output codes (ECOC), thereby solving the concomitant binary classification problems; the second step fuses the

  5. Nanobiocatalyst advancements and bioprocessing applications

    PubMed Central

    Misson, Mailin; Zhang, Hu; Jin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The nanobiocatalyst (NBC) is an emerging innovation that synergistically integrates advanced nanotechnology with biotechnology and promises exciting advantages for improving enzyme activity, stability, capability and engineering performances in bioprocessing applications. NBCs are fabricated by immobilizing enzymes with functional nanomaterials as enzyme carriers or containers. In this paper, we review the recent developments of novel nanocarriers/nanocontainers with advanced hierarchical porous structures for retaining enzymes, such as nanofibres (NFs), mesoporous nanocarriers and nanocages. Strategies for immobilizing enzymes onto nanocarriers made from polymers, silicas, carbons and metals by physical adsorption, covalent binding, cross-linking or specific ligand spacers are discussed. The resulting NBCs are critically evaluated in terms of their bioprocessing performances. Excellent performances are demonstrated through enhanced NBC catalytic activity and stability due to conformational changes upon immobilization and localized nanoenvironments, and NBC reutilization by assembling magnetic nanoparticles into NBCs to defray the high operational costs associated with enzyme production and nanocarrier synthesis. We also highlight several challenges associated with the NBC-driven bioprocess applications, including the maturation of large-scale nanocarrier synthesis, design and development of bioreactors to accommodate NBCs, and long-term operations of NBCs. We suggest these challenges are to be addressed through joint collaboration of chemists, engineers and material scientists. Finally, we have demonstrated the great potential of NBCs in manufacturing bioprocesses in the near future through successful laboratory trials of NBCs in carbohydrate hydrolysis, biofuel production and biotransformation. PMID:25392397

  6. Multi-Segment Hemodynamic and Volume Assessment With Impedance Plethysmography: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Definition of multi-segmental circulatory and volume changes in the human body provides an understanding of the physiologic responses to various aerospace conditions. We have developed instrumentation and testing procedures at NASA Ames Research Center that may be useful in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Specialized two, four, and six channel impedance systems will be described that have been used to measure calf, thigh, thoracic, arm, and cerebral hemodynamic and volume changes during various experimental investigations.

  7. Trends in aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments indicate that there may soon be a revolution in aerospace structures. Increases in allowable operational stress levels, utilization of high-strength, high-toughness materials, and new structural concepts will highlight this advancement. Improved titanium and aluminum alloys and high-modulus, high-strength advanced composites, with higher specific properties than aluminum and high-strength nickel alloys, are expected to be the principal materials. Significant advances in computer technology will cause major changes in the preliminary design cycle and permit solutions of otherwise too-complex interactive structural problems and thus the development of vehicles and components of higher performance. The energy crisis will have an impact on material costs and choices and will spur the development of more weight-efficient structures. There will also be significant spinoffs of aerospace structures technology, particularly in composites and design/analysis software.

  8. Progress in High Power Density SOFC Material Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Thomas L.; Sofie, Stephen W.; Setlock, John A.; Misra, Ajay K.

    2004-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems for aircraft applications require order of magnitude increase in specific power density and long life under aircraft operating conditions. Advanced SOFC materials and fabrication processes are being developed at NASA GRC to increase specific power density and durability of SOFC cell and stack. Initial research efforts for increasing specific power density are directed toward increasing the operating temperature for the SOFC system and reducing the weight of the stack. While significant research is underway to develop anode supported SOFC system operating at temperatures in the range of 650 - 850 C for ground power generation applications, such temperatures may not yield the power densities required for aircraft applications. For electrode-supported cells, SOFC stacks with power densities greater than 1.0 W/sq cm are favorable at temperatures in excess of 900 C. The performance of various commercial and developmental anode supported cells is currently being evaluated in the temperature range of 900 to 1000 C to assess the performance gains and materials reliability. The results from these studies will be presented. Since metal interconnects developed for lower temperature operation are not practical at these high temperatures, advanced perovskite based ceramic interconnects with high electronic conductivity and lower sintering temperatures are being developed. Another option for increasing specific power density of SOFC stacks is to decrease the stack weight. Since the interconnect contributes to a significant portion of the stack weight, considerable weight benefits can be derived by decreasing its thickness. Eliminating the gas channels in the interconnect by engineering the pore structure in both anode and cathode can offer significant reduction in thickness of the ceramic interconnect material. New solid oxide fuel cells are being developed with porous engineered electrode supported structures with a 10 - 20 micron thin

  9. Performances and reliability predictions of optical data transmission links using a system simulator for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechou, L.; Deshayes, Y.; Aupetit-Berthelemot, C.; Guerin, A.; Tronche, C.

    - requency carrier) on system performances (eye diagram, quality factor and BER). The studied link consists in 4× 2.5 Gbits/s WDM channels with direct modulation and equally spaced (0,8 nm) around the 1550 nm central wavelength. Results clearly show that variation of fundamental parameters such as bias current or central wavelength induces a penalization of dynamic performances of the complete WDM link. In addition different degradation kinetics of aged Laser diodes from a same batch have been implemented to build the final distribution of Q-factor and BER values after 25 years. When considering long optical distance, fiber attenuation, EDFA noise, dispersion, PMD, ... penalize network performances that can be compensated using Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding. Three methods have been investigated in the case of On-Off Keying (OOK) transmission over an unipolar optical channel corrupted by Gaussian noise. Such system simulations highlight the impact of component parameter degradations on the whole network performances allowing to optimize various time and cost consuming sensitivity analyses at the early stage of the system development. Thus the validity of failure criteria in relation with mission profiles can be evaluated representing a significant part of the general PDfR effort in particular for aerospace applications.

  10. Advances and Applications for Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; Schwartz, Susan; Arrowsmith, Ramon

    2010-07-01

    2010 UNAVCO Science Workshop; Boulder, Colorado, 8-11 March 2010; Geodesy's reach has expanded rapidly in recent years as EarthScope and international data sets have grown and new disciplinary applications have emerged. To explore advances in geodesy and its applications in geoscience research and education, approximately 170 scientists (representing 11 countries: Colombia, Denmark, Ecuador, France, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Spain, and the United States), including 15 students, gathered at the 2010 UNAVCO Science Workshop in Colorado. UNAVCO is a nonprofit membership-governed consortium that facilitates geoscience research and education using geodesy. Plenary sessions integrated discovery with broad impact and viewed geodesy through three lenses: (1) pixel-by-pixel geodetic imaging where various remote sensing methodologies are revealing fine-scale changes in the near-surface environment and the geologic processes responsible for them; (2) epoch-by-epoch deformation time series measured in seconds to millennia, which are uncovering ephemeral processes associated with the earthquake cycle and glacial and groundwater flow; and (3) emerging observational powers from advancing geodetic technologies. A fourth plenary session dealt with geodesy and water, a new strategic focus on the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and changing climate. Keynotes included a historical perspective by Bernard Minster (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) on space geodesy and its applications to geophysics, and a summary talk by Susan Eriksson (UNAVCO) on the successes of Research Experience in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS) and its 5-year follow-on with opportunities to mentor the next generation of geoscientists through cultivation of diversity.

  11. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  12. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  13. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  14. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  15. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  16. Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards. The Executive Summary of this Conference is published as NASA CP-3297.

  17. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 1: Model development and applications, part A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The development, fabrication and evaluation of a prototype electromechanical actuator (EMA) is discussed. Application of the EMA as a motor for control surfaces in aerospace flight is examined. A mathematical model of the EMA is developed for design optimization. Nonlinearities which complicate the mathematical model are discussed. The dynamics of the EMA from the underlying physical principles are determined and a discussion of similating the control logic by means of equivalent boolean expressions is presented.

  18. Trajectory optimization and guidance law development for national aerospace plane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Flandro, G. A.; Corban, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The work completed to date is comprised of the following: a simple vehicle model representative of the aerospace plane concept in the hypersonic flight regime, fuel-optimal climb profiles for the unconstrained and dynamic pressure constrained cases generated using a reduced order dynamic model, an analytic switching condition for transition to rocket powered flight as orbital velocity is approached, simple feedback guidance laws for both the unconstrained and dynamic pressure constrained cases derived via singular perturbation theory and a nonlinear transformation technique, and numerical simulation results for ascent to orbit in the dynamic pressure constrained case.

  19. Selection, testing, lubrication, and sealing of single row tapered roller bearings for aerospace wheel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    The paper describes available technology and current aerospace industry practices used for the selection, testing, lubrication, and sealing of single row tapered roller bearings to reduce bearing damage as a problem in the aircraft industry. Particular attention is given to the military publications available from Standardization Documents Order Desk and to other publications that can be used as reference; the bearing quality classification, analytical sizing, fatigue analysis, operating conditions, and lubrications; the design of bearing sealing and the environment to be concerned with; and the laboratory testing and aircraft monitoring of single row tapered roller bearings.

  20. Space Benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Some 585 examples of the beneficial use of NASA aerospace technology by public and private organizations are described to demonstrate the effects of mission-oriented programs on technological progress in the United States. General observations regarding technology transfer activity are presented. Benefit cases are listed in 20 categories along with pertinent information such as communication link with NASA; the DRI transfer example file number; and individual case numbers associated with the technology and examples used; and the date of the latest contract with user organizations. Subject, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are included.

  1. Benefits briefing notebook: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy is presented. The contents of this notebook are divided into three sections: (1) benefit cases, (2) transfer overview, and (3) indexes. Transfer examples relevant to each subject area are presented. Pertinent transfer data are given. The Transfer Overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented.

  2. Potential applications of computational fluid dynamics to biofluid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.; Rogers, S. E.; Rosenfeld, M.; Kwak, D.

    1988-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was developed to the stage where it has become an indispensable part of aerospace research and design. In view of advances made in aerospace applications, the computational approach can be used for biofluid mechanics research. Several flow simulation methods developed for aerospace problems are briefly discussed for potential applications to biofluids, especially to blood flow analysis.

  3. Science Applications Appropriate for Investigation with Uninhabited Aerospace Systems (UASs) in the next 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, G. M.

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle (ARM UAV) program and the ARM Aerial Vehicle Program (ARM AVP) have explored the use of uninhabited aerospace systems (UASs) for collecting data to address the largest source of uncertainty in global warming studies, namely the interaction of clouds with solar and terrestrial radiation. This presentation will review the past use of UASs and the measurement techniques and instruments suitable for UASs that were developed within ARM UAV. Thereafter it will be shown that UASs have unique capabilities (long endurance flights, the potential to make routine or continuous flights, the ability to fly in under sampled regions, and the capability to fly closely stacked patterns at multiple levels) that make them highly appropriate for research in the atmospheric sciences. Science questions better suited for exploration with UASs than with piloted aircraft will then be reviewed. These include observing convective cloud systems over their complete lifetime, determining how atmospheric properties vary over multiple scales, resolving how cloud properties vary with meteorological conditions and aerosol composition and optical depth, determining how cloud properties vary with sea surface temperature, making observations in data sparse regions, providing a comprehensive data set for evaluation of remote sensing retrievals, and quantifying atmospheric heating rate profiles.

  4. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 'Benefit Briefing Notebook' was prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office to provide accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The contents are divided into three sections: (1) transfer overview, (2) benefit cases, and (3) indexes. The transfer overview section provides a general perspective for technology transfer from NASA to other organizations. In addition to a description of the basic transfer modes, the selection criteria for notebook examples and the kinds of benefit data they contain are also presented. The benefits section is subdivided into nineteen subject areas. Each subsection presents one or more key issues of current interest, with discrete transfer cases related to each key issue. Additional transfer examples relevant to each subject area are then presented. Pertinent transfer data are given at the end of each example.

  5. High-voltage, high-power, solid-state remote power controllers for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Two general types of remote power controller (RPC) that combine the functions of a circuit breaker and a switch were developed for use in direct-current (dc) aerospace systems. Power-switching devices used in these designs are the relatively new gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) and poweer metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET). The various RPC's can switch dc voltages to 1200 V and currents to 100 A. Seven different units were constructed and subjected to comprehensive laboratory and thermal vacuum testing. Two of these were dual units that switch both positive and negative voltages simultaneously. The RPC's using MOSFET's have slow turnon and turnoff times to limit voltage spiking from high di/dt. The GTO's have much faster transition times. All RPC's have programmable overload tripout and microsecond tripout for large overloads. The basic circuits developed can be used to build switchgear limited only by the ratings of the switching device used.

  6. Reinforcement of poly ether sulphones (PES) with exfoliated graphene oxide for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-09-01

    Composite materials have been used for aerospace for some time now and have gained virtually 100% acceptance as the materials of choice. Speciality polymers like poly ether sulphones (PES), poly ether ether ketones(PEEK), poly ether imides (PEI) are highly preferred materials as plastic matrix due to their superior temperature performance, excellent wear & friction resistance, excellent dimensional accuracy, high tensile strength, high modulus, precise machinability and chemical resistance. In recent years nanoadditives like single and multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphenes and graphene oxides(GO) are finding huge market potential in aerospace and automobile industries. But manufacture related factors such as particle/ matrix interphases, surface activation, mixing process, particle agglomeration, particle size and shape may lead to different property effects. In this research GO/PES composites were prepared by high shear melt blending technique. GO monolayers were exfoliated from natural graphite flake and dispersed homogeneously in PES matrix for the GO content ranging between 0.5 to 2.0 volume percentage with a high shear twin screw batch mixer. These melt blended nanocomposites were injection moulded for mechanical property validation of tensile strength, flexural modulus and impact resistance. Addition of 0.5 volume percentage of GO enhanced the tensile strength and flexural modulus by 40% and 90% respectively. The results show that addition of GO to PES increase mechanical properties due to the formation of continuous network, good dispersion and strong interfacial interactions. The strong interfacial interactions were accounted for the increase in glass transition temperature. Also there was a significant improvement in the impact resistance of the PES/ GO nanocomposite. The injection moulded samples were tested for stealth performance by measuring the electromagnetic shielding property.

