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Sample records for advanced age female

  1. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  2. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age. PMID:27630425

  3. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age. PMID:27630425

  4. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age.

  5. Effects of advancing age on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of the female white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J; Huang, H H; Hodson, C A; Leung, F C; Meites, J; Sacher, G

    1980-08-01

    Peromyscus leucopus, with an average lifespan of 48 months, showed unchanged levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, and pituitary LH and prolactin, between the ages of 12 and 48 months. Hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH), norepinephrine and dopamine also remained unchanged with advancing age. Ovarian and uterine weight decreased with age, although the changes in uterine weight were not statistically significant. These data indicate that the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remains intact with increasing age, accounting for the maintenance of fertility in these animals. The lack of significant changes in these parameters is in very marked contrast to those in the aging laboratory mouse and rat, which show derangements in their reproductive systems midway through their lifespans.

  6. Female reproductive dysfunction during ageing: role of methylglyoxal in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in ovaries of reproductively-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tatone, C; Carbone, M C; Campanella, G; Festuccia, C; Artini, P G; Talesa, V; Focarelli, R; Amicarelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction with ageing has been so far extensively characterized in terms of depletion of ovarian follicles and reduced ability to produce gametes competent for fertilization. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In the present study we addressed the hypothesis that methylglyoxal (MG), a major precursor of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGE), may contribute to molecular damage occurring during ovarian ageing. Our results showed that the biochemical activity of glyoxalase 1, the main component of the MG scavenging system, is significantly decreased in ovaries from reproductively-aged mice in comparison with the young group. This effect was associated with decreased expression at protein and RNA level of this enzyme and increased intraovarian level of MG. MG-arginine adducts argpyrimidine as detected with a specific antibody was found to accumulate with ageing in specific ovarian compartments. Separation of ovarian proteins by 2D gels and Western blotting revealed an approximate 30-fold increase in the extent of protein glycation in aged ovaries along with the appearance of eight argpyrimidine modified proteins exclusive for the aged group. In conclusion, the present results show that impaired MG detoxification causing relevant damage to the ovarian proteome might be one of the mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing and/or ageing-like ovarian diseases.

  7. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  8. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  9. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G

    2014-03-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound.

  10. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  11. The role of the brain in female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jodi L; Wise, Phyllis M

    2009-02-01

    In middle-aged women, follicular depletion is a critical factor mediating the menopausal transition; however, all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis contribute to the age-related decline in reproductive function. To help elucidate the complex interactions between the ovary and brain during middle-age that lead to the onset of the menopause, we utilize animal models which share striking similarities in reproductive physiology. Our results show that during middle-age, prior to any overt irregularities in estrous cyclicity, the ability of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to modulate the cascade of neurochemical events required for preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is diminished. Middle-aged female rats experience a delay in and an attenuation of LH release in response to E(2). Additionally, although we do not observe a decrease in GnRH neuron number until a very advanced age, E(2)-mediated GnRH neuronal activation declines during the earliest stages of age-related reproductive decline. Numerous hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurochemical stimulatory inputs (i.e., glutamate, norepinephrine (NE), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)) that drive the E(2)-mediated GnRH/LH surge appear to dampen with age or lack the precise temporal coordination required for a specific pattern of GnRH secretion, while inhibitory signals such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides remain unchanged or elevated during the afternoon of proestrus. These changes, occurring at the level of the hypothalamus, lead to irregular estrous cycles and, ultimately, the cessation of reproductive function. Taken together, our studies indicate that the hypothalamus is an important contributor to age-related female reproductive decline.

  12. Career Maturity in High School Age Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Joan Daniels

    1982-01-01

    Examined career maturity in high school females by using a set of general career-maturity and gender-specific, career-related measures, and an alternate career-maturity criterion measure, career-planning involvement. Results indicated significant relationships between achievement orientation and occupational information and knowledge of women's…

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  14. Sex hormones in the aging female.

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J

    1987-12-01

    Aging of the human ovary results in a gradual diminution in ovarian steroid production, followed by an abrupt and almost complete cessation of both estrogen and progesterone production at the menopause. Although carefully controlled quantitative studies have not been published, it appears that the human reproductive axis still retains its ability to respond to steroid action. However, it still remains to be determined if alterations in cycle length and regularity preceding the menopause are due to changes in ovarian function or to subtle changes in the hypothalamic pituitary axis. More experimental evidence is available to describe the etiology of age-related reproductive dysfunction in laboratory rodents. From these studies, it appears that hypothalamic dysfunction is the principal cause for cessation of reproductive cycles. Recent evidence suggests that aging of the hypothalamus is due to cumulative effects of estrogen exposure over the course of the reproductive life span.

  15. Influence of female age, sperm senescence and multiple mating on sperm viability in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Fedorka, Kenneth M

    2011-06-01

    Sperm viability has been associated with the degree of promiscuity across species, as well as the degree of reproductive success within species. Thus, sperm survival within the female reproductive tract likely plays a key role in how mating systems evolve. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, however, the extent and cause of sperm death has been the subject of recent debate. Here, we assess sperm death within the female reproductive tract of D. melanogaster following single and multiple matings in order to elucidate the extent of death and its potential mechanisms, including an acute female response to mating, female age and/or sperm senescence. We found no evidence that sperm viability was influenced by an acute female response or female age. We also found that rival ejaculates did not influence viability, supporting recent work in the system. Instead, the majority of death appears to be due to the aging of male gametes within the female, and that at least some dead resident sperm remain in the female after multiple mating. In contrast to earlier in vivo work, we found that overall sperm death was minimal (8.7%), indicating viability should have a negligible influence on female remating rates.

  16. Neonatal amygdala lesions advance pubertal timing in female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Shannon B.Z.; Raper, Jessica; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Wallen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Social context influences the timing of puberty in both humans and nonhuman primates, such as delayed first ovulation in low-ranking rhesus macaques, but the brain region(s) mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing are unknown. The amygdala is important for responding to social information and thus, is a potential brain region mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing. In this study, female rhesus macaques living in large, species-typical, social groups received bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions at one month of age and pubertal timing was examined beginning at 14 months of age. Pubertal timing was affected in neonatal amygdala-lesioned females (Neo-A), such that they experienced significantly earlier menarche and first ovulation than did control females (Neo-C). Duration between menarche and first ovulation did not differ between Neo-A and Neo-C females, indicating earlier first ovulation in Neo-A females was likely a consequence of earlier menarche. Social rank of Neo-A females was related to age at menarche, but not first ovulation, and social rank was not related to either event in Neo-C females. It is more likely that amygdalectomy affects pubertal timing through its modulation of GABA-ergic mechanisms rather than as a result of the removal of a social-contextual inhibition on pubertal timing. PMID:25462903