  7. Numerical simulation of dynamics of brushless dc motors for aerospace and other applications. Volume 2: User's guide to computer EMA model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A. O.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A description and user's guide of the computer program developed to simulate the dynamics of an electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications are presented. The effects of the stator phase currents on the permanent magnets of the rotor are examined. The voltage and current waveforms present in the power conditioner network during the motoring, regenerative braking, and plugging modes of operation are presented and discussed.

  8. Aerospace gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  9. An Application of the Study of Granular Shocks to Aerospace Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, David Alan

    Granular systems are collections of macroscopic particles which interact with each other through contact. Common examples of granular systems are piles of sand, actual grain in silos or other storage facilities, and industrial powders. Researchers display a heavy interest in granular materials because they are ubiquitous in the world, but their states and interactions with other matter are difficult to describe mathematically. One of the many counterintuitive facts about granular systems is that, under certain circumstances, granular systems can behave like fluids and exhibit shock wave behavior. This dissertation details the development of an event-driven simulation to study the behavior of granular systems as well as some observations made by examining different granular systems as they impact wedges and discs. This dissertation also discusses a novel method of exploiting the shock behavior of granular systems in order to investigate problems in aerospace engineering. Typical computational fluid dynamics solvers can be inefficient when dealing with flows which include shock waves. Prior knowledge of the location of shock waves in a flow can help engineers create CFD grids that allow fluid dynamics solvers to converge faster than they otherwise would and still preserve the accuracy of the solution. By investigating an ideal fluid system with an analogous granular system, the locations of the shock waves are observed and efficient grids for solving the Navier- Stokes equations are developed. Through case studies, this dissertation will show that such efficient grids lead to fluid flow solutions which converge in much less time than comparable fine grids.

  10. Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) technology development for application to the National Aerospace Plane (NASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, Richard L.; Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.; Richter, G. Paul

    1989-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program is giving us the opportunity to reach new unique answers in a number of engineering categories. The answers are considered enhancing technology or enabling technology. Airframe materials and densified propellants are examples of enabling technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lewis Research Center has the task of providing the technology data which will be used as the basis to decide if slush hydrogen (SLH2) will be the fuel of choice for the NASP. The objectives of this NASA Lewis program are: (1) to provide, where possible, verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems, and (2) to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. This program is a multiyear multimillion dollar effort. The present pursuit of the above listed objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. The NASA Lewis overall program plan is summarized. The initial implementation of the plan will be unfolded and the present level of efforts in each of the resource areas will be discussed. Results already in hand will be pointed out. A description of additionally planned near-term experimental and analytical work is described.

  11. Application of powder metallurgy technique to produce improved bearing elements for cryogenic aerospace engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxson, V. S.; Moracz, D. J.; Bhat, B. N.; Dolan, F. J.; Thom, R.

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, vacuum melted 440C stainless steel is used for high performance bearings for aerospace cryogenic systems where corrosion due to condensation is a major concern. For the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), however, 440C performance in the high-pressure turbopumps has been marginal. A basic assumption of this study was that powder metallurgy, rather than cast/wrought, processing would provide the finest, most homogeneous bearing alloy structure. Preliminary testing of P/M alloys (hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, and fracture toughness) was used to 'de-select' alloys which did perform as well as baseline 440C. Five out of eleven candidate materials (14-4/6V, X-405, MRC-2001, T-440V, and D-5) based on preliminary screening were selected for the actual rolling-sliding five-ball testing. The results of this test were compared with high-performance vacuum-melted M50 bearing steel. The results of the testing indicated outstanding performance of two P/M alloys, X-405 and MRC-2001, which eventually will be further evaluated by full-scale bearing testing.

  12. Progress of Ongoing NASA Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Testing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara I.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2008-01-01

    A Lithium-ion Verification and Validation Program with the purpose to assess the capabilities of current aerospace lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cells to perform in a low-earth-orbit (LEO) regime was initiated in 2002. This program involves extensive characterization and LEO life testing at ten different combinations of depth-of-discharge, temperature, and end-of-charge voltage. The test conditions selected for the life tests are defined as part of a statistically designed test matrix developed to determine the effects of operating conditions on performance and life of Li-ion cells. Results will be used to model and predict cell performance and degradation as a function of test operating conditions. Testing is being performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Crane Division in Crane, Indiana. Testing was initiated in September 2004 with 40 Ah cells from Saft and 30 Ah cells from Lithion. The test program has been expanded with the addition of modules composed of 18650 cells from ABSL Power Solutions in April 2006 and the addition of 50 Ah cells from Mine Safety Appliances Co. (MSA) in June 2006. Preliminary results showing the average voltage and average available discharge capacity for the Saft and Lithion packs at the test conditions versus cycles are presented.

  13. Basic Aerospace Education Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Lists the most significant resource items on aerospace education which are presently available. Includes source books, bibliographies, directories, encyclopedias, dictionaries, audiovisuals, curriculum/planning guides, aerospace statistics, aerospace education statistics and newsletters. (BR)

  14. Aerospace Education - An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the surge of interest throughout the country in aerospace education and discusses what aerospace education is, the implications in career education and the relevance of aerospace education in the curriculum. (BR)

  15. National Aerospace Professional Societies and Associations and Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Arthur J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This session will highlight several highly recognized National Technical and Professional Aerospace Societies, Associations and Organizations that are dedicated to the advancement of the theories, practices and unique applications of Science, Engineering and related Aerospace Activities ongoing in the United States. The emphasis will be on at least three (3) Aerospace Organizations, while reference many others. This paper will provide a wealth of educational references, information, opportunities and services available through many of the National and Local Chapter Affiliates, associated with the respective associations. Again, all experience and knowledge levels (K-12) will benefit from this information and reference material. Reference materials and other points of contact will be made available to all attendees.

  16. AI aerospace components

    SciTech Connect

    Heindel, T.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Rasmussen, A.N.; Mcfarland, R.Z.; Montgomery, R.E.; Pohle, G.E.; Heard, A.E.; Atkinson, D.J.; Wedlake, W.E.; Anderson, J.M. Mitre Corp., Houston, TX Unisys Corp., Houston, TX Rockwell International Corp., El Segundo, CA NASA, Kennedy Space Center, Cocoa Beach, FL JPL, Pasadena, CA Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Austin, TX McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., McLean, VA )

    1991-10-01

    An evaluation is made of the application of novel, AI-capabilities-related technologies to aerospace systems. Attention is given to expert-system shells for Space Shuttle Orbiter mission control, manpower and processing cost reductions at the NASA Kennedy Space Center's 'firing rooms' for liftoff monitoring, the automation of planetary exploration systems such as semiautonomous mobile robots, and AI for battlefield staff-related functions.

  17. Applications of aerospace technology in industry. A technology transfer profile: Food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    Food processing and preservation technologies are reviewed, expected technological advances are considered including processing and market factors. NASA contributions to food technology and nutrition are presented with examples of transfer from NASA to industry.

  18. Recent progress in OLED and flexible displays and their potential for application to aerospace and military display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2015-05-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) display technology has advanced significantly in recent years and it is increasingly being adapted in consumer electronics products with premium performance, such as high resolution smart phones, Tablet PCs and TVs. Even flexible OLED displays are beginning to be commercialized in consumer electronic devices such as smart phones and smart watches. In addition to the advances in OLED emitters, successful development and adoption of OLED displays for premium performance applications relies on the advances in several enabling technologies including TFT backplanes, pixel drive electronics, pixel patterning technologies, encapsulation technologies and system level engineering. In this paper we will discuss the impact of the recent advances in LTPS and AOS TFTs, R, G, B and White OLED with color filter pixel architectures, and encapsulation, on the success of the OLEDs in consumer electronic devices. We will then discuss potential of these advances in addressing the requirements of OLED and flexible displays for the military and avionics applications.

  19. Application of advanced materials to rotating machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

  20. The Aerospace Age. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is written for use only in the Air Force ROTC program and cannot be purchased on the open market. The book describes the historical development of aerospace industry. The first chapter contains a brief review of the aerospace environment and the nature of technological changes brought by the aerospace revolution. The following chapter…

  1. New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; West, William C.; Kindler, Andrew; Smart, Marshall C.

    2013-01-01

    Future sustainable energy generation technologies such as photovoltaic and wind farms require advanced energy storage systems on a massive scale to make the alternate (green) energy options practical. The daunting requirements of such large-scale energy systems such as long operating and cycle life, safety, and low cost are not adequately met by state-of-the-art energy storage technologies such as vanadium flow cells, lead-acid, and zinc-bromine batteries. Much attention is being paid to redox batteries specifically to the vanadium redox battery (VRB) due to their simplicity, low cost, and good life characteristics compared to other related battery technologies. NASA is currently seeking high-specific- energy and long-cycle-life rechargeable batteries in the 10-to-100-kW range to support future human exploration missions, such as planetary habitats, human rovers, etc. The flow batteries described above are excellent candidates for these applications, as well as other applications that propose to use regenerative fuel cells. A new flow cell technology is proposed based on coupling two novel electrodes in the form of solvated electron systems (SES) between an alkali (or alkaline earth) metal and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), separated by an ionically conducting separator. The cell reaction involves the formation of such SES with a PAH of high voltage in the cathode, while the alkali (or alkaline earth metal) is reduced from such an MPAH complex in the anode half-cell. During recharge, the reactions are reversed in both electrodes. In other words, the alkali (alkaline earth) metal ion simply shuttles from one M-PAH complex (SES) to another, which are separated by a metal-ion conducting solid or polymer electrolyte separator. As an example, the concept was demonstrated with Li-naphthalene//Li DDQ (DDQ is 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano- 1,4-benzoquinone) separated by lithium super ion conductor, either ceramic or polymer (solid polymer or gel polymer) electrolytes. The

  2. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  3. Analysis of Light Emitting Diode Technology for Aerospace Suitability in Human Space Flight Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treichel, Todd H.

    Commercial space designers are required to manage space flight designs in accordance with parts selections made from qualified parts listings approved by Department of Defense and NASA agencies for reliability and safety. The research problem was a government and private aerospace industry problem involving how LEDs cannot replace existing fluorescent lighting in manned space flight vehicles until such technology meets DOD and NASA requirements for reliability and safety, and effects on astronaut cognition and health. The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to determine to what extent commercial LEDs can suitably meet NASA requirements for manufacturer reliability, color reliability, robustness to environmental test requirements, and degradation effects from operational power, while providing comfortable ambient light free of eyestrain to astronauts in lieu of current fluorescent lighting. A fractional factorial experiment tested white and blue LEDs for NASA required space flight environmental stress testing and applied operating current. The second phase of the study used a randomized block design, to test human factor effects of LEDs and a qualified ISS fluorescent for retinal fatigue and eye strain. Eighteen human subjects were recruited from university student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Findings for Phase 1 testing showed that commercial LEDs met all DOD and NASA requirements for manufacturer reliability, color reliability, robustness to environmental requirements, and degradation effects from operational power. Findings showed statistical significance for LED color and operational power variables but degraded light output levels did not fall below the industry recognized <70%. Findings from Phase 2 human factors testing showed no statistically significant evidence that the NASA approved ISS fluorescent lights or blue or white LEDs caused fatigue, eye strain and/or headache, when study participants perform

  4. Ball Aerospace Actuator Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, Lana; Lightsey, Paul; Quigley, Phil; Rutkowski, Joel; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ambient testing characterizing step size and repeatability for the Ball Aerospace Cryogenic Nano-Positioner actuators for the AMSD (Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator) program has been completed and are presented. Current cryogenic testing is underway. Earlier cryogenic test results for a pre-cursor engineering model are presented.

  5. A Survey of Challenges in Aerodynamic Exhaust Nozzle Technology for Aerospace Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shyne, Rickey J.

    2002-01-01

    The current paper discusses aerodynamic exhaust nozzle technology challenges for aircraft and space propulsion systems. Technology advances in computational and experimental methods have led to more accurate design and analysis tools, but many major challenges continue to exist in nozzle performance, jet noise and weight reduction. New generations of aircraft and space vehicle concepts dictate that exhaust nozzles have optimum performance, low weight and acceptable noise signatures. Numerous innovative nozzle concepts have been proposed for advanced subsonic, supersonic and hypersonic vehicle configurations such as ejector, mixer-ejector, plug, single expansion ramp, altitude compensating, lobed and chevron nozzles. This paper will discuss the technology barriers that exist for exhaust nozzles as well as current research efforts in place to address the barriers.

  6. Chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of silver nanocluster/silica composite coated textiles for safety systems and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, S.; Perero, S.; Miola, M.; Vernè, E.; Rosiello, A.; Ferrazzo, V.; Valletta, G.; Sanchez, J.; Ohrlander, M.; Tjörnhammar, S.; Fokine, M.; Laurell, F.; Blomberg, E.; Skoglund, S.; Odnevall Wallinder, I.; Ferraris, M.

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of a novel silver nanocluster/silica composite coating, obtained by sputtering, on textiles for use in nuclear bacteriological and chemical (NBC) protection suites and for aerospace applications. The properties of the coated textiles were analyzed in terms of surface morphology, silver concentration and silver release in artificial sweat and synthetic tap water, respectively. No release of silver nanoparticles was observed at given conditions. The water repellency, permeability, flammability and mechanical resistance of the textiles before and after sputtering demonstrated that the textile properties were not negatively affected by the coating. The antibacterial effect was evaluated at different experimental conditions using a standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus and compared with the behavior of uncoated textiles. The coating process conferred all textiles a good antibacterial activity. Optimal deposition conditions were elaborated to obtain sufficient antibacterial action without altering the aesthetical appearance of the textiles. The antibacterial coating retained its antibacterial activity after one cycle in a washing machine only for the Nylon based textile.

  7. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  8. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) 1993 annual report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by AlliedSignal Engines, a unit of AlliedSignal Aerospace Company, during calendar year 1993, toward development and demonstration of structural ceramic technology for automotive gas turbine engines. This work was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Contract DEN3-335, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATFAP). During 1993, the test bed used to demonstrate ceramic technology was changed from the AlliedSignal Engines/Garrett Model AGT101 regenerated gas turbine engine to the Model 331-200(CT) engine. The 331-200(CT) ceramic demonstrator is a fully-developed test platform based on the existing production AlliedSignal 331-200(ER) gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU), and is well suited to evaluating ceramic turbine blades and nozzles. In addition, commonality of the 331-200(CT) engine with existing gas turbine APU's in commercial service provides the potential for field testing of ceramic components. The 1993 ATTAP activities emphasized design modifications of the 331-200 engine test bed to accommodate ceramic first-stage turbine nozzles and blades, fabrication of the ceramic components, ceramic component proof and rig tests, operational tests of the test bed equipped with the ceramic components, and refinement of critical ceramic design technologies.

  9. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) 1993 annual report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes work performed by AlliedSignal Engines, a unit of AlliedSignal Aerospace Company, during calendar year 1993, toward development and demonstration of structural ceramic technology for automotive gas turbine engines. This work was performed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Contract DEN3-335, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATFAP). During 1993, the test bed used to demonstrate ceramic technology was changed from the AlliedSignal Engines/Garrett Model AGT101 regenerated gas turbine engine to the Model 331-200(CT) engine. The 331-200(CT) ceramic demonstrator is a fully-developed test platform based on the existing production AlliedSignal 331-200(ER) gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU), and is well suited to evaluating ceramic turbine blades and nozzles. In addition, commonality of the 331-200(CT) engine with existing gas turbine APU's in commercial service provides the potential for field testing of ceramic components. The 1993 ATTAP activities emphasized design modifications of the 331-200 engine test bed to accommodate ceramic first-stage turbine nozzles and blades, fabrication of the ceramic components, ceramic component proof and rig tests, operational tests of the test bed equipped with the ceramic components, and refinement of critical ceramic design technologies.

  10. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  11. Towards advanced OCT clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Agrba, Pavel; Pasukhin, Mikhail; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Plankina, Elena; Dudenkova, Varvara; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Kiseleva, Elena; Gladkova, Natalia; Shakhova, Natalia; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on our recent achievement in application of conventional and cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT) modalities for in vivo clinical diagnostics in different medical areas including gynecology, dermatology, and stomatology. In gynecology, CP OCT was employed for diagnosing fallopian tubes and cervix; in dermatology OCT for monitoring of treatment of psoriasis, scleroderma and atopic dermatitis; and in stomatology for diagnosis of oral diseases. For all considered application, we propose and develop different image processing methods which enhance the diagnostic value of the technique. In particular, we use histogram analysis, Fourier analysis and neural networks, thus calculating different tissue characteristics as revealed by OCT's polarization evolution. These approaches enable improved OCT image quantification and increase its resultant diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Aerospace Applications of Weibull and Monte Carlo Simulation with Importance Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavuso, Salvatore J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent developments in reliability modeling and computer technology have made it practical to use the Weibull time to failure distribution to model the system reliability of complex fault-tolerant computer-based systems. These system models are becoming increasingly popular in space systems applications as a result of mounting data that support the decreasing Weibull failure distribution and the expectation of increased system reliability. This presentation introduces the new reliability modeling developments and demonstrates their application to a novel space system application. The application is a proposed guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system for use in a long duration manned spacecraft for a possible Mars mission. Comparisons to the constant failure rate model are presented and the ramifications of doing so are discussed.

  13. Research on optimal control, stabilization and computational algorithms for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1985-01-01

    The research carried out in the areas of optimal control and estimation theory and its applications under this grant is reviewed. A listing of the 257 publications that document the research results is presented.

  14. Research on optimal control, stabilization and computational algorithms for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1984-01-01

    The research carried out in the areas of optimal control and estimation theory and its applications under this grant is reviewed. A listing of the 257 publications that document the research results is presented.

  15. Aerospace Applications Conference, Steamboat Springs, CO, Feb. 1-8, 1986, Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference considers topics concerning the projected NASA Space Station's systems, digital signal and data processing applications, and space science and microwave applications. Attention is given to Space Station video and audio subsystems design, clock error, jitter, phase error and differential time-of-arrival in satellite communications, automation and robotics in space applications, target insertion into synthetic background scenes, and a novel scheme for the computation of the discrete Fourier transform on a systolic processor. Also discussed are a novel signal parameter measurement system employing digital signal processing, EEPROMS for spacecraft applications, a unique concurrent processor architecture for high speed simulation of dynamic systems, a dual polarization flat plate antenna, Fresnel diffraction, and ultralinear TWTs for high efficiency satellite communications.

  16. Applications of aerospace technology in industry, a technology transfer profile: Contamination control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The strong influence NASA-sponsored research has had on the development of solutions to difficult contamination problems is considered. The contamination control field is comprised of an industrial base, supplying the tools of control; a user base, adopting control techniques; and a technical base, expanding the concepts of control. Both formal and informal mechanisms used by NASA to communicate a variety of technical advances are reviewed and certain examples of the expansion of the user base through technology transfer are given. Issues related to transfer of NASA-generated contamination control technology are emphasized.

  17. Examples of Current and Future Uses of Neural-Net Image Processing for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    Feed forward artificial neural networks are very convenient for performing correlated interpolation of pairs of complex noisy data sets as well as detecting small changes in image data. Image-to-image, image-to-variable and image-to-index applications have been tested at Glenn. Early demonstration applications are summarized including image-directed alignment of optics, tomography, flow-visualization control of wind-tunnel operations and structural-model-trained neural networks. A practical application is reviewed that employs neural-net detection of structural damage from interference fringe patterns. Both sensor-based and optics-only calibration procedures are available for this technique. These accomplishments have generated the knowledge necessary to suggest some other applications for NASA and Government programs. A tomography application is discussed to support Glenn's Icing Research tomography effort. The self-regularizing capability of a neural net is shown to predict the expected performance of the tomography geometry and to augment fast data processing. Other potential applications involve the quantum technologies. It may be possible to use a neural net as an image-to-image controller of an optical tweezers being used for diagnostics of isolated nano structures. The image-to-image transformation properties also offer the potential for simulating quantum computing. Computer resources are detailed for implementing the black box calibration features of the neural nets.

  18. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-05-12

    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  19. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  20. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisza, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry.

  1. Survey of Advanced Applications Over ACTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert; McMasters, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system provided a national testbed that enabled advanced applications to be tested and demonstrated over a live satellite link. Of the applications that used ACTS. some offered unique advantages over current methods, while others simply could not be accommodated by conventional systems. The initial technical and experiments results of the program were reported at the 1995 ACTS Results Conference. in Cleveland, Ohio. Since then, the Experiments Program has involved 45 new experiments comprising 30 application experiments and 15 technology related experiments that took advantage of the advanced technologies and unique capabilities offered by ACTS. The experiments are categorized and quantified to show the organizational mix of the experiments program and relative usage of the satellite. Since paper length guidelines preclude each experiment from being individually reported, the application experiments and significant demonstrations are surveyed to show the breadth of the activities that have been supported. Experiments in a similar application category are collectively discussed, such as. telemedicine. or networking and protocol evaluation. Where available. experiment conclusions and impact are presented and references of results and experiment information are provided. The quantity and diversity of the experiments program demonstrated a variety of service areas for the next generation of commercially available, advanced satellite communications.

  2. Verification and Validation Methodology of Real-Time Adaptive Neural Networks for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Pramod; Loparo, Kenneth; Mackall, Dale; Schumann, Johann; Soares, Fola

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has shown that adaptive neural based control systems are very effective in restoring stability and control of an aircraft in the presence of damage or failures. The application of an adaptive neural network with a flight critical control system requires a thorough and proven process to ensure safe and proper flight operation. Unique testing tools have been developed as part of a process to perform verification and validation (V&V) of real time adaptive neural networks used in recent adaptive flight control system, to evaluate the performance of the on line trained neural networks. The tools will help in certification from FAA and will help in the successful deployment of neural network based adaptive controllers in safety-critical applications. The process to perform verification and validation is evaluated against a typical neural adaptive controller and the results are discussed.

  3. NASA Non-Flow-Through PEM Fuel Cell System for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araghi, Koorosh R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching passive NFT Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technologies for primary fuel cell power plants in air-independent applications. NFT fuel cell power systems have a higher power density than flow through systems due to both reduced parasitic loads and lower system mass and volume. Reactant storage still dominates system mass/volume considerations. NFT fuel cell stack testing has demonstrated equivalent short term performance to flow through stacks. More testing is required to evaluate long-term performance.

  4. Challenges to Laser-Based Imaging Techniques in Gas Turbine Combustor Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.; Zaller, Michelle M.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly severe constraints on emissions, noise and fuel efficiency must be met by the next generation of commercial aircraft powerplants. At NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) a cooperative research effort with industry is underway to design and test combustors that will meet these requirements. To accomplish these tasks, it is necessary to gain both a detailed understanding of the combustion processes and a precise knowledge of combustor and combustor sub-component performance at close to actual conditions. To that end, researchers at LeRC are engaged in a comprehensive diagnostic investigation of high pressure reacting flowfields that duplicate conditions expected within the actual engine combustors. Unique, optically accessible flame-tubes and sector rig combustors, designed especially for these tests. afford the opportunity to probe these flowfields with the most advanced, laser-based optical diagnostic techniques. However, these same techniques, tested and proven on comparatively simple bench-top gaseous flame burners, encounter numerous restrictions and challenges when applied in these facilities. These include high pressures and temperatures, large flow rates, liquid fuels, remote testing, and carbon or other material deposits on combustor windows. Results are shown that document the success and versatility of these nonintrusive optical diagnostics despite the challenges to their implementation in realistic systems.

  5. Pressure Effects on Oxygen Concentration Flammability Thresholds of Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft materials selection is based on an upward flammability test conducted in a quiescent environment in the highest-expected oxygen-concentration environment. However, NASA s advanced space exploration program is anticipating using various habitable environments. Because limited data is available to support current program requirements, a different test logic is suggested to address these expanded atmospheric environments through the determination of materials self-extinguishment limits. This paper provides additional pressure effects data on oxygen concentration and partial pressure self-extinguishment limits under quiescent conditions. For the range of total pressures tested, the oxygen concentration and oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds show a near linear function of total pressure. The oxygen concentration/oxygen partial pressure flammability thresholds depend on the total pressure and appear to increase with increasing oxygen concentration (and oxygen partial pressure). For the Constellation Program, the flammability threshold information will allow NASA to identify materials with increased flammability risk because of oxygen concentration and total pressure changes, minimize potential impacts, and allow for development of sound requirements for new spacecraft and extraterrestrial landers and habitats.

  6. Simulation and Analysis of Three-Phase Rectifiers for Aerospace Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the nature of planned planetary missions, fairly large advanced power systems are required for the spacecraft. These future high power spacecrafts are expected to use dynamic power conversion systems incorporating high speed alternators as three-phase AC electrical power source. One of the early design considerations in such systems is the type of rectification to be used with the AC source for DC user loads. This paper address the issues involved with two different rectification methods, namely the conventional six and twelve pulses. Two circuit configurations which involved parallel combinations of the six and twelve-pulse rectifiers were selected for the simulation. The rectifier s input and output power waveforms will be thoroughly examined through simulations. The effects of the parasitic load for power balancing and filter components for reducing the ripple voltage at the DC loads are also included in the analysis. Details of the simulation circuits, simulation results, and design examples for reducing risk from damaging of spacecraft engines will be presented and discussed.