  17. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  18. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Luevano-Contreras, Claudia; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous, complex group of compounds that are formed when reducing sugar reacts in a non-enzymatic way with amino acids in proteins and other macromolecules. This occurs both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in humans) with greater concentrations found in older adults. While higher AGEs occur in both healthy older adults and those with chronic diseases, research is progressing to both quantify AGEs in food and in people, and to identify mechanisms that would explain why some human tissues are damaged, and others are not. In the last twenty years, there has been increased evidence that AGEs could be implicated in the development of chronic degenerative diseases of aging, such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and with complications of diabetes mellitus. Results of several studies in animal models and humans show that the restriction of dietary AGEs has positive effects on wound healing, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the effect of restriction in AGEs intake has been reported to increase the lifespan in animal models. This paper will summarize the work that has been published for both food AGEs and in vivo AGEs and their relation with aging, as well as provide suggestions for future research. PMID:22254007

  19. Age of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Bright, George M.; Frane, James W.; Blethen, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim A recent secular trend towards earlier thelarche has been suggested. The aim of this study is to examine normative ages of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females. Methods Trained physicians documented Tanner breast stage by observation in a cross-sectional cohort. Age of menarche was self-reported. The subjects were healthy female children and adolescents. The mean age of thelarche was determined by probit analysis and the mean age of menarche was determined by using a normal time-to-event model. Results Mean age of thelarche was 9.7 years among 610 females aged 3.0–17.9 years (70% non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC), 14% African-Americans, 7% Hispanic, 9% “other”). The mean age of menarche was 12.8 years for NHC, with African-Americans having menarche 0.6 years earlier. Conclusions Thelarche occurred earlier than recently reported, while age of menarche remained unchanged, this supported a persistent secular trend towards earlier thelarche but stable age of menarche. This suggests that the observed thelarche is gonadotropin-independent or the tempo of pubertal advancement has slowed. PMID:23959659

  20. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  1. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  2. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  3. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

    PubMed

    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  4. Cardiovascular KATP channels and advanced aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua-Qian; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Coetzee, William A.

    2016-01-01

    With advanced aging, there is a decline in innate cardiovascular function. This decline is not general in nature. Instead, specific changes occur that impact the basic cardiovascular function, which include alterations in biochemical pathways and ion channel function. This review focuses on a particular ion channel that couple the latter two processes, namely the KATP channel, which opening is promoted by alterations in intracellular energy metabolism. We show that the intrinsic properties of the KATP channel changes with advanced aging and argue that the channel can be further modulated by biochemical changes. The importance is widespread, given the ubiquitous nature of the KATP channel in the cardiovascular system where it can regulate processes as diverse as cardiac function, blood flow and protection mechanisms against superimposed stress, such as cardiac ischemia. We highlight questions that remain to be answered before the KATP channel can be considered as a viable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27733235

  5. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Aging Female Inmates.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Margaret E; Johnston, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of older female inmates (N = 458). Results indicate that 34% of older female inmates were overweight and 36% were obese; similar percentages were noted for the general population. Race and age were found to be significantly associated with the body mass index categories of healthy weight and obese. White inmates were significantly more likely to be of a healthy weight and significantly less likely to be obese than Black inmates. Age was positively associated with healthy weight and negatively associated with obesity. These two variables remained significant even after they were introduced into logistic regression models predicting healthy weight and obesity. Findings indicate the need for programming to improve the health of this population.

  6. Adaptive male effects on female ageing in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2005-12-01

    Selection can favour the evolution of a high reproductive rate early in life even when this results in a subsequent increase in the rate of mortality, because selection is relatively weak late in life. However, the optimal reproductive schedule of a female may be suboptimal to any one of her mates, and males may thus be selected to modulate female reproductive rate. Owing to such sexual conflict, coevolution between males and females may contribute to the evolution of senescence. By using replicated beetle populations selected for reproduction at an early or late age, we show that males evolve to affect senescence in females in a manner consistent with the genetic interests of males. 'Late' males evolved to decelerate senescence and increase the lifespan of control females, relative to 'early' males. Our findings demonstrate that adaptive evolution in one sex may involve its effects on senescence in the other, showing that the evolution of optimal life histories in one sex may be either facilitated or constrained by genes expressed in the other.

  7. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  8. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  9. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  10. Epidemiology of fracture risk with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, Kristine E

    2013-10-01

    Bone loss and structural damage with advancing age lead to skeletal fragility as manifested by low bone mass and deficits in bone geometry, microarchitecture, and material properties. Skeletal fragility, in combination with a greater propensity to fall, results in an increased susceptibility to fractures with aging, known as fragility fractures. Fragility fractures exceed 2 million per year in number and account for nearly 20 billion dollars per year in health care costs in the United States. Advanced age, low bone mass, and previous fracture are strong risk factors for fractures at nearly all skeletal sites, but each type of fracture also has its own set of unique risk factors. Hip fractures are most strongly associated with adverse consequences, but these account for only a minority of fragility fractures. Vertebral fractures comprise the most common manifestation of fragility fracture, but the majority of these fractures are asymptomatic. Most research has focused on the epidemiology of fractures at the hip, vertebrae, and wrist and less is known about other fracture types, which account for 40% of total fragility fractures that are clinically recognized. Future research focused on identification of older adults at high risk of disabling fractures is warranted. PMID:23833201

  11. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  12. Regulation of alcohol intake with advancing age.

    PubMed

    York, James L; Welte, John; Hirsch, Judith

    2005-05-01

    Previous surveys of alcohol use in the general population have not gathered sufficient data to allow for estimations of the blood alcohol levels (BACs) routinely achieved in survey participants. Our goal was to assess the influence of age on the estimated peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions in a representative sample (n=2,626) of the U.S. adult population. Variables related to the quantity and duration of alcohol consumption on typical drinking occasions were assessed by computer-assisted telephone interview. In addition, the height, weight, age, and gender of subjects were ascertained to be used in equations to predict the volume of distribution of ethanol (total body water). Prediction equations were used to estimate the probable peak BACs achieved during the typical drinking occasion. The survey identified 1,833 subjects ("current drinkers") of 18-89 years, who reported alcohol consumption within the past 12 months. Linear regression analyses performed on data from these "current drinkers" revealed that, for both men and women, there was an age-related decrease in the predicted peak BAC achieved on typical drinking occasions. The approaches used to modify the BAC with advancing age differed slightly for men and women, but both relied heavily upon a reduction in the quantity of consumption.