  7. The Pursuit of K: Reflections on the Current State-of-the-Art in Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Practical Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CraigMcClung, R.; Lee, Yi-Der; Cardinal, Joseph W.; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    The elastic stress intensity factor (SIF, commonly denoted as K) is the foundation of practical fracture mechanics (FM) analysis for aircraft structures. This single parameter describes the first-order effects of stress magnitude and distribution as well as the geometry of both structure/component and crack. Hence, the calculation of K is often the most significant step in fatigue analysis based on FM. This presentation will provide several reflections on the current state-of-the-art in SIF solution methods used for practical aerospace applications, including a brief historical perspective, descriptions of some recent and ongoing advances, and comments on some remaining challenges. Newman and Raju made significant early contributions to practical structural analysis by developing closed-form SIF equations for surface and corner cracks in simplified geometries, often based on empirical fits of finite element (FE) solutions. Those solutions (and others like them) were sometimes revised as new analyses were conducted or limitations discovered. The foundational solutions have exhibited striking longevity, despite the relatively "coarse" FE models employed many decades ago. However, in recent years, the accumulation of different generations of solutions for the same nominal geometry has led to some confusion (which solution is correct?), and steady increases in computational capabilities have facilitated the discovery of inaccuracies in some (not all!) of the legacy solutions. Some examples of problems and solutions are presented and discussed, including the challenge of maintaining consistency with legacy design applications. As computational power has increased, the prospect of calculating large numbers of SIF solutions for specific complex geometries with advanced numerical methods has grown more attractive. Fawaz and Andersson, for example, have been generating literally millions of new SIF solutions for different combinations of multiple cracks under simplified

  8. MoS2-Filled PEEK Composite as a Self-Lubricating Material for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theiler, Geraldine; Gradt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    At BAM, several projects were conducted in the past years dealing with the tribological properties of friction couples at cryogenic temperature and in vacuum environment. Promising candidates for vacuum application are MoS2-filled PEEK/PTFE composites, which showed a friction coefficient as low as 0.03 in high vacuum. To complete the tribological profile of these composites, further tests were performed in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at room temperature. In this paper, friction and stick slip behavior, as well as outgassing characteristics during the test are presented.

  9. Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

  10. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  11. The 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 29th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by NASA Johnson Space Center and held at the South Shore Harbour Conference Facility on May 17-19, 1995, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  12. The 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The proceedings of the 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was hosted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held at the Cleveland Marriott Society Center on May 18, 19, and 20, 1994, are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, pointing mechanisms joints, bearings, release devices, booms, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for spacecraft.

  13. The 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at the Goddard Space Flight Center on May 13, 14, and 15, 1992 are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  14. The 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, Ron (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, which was held at ARC, Moffett Field, California, on 12-14 May 1993, are reported. Technological areas covered include the following: actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, robotic mechanisms, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  15. Projected progress in the engineering state-of-the-art. [for aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1978-01-01

    Projected advances in discipline areas associated with aerospace engineering are discussed. The areas examined are propulsion and power, materials and structures, aerothermodynamics, and electronics. Attention is directed to interdisciplinary relationships; one example would be the application of communications technology to the solution of propulsion problems. Examples involving projected technology changes are presented, and technology integration and societal effects are considered.

  16. The applicability of turbulence models to aerodynamic and propulsion flowfields at McDonnell-Douglas Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kral, Linda D.; Ladd, John A.; Mani, Mori

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to evaluate turbulence models for integrated aircraft components such as the forebody, wing, inlet, diffuser, nozzle, and afterbody. The one-equation models have replaced the algebraic models as the baseline turbulence models. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model consistently performs better than the Baldwin-Barth model, particularly in the log-layer and free shear layers. Also, the Sparlart-Allmaras model is not grid dependent like the Baldwin-Barth model. No general turbulence model exists for all engineering applications. The Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model and the Chien k-epsilon models are the preferred turbulence models. Although the two-equation models often better predict the flow field, they may take from two to five times the CPU time. Future directions are in further benchmarking the Menter blended k-w/k-epsilon and algorithmic improvements to reduce CPU time of the two-equation model.

  17. Control design for robust stability in linear regulators: Application to aerospace flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yedavalli, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    Time domain stability robustness analysis and design for linear multivariable uncertain systems with bounded uncertainties is the central theme of the research. After reviewing the recently developed upper bounds on the linear elemental (structured), time varying perturbation of an asymptotically stable linear time invariant regulator, it is shown that it is possible to further improve these bounds by employing state transformations. Then introducing a quantitative measure called the stability robustness index, a state feedback conrol design algorithm is presented for a general linear regulator problem and then specialized to the case of modal systems as well as matched systems. The extension of the algorithm to stochastic systems with Kalman filter as the state estimator is presented. Finally an algorithm for robust dynamic compensator design is presented using Parameter Optimization (PO) procedure. Applications in a aircraft control and flexible structure control are presented along with a comparison with other existing methods.

  18. Versatile self-reconfigurable digital processing platform for satellite and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichocki, A.; Nowosielski, W.; Orleanski, P.

    2012-05-01

    This document presents the concept and implementation of a reconfigurable digital processing platform for airborne and satellite systems. Some recent trends visible in the technology development of on-board electronics were taken under consideration during the conceptual phase of the design. They were, namely, use of commercial-of-the-shelf (or COTS) components, utilization of FPGAs, common interfaces and system re-programmability. On the other hand, a matter that is constantly being a challenge for these types of applications that must be considered as crucial is the reliability. The key feature of described prototype device is a fusion of two different approaches: static functionality and ability of a self-reconfiguration on the fly, while retaining high availability of a system, especially when the configuration is altered by space radiation.

  19. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  20. Candidate materials for high-strength fastener applications in both the aerospace and automotive industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, J. G.

    2005-12-01

    There are many commercially available titanium alloys that have exhibited the capability of achieving high strength. Many of these alloys have not been seriously considered for fastener applications due to their cost or availability as coil or bar product. However, because new designs, increased material requirements, and larger aircraft are being built, the need to reduce weight and improve performance continues to be a major issue. The possibility of reducing weight by replacing currently used steel or Ni-based fasteners in various sizes is a great incentive. Over the past few years, many of these titanium alloys have been processed to bar and coil products to evaluate their capabilities as potential fastener materials. This article will review and summarize the mechanical properties, tensile, shear, notch tensile, and available fatigue, as well as the microstructure of these candidate alloys.

  1. Polyimides formulated from a partially fluorinated diamine for aerospace tribological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary tribological studies on polyimides formulated from the diamine 2,2-bis 4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl hexafluorapane (4-BDAF) indicate that polyimides formulated from this diamine have excellent potential for high temperature tribological applications. The dianhydrides used to make the polyimides were pyromellitic (PMDA) and benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDA). Friction and wear studies at 25 and 200 C indicate that polyimides formulated using 50 mole percent of the PMDA dianhydride and 50 mole percent of the BTDA dianhydride perform better than polyimides formulated solely with the BTDA dianhydride. Graphite fiber reinforced polyimide composites were formulated with the polyimide made from the BTDA dianhydride, both graphitic and non-graphitic fibers were evaluated. Graphitic fibers produced better tribological results, since thin, flowing, "layer-like' transfer films were produced which did not build-up with long sliding durations. Non-graphitic fibers did not produce this type of transfer.

  2. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  3. Gravitational Wave (GW) Radiation Pattern at the Focus of a High-Frequency GW (HFGW) Generator and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.; Davis, Eric W.; Woods, R. C.

    2005-02-01

    The Gravitational Wave (GW) radiation pattern is derived that results from a rod rotating about a pivot, a dumbbell rotating about its central axis, a pair of stars rotating about their orbital focus, or a stationary circular asymmetrical-array of tangentially jerking elements. The three-dimensional shape of the GW radiation pattern is like a dumbbell cross-section having its long axis perpendicular to the plane of motion or along the central axis of the stationary ring of sequentially jerking elements. The center of the radiation pattern is situated at the pivot, orbital-focus, or center of the stationary array. Knowledge of the GW radiation pattern allows for optimum placement of a detector. In the case of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs), in which the diffraction of the GW radiation is less than the dimensions of the ring of jerking elements, the radiation pattern is situated at the center of the ring and represents a focus or concentration point of the HFGWs, The concentration point extends over a diffraction-limited spot having a radius of λGW/π, where λGW is the wavelength of the HFGW. In the case of a superconductor, prior research, although speculative has shown that the GW wavelength is foreshortened by a factor of about 300. Thus there could be a much more concentrated diffraction-limited flux of HFGW at the focus. It is shown that the efficiency of a HFGW communications link could be approximately proportional to the sixth power of the HFGW frequency. Applications to space technology, involving aerospace communications, and Astronomy are discussed.

  4. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  5. Global stabilization using LSS-Theorem: Applications to Robotics and Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, AbdulRazzak

    characterized above. The form of the feedback law is also explicitly provided in the theorem. The author makes a compelling argument of the importance of the characterized class of systems in practical applications and refers to several challenging benchmark examples that have been proposed as test beds for new theories and developments. In this respect, the author studies the application of LSS theorem to benchmark problems of underactuated systems: the inertial wheel pendulum, the TORA, the VTOL aircraft, the beam and ball system, the acrobot, the cart-pole system. The pendubot, the rotational inverted pendulum and other systems are also discussed in this thesis. Theoretical and simulation results show that LSS Theorem significantly simplifies the control design, and provides solutions to some of the most challenging stabilization problems in today's control literature.

  6. Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

  7. Applications of laser ultrasound NDT methods on composite structures in aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalms, Michael; Focke, Oliver; v. Kopylow, Christoph

    2008-09-01

    Composite materials are used more and more in aircraft production. Main composite types are Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) and metal-aluminium laminates (e. g. Glass Fiber Aluminium Reinforced GLARE©). Typical parts made of CFRP material are flaps, vertical and horizontal tail planes, center wing boxes, rear pressure bulkheads, ribs and stringers. These composite parts require adequate nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Flaws to be detected are delaminations and debondings, porosity and foreign body inclusion. Manual ultrasonic testing with single element transducers is still the most applied method for composite parts with small and medium size. The extension of the conventional ultrasound technique for nondestructive testing with the laser ultrasound method brings new possibilities into the production processes for example the inspection of complex CFRP-components and the possibilities of online observation under remote control. In this paper we describe the principle of laser ultrasound with respect to the demands of nondestructive testing especially of small complex CFRP and C/PPS parts. We report applications of laser-based ultrasound options with generated types of guided and bulk waves on modern aircraft materials.

  8. High power density dc-to-dc converters for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    1990-01-01

    Three dc-to-dc converter topologies aimed at high-power high-frequency applications are introduced. Major system parasitics, namely, the leakage inductance of the transformer and the device output capacitance are efficiently utilized. Of the three circuits, the single-phase and three-phase versions of the dual active bridge topology demonstrate minimal stresses, better utilization of the transformer, bidirectional, and buck-boost modes of operation. All circuits operate at a constant switching frequency, thus simplifying design of the reactive elements. The power transfer characteristics and soft-switching regions on the Vout-Iout plane are identified. Two coaxial transformers with different cross-sections were built for a rating of 50 kVA. Based on the single-phase dual active bridge topology, a 50 kW, 50 kHz converter operating at an input voltage of 200 Vdc and an output voltage of 1600 Vdc was fabricated. Characteristics of current-fed output make the dual active bridge topologies amenable to paralleling and hence extension to megawatt power levels. Projections to a 1 MW system operating from a 500 Vdc input, at an output voltage of 10 kVdc and a switching frequency of 50 kHz, using MOS-controlled thyristors, coaxially wound transformers operating at three times the present current density with cooling, and multilayer ceramic capacitors, suggests an overall power density of 0.075 to 0.08 kg/kW and an overall efficiency of 96 percent.

  9. Micro packaging of hermetic seal mini dual in line laser diode module for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Chan, Eric; Koshinz, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    Normally, reliable, reproducible, high-yield packaging technologies are essential for meeting the cost, performance, and service objectives for the harsh environment of space applications. This paper describes a new improved micro packaging method of hermetic seal mini-DIL (dual in line) laser diode module. The problem of using a softer solder resulted in failure mechanisms observed in the mini-DIL laser diode module based laser firing unit (LFU) for ordinance ignition of a missile system. These failures included: (1) failure in light output pulse power, (2) fiber pigtail damage inside the package snout which caused low LFU production yield. Our distinctive challenge for this project is the micro packaging of mini-DIL. For this package a new technique for the hermetic sealing using a micro-soldering process was developed. The process is able to confine the solder seal to a small region inside the snout near the fiber feed-through hole on the wall of the mini-DIL package. After completing the development, which included temperature and thermal cycling, X-rays analysis showed the new method had no fiber damage after the microsoldering seal. The new process resulted in 100% success in the packaging design and was granted a patent for the innovative development.

  10. Application of artificial neural networks to the design optimization of aerospace structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berke, Laszlo; Patnaik, Surya N.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1993-01-01

    The application of artificial neural networks to capture structural design expertise is demonstrated. The principal advantage of a trained neural network is that it requires trivial computational effort to produce an acceptable new design. For the class of problems addressed, the development of a conventional expert system would be extremely difficult. In the present effort, a structural optimization code with multiple nonlinear programming algorithms and an artificial neural network code NETS were used. A set of optimum designs for a ring and two aircraft wings for static and dynamic constraints were generated by using the optimization codes. The optimum design data were processed to obtain input and output pairs, which were used to develop a trained artificial neural network with the code NETS. Optimum designs for new design conditions were predicted by using the trained network. Neural net prediction of optimum designs was found to be satisfactory for most of the output design parameters. However, results from the present study indicate that caution must be exercised to ensure that all design variables are within selected error bounds.