  13. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  14. Absence of the proapoptotic Bax protein extends fertility and alleviates age-related health complications in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Gloria I.; Jurisicova, Andrea; Wise, Lisa; Lipina, Tatiana; Kanisek, Marijana; Bechard, Allison; Takai, Yasushi; Hunt, Patricia; Roder, John; Grynpas, Marc; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The menopausal transition in human females, which is driven by a loss of cyclic ovarian function, occurs around age 50 and is thought to underlie the emergence of an array of health problems in aging women. Although mice do not undergo a true menopause, female mice exhibit ovarian failure long before death because of chronological age and subsequently develop many of the same age-associated health complications observed in postmenopausal women. Here we show in mice that inactivation of the proapoptotic Bax gene, which sustains ovarian lifespan into advanced age, extends fertile potential and minimizes many age-related health problems, including bone and muscle loss, excess fat deposition, alopecia, cataracts, deafness, increased anxiety, and selective attention deficit. Further, ovariectomy studies show that the health benefits gained by aged females from Bax deficiency reflect a complex interplay between ovary-dependent and -independent pathways. Importantly, and contrary to popular belief, prolongation of ovarian function into advanced age by Bax deficiency did not lead to an increase in tumor incidence. Thus, the development of methods for postponing ovarian failure at menopause may represent an attractive option for improving the quality of life in aging females. PMID:17360389

  15. Age and competition level on injuries in female ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Keightley, M; Reed, N; Green, S; Taha, T

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the number, types and locations of known injuries occurring across different age categories and levels of competition in female ice hockey within the Ontario Women's Hockey Association from 2004/05 to 2007/08. We further examined under which aforementioned factors and combination of factors an unusually high or low number of injuries was recorded. Secondary analysis of anonymized injury data was conducted. The most common known injury type was strain/sprain, followed by concussion while the most frequent injury location was head/face/mouth. Analysis of deviance indicated that a significantly higher than expected number of sprain/strain, concussion and laceration injuries were recorded compared to all other injury types. In addition, there were a higher number of injuries recorded at the AA level compared to all other levels of competition. Finally, the age categories of Peewee, Midget and Intermediate within the AA level of competition, as well as Senior/Adult within the Houseleague level of competition also recorded a significantly higher number of injuries compared to other combinations of descriptive factors. Further research with female youth is needed to better understand the high number of injuries, including concussions, reported overall. PMID:23516144

  16. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  17. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly.

  18. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  19. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  20. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  1. Ageing and the evolution of female resistance to remating in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-03-22

    Female remating behaviour is a key mating system parameter that is predicted to evolve according to the net effect of remating on female fitness. In many taxa, females commonly resist male remating attempts because of the costs of mating. Here, we use replicated populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for either early or late life reproduction and show that 'Early' and 'Late' females evolved different age-specific rates of remating. Early females were more likely to remate with control males as they aged, while Late females were more resistant to remating later in life. Thus, female remating rate decreases with age when direct selection on late-life fitness is operating and increases when such selection is relaxed. Our findings not only demonstrate that female resistance to remating can evolve rapidly, but also that such evolution is in accordance with the genetic interests of females.

  2. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals. PMID:23940839

  3. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program.

  4. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  5. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    PubMed Central

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  6. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility.

  7. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female.

    PubMed

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E; Wilson, Andrew S; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Nosch, Marie Louise; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  8. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. PMID:4027502

  9. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised.

  10. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised. PMID:21599775

  11. Stereotype Threat? Male and Female Students in Advanced High School Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corra, Mamadi

    Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.

  12. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span.

  13. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  14. Senescence in breeding success of female Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra): the role of female quality and age.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Federico; Grignolio, Stefano; Filli, Flurin; Apollonio, Marco; Bize, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Although numerous studies have reported reproductive senescence in wild animal populations, we still know very little on inter-individual differences in rates of ageing and on the factors accounting for these differences. To investigate age-related variation in breeding success in a natural population of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), we used 15 years of data obtained by monitoring individual ear-tagged females. Analyses at the population level confirmed the occurrence of a decline in female breeding success, which is most noticeable from 9 years of age onward. Using an age-reverse approach, we showed that senescence in female breeding success occurs at the same age, since only very old individuals (older than 16 years) showed a decline in breeding success in the years preceding death. Interestingly, we also found evidence that 'success comes from success', as females that gave birth in a given year were more likely to procreate again in the following year. Moreover, results showed that discrepancies between successful and unsuccessful individuals tend to become more relevant in the oldest age classes. There was no evidence of a terminal allocation. These results emphasize the importance of age-dependent effects and individual quality in shaping reproductive senescence in a wild long-lived ungulate.

  15. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  16. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  17. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  18. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  19. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  20. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  1. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  2. Graded response to short photoperiod during development and early adulthood in Siberian hamsters and the effects on reproduction as females age

    PubMed Central

    Place, Ned J.; Cruickshank, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Short day (SD) lengths delay puberty, suppress ovulation, inhibit sexual behavior, and decelerate reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). To date, the modulation of the age-associated decline in reproductive outcomes has only been demonstrated in female hamsters experiencing different day lengths during development. To determine if developmental delay is necessary for photo-inhibition to decelerate reproductive aging, hamsters raised in LD were transferred to SD as young adults and remained there for 6 months. Females that demonstrated the most immediate and sustained photo-inhibition were found to have greater numbers of ovarian primordial follicles at advanced ages (9 and 12 months) than did females held in LD, nonresponders to SD, and females with a marginal SD-response. Similarly, for females raised in SD from conception to 6 months of age, prolonged developmental delay was associated with greater numbers of primordial follicles at later ages as compared to hamsters that became refractory to SD. A robust response to SD in juvenile and adult hamsters is associated with decelerated reproductive aging, which may result in greater reproductive success in older females as compared to age-matched individuals demonstrating a more modest response to SD. PMID:19470367

  3. Age classification using facial feature extraction on female and male images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Toygar, Önsen

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents age classification on facial images using subpattern-based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) method. Classification of age intervals are conducted separately on female and male facial images since the aging process for female and male is different for human beings in real life. The age classification performance of the holistic approaches is compared with the performance of subpattern-based LBP approach in order to demonstrate the performance differences between these two types of approaches. To be consistent with the research of others, our work has been tested on two publicly available databases namely FGNET and MORPH. The experiments are performed on these aging databases to demonstrate the age classification performance on female and male facial images of human beings using subpatternbased LBP method with several parameter settings. The results are then compared with the results of age classification of the holistic PCA and holistic subspace LDA methods.

  4. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  5. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  6. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  7. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  8. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  9. Impact of aging on heat shock protein expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, A M; Pulugulla, S H; Pant, D B; Posimo, J M; Crum, T S; Leak, R K

    2014-07-01

    Many heat shock proteins are chaperones that help refold or degrade misfolded proteins and battle apoptosis. Because of their capacity to protect against protein misfolding, they may help keep diseases of aging at bay. A few reports have examined heat shock proteins (eg. Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70, and heat shock cognate 70 or Hsc70) as a function of age in the striatum and nigra. In the present study, we examined the impact of aging on Hsp25, heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 or Hsp32), Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsc70, Hsc/Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), Hsp90, and ubiquitinated proteins in the nigra and striatum of the female rat by infrared immunoblotting. Female animals are not typically examined in aging studies, adding further to the novelty of our study. Striatal HO1 and Hsp40 were both higher in middle-aged females than in the oldest group. Hsp60 levels were also highest in middle age in the nigra, but were highest in the oldest animals in the striatum. Striatal levels of Hsc70 and the co-chaperone Hip were lower in the oldest group relative to the youngest animals. In contrast, Hsp25 rose with advancing age in both regions. Hsp25 was also colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase in nigral neurons. Ubiquitinated proteins exhibited a trend to rise in the oldest animals in both regions, and K48 linkage-specific ubiquitin rose significantly from 4-6 to 16-19 months in the striatum. Our study reveals a complex array of age-related changes in heat shock proteins. Furthermore, the age-related rises in some proteins, such as Hsp25, may reflect endogenous adaptations to cellular stress.

  10. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  11. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Anna C.; Muroy, Sandra E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  12. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system.

  13. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  14. Age at diagnosis of female breast cancer in Oman: Issues and implications

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Itrat; Monem, Essam Abdul; Al Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar; Al Kharusi, Suad; Nada, Ayman Mohammad; Al Lawati, Jawad; Al Lawati, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed globally, about 23% of the diagnosed cancers. BC incidence varies geographically, highest in Western Europe and lowest in Africa. BC in females is strongly correlated to age, the highest incidence rate amongst older women reinforcing the importance of hormonal status. BC in young females has an aggressive phenotype. There is a shared observation amongst practicing oncologists that BC in Middle East and the developing world presents at an earlier age. Aim and Objective: The aims of this study are to evaluate the age at presentation of female BC in Oman, and to compare our data with international and regional published data. It discusses the impact of young age Breast Cancer. Materials and Methods: All diagnosed female BC cases registered from 1996-2010 all over the country, were retrieved from the National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health. BC cases were analyzed with respect to age at presentation. The data were compared with regional and international data. Results: A total of 14,109 cancer cases were recorded during the period of study. BC was the leading malignancy as 1,294 cases (9.1%). Female BC patients were 1,230; denoting 19.2% of all female cancers. 53.5% of female BC presented below 50 years of age. Male BC constituted 5% of total, with 67% of male BC occurring over 50 years of age. Compared with data from Oman, the highest rates in UK and other Western countries are above 50 years of age. These rates are four to 10 times higher than local in different age groups. Interestingly, these rates increase with increasing age in UK from 40-45 to up to 85+, keep on increasing and go up to four times higher with higher age. This phenomenon, of increasing incidence rates with age, is not observed in our local population. Discussion: BC is significantly correlated to age as reported from Western population. BC is reported at a younger age from developing and Arab World, which need to

  15. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-01-01

    Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

  16. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  17. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  18. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  19. Posterior hypothalamic lesions advance the onset of puberty in the female rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, E; Noonan, J J; Nass, T E; Loose, M D

    1984-12-01

    The effects of experimental lesions in the posterior hypothalamus and the anterior hypothalamus on menarche and first ovulation were examined in nonhuman primates. With the aid of x-ray ventriculography, bilateral lesions were made by passing a radiofrequency current through a thermister electrode in the posterior hypothalamus (n = 7) or the anterior hypothalamus (n = 6) of female rhesus monkeys at 18 months of age. Four animals that received sham lesions as well as four normal females of a similar age served as controls. All animals were caged individually and examined daily for vaginal bleeding and sex skin color change. Developmental changes in gonadotropins, ovarian steroids, body weight, and nipple size were monitored throughout the experiments. The time of first ovulation was determined by laparoscopic observation of the newly formed corpus luteum and by the level of circulating progesterone. Histological examination confirmed that the bilateral lesions in the hypothalamus were approximately 2-3 mm in diameter and overlapped midline. Primary sites of posterior hypothalamic lesions included the premamillary area and the posterior nucleus, while the infundibular nucleus and the median eminence were entirely spared. The posterior lesions encroached upon the mamillary nuclei caudally in most cases and upon the ventromedial nucleus rostrally in some cases. Primary sites of anterior hypothalamic lesions included the medial preoptic area, the periventricular preoptic nucleus, and the anterior hypothalamic nucleus. Partial lesions of the diagonal bundle of Broca, the medial preoptic nucleus, and the paraventricular nucleus were also detected. Posterior hypothalamic lesions advanced the ages at menarche (22.2 +/- 1.3 months; P less than 0.001) and first ovulation (40.7 +/- 2.7 months; P less than 0.05) compared to those of control animals (menarche, 30.3 +/- 3.1; first ovulation, 51.2 +/- 3.3 months). The body weight at menarche of these lesioned animals (2.62 +/- 0

  20. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained.

  1. The Relationship between Teaching Styles and Autonomy among Iranian Female EFL Teachers, Teaching at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baradaran, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at inspecting the existence of a significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their Autonomy. For this reason, two questionnaires with regard to the main variables were given to 175 female English language teachers, teaching at advanced levels. Moreover, non-parametric Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis…

  2. Correlates of disordered eating attitudes among male and female young talented dancers: findings from the UK centres for advanced training.

    PubMed

    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M; Walker, Imogen J; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Correlates of disordered eating attitudes were examined with a mixed-sex sample of 347 young talented dancers aged 10-18 years from all UK Centres for Advanced Training. Equal proportions of females (7.3%) and males (7.6%) were symptomatic for disordered eating but correlates differed: for females, self-evaluative perfectionism, waking up > twice/night and hours of non-dance physical activity were predictive while for males, only the combination of self-evaluative and conscientious perfectionism was significant. Differences between menstrual status groups were evident, with young dancers (pre-menarcheal/within first year of menarche) reporting the least disordered eating attitudes and those with dysfunctional menses reporting the most.

  3. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  4. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  5. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  6. Ovarian hormone replacement to aged ovariectomized female rats benefits acquisition of the morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Markham, J A; Pych, J C; Juraska, J M

    2002-11-01

    Ovarian steroids have been suggested to aid in preserving cognitive functioning during aging in both humans and other animals. Spatial memory relies heavily on the hippocampus, a structure that is sensitive to the influence of both ovarian hormones and aging. The present study investigated the outcome of ovarian hormone replacement during aging on performance in a spatial version of the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 14 months of age and received one of three types of replacement prior to testing at 16 months: acute estrogen replacement (2 days), chronic estrogen replacement (28 days), or chronic replacement of both estrogen and progesterone (28 days). Control animals, which did not receive replacement hormones, displayed significant overnight forgetting during acquisition of the task. Ovarian hormone replacement, both acute and chronic, prevented forgetting. Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of ovarian hormones are detrimental to performance of young adult female rats on this task (Warren and Juraska, 1997; Chesler and Juraska, 2000). The current study found an opposite effect during aging: ovarian hormone replacement was beneficial. This suggests that animal models of menopause, aimed at exploring the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition during human female aging, require the use of aged female animals.