  11. An Aerospace Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill

    1972-01-01

    Describes the 16-day, 10,000 mile national tour of the nation's major aerospace research and development centers by 65 students enrolled in Central Washington State College's Summer Aerospace Workshop. (Author/MB)

  12. Characterization of CdSe-nanocrystals used in semiconductors for aerospace applications: Production and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maroof A.; Abd El-Hameed, Afaf M.

    2014-06-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC’s) are the materials with dimensions less than 10 nm. When the dimensions of nanocrystals are reduced the bulk bohr diameter, the photo generated electron-hole pair becomes confined and nanocrystal exhibits size dependent upon optical properties. This work is focused on the studying of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals. These nanocrystals are considered as one of the most widely studies semiconductors because of their size - tunable optical properties from the visible spectrum. CdSe-nanocrystals are produced and obtained throughout the experimental setup initiated at Nano-NRIAG Unit (NNU), which has been constructed and assembled at NRIAG institute. This unit has a specific characterization for preparing chemical compositions, which may be used for solar cell fabrications and space science technology. The materials prepared included cadmium oxide and selinid have sizes ranging between 2.27 nm and 3.75 nm. CdSe-nanocrystals are synthesized in “TOP/TOPO (tri-octyl phosphine/tri-octyl phosphine oxide). Diagnostic tools, include UV analysis, TEM microscope, and X-ray diffraction, which are considered for the analytical studies of the obtained materials. The results show that, in this size regime, the generated particles have unique optical properties, which is achieved from the UV analysis. Also, the TEM image analysis shows the size and shape of the produced particles. These studies are carried out to optimize the photoluminescent efficiency of these nanoparticles. Moreover, the data revealed that, the grain size of nanocrystals is dependent upon the growth time in turn, it leads to a change in the energy gap. Some applications of this class of materials are outlined.

  13. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  14. Development of Collaborative Research Initiatives to Advance the Aerospace Sciences-via the Communications, Electronics, Information Systems Focus Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knasel, T. Michael

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of the Adaptive Vision Laboratory Research project was to develop advanced computer vision systems for automatic target recognition. The approach used in this effort combined several machine learning paradigms including evolutionary learning algorithms, neural networks, and adaptive clustering techniques to develop the E-MOR.PH system. This system is capable of generating pattern recognition systems to solve a wide variety of complex recognition tasks. A series of simulation experiments were conducted using E-MORPH to solve problems in OCR, military target recognition, industrial inspection, and medical image analysis. The bulk of the funds provided through this grant were used to purchase computer hardware and software to support these computationally intensive simulations. The payoff from this effort is the reduced need for human involvement in the design and implementation of recognition systems. We have shown that the techniques used in E-MORPH are generic and readily transition to other problem domains. Specifically, E-MORPH is multi-phase evolutionary leaming system that evolves cooperative sets of features detectors and combines their response using an adaptive classifier to form a complete pattern recognition system. The system can operate on binary or grayscale images. In our most recent experiments, we used multi-resolution images that are formed by applying a Gabor wavelet transform to a set of grayscale input images. To begin the leaming process, candidate chips are extracted from the multi-resolution images to form a training set and a test set. A population of detector sets is randomly initialized to start the evolutionary process. Using a combination of evolutionary programming and genetic algorithms, the feature detectors are enhanced to solve a recognition problem. The design of E-MORPH and recognition results for a complex problem in medical image analysis are described at the end of this report. The specific task involves the

  15. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC'S, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application, verification, compliant coatings including corrosion protection system and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  16. Second Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Clark-Ingram, M.; Hessler, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    The mandated elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, and other ozone depleting chemicals and specific hazardous materials has required changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. The aerospace industry has been involved for several years in providing product substitutions, redesigning entire production processes, and developing new materials that minimize or eliminate damage to the environment. These activities emphasize replacement cleaning solvents and their application verifications, compliant coatings including corrosion protection systems, and removal techniques, chemical propulsion effects on the environment, and the initiation of modifications to relevant processing and manufacturing specifications and standards.

  17. Teachers, Aerospace, Involvement: The Ingredients for Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex; Bell, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a two week workshop which concentrated on involving teachers in action oriented aerospace activities and sharing ideas and materials for the application of aerospace concepts in the classroom. Research was also done to see if participants' attitudes toward aerospace education could be positively influenced to enhance personal teaching…

  18. Technology utilization. [aerospace technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    NASA developed technologies were used to tackle problems associated with safety, transportation, industry, manufacturing, construction and state and local governments. Aerospace programs were responsible for more innovations for the benefit of mankind than those brought about by either major wars, or peacetime programs. Briefly outlined are some innovations for manned space flight, satellite surveillance applications, and pollution monitoring techniques.

  19. Aerospace in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    National research and technology trends are introduced in the environment of accelerating change. NASA and the federal budget are discussed. The U.S. energy dependence on foreign oil, the increasing oil costs, and the U.S. petroleum use by class are presented. The $10 billion aerospace industry positive contribution to the U.S. balance of trade of 1979 is given as an indicator of the positive contribution of NASA in research to industry. The research work of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, the areas of space, aeronautics, and energy is discussed as a team effort of government, industry, universities, and business to maintain U.S. world leadership in advanced technology.

  20. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  1. New Advanced Dielectric Materials for Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kanareykin, A.

    2010-11-04

    We present our recent results on the development and experimental testing of advanced dielectric materials that are capable of supporting the high RF electric fields generated by electron beams or pulsed high power microwaves. These materials have been optimized or specially designed for accelerator applications. The materials discussed here include low loss microwave ceramics, quartz, Chemical Vapor Deposition diamonds and nonlinear Barium Strontium Titanate based ferroelectrics.

  2. Tutorial: Advanced fault tree applications using HARP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta; Bavuso, Salvatore J.; Boyd, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Reliability analysis of fault tolerant computer systems for critical applications is complicated by several factors. These modeling difficulties are discussed and dynamic fault tree modeling techniques for handling them are described and demonstrated. Several advanced fault tolerant computer systems are described, and fault tree models for their analysis are presented. HARP (Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor) is a software package developed at Duke University and NASA Langley Research Center that is capable of solving the fault tree models presented.

  3. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Work to develop and demonstrate the technology of structural ceramics for automotive engines and similar applications is described. Long-range technology is being sought to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced environmental impact. The Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) test bed engine is designed such that, when installed in a 3,000 pound inertia weight automobile, it will provide low emissions, 42 miles per gallon fuel economy on diesel fuel, multifuel capability, costs competitive with current spark ignition engines, and noise and safety characteristics that meet Federal standards.

  4. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies. PMID:21340005

  5. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Applications in Advanced Lithography Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synowicki, R. A.; Pribil, Greg K.; Hilfiker, James N.; Edwards, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is an optical metrology technique widely used in the semiconductor industry. For lithography applications SE is routinely used for measurement of film thickness and refractive index of polymer photoresist and antireflective coatings. While this remains a primary use of SE, applications are now expanding into other areas of advanced lithography research. New applications include immersion lithography, phase-shift photomasks, transparent pellicles, 193 and 157 nm lithography, stepper optical coatings, imprint lithography, and even real-time monitoring of etch development rate in liquid ambients. Of recent interest are studies of immersion fluids where knowledge of the fluid refractive index and absorption are critical to their use in immersion lithography. Phase-shift photomasks are also of interest as the thickness and index of the phase-shift and absorber layers must be critically controlled for accurate intensity and phase transmission. Thin transparent pellicles to protect these masks must be also characterized for thickness and refractive index. Infrared ellipsometry is sensitive to chemical composition, film thickness, and how film chemistry changes with processing. Real-time monitoring of polymer film thickness during etching in a liquid developer allows etch rate and endpoint determination with monolayer sensitivity. This work considers these emerging applications to survey the current status of spectroscopic ellipsometry as a characterization technique in advanced lithography applications.

  6. Communication services for advanced network applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Bresnahan, J.; Foster, I.; Insley, J.; Toonen, B.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-06-10

    Advanced network applications such as remote instrument control, collaborative environments, and remote I/O are distinguished by traditional applications such as videoconferencing by their need to create multiple, heterogeneous flows with different characteristics. For example, a single application may require remote I/O for raw datasets, shared controls for a collaborative analysis system, streaming video for image rendering data, and audio for collaboration. Furthermore, each flow can have different requirements in terms of reliability, network quality of service, security, etc. They argue that new approaches to communication services, protocols, and network architecture are required both to provide high-level abstractions for common flow types and to support user-level management of flow creation and quality. They describe experiences with the development of such applications and communication services.

  7. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  8. Application of Parallel Adjoint-Based Error Estimation and Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Three-Dimensional Aerospace Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Park, M. A.; Jones, W. T.; Hammond, D. P.; Nielsen, E. J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the extension of error estimation and adaptation methods to parallel computations enabling larger, more realistic aerospace applications and the quantification of discretization errors for complex 3-D solutions. Results were shown for an inviscid sonic-boom prediction about a double-cone configuration and a wing/body segmented leading edge (SLE) configuration where the output function of the adjoint was pressure integrated over a part of the cylinder in the near field. After multiple cycles of error estimation and surface/field adaptation, a significant improvement in the inviscid solution for the sonic boom signature of the double cone was observed. Although the double-cone adaptation was initiated from a very coarse mesh, the near-field pressure signature from the final adapted mesh compared very well with the wind-tunnel data which illustrates that the adjoint-based error estimation and adaptation process requires no a priori refinement of the mesh. Similarly, the near-field pressure signature for the SLE wing/body sonic boom configuration showed a significant improvement from the initial coarse mesh to the final adapted mesh in comparison with the wind tunnel results. Error estimation and field adaptation results were also presented for the viscous transonic drag prediction of the DLR-F6 wing/body configuration, and results were compared to a series of globally refined meshes. Two of these globally refined meshes were used as a starting point for the error estimation and field-adaptation process where the output function for the adjoint was the total drag. The field-adapted results showed an improvement in the prediction of the drag in comparison with the finest globally refined mesh and a reduction in the estimate of the remaining drag error. The adjoint-based adaptation parameter showed a need for increased resolution in the surface of the wing/body as well as a need for wake resolution downstream of the fuselage and wing trailing edge

  9. NASA Ames aerospace systems directorate research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, James A.

    1991-01-01

    The Aerospace Systems Directorate is one of four research directorates at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Directorate conducts research and technology development for advanced aircraft and aircraft systems in intelligent computational systems and human-machine systems for aeronautics and space. The Directorate manages research and aircraft technology development projects, and operates and maintains major wind tunnels and flight simulation facilities. The Aerospace Systems Directorate's research and technology as it relates to NASA agency goals and specific strategic thrusts are discussed.

  10. Space benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy. [(information dissemination and technology transfer from NASA programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Space Benefits is a publication that has been prepared for the NASA Technology Utilization Office by the Denver Research Institute's Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies, to provide the Agency with accurate, convenient, and integrated resource information on the transfer of aerospace technology to other sectors of the U.S. economy. The technological innovations derived from NASA space programs and their current applications in the following areas are considered: (1) manufacturing consumer products, (2) manufacturing capital goods, (3) new consumer products and retailing, (4) electric utilities, (5) environmental quality, (6) food production and processing, (7) government, (8) petroleum and gas, (9) construction, (10) law enforcement, and (11) highway transportation.

  11. In-Situ Load System for Calibrating and Validating Aerodynamic Properties of Scaled Aircraft in Ground-Based Aerospace Testing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Commo, Sean A. (Inventor); Lynn, Keith C. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor); Acheson, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An In-Situ Load System for calibrating and validating aerodynamic properties of scaled aircraft in ground-based aerospace testing applications includes an assembly having upper and lower components that are pivotably interconnected. A test weight can be connected to the lower component to apply a known force to a force balance. The orientation of the force balance can be varied, and the measured forces from the force balance can be compared to applied loads at various orientations to thereby develop calibration factors.

  12. Water Management Applications of Advanced Precipitation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. E.; Braswell, G.; Delaney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced precipitation sensors and numerical models track storms as they occur and forecast the likelihood of heavy rain for time frames ranging from 1 to 8 hours, 1 day, and extended outlooks out to 3 to 7 days. Forecast skill decreases at the extended time frames but the outlooks have been shown to provide "situational awareness" which aids in preparation for flood mitigation and water supply operations. In California the California-Nevada River Forecast Centers and local Weather Forecast Offices provide precipitation products that are widely used to support water management and flood response activities of various kinds. The Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program is being conducted to help advance the science of precipitation tracking and forecasting in support of the NWS. HMT high-resolution products have found applications for other non-federal water management activities as well. This presentation will describe water management applications of HMT advanced precipitation products, and characterization of benefits expected to accrue. Two case examples will be highlighted, 1) reservoir operations for flood control and water supply, and 2) urban stormwater management. Application of advanced precipitation products in support of reservoir operations is a focus of the Sonoma County Water Agency. Examples include: a) interfacing the high-resolution QPE products with a distributed hydrologic model for the Russian-Napa watersheds, b) providing early warning of in-coming storms for flood preparedness and water supply storage operations. For the stormwater case, San Francisco wastewater engineers are developing a plan to deploy high resolution gap-filling radars looking off shore to obtain longer lead times on approaching storms. A 4 to 8 hour lead time would provide opportunity to optimize stormwater capture and treatment operations, and minimize combined sewer overflows into the Bay.ussian River distributed hydrologic model.

  13. Hydrogen FBG sensor using Pd/Ag film with application in propulsion system fuel tank model of aerospace vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Said; Hassine, Lotfi; Elfahem, Wassim

    2014-09-01

    The high efficiency hydrogen fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor is presented. The sensitive film was a new alliance of palladium-silver (Pd-Ag). In addition, the titanium (Ti) layer was used as the adhesive layer. The presented sensor showed the resolution of more than 60 pm/1% H2, and a fast response time of 4 s-5 s was guaranteed in the 0.1% H2-4% H2 range. Moreover, the life time of the sensor was investigated. The obtained results showed that the sensor had an enhanced life time. Furthermore, the sensor was applied in the propulsion system fuel tank model of the aerospace vehicle. The obtained results indicated that it is a prevention system against the disaster aerospace due to hydrogen leakage.

  14. Eascon '83: 16th annual IEEE electronics and aerospace systems conference and explosition. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: space stations; future satellite applications; direct broadcast systems; NASA advanced satellite communications technology; aerospace surveillance; surface surveillance; undersea surveillance; advanced software systems; fault-tolerant electronics; command control communications intelligence (c/sup 3/i) systems; distributed database systems; computer networking; and interactive displays. Abstracts of individual papers can be found under the relevant classification codes in this or future issues.

  15. Advanced Applications of RNA Sequencing and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yixing; Gao, Shouguo; Muegge, Kathrin; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionarily advanced sequence-based research with the advantages of high-throughput, high-sensitivity, and high-speed. RNA-seq is now being used widely for uncovering multiple facets of transcriptome to facilitate the biological applications. However, the large-scale data analyses associated with RNA-seq harbors challenges. In this study, we present a detailed overview of the applications of this technology and the challenges that need to be addressed, including data preprocessing, differential gene expression analysis, alternative splicing analysis, variants detection and allele-specific expression, pathway analysis, co-expression network analysis, and applications combining various experimental procedures beyond the achievements that have been made. Specifically, we discuss essential principles of computational methods that are required to meet the key challenges of the RNA-seq data analyses, development of various bioinformatics tools, challenges associated with the RNA-seq applications, and examples that represent the advances made so far in the characterization of the transcriptome. PMID:26609224

  16. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Reports technical effort by AlliedSignal Engines in sixth year of DOE/NASA funded project. Topics include: gas turbine engine design modifications of production APU to incorporate ceramic components; fabrication and processing of silicon nitride blades and nozzles; component and engine testing; and refinement and development of critical ceramics technologies, including: hot corrosion testing and environmental life predictive model; advanced NDE methods for internal flaws in ceramic components; and improved carbon pulverization modeling during impact. ATTAP project is oriented toward developing high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication to carry forward to commercial production by 'bridging the gap' between structural ceramics in the laboratory and near-term commercial heat engine application. Current ATTAP project goal is to support accelerated commercialization of advanced, high-temperature engines for hybrid vehicles and other applications. Project objectives are to provide essential and substantial early field experience demonstrating ceramic component reliability and durability in modified, available, gas turbine engine applications; and to scale-up and improve manufacturing processes of ceramic turbine engine components and demonstrate application of these processes in the production environment.

  17. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  18. Fire response test methods for aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Fire response methods which may be suitable for materials intended for aircraft and aerospace applications are presented. They address ignitability, smolder susceptibility, oxygen requirement, flash fire propensity, fire spread, heat release, fire containment, smoke evolution, and toxic gas evolution.

  19. The 11th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical devices and drives developed for aerospace applications are described. Satellite flywheels, magnetic bearings, a missile umbilical system, a cartridge firing device, and an oiler for satellite bearing lubrication are among the topics discussed.

  20. The 25th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two papers are documented regarding aeronautical and spacecraft hardware. Technological areas include actuators, latches, cryogenic mechanisms, vacuum tribology, bearings, robotics, ground support equipment for aerospace applications, and other mechanisms.

  1. The 24th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include actuators, aerospace mechanism applications for ground support equipment, lubricants, latches, connectors, and other mechanisms for large space structures.

  2. The 12th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mechanisms developed for various aerospace applications are discussed. Specific topics covered include: boom release mechanisms, separation on space shuttle orbiter/Boeing 747 aircraft, payload handling, spaceborne platform support, and deployment of spaceborne antennas and telescopes.

  3. Aerospace induction motor actuators driven from a 20-kHz power link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace electromechanical actuators utilizing induction motors are under development in sizes up to 40 kW. While these actuators have immediate application to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, several potential applications are currently under study including the Advanced Aircraft Program. Several recent advances developed for the Space Station Freedom have allowed induction motors to be selected as a first choice for such applications. Among these technologies are bi-directional electronics and high frequency power distribution techniques. Each of these technologies are discussed with emphasis on their impact upon induction motor operation.

  4. Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    This research is aimed at developing a neiv and advanced simulation framework that will significantly improve the overall efficiency of aerospace systems design and development. This objective will be accomplished through an innovative integration of object-oriented and Web-based technologies ivith both new and proven simulation methodologies. The basic approach involves Ihree major areas of research: Aerospace system and component representation using a hierarchical object-oriented component model which enables the use of multimodels and enforces component interoperability. Collaborative software environment that streamlines the process of developing, sharing and integrating aerospace design and analysis models. . Development of a distributed infrastructure which enables Web-based exchange of models to simplify the collaborative design process, and to support computationally intensive aerospace design and analysis processes. Research for the first year dealt with the design of the basic architecture and supporting infrastructure, an initial implementation of that design, and a demonstration of its application to an example aircraft engine system simulation.

  5. Advances in monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-na; He, Shuang; Wang, Yu-tang; Yang, Li-ming; Liu, Si-yu; Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have become a part of daily preparation technologies in many laboratories. Attempts have been made to apply monoclonal antibodies to open a new train of thought for clinical treatments of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other immune-associated diseases. This paper is a prospective review to anticipate that monoclonal antibody application in the treatment of myocarditis, an inflammatory disease of the heart, could be a novel approach in the future. In order to better understand the current state of the art in monoclonal antibody techniques and advance applications in myocarditis, we, through a significant amount of literature research both domestic and abroad, developed a systematic elaboration of monoclonal antibodies, pathogenesis of myocarditis, and application of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis. This paper presents review of the literature of some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy to demonstrate the advance of monoclonal antibody application in myocarditis and a strong anticipation that monoclonal antibody application may supply an effective therapeutic approach to relieve the severity of myocarditis in the future. Under conventional therapy, myocarditis is typically associated with congestive heart failure as a progressive outcome, indicating the need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term results. Reviewing some therapeutic aspects of monoclonal antibodies in myocarditis, we recently found that monoclonal antibodies with high purity and strong specificity can accurately act on target and achieve definite progress in the treatment of viral myocarditis in rat model and may meet the need above. However, several issues remain. The technology on how to make a higher homologous and weak immunogenic humanized or human source antibody and the treatment mechanism of monoclonal antibodies may provide solutions for these open issues. If we are to

  6. 60NiTi Intermetallic Material Evaluation for Lightweight and Corrosion Resistant Spherical Sliding Bearings for Aerospace Applications, Report on NASA-Kamatics SAA3-1288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Jefferson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Under NASA Space Act Agreement (SAA3-1288), NASA Glenn Research Center and the Kamatics subsidiary of the Kaman Corporation conducted the experimental evaluation of spherical sliding bearings made with 60NiTi inner races. The goal of the project was to assess the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight, corrosion resistant bearings utilizing 60NiTi for aerospace and industrial applications. NASA produced the bearings in collaboration with Abbott Ball Corporation and Kamatics fabricated bearing assemblies utilizing their standard reinforced polymer liner material. The assembled bearings were tested in oscillatory motion at a load of 4.54 kN (10,000 lb), according to the requirements of the plain bearing specification SAE AS81820. Several test bearings were exposed to hydraulic fluid or aircraft deicing fluid prior to and during testing. The results show that the 60NiTi bearings exhibit tribological performance comparable to conventional stainless steel (440C) bearings. Further, exposure of 60NiTi bearings to the contaminant fluids had no apparent performance effect. It is concluded that 60NiTi is a feasible bearing material for aerospace and industrial spherical bearing applications.

  7. Supercomputing in Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutler, Paul; Yee, Helen

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: numerical aerodynamic simulation; computational mechanics; supercomputers; aerospace propulsion systems; computational modeling in ballistics; turbulence modeling; computational chemistry; computational fluid dynamics; and computational astrophysics.

  8. Review of the probabilistic failure analysis methodology and other probabilistic approaches for application in aerospace structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J.; Meyers, C.; Ortega, R.; Peck, J.; Rheinfurth, M.; Weinstock, B.

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analyses and design methods are steadily gaining acceptance within the aerospace industry. The safety factor approach to design has long been the industry standard, and it is believed by many to be overly conservative and thus, costly. A probabilistic approach to design may offer substantial cost savings. This report summarizes several probabilistic approaches: the probabilistic failure analysis (PFA) methodology developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, fast probability integration (FPI) methods, the NESSUS finite element code, and response surface methods. Example problems are provided to help identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  9. High power disk lasers: advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havrilla, David; Holzer, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Though the genesis of the disk laser concept dates to the early 90's, the disk laser continues to demonstrate the flexibility and the certain future of a breakthrough technology. On-going increases in power per disk, and improvements in beam quality and efficiency continue to validate the genius of the disk laser concept. As of today, the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over monolithic architectures. With well over 1000 high power disk lasers installations, the disk laser has proven to be a robust and reliable industrial tool. With advancements in running cost, investment cost and footprint, manufacturers continue to implement disk laser technology with more vigor than ever. This paper will explain important details of the TruDisk laser series and process relevant features of the system, like pump diode arrangement, resonator design and integrated beam guidance. In addition, advances in applications in the thick sheet area and very cost efficient high productivity applications like remote welding, remote cutting and cutting of thin sheets will be discussed.

  10. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  11. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  12. HIAD Advancements and Extension of Mission Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Keith; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Calomino, Anthony M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Korzun, Ashley M.; DiNonno, John M.; Lindell, Mike C.; Swanson, Greg T.

    2016-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology has made significant advancements over the last decade with flight test demonstrations and ground development campaigns. The first generation (Gen-1) design and materials were flight tested with the successful third Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment flight test of a 3-m HIAD (IRVE-3). Ground development efforts incorporated materials with higher thermal capabilities for the inflatable structure (IS) and flexible thermal protection system (F-TPS) as a second generation (Gen-2) system. Current efforts and plans are focused on extending capabilities to improve overall system performance and reduce areal weight, as well as expand mission applicability. F-TPS materials that offer greater thermal resistance, and ability to be packed to greater density, for a given thickness are being tested to demonstrated thermal performance benefits and manufacturability at flight-relevant scale. IS materials and construction methods are being investigated to reduce mass, increase load capacities, and improve durability for packing. Previous HIAD systems focused on symmetric geometries using stacked torus construction. Flight simulations and trajectory analysis show that symmetrical HIADs may provide L/D up to 0.25 via movable center of gravity (CG) offsets. HIAD capabilities can be greatly expanded to suit a broader range of mission applications with asymmetric shapes and/or modulating L/D. Various HIAD concepts are being developed to provide greater control to improve landing accuracy and reduce dependency upon propulsion systems during descent and landing. Concepts being studied include a canted stack torus design, control surfaces, and morphing configurations that allow the shape to be actively manipulated for flight control. This paper provides a summary of recent HIAD development activities, and plans for future HIAD developments including advanced materials, improved construction techniques, and alternate

  13. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  14. Soft impacts on aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrate, Serge

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature dealing with three types of soft impacts of concern for the aerospace applications, namely impacts of rain drops, hailstones and birds against aircraft. It describes the physics of the problem as it has become better understood through experiments, analyses, and numerical simulations. Some emphasis has been placed on the material models and the numerical approaches used in modeling these three types of projectiles.

  15. Application development environment for advanced digital workstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Harreld, Michael R.; Liu, Brent J.; Brown, Matthew S.; Huang, Lu J.

    1998-06-01

    One remaining barrier to the clinical acceptance of electronic imaging and information systems is the difficulty in providing intuitive access to the information needed for a specific clinical task (such as reaching a diagnosis or tracking clinical progress). The purpose of this research was to create a development environment that enables the design and implementation of advanced digital imaging workstations. We used formal data and process modeling to identify the diagnostic and quantitative data that radiologists use and the tasks that they typically perform to make clinical decisions. We studied a diverse range of radiology applications, including diagnostic neuroradiology in an academic medical center, pediatric radiology in a children's hospital, screening mammography in a breast cancer center, and thoracic radiology consultation for an oncology clinic. We used object- oriented analysis to develop software toolkits that enable a programmer to rapidly implement applications that closely match clinical tasks. The toolkits support browsing patient information, integrating patient images and reports, manipulating images, and making quantitative measurements on images. Collectively, we refer to these toolkits as the UCLA Digital ViewBox toolkit (ViewBox/Tk). We used the ViewBox/Tk to rapidly prototype and develop a number of diverse medical imaging applications. Our task-based toolkit approach enabled rapid and iterative prototyping of workstations that matched clinical tasks. The toolkit functionality and performance provided a 'hands-on' feeling for manipulating images, and for accessing textual information and reports. The toolkits directly support a new concept for protocol based-reading of diagnostic studies. The design supports the implementation of network-based application services (e.g., prefetching, workflow management, and post-processing) that will facilitate the development of future clinical applications.