  7. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  8. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  9. Infection susceptibility and immune senescence with advancing age replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lijun; Jiang, Tony T; Kinder, Jeremy M; Ertelt, James M; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-12-01

    Aging confers increased susceptibility to common pathogens including influenza A virus. Despite shared vulnerability to infection with advancing age in humans and rodents, the relatively long time required for immune senescence to take hold practically restricts the use of naturally aged mice to investigate aging-induced immunological shifts. Here, we show accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice with spontaneous mutation in the nuclear scaffolding protein, lamin A, replicate infection susceptibility, and substantial immune cell shifts that occur with advancing age. Naturally aged (≥ 20 month) and 2- to 3-month-old Lmna(Dhe) mice share near identically increased influenza A susceptibility compared with age-matched Lmna(WT) control mice. Increased mortality and higher viral burden after influenza infection in Lmna(Dhe) mice parallel reduced accumulation of lung alveolar macrophage cells, systemic expansion of immune suppressive Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells, and skewed immune dominance among viral-specific CD8⁺T cells similar to the immunological phenotype of naturally aged mice. Thus, aging-induced infection susceptibility and immune senescence are replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice. PMID:26248606

  10. Motor structures in female volleyball players aged 14-17 according to technique quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Grgantov, Zoran; Jurko, Damir

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify motor structures in elite female volleyball players aged 14-17, and to assess the effect of these motor structures on their technical and situation efficiency. For this purpose, a battery of 12 motor tests as predictor variables, and a set of six technical elements and evaluation of performance quality as criterion variables were applied in a sample of 147 female volleyballers aged 14-15 and a sample of 50 female volleyballers aged 16-17. Analysis of variance between subgroups within the groups of volleyballers aged 14-15 and those aged 16-17 showed the results on all motor tests to improve with the increase in situation performance, which was especially pronounced in the tests assessing explosive strength and agility. The same held true for the results on all tests assessing volleyball techniques, spike and block in particular. In both samples, factor analysis of motor tests isolated two factors underlain by the generation and regulation of strength, and the mechanism of speed regulation. Canonical correlation analysis between the motor regulatory mechanisms and technical elements revealed determination of the mechanisms of strength and technical efficiency in both samples. Regression correlation analysis showed the mechanisms of strength regulation and speed to be good predictors of game performance in female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17, whereby the mechanism of strength regulation had greater effect on the game performance than the mechanism of speed regulation. Regression correlation analysis also revealed the set of 6 techniques evaluated to be a good predictor of situation efficiency in both groups of female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17. The block and spike techniques were found to be the best predictors of game performance quality in the former, and the techniques of spike and block in the latter. Based on the results obtained, a possible model of selection for supreme score achievement in female volleyball

  11. The Demographic Promise of Expanded Female Education: Trends in the Age at First Birth in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Monica J.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of female education has been promoted as a way to postpone the age of first birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, the first cohorts to benefit from policies that expanded access to education are now reaching adulthood and beginning childbearing. I investigate whether the expansion of education in Malawi, which implemented a free primary education policy in 1994 and subsequently expanded secondary schooling, has led to a later age at first birth and whether the education gradient in fertility timing has remained stable over time. Despite increases in female grade attainment over the past twenty years, the age at first birth has not changed. Using instrumental variables analysis, I find a significant negative association between grade attainment and age at first birth, suggesting that the deterioration of school quality and shift in the age pattern of enrollment that accompanied educational expansion may have compromised the transformative potential of education. PMID:27158172

  12. [Melatonin secretion in women of advanced reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Ermolenko, K S; Rapoport, S I; Solov'eva, A V

    2013-01-01

    The patient's age is a key factor determining success of in vitro fertilization. The ovarian reserve and oocyte quality are known to decrease with age. Much attention has been given recently to the role of epiphysis and its hormone, melatonin, in synchronization of daily and seasonal biorhythms in anti-stress protection and neuroregulation of reproductive processes. The aim of our work was to study melatonin levels in infertile women of reproductive age. We also measured sex hormones, anti-Mullerian hormone, FSH, and LH in blood and melatonin sulfate in urine at 8 points (RIA). Women of advanced reproductive age showed markedly reduced melatonin secretion due to functional disorders in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Results of the study suggest the necessity of prescription of exogenous melatonin to the patients included in assisted reproduction programs for the improvement of their efficacy.

  13. Exposure to light at night accelerates aging and spontaneous uterine carcinogenesis in female 129/Sv mice

    PubMed Central

    Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Panchenko, Andrei V.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Maragriata L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the constant illumination on the development of spontaneous tumors in female 129/Sv mice was investigated. Forty-six female 129/Sv mice starting from the age of 2 mo were kept under standard light/dark regimen [12 h light (70 lx):12hr dark; LD, control group], and 46 of 129/Sv mice were kept under constant illumination (24 h a day, 2,500 lx, LL) from the age of 5 mo until to natural death. The exposure to the LL regimen significantly accelerated body weight gain, increased body temperature as well as acceleration of age-related disturbances in estrous function, followed by significant acceleration of the development of the spontaneous uterine tumors in female 129/Sv mice. Total tumor incidence as well as a total number of total or malignant tumors was similar in LL and LD group (p > 0.05). The mice from the LL groups survived less than those from the LD group (χ2 = 8.5; p = 0.00351, log-rank test). According to the estimated parameters of the Cox’s regression model, constant light regimen increased the relative risk of death in female mice compared with the control (LD) group (p = 0.0041). The data demonstrate in the first time that the exposure to constant illumination was followed by the acceleration of aging and spontaneous uterine tumorigenesis in female 129/Sv mice. PMID:23656779

  14. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  15. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  16. Barriers to and Facilitators of Female Deans' Career Advancement in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    Although the slow progress of female academics compared to their male colleagues and the challenges that female academic leaders have to face in taking leadership roles have been well-documented, very little is known about female academic leaders and managers' career advancement in developing countries like Vietnam. This paper reports on an…

  17. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  18. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  19. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  20. Age of menarche in Indian female basketball and volleyball players at different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    Mokha, R; Sidhu, L S

    1989-12-01

    Data for the age of menarche have been collected on 98 female volleyball players and 75 basketball players. The players belonged to four different levels of competition: international, national, intervarsity and district. Menarche is significantly delayed in players as compared with the controls. There is a continuous trend of increase in the age of menarche with the increasing levels of competition; menarche is more delayed in players playing at a higher level than those at the lower levels of competition.

  1. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  2. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and diabetic vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Among various metabolic derangements implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complication, advanced glycation end product (AGE) hypothesis is most compatible with the theory of 'hyperglycemic memory'. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complication, specially focusing on AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in this devastating disorder are also discussed here. PMID:18220586

  3. [Epidemiology of arbovirus diseases: use and value of physiologic age determination of female mosquito vectors].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    1996-01-01

    The physiological age of Yellow Fever Aedes females in Africa was studied during four years, from 1988 to 1992. We used a method, according to Polovodova's method, which looks for the "yellow body" under natural light. Those yellow bodies exist in the old females, the "parous" ones, and not in the young females, the "nulliparous" ones. We present some results to illustrate the interest of studying the physiological age of mosquitoes in the epidemiology of the arboviral diseases. The transmission risk, in relation with abundance and parity rate was illustrated, in particular for Aedes africanus and Aedes luteocephalus, which is useful to compare species, or with a given species, to compare periods. The parity rate of Aedes furcifer females was studied on 6 points along a transect between a forest and a village. The rate and the abundance of the females caught on human bates are inversely proportional. The parity rate is minimum in the canopy forest (about 50%) and maximum inside a house (100%). The rains have different consequences on the species, according to the period of fall. At the beginning of the dry season, they bring about hatching, but not at the end of the dry season. Massive hatching, will occur just at the beginning of the rainy season, some weeks later. Studying the physiological age of Ae. africanus females, the number of nulliparous is not related to the rain. That means a possibility of "natural" hatching for part of the eggs. Among the female of the dry season, young females are found, which is important for the transmission capacity. The method, described herein, to determine the physiological age is perfectly applicable to the Yellow Fever vector Haemagogus janthinomys in Southern America. But for the Dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and probably Aedes albopictus, the Detinova's method seems better. Actually, it seems important to study the physiological age of the vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as well as the evolution of the physiological

  4. Trade-off between age of first reproduction and survival in a female primate.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2009-06-23

    Trade-offs are central to life-history theory but difficult to document. Patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations in rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta-a long-lived, slow-reproducing primate-are used to test for a trade-off between female age of first reproduction and adult survival. A strong positive genetic correlation indicates that female macaques suffer reduced adult survival when they mature relatively early and implies primate senescence can be explained, in part, by antagonistic pleiotropy. Contrasts with a similar human study implicate the extension of parental effects to later ages as a potential mechanism for circumventing female life-history trade-offs in human evolution.

  5. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  6. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  7. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  8. Oxidative Stress in Aging: Advances in Proteomic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual's Quality of Life (QOL). Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS]), which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8), naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in aging. PMID:24688629

  9. Oxidative stress in aging: advances in proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel; Pallàs, Mercè; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a gradual, complex process in which cells, tissues, organs, and the whole organism itself deteriorate in a progressive and irreversible manner that, in the majority of cases, implies pathological conditions that affect the individual's Quality of Life (QOL). Although extensive research efforts in recent years have been made, the anticipation of aging and prophylactic or treatment strategies continue to experience major limitations. In this review, the focus is essentially on the compilation of the advances generated by cellular expression profile analysis through proteomics studies (two-dimensional [2D] electrophoresis and mass spectrometry [MS]), which are currently used as an integral approach to study the aging process. Additionally, the relevance of the oxidative stress factors is discussed. Emphasis is placed on postmitotic tissues, such as neuronal, muscular, and red blood cells, which appear to be those most frequently studied with respect to aging. Additionally, models for the study of aging are discussed in a number of organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, senescence-accelerated probe-8 mice (SAMP8), naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), and the beagle canine. Proteomic studies in specific tissues and organisms have revealed the extensive involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in aging.

  10. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  11. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    PubMed

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

  12. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  13. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  14. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  15. Male pheromones initiate prolactin-induced neurogenesis and advance maternal behavior in female mice.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Caroline M; Kokay, Ilona C; Grattan, David R

    2008-04-01

    Prolactin is required for rapid onset of maternal behavior after parturition, inducing adaptive changes in the maternal brain including enhanced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone during pregnancy. The resultant increase in olfactory interneurons may be required for altered processing of olfactory cues during the establishment of maternal behavior. Pheromones act through olfactory pathways to exert powerful effects on behavior in rodents and also affect prolactin secretion. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of male pheromones on neurogenesis and maternal behavior in female mice. Virgin female mice were housed individually or in split-cages where they had pheromonal but not physical contact with a male. Maternal behavior was assessed in a foster pup retrieval paradigm. Some mice were injected with bromodeoxyuridine, and the labeled cells visualized using immunohistochemistry. The data show that exposure to male pheromones, for a duration equivalent to a murine pregnancy, advanced maternal behavior in both virgin and postpartum female mice. The pheromone action was dependent on prolactin and ovarian steroids, and was associated with increased cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and subsequent increases in new neurons in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, the effect of pheromones on both cell proliferation and maternal behavior could be induced solely through administration of exogenous prolactin to mimic the pheromone-induced changes in prolactin secretion. The data suggest that male pheromones induce a prolactin-mediated increase in neurogenesis in female mice, resulting in advanced maternal behavior.

  16. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals novel mitochondrial targets of estrogen deficiency in the aged female rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, T. S.; Jefferson, S. J.; Hunter, J. Craig; Lopez, Veronica; Van Eyk, J. E.; Lakatta, E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of myocardial infarction rises sharply at menopause, implicating a potential role for estrogen (E2) loss in age-related increases in ischemic injury. We aimed to identify quantitative changes to the cardiac mitochondrial proteome of aging females, based on the hypothesis that E2 deficiency exacerbates age-dependent disruptions in mitochondrial proteins. Mitochondria isolated from left ventricles of adult (6 mo) and aged (24 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were labeled with 8plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ; n = 5–6/group). Groups studied were adult, adult OVX, aged, and aged OVX. In vivo coronary artery ligation and in vitro mitochondrial respiration studies were also performed in a subset of rats. We identified 965 proteins across groups and significant directional changes in 67 proteins of aged and/or aged OVX; 32 proteins were unique to aged OVX. Notably, only six proteins were similarly altered in adult OVX (voltage-dependent ion channel 1, adenine nucleotide translocator 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunits VIIc and VIc, catalase, and myosin binding protein C). Proteins affected by aging were primarily related to cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death. The largest change occurred in monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a source of oxidative stress. While acute MAO-A inhibition induced mild uncoupling in aged mitochondria, reductions in infarct size were not observed. Age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial signaling indicate a highly selective myocardial response to E2 deficiency. The combined proteomic and functional approaches described here offer possibility of new protein targets for experimentation and therapeutic intervention in the aged female population. PMID:22930739

  18. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor.

  19. Age-related lesions in the cerebrum in middle-aged female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Rinya; Yang, Xiuying; Saski, Yuji; Iwashige, Shuichiro; Tanigawa, Yohei; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Takaharu; Kamimura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Horishi

    2010-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans is a progressive neurogenic disease that can be linked with such characteristic pathological findings in the cerebrum as senile plaques (SPs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and neuronal loss. In the present study, the authors investigated the age-related morphological changes in 12 middle-aged and 12 young cynomolgus monkeys. Low numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal region in cynomolgus monkeys accompanied ageing, and there was a high number of microglial cells; however, no clearly neurotoxic abnormalities due to beta-amyloid were noted before the age of 20 years. The onset of SPs and CAA in the cerebrum in cynomolgus monkeys can occur before the age of 20 years. SPs were almost all categorized as diffuse plaques (DPs); they did not have amyloid cores and were unaccompanied by neuritic degeneration. In cynomolgus monkeys, SPs (DPs) occur before the appearance of CAA. From the above, it was concluded that cynomolgus monkeys showed pathological changes due to ageing similar to those related to Alzheimer's disease in humans, even before they were 20 years old.

  20. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes.