  16. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar Distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for space applications. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed by LeRC for DOE/ORNL for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Since 1983, the SP-100 Program (DOD/NASA/DOE) is developing dynamic power sources for space. Although both applications (heat pump and space power) appear to be quite different, their requirements complement each other. A cooperative Interagency Agreement (IAA) was signed in 1985 with NASA Lewis to provide technical management for an Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) for SNLA. Conceptual design(s) using a free-piston Stirling (FPSE), and a heat pipe will be discussed. The ASCS will be designed using technology which can reasonably be expected to be available in the 1980's.

  17. Advanced teleoperation: Technology innovations and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Bejczy, Antal K.; Kim, Won S.

    1994-01-01

    The capability to remotely, robotically perform space assembly, inspection, servicing, and science functions would rapidly expand our presence in space, and the cost efficiency of being there. There is considerable interest in developing 'telerobotic' technologies, which also have comparably important terrestrial applications to health care, underwater salvage, nuclear waste remediation and other. Such tasks, both space and terrestrial, require both a robot and operator interface that is highly flexible and adaptive, i.e., capable of efficiently working in changing and often casually structured environments. One systems approach to this requirement is to augment traditional teleoperation with computer assists -- advanced teleoperation. We have spent a number of years pursuing this approach, and highlight some key technology developments and their potential commercial impact. This paper is an illustrative summary rather than self-contained presentation; for completeness, we include representative technical references to our work which will allow the reader to follow up items of particular interest.

  18. Extending HPF for advanced data parallel applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Barbara; Mehrotra, Piyush; Zima, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The stated goal of High Performance Fortran (HPF) was to 'address the problems of writing data parallel programs where the distribution of data affects performance'. After examining the current version of the language we are led to the conclusion that HPF has not fully achieved this goal. While the basic distribution functions offered by the language - regular block, cyclic, and block cyclic distributions - can support regular numerical algorithms, advanced applications such as particle-in-cell codes or unstructured mesh solvers cannot be expressed adequately. We believe that this is a major weakness of HPF, significantly reducing its chances of becoming accepted in the numeric community. The paper discusses the data distribution and alignment issues in detail, points out some flaws in the basic language, and outlines possible future paths of development. Furthermore, we briefly deal with the issue of task parallelism and its integration with the data parallel paradigm of HPF.

  19. An evaluation of a constrained test method for obtaining free body responses. [with application to aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, A.; Giansante, N.; Bartlett, F. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A method for obtaining free body responses from dynamic tests on a constrained structure is investigated for practical feasibility. The method is based on the principle that a constrained structure can be considered to be a free body acted upon by multiple forces which include the forces of constraint. By measuring these forces and by exciting the structure so as to develop linearly independent sets of forces, the response of the free body to one force at a time can be computed. Techniques for producing these independent forces are discussed. The development of the theory, computer simulations of tests of representative aerospace vehicles (including experimental error), and a description and listing of the computer programs developed are included. The procedure appears to be a practical method for obtaining in-flight characteristics of such vehicles.

  20. Fiber-optic sensors for aerospace electrical measurements: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, A. H.; Tang, D.; Day, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors are being developed for electrical current, voltage, and power measurements in aerospace applications. These sensors are presently designed to cover ac frequencies from 60 Hz to 20 kHz. The current sensor, based on the Faraday effect in optical fiber, is in advanced development after some initial testing. Concentration is on packaging methods and ways to maintain consistent sensitivity with changes in temperature. The voltage sensor, utilizing the Pockels effect in a crystal, has excelled in temperature tests. This paper reports on the development of these sensors, the results of evaluation, improvements now in progress, and the future direction of the work.

  1. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for the space application are being conducted. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear powered. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Also, an overview is presented of proposed conceptual designs for the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) using a free-piston Stirling engine and a liquid metal heat pipe receiver. Power extraction includes both a linear alternator and hydraulic output capable of delivering approximately 25 kW of electrical power to the electric utility grid. Target cost of the engine/alternator is 300 dollars per kilowatt at a manufacturing rate of 10,000 units per year. The design life of the ASCS is 60,000 h (30 y) with an engine overhaul at 40,000 h (20 y). Also discussed are the key features and characteristics of the ASCS conceptual designs.

  2. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. - 31 Dec. 1991. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990s. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next-generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fourth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride and silicon carbide families of materials and processes.

  3. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications.

    PubMed

    Markl, M; Schnell, S; Wu, C; Bollache, E; Jarvis, K; Barker, A J; Robinson, J D; Rigsby, C K

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented. PMID:26944696

  4. Applications of artificial intelligence 1993: Knowledge-based systems in aerospace and industry; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 13-15, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayyad, Usama M. (Editor); Uthurusamy, Ramasamy (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The present volume on applications of artificial intelligence with regard to knowledge-based systems in aerospace and industry discusses machine learning and clustering, expert systems and optimization techniques, monitoring and diagnosis, and automated design and expert systems. Attention is given to the integration of AI reasoning systems and hardware description languages, care-based reasoning, knowledge, retrieval, and training systems, and scheduling and planning. Topics addressed include the preprocessing of remotely sensed data for efficient analysis and classification, autonomous agents as air combat simulation adversaries, intelligent data presentation for real-time spacecraft monitoring, and an integrated reasoner for diagnosis in satellite control. Also discussed are a knowledge-based system for the design of heat exchangers, reuse of design information for model-based diagnosis, automatic compilation of expert systems, and a case-based approach to handling aircraft malfunctions.

  5. Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F. (Editor); Cross, D. R. (Editor); Caruso, S. V. (Editor); Clark-Ingram, M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The elimination of CFC's, Halons, TCA, other ozone depleting chemicals, and specific hazardous materials is well underway. The phaseout of these chemicals has mandated changes and new developments in aerospace materials and processes. We are beyond discovery and initiation of these new developments and are now in the implementation phase. This conference provided a forum for materials and processes engineers, scientists, and managers to describe, review, and critically assess the evolving replacement and clean propulsion technologies from the standpoint of their significance, application, impact on aerospace systems, and utilization by the research and development community. The use of these new technologies, their selection and qualification, their implementation, and the needs and plans for further developments are presented.

  6. Advances in artificial olfaction: sensors and applications.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2014-06-01

    The artificial olfaction, based on electronic systems (electronic noses), includes three basic functions that operate on an odorant: a sample handler, an array of gas sensors, and a signal-processing method. The response of these artificial systems can be the identity of the odorant, an estimate concentration of the odorant, or characteristic properties of the odour as might be perceived by a human. These electronic noses are bio inspired instruments that mimic the sense of smell. The complexity of most odorants makes characterisation difficult with conventional analysis techniques, such as gas chromatography. Sensory analysis by a panel of experts is a costly process since it requires trained people who can work for only relatively short periods of time. The electronic noses are easy to build, provide short analysis times, in real time and on-line, and show high sensitivity and selectivity to the tested odorants. These systems are non-destructive techniques used to characterise odorants in diverse applications linked with the quality of life such as: control of foods, environmental quality, citizen security or clinical diagnostics. However, there is much research still to be done especially with regard to new materials and sensors technology, data processing, interpretation and validation of results. This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses and their most important applications in the environmental, and security fields. The above mentioned main components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, more advanced materials and methods for sensing, and data processing system) are described. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in the different applications are also mentioned. PMID:24767451

  7. Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

  8. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    ATTAP activities during the past year were highlighted by an extensive materials assessment, execution of a reference powertrain design, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, component rig design and fabrication, test-bed engine fabrication, and hot gasifier rig and engine testing. Materials assessment activities entailed engine environment evaluation of domestically supplied radial gasifier turbine rotors that were available at the conclusion of the Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) Technology Development Project as well as an extensive survey of both domestic and foreign ceramic suppliers and Government laboratories performing ceramic materials research applicable to advanced heat engines. A reference powertrain design was executed to reflect the selection of the AGT-5 as the ceramic component test-bed engine for the ATTAP. Test-bed engine development activity focused on upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C (1900 F) metal engine to a durable 1371 C (2500 F) structural ceramic component test-bed engine. Ceramic component design activities included the combustor, gasifier turbine static structure, and gasifier turbine rotor. The materials and component characterization efforts have included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities were initiated for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig development activities included combustor, hot gasifier, and regenerator rigs. Test-bed engine fabrication activities consisted of the fabrication of an all-new AGT-5 durability test-bed engine and support of all engine test activities through instrumentation/build/repair. Hot gasifier rig and test-bed engine testing

  9. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) presents results of activities during calendar year 2001. The year was marked by significant achievements in the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs and encouraging accomplishments by the Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Unfortunately, there were also disquieting mishaps with the X-43, a LearJet, and a wind tunnel. Each mishap was analyzed in an orderly process to ascertain causes and derive lessons learned. Both these accomplishments and the responses to the mishaps led the Panel to conclude that safety and risk management is currently being well served within NASA. NASA's operations evidence high levels of safety consciousness and sincere efforts to place safety foremost. Nevertheless, the Panel's safety concerns have never been greater. This dichotomy has arisen because the focus of most NASA programs has been directed toward program survival rather than effective life cycle planning. Last year's Annual Report focused on the need for NASA to adopt a realistically long planning horizon for the aging Space Shuttle so that safety would not erode. NASA's response to the report concurred with this finding. Nevertheless, there has been a greater emphasis on current operations to the apparent detriment of long-term planning. Budget cutbacks and shifts in priorities have severely limited the resources available to the Space Shuttle and ISS for application to risk-reduction and life-extension efforts. As a result, funds originally intended for long-term safety-related activities have been used for operations. Thus, while safety continues to be well served at present, the basis for future safety has eroded. Section II of this report develops this theme in more detail and presents several important, overarching findings and recommendations that apply to many if not all of NASA's programs. Section III of the report presents other significant findings, recommendations and supporting

  10. Aerospace energy systems laboratory: Requirements and design approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, operates a mixed fleet of research aircraft employing nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries in a variety of flight-critical applications. Dryden's Battery Systems Laboratory (BSL), a computerized facility for battery maintenance servicing, has developed over two decades into one of the most advanced facilities of its kind in the world. Recently a major BSL upgrade was initiated with the goal of modernization to provide flexibility in meeting the needs of future advanced projects. The new facility will be called the Aerospace Energy Systems Laboratory (AESL) and will employ distributed processing linked to a centralized data base. AESL will be both a multistation servicing facility and a research laboratory for the advancement of energy storage system maintenance techniques. This paper describes the baseline requirements for the AESL and the design approach being taken for its mechanization.

  11. Evaluating Aerospace Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Rex L.

    1978-01-01

    Declining enrollments in aerospace teacher workshops suggest the need for evaluation and cost effectiveness measurements. A major purpose of this article is to illustrate some typical evaluation methodologies, including the semantic differential. (MA)

  12. Ninteenth Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the 19th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Technological areas covered include space lubrication, bearings, aerodynamic devices, spacecraft/Shuttle latches, deployment, positioning, and pointing. Devices for spacecraft docking and manipulator and teleoperator mechanisms are also described.

  13. Induced pluripotent stem cells: advances to applications

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Timothy J; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Yamada, Satsuki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Terzic, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology has enriched the armamentarium of regenerative medicine by introducing autologous pluripotent progenitor pools bioengineered from ordinary somatic tissue. Through nuclear reprogramming, patient-specific iPS cells have been derived and validated. Optimizing iPS-based methodology will ensure robust applications across discovery science, offering opportunities for the development of personalized diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. Here, we highlight the process of nuclear reprogramming of somatic tissues that, when forced to ectopically express stemness factors, are converted into bona fide pluripotent stem cells. Bioengineered stem cells acquire the genuine ability to generate replacement tissues for a wide-spectrum of diseased conditions, and have so far demonstrated therapeutic benefit upon transplantation in model systems of sickle cell anemia, Parkinson’s disease, hemophilia A, and ischemic heart disease. The field of regenerative medicine is therefore primed to adopt and incorporate iPS cell-based advancements as a next generation stem cell platforms. PMID:21165156

  14. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems (DCSs) that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. Background information includes an introduction to DCSs and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The water vapor sorption performance criteria used for screening the modified polymers prepared include the water sorption capacity from 5% to 80% relative humidity (R.H.), isotherm shape, and rate of adsorption and desorption. Measurements are presented for the sorption performance of modified polymeric advanced desiccant materials with the quartz crystal microbalance. Isotherms of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) taken over a 5-month period show that the material has a dramatic loss in capacity and that the isotherm shape is time dependent. The adsorption and desorption kinetics for PSSA and all the ionic salts of it studied are easily fast enough for commercial DCS applications with a wheel rotation speed of 6 min per revolution. Future activities for the project are addressed, and a 5-year summary of the project is included as Appendix A. 34 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Turbine Technologies Application Project (ATTAP) is in the fifth year of a multiyear development program to bring the automotive gas turbine engine to a state at which industry can make commercialization decisions. Activities during the past year included reference powertrain design updates, test-bed engine design and development, ceramic component design, materials and component characterization, ceramic component process development and fabrication, ceramic component rig testing, and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Engine design and development included mechanical design, combustion system development, alternate aerodynamic flow testing, and controls development. Design activities included development of the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier rotor, and the ceramic power turbine rotor. Material characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of five candidate high temperature ceramic materials. Ceramic component process development and fabrication, with the objective of approaching automotive volumes and costs, continued for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Engine and rig fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology. Total test time in 1992 amounted to 599 hours, of which 147 hours were engine testing and 452 were hot rig testing.