  1. New Arabidopsis Advanced Intercross Recombinant Inbred Lines Reveal Female Control of Nonrandom Mating1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fitz Gerald, Jonathan Nesbit; Carlson, Ann Louise; Smith, Evadne; Maloof, Julin N.; Weigel, Detlef; Chory, Joanne; Borevitz, Justin O.; Swanson, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Female control of nonrandom mating has never been genetically established, despite being linked to inbreeding depression and sexual selection. In order to map the loci that control female-mediated nonrandom mating, we constructed a new advanced intercross recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions Vancouver (Van-0) and Columbia (Col-0) and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. We genotyped a population of 490 RILs. A subset of these lines was used to construct an expanded map of 1,061.4 centimorgans with an average interval of 6.7 ± 5.3 centimorgans between markers. QTLs were then mapped for female- and male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield traits. To map the genetic loci responsible for female-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 pollen and Van-0 pollen on RIL pistils. To map the loci responsible for male-mediated nonrandom mating and seed yield, we performed mixed pollinations with genetically marked Col-0 and RIL pollen on Van-0 pistils. Composite interval mapping of these data identified four QTLs that control female-mediated nonrandom mating and five QTLs that control female-mediated seed yield. We also identified four QTLs that control male-mediated nonrandom mating and three QTLs that control male-mediated seed yield. Epistasis analysis indicates that several of these loci interact. To our knowledge, the results of these experiments represent the first time female-mediated nonrandom mating has been genetically defined. PMID:24623850

  2. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime.

  3. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age.

  4. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  5. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  6. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  7. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  8. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    PubMed

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties. PMID:24313599

  9. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  10. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  11. ApoE genotypes are associated with age at natural menopause in Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Ji; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2012-08-01

    Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47-80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15-25 years) Chinese females were enrolled under informed content. Ages at natural menarche and menopause were obtained by questionnaires. ApoE genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the elderly group, the number of pregnancies and live births and breastfeeding were associated with the age at menopause (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.023, respectively). One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with age at natural menopause (ANM; P = 0.010). Compared with ApoE ε3/3 carriers, ApoE ε3/4 females showed a 1.8-year delay in ANM (P = 0.002). Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis also showed that the age at menopause of ApoE ε4 carriers was delayed compared with those who were not carriers (P = 0.023). In the young group, no statistical difference was found in the age of menarche between the carriers of ApoE ε3/3 and ε3/4. Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis showed that the age at menarche in ApoE ε4 carriers was slightly earlier than in those who were not carriers (P = 0.048). Meanwhile, univariate association analysis revealed that the ApoE genotypes were not significantly associated with the age at menarche using age as a covariate in the pooled group (young + elderly) (P = 0.143). We demonstrated that the ApoE genotype is significantly linked to the age at natural menopause.

  12. Regional variations in the female age at marriage in India: an analysis by agro-climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V; Singh, V

    1992-01-01

    "The effect of agro-climatic factors on female age at marriage [in India] is studied by carrying out areal analysis of the 1981 Census data. The study found a close association between agricultural and climatic conditions in an area and corresponding female age at marriage. In general, women in Himalayan regions and coastal areas have higher age at marriage than most hinterland regions. Rainfall, altitude, forest area, land availability and productivity are observed to be associated with female age at marriage. In addition, female age at marriage in rural areas is found to be more sensitive to the agro-climatic conditions. It is hypothesized that with socio-economic and technological development, the agricultural and climatic factors are losing their grip on female age at marriage in India."

  13. Age as a determinant of reproductive success among captive female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Christine; Liukkonen, John R; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Harrison, Richard M; Kubisch, H Michael

    2007-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and interval from last birth to death. Binary variables were analyzed with generalized linear models with random intercepts, while linear mixed models were used for analysis of continuous variables. Age of the dam was a significant factor in determining whether a pregnancy resulted in a birth and whether an infant survived the first 30 days with primiparous or older mothers being less likely to produce an infant surviving to that age. In contrast, sex proved to be the only significant factor in determining whether an infant lived to 1 year, with females being more likely to survive. The interval between births proved to be affected primarily by dam age, while the late death of an infant depressed the likelihood of an extended time interval between her last birth and her death. Overall, these results demonstrate that maternal age contributes significantly to a decline in fertility and older females can live relatively long periods following birth of their last infant. PMID:17504925

  14. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  15. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years.

  16. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  17. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  18. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A.; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture–recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  19. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  1. [Estimation of the biological age in taiga tick females (Ixodes persulcatus:Ixodidae) by the fat reserves in organism].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Grigor'eva, L A

    2010-01-01

    The method of estimation of the biological age in non-feeding tick females by the level of adipose inclusions in the cells of the midgut and fat body is developed. In order to estimate the fat reserves in non-feeding females, alive ticks were dissected and fragments of their internal were vitally stained with the pregnant solution of sudan III in 70 % ethanol. Three age-specific groups were established: I, young females whose intestines and fat body were filled with fat inclusions; II, mature females whose fat reserves were partially expended; III, old females having isolated fat inclusions in their midgut and fat body.

  2. Sirtuin Functions in Female Fertility: Possible Role in Oxidative Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Vitti, Maurizio; Santini, Silvano; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    In search for strategies aimed at preventing oxidative threat to female fertility, a possible role of sirtuins has emerged. Sirtuins (silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins), NAD+ dependent enzymes with deacetylase and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, are emerging as key antiaging molecules and regulators in many diseases. Recently, a crucial role for SIRT1 and SIRT3, the main components of sirtuin family, as sensors and guardians of the redox state in oocytes, granulosa cells, and early embryos has emerged. In this context, the aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge from research papers on the role of sirtuins in female fertility with particular emphasis on the impairment of SIRT1 signalling with oocyte aging. On this basis, the authors wish to build up a framework to promote research on the possible role of sirtuins as targets for future strategies for female fertility preservation. PMID:26075037

  3. Definition of advanced age in HIV infection: looking for an age cut-off.

    PubMed

    Blanco, José R; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50-59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07-11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people.

  4. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  5. Blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Obese and diabetic states in humans are associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic diseases caused by various coagulation abnormalities. Genetically obese ob/ob mice produce metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about their coagulation features or sex differences. The present study aimed to determine the effects of obese and diabetic complications on blood coagulation and vascular diseases by exploring correlations between blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were significantly increased, whereas those that of platelet factor-4 (PF-4) was slightly, but significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice compared with lean counterparts. Prothrombin time (PT) was significantly shortened in female ob/ob mice and activated partial thrombin time (APTT) significantly differed between male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of antithrombin (AT) were significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice. None of the other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors examined significantly differed between ob/ob mice and lean counterparts. On the contrary, factors such as body weight and cholesterol levels significantly differed between ob/ob and lean mice, whereas glucose, fructosamine and insulin levels significantly differed only in one sex of each strain. These results provided fundamental information about blood coagulation and metabolic features for exploring the function of altered blood coagulation states in ob/ob mice.

  6. Aging of the female reproductive system: a window into brain aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, P M; Kashon, M L; Krajnak, K M; Rosewell, K L; Cai, A; Scarbrough, K; Harney, J P; McShane, T; Lloyd, J M; Weiland, N G

    1997-01-01

    The menopause marks the permanent end of fertility in women. It was once thought that the exhaustion of ovarian follicles was the single, most important explanation for the transition to the menopause. Over the past decade, this perception has gradually changed with the realization that there are multiple pacemakers of reproductive senescence. We will present evidence that lends credence to the hypothesis that the central nervous system is a critical pacemaker of reproductive aging and that changes at this level contribute to the timing of the menopause. Studies demonstrate that an increasing de-synchronization of the temporal order of neuroendocrine signals may contribute to the accelerated rate of follicular loss that occurs during middle age. We suggest that the dampening and destabilization of the precisely orchestrated ultradian, circadian, and infradian neural signals lead to miscommunication between the brain and the pituitary-ovarian axis. This constellation of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian events leads to the inexorable decline of regular cyclicity and heralds menopausal transition.