  16. Applications and advances of positron beam spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R., LLNL

    1998-03-18

    Over 50 scientists from DOE-DP, DOE-ER, the national laboratories, academia and industry attended a workshop held on November 5-7, 1997 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Workshop participants were charged to address two questions: Is there a need for a national center for materials analysis using positron techniques and can the capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory serve this need. To demonstrate the need for a national center, the workshop participants discussed the technical advantages enabled by high positron currents and advanced measurement techniques, the role that these techniques would play in materials analysis and the demand for the data. Livermore now leads the world in materials analysis capabilities by positrons due to developments in response to demands of stockpile stewardship. The Livermore facilities now include the world`s highest current beam of keV positrons, a scanning pulsed positron microprobe under development capable of three dimensional maps of defect size and concentration, an MeV positron beam for defect analysis of large samples, and electron momentum spectroscopy by positrons. It was concluded that the positron microprobe under development at LLNL and other new instruments that would be relocated at LLNL at the high current keV source are an exciting step forward in providing results for the positron technique. These new data will impact a wide variety of applications.

  17. A Re-programmable Platform for Dynamic Burn-in Test of Xilinx Virtexll 3000 FPGA for Military and Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roosta, Ramin; Wang, Xinchen; Sadigursky, Michael; Tracton, Phil

    2004-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) have played increasingly important roles in military and aerospace applications. Xilinx SRAM-based FPGAs have been extensively used in commercial applications. They have been used less frequently in space flight applications due to their susceptibility to single-event upsets. Reliability of these devices in space applications is a concern that has not been addressed. The objective of this project is to design a fully programmable hardware/software platform that allows (but is not limited to) comprehensive static/dynamic burn-in test of Virtex-II 3000 FPGAs, at speed test and SEU test. Conventional methods test very few discrete AC parameters (primarily switching) of a given integrated circuit. This approach will test any possible configuration of the FPGA and any associated performance parameters. It allows complete or partial re-programming of the FPGA and verification of the program by using read back followed by dynamic test. Designers have full control over which functional elements of the FPGA to stress. They can completely simulate all possible types of configurations/functions. Another benefit of this platform is that it allows collecting information on elevation of the junction temperature as a function of gate utilization, operating frequency and functionality. A software tool has been implemented to demonstrate the various features of the system. The software consists of three major parts: the parallel interface driver, main system procedure and a graphical user interface (GUI).

  18. UV-Triggered Self-Healing of a Single Robust SiO2 Microcapsule Based on Cationic Polymerization for Potential Application in Aerospace Coatings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wanchun; Jia, Yin; Tian, Kesong; Xu, Zhaopeng; Jiao, Jiao; Li, Ruifei; Wu, Yuehao; Cao, Ling; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-08-17

    UV-triggered self-healing of single microcapsules has been a good candidate to enhance the life of polymer-based aerospace coatings because of its rapid healing process and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio. However, free radical photoinitiators used in single microcapsules commonly suffer from possible deactivation due to the presence of oxygen in the space environment. Moreover, entrapment of polymeric microcapsules into coatings often involves elevated temperature or a strong solvent, probably leading to swelling or degradation of polymer shell, and ultimately the loss of active healing species into the host matrix. We herein describe the first single robust SiO2 microcapsule self-healing system based on UV-triggered cationic polymerization for potential application in aerospace coatings. On the basis of the similarity of solubility parameters of the active healing species and the SiO2 precursor, the epoxy resin and cationic photoinitiator are successfully encapsulated into a single SiO2 microcapsule via a combined interfacial/in situ polymerization. The single SiO2 microcapsule shows solvent resistance and thermal stability, especially a strong resistance for thermal cycling in a simulated space environment. In addition, the up to 89% curing efficiency of the epoxy resin in 30 min, and the obvious filling of scratches in the epoxy matrix demonstrate the excellent UV-induced healing performance of SiO2 microcapsules, attributed to a high load of healing species within the capsule (up to 87 wt %) and healing chemistry based on an accurate stoichiometric ratio of the photoinitiator and epoxy resin at 9/100. More importantly, healing chemistry based on a UV-triggered cationic polymerization mechanism is not sensitive to oxygen, extremely facilitating future embedment of this single SiO2 microcapsule in spacecraft coatings to achieve self-healing in a space environment with abundant UV radiation and oxygen. PMID:27463101

  19. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and in the universities of Angers, Nantes, Lille.

  20. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  1. The 1993 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 26th annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on 16-18 Nov. 1993. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including various bipolar designs.

  2. Second Conference on NDE for Aerospace Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodis, Kenneth W. (Compiler); Bryson, Craig C. (Compiler); Workman, Gary L. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation and inspection procedures must constantly improve rapidly in order to keep pace with corresponding advances being made in aerospace material and systems. In response to this need, the 1989 Conference was organized to provide a forum for discussion between the materials scientists, systems designers, and NDE engineers who produce current and future aerospace systems. It is anticipated that problems in current systems can be resolved more quickly and that new materials and structures can be designed and manufactured in such a way as to be more easily inspected and to perform reliably over the life cycle of the system.

  3. The 1992 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 23rd annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on November 15-19, 1992. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers, as well as international participation in like kind from a number of countries around the world. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium based technologies, as well as advanced technologies including sodium-sulfur and various bipolar designs.

  4. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  5. AAAIC '87 - Aerospace Applications of Artificial Intelligence; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, Dayton, OH, Oct. 5-9, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Topics discussed include avionics expert systems development environments, neural networks, and optical computing. Consideration is also given to artificial intelligence in manufacturing, advanced problem-solving techniques, and the performance evaluation of knowledge-based systems.

  6. Applied breath analysis: an overview of the challenges and opportunities in developing and testing sensor technology for human health monitoring in aerospace and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary W; Dweik, Raed A

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace industry requires the development of a range of chemical sensor technologies for such applications as leak detection, emission monitoring, fuel leak detection, environmental monitoring, and fire detection. A family of chemical sensors are being developed based on micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate microsensors with minimal size, weight, and power consumption, and the use of nanomaterials and structures to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. However, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. These technologies and technical approaches have direct relevance to breath monitoring for clinical applications. This paper gives an overview of developing cutting-edge sensor technology and possible barriers to new technology implementation. This includes lessons learned from previous microsensor development, recent work in development of a breath monitoring system, and future directions in the implementation of cutting edge sensor technology. Clinical applications and the potential impact to the biomedical field of miniaturized smart gas sensor technology are discussed. PMID:20622933

  7. Advanced Energy Storage for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is planning a number of space science and space exploration missions into the early 21st century. The JPL Advanced Battery Program, which has the goal of developing batteries for these missions, is described. Under program consideration are Li-SOCl(sub 2) cells, secondary lithium cells, advanced metal hydride cells, and high-temperature sodium-nickel chloride cells.

  8. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Turbine Technology Application Project (ATTAP) activities during the past year were highlighted by test-bed engine design and development activities; ceramic component design; materials and component characterization; ceramic component process development and fabrication; component rig testing; and test-bed engine fabrication and testing. Although substantial technical challenges remain, all areas exhibited progress. Test-bed engine design and development activity included engine mechanical design, power turbine flow-path design and mechanical layout, and engine system integration aimed at upgrading the AGT-5 from a 1038 C metal engine to a durable 1371 C structural ceramic component test-bed engine. ATTAP-defined ceramic and associated ceramic/metal component design activities include: the ceramic combustor body, the ceramic gasifier turbine static structure, the ceramic gasifier turbine rotor, the ceramic/metal power turbine static structure, and the ceramic power turbine rotors. The materials and component characterization efforts included the testing and evaluation of several candidate ceramic materials and components being developed for use in the ATTAP. Ceramic component process development and fabrication activities are being conducted for the gasifier turbine rotor, gasifier turbine vanes, gasifier turbine scroll, extruded regenerator disks, and thermal insulation. Component rig testing activities include the development of the necessary test procedures and conduction of rig testing of the ceramic components and assemblies. Four-hundred hours of hot gasifier rig test time were accumulated with turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 1204 C at 100 percent design gasifier speed. A total of 348.6 test hours were achieved on a single ceramic rotor without failure and a second ceramic rotor was retired in engine-ready condition at 364.9 test hours. Test-bed engine fabrication, testing, and development supported improvements in ceramic component technology

  9. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  10. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  11. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  12. Aerospace engineering educational program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, William; Klett, David; Lai, Steven

    1992-01-01

    The principle goal of the educational component of NASA CORE is the creation of aerospace engineering options in the mechanical engineering program at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. To accomplish this goal, a concerted effort during the past year has resulted in detailed plans for the initiation of aerospace options in both the BSME and MSME programs in the fall of 1993. All proposed new courses and the BSME aerospace option curriculum must undergo a lengthy approval process involving two cirriculum oversight committees (School of Engineering and University level) and three levels of general faculty approval. Assuming approval is obtained from all levels, the options will officially take effect in Fall '93. In anticipation of this, certain courses in the proposed curriculum are being offered during the current academic year under special topics headings so that current junior level students may graduate in May '94 under the BSME aerospace option. The proposed undergraduate aerospace option curriculum (along with the regular mechanical engineering curriculum for reference) is attached at the end of this report, and course outlines for the new courses are included in the appendix.

  13. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.

    1993-06-07

    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  14. Aerospace Payloads Leak Test Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovsky, Oleg; Grayson, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    Pressurized and sealed aerospace payloads can leak on orbit. When dealing with toxic or hazardous materials, requirements for fluid and gas leakage rates have to be properly established, and most importantly, reliably verified using the best Nondestructive Test (NDT) method available. Such verification can be implemented through application of various leak test methods that will be the subject of this paper, with a purpose to show what approach to payload leakage rate requirement verification is taken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The scope of this paper will be mostly a detailed description of 14 leak test methods recommended.

  15. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  16. Machine intelligence and autonomy for aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Ewald (Editor); Lum, Henry (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present volume discusses progress toward intelligent robot systems in aerospace applications, NASA Space Program automation and robotics efforts, the supervisory control of telerobotics in space, machine intelligence and crew/vehicle interfaces, expert-system terms and building tools, and knowledge-acquisition for autonomous systems. Also discussed are methods for validation of knowledge-based systems, a design methodology for knowledge-based management systems, knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems, knowledge-based diagnosis, planning and scheduling methods in AI, the treatment of uncertainty in AI, vision-sensing techniques in aerospace applications, image-understanding techniques, tactile sensing for robots, distributed sensor integration, and the control of articulated and deformable space structures.

  17. Multiscale Modeling, Simulation and Visualization and Their Potential for Future Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Training Workshop on Multiscale Modeling, Simulation and Visualization and Their Potential for Future Aerospace Systems held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 5 - 6, 2002. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University's Center for Advanced Engineering Environments and NASA. Workshop attendees were from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to give overviews of the diverse activities in hierarchical approach to material modeling from continuum to atomistics; applications of multiscale modeling to advanced and improved material synthesis; defects, dislocations, and material deformation; fracture and friction; thin-film growth; characterization at nano and micro scales; and, verification and validation of numerical simulations, and to identify their potential for future aerospace systems.

  18. Continued Development and Application of Circulation Control Pneumatic Technology to Advanced Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Personnel of the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) Aerospace and Transportation Lab have completed a four-year grant program to develop and evaluate the pneumatic aerodynamic technology known as Circulation Control (CC) or Circulation Control Wing (CCW) for advanced transport aircraft. This pneumatic technology, which employs low-level blowing from tangential slots over round or near-round trailing edges of airfoils, greatly augments the circulation around a lifting or control surface and thus enhances the aerodynamic forces and moments generated by that surface. Two-dimensional force augmentations as high as 80 times the input blowing momentum coefficient have been recorded experimentally for these blown devices, thus providing returns of 8000% on the jet momentum expended. A further benefit is the absence of moving parts such as mechanical flaps, slats, spoilers, ailerons, elevators and rudders from these pneumatic surfaces, or the use of only very small, simple, blown aerodynamic surfaces on synergistic designs which integrate the lift, drag and control surfaces. The application of these devices to advanced aircraft can offer significant benefits in their performance, efficiency, simplicity, reliability, economic cost of operation, noise reduction, and safety of flight. To further develop and evaluate this potential, this research effort was conducted by GTRI under grant for the NASA Langley Research Center, Applied Aerodynamics Division, Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch, between June 14, 1993 and May 31, 1997.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of advanced materials for Navy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper addresses the synthesis of ceramics and ceramic coatings, via the sol-gel process for use in specific Navy applications. Among the specific applications are: coatings for electrocromic devices; laser gyro bodies, hermetic coatings for optical fibers for use in ocean environments; coating development for advanced light weight structural applications; and incorporation of organic and inorganic dyes in silica based ceramics for laser applications. It will also address the characterization of these systems as well as advanced structural materials with respect to durability, chemical stability, optical properties and other properties which are more specific to their applications and end use.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of advanced materials for Navy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covino, J.; Lee, I.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of ceramics and ceramic coatings through the sol-gel process has extensive application with the United States Navy and a broad range of potential commercial applications as well. This paper surveys seven specific applications for which the Navy is investigating these advanced materials. For each area, the synthetic process is described and the characteristics of the materials are discussed.