  7. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected.

  8. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  9. Effects of soy phytoestrogens on pituitary-ovarian function in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Medigović, Ivana M; Živanović, Jasmina B; Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra L; Stanković, Sanja D; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj; Nestorović, Nataša M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of genistein (G) and daidzein (D) on the histological, hormonal, and functional parameters of the pituitary-ovarian axis in middle-aged female rats, and to compare these effects with the effects of estradiol (E), commonly used in the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Middle-aged (12 month old) Wistar female rats subcutaneously received 35 mg/kg of G, or 35 mg/kg of D, or 0.625 mg/kg of E every day for 4 weeks. Each of the treated groups had a corresponding control group. An intact control group was also established. G and D did not change the intracellular protein content within gonadotropic and lactotropic cells, but vacuolization was observed in all the cell types. In contrast, E caused an inhibition of gonadotropic and stimulation of lactotropic cells. Also, ovaries of middle-aged female rats exposed to G or D have more healthy primordial and primary follicles and less atretic follicles. E treatment in the ovaries had a mostly negative effect, which is reflected by the increased number of atretic follicles in all tested classes. G and D provoked decrease in CuZnSOD and CAT activity, while E treatment increased MnSOD and decreased CuZnSOD and GSHPx activity. All the treatments increased serum estradiol and decreased testosterone levels, while D and E increased the serum progesterone level. In conclusion, soy phytoestrogens exhibited beneficial effects on pituitary-ovarian function in middle-aged female rats, as compared to estradiol.

  10. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  11. Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2013-11-22

    Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  16. IMMMUNOPHENOTYPE OF SPONTANEOUS HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS OCCURRING IN YOUNG AND AGING FEMALE CD-1 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Rehg, Jerold E.; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not be published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in young female CD-1 mice used as health monitoring sentinels and aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80 wk carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice 12 mo or less of age, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic T-cell lymphomas were common in mice > 12 mo old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic MuLV genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of MuLV protein by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods. PMID:26224701

  17. Immunophenotype of Spontaneous Hematolymphoid Tumors Occurring in Young and Aging Female CD-1 Mice. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Rehg, Jerold E; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-10-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not been published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in 24 young female CD-1 mice used as health-monitoring sentinels and 32 aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80-week carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice aged 12 months or less, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas were common in mice >12-mo-old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of a MuLV protein p30 by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods.

  18. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women.

  19. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  20. An update on female sexual function and dysfunction in old age and its relevance to old age psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R; McManus, Ross

    2012-10-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient's sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women's sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women's sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients' treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care.

  1. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  2. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  3. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  4. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  5. Age at first intercourse is inversely related to female cortisol stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2002-11-01

    The relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and salivary cortisol stress reactivity (to the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST; consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetic) was examined in healthy subjects (43 females and 36 males; ages 19-38). Women reporting earlier first intercourse had less intense cortisol increases in response to the stressor (a non-significant trend was observed for males), and faster recovery from the stressor. Results were not confounded by age, oral contraceptive use, depression scores, smoking status, or body mass index. It is concluded that earlier first intercourse is associated with less reactivity to and faster recovery from stress as indexed by this endocrine measure. Results are discussed in terms of genetic and psychological influences on first intercourse and implications for coping with interpersonal stress. PMID:12383454

  6. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  7. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  8. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ≥ 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ≥ 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  10. Advancing age progressively affects obstacle avoidance skills in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Nienhuis, Bart; Duysens, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The ability to adequately avoid obstacles while walking is an important skill that allows safe locomotion over uneven terrain. The high proportion of falls in the elderly that is associated to tripping over obstacles potentially illustrates an age-related deterioration of this locomotor skill. Some studies have compared young and old adults, but very little is known about the changes occurring within different age groups of elderly. In the present study, obstacle avoidance performance was studied in 25 young (20-37 years) and 99 older adults (65-88 years). The participants walked on a treadmill at a speed of 3 km/h. An obstacle was dropped 30 times in front of the left foot at various phases in the step cycle. Success rates (successful avoidance) were calculated and related to the time available between obstacle appearance and the estimated instant of foot contact with the obstacle (available response times or ARTs ranging from 200 to more than 350 ms). In addition, latencies of avoidance reactions, the choice of avoidance strategies (long or short step strategy, LSS or SSS), and three spatial parameters related to obstacle avoidance (toe distance, foot clearance, and heel distance) were determined for each participant. Compared to the young, the older adults had lower success rates, especially at short ARTs. Furthermore, they had longer reaction times, more LSS reactions, smaller toe and heel distances, and larger foot clearances. Within the group of elderly, only the 65-69 year olds were not different from young adults with respect to success rate, despite marked changes in the other parameters measured. In particular, even this younger group of elderly showed a dramatic reduction in the amount of SSS trials compared to young adults. Overall, age was a significant predictor of success rates, reaction times, and toe distances. These parameters deteriorated with advancing age. Finally, avoidance success rates at short ARTs were considerably worse in elderly

  11. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  12. Mercury Exposure and Antinuclear Antibodies among Females of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Ganser, Martha A.; Warren, Jeffrey S.; Basu, Niladri; Wang, Lu; Zick, Suzanna M.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune dysregulation associated with mercury has been suggested, although data in the general population are lacking. Chronic exposure to low levels of methylmercury (organic) and inorganic mercury is common, such as through fish consumption and dental amalgams. Objective We examined associations between mercury biomarkers and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and titer strength. Methods Among females 16–49 years of age (n = 1,352) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, we examined cross-sectional associations between mercury and ANAs (indirect immunofluorescence; cutoff ≥ 1:80). Three biomarkers of mercury exposure were used: hair (available 1999–2000) and total blood (1999–2004) predominantly represented methylmercury, and urine (1999–2002) represented inorganic mercury. Survey statistics were used. Multivariable modeling adjusted for several covariates, including age and omega-3 fatty acids. Results Sixteen percent of females were ANA positive; 96% of ANA positives had a nuclear speckled staining pattern. Geometric mean (geometric SD) mercury concentrations were 0.22 (0.03) ppm in hair, 0.92 (0.05) μg/L blood, and 0.62 (0.04) μg/L urine. Hair and blood, but not urinary, mercury were associated with ANA positivity (sample sizes 452, 1,352, and 804, respectively), after adjusting for confounders: for hair, odds ratio (OR) = 4.10 (95% CI: 1.66, 10.13); for blood, OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.03) comparing highest versus lowest quantiles. Magnitudes of association were strongest for high-titer (≥ 1:1,280) ANA: hair, OR = 11.41 (95% CI: 1.60, 81.23); blood, OR = 5.93 (95% CI: 1.57, 22.47). Conclusions Methylmercury, at low levels generally considered safe, was associated with subclinical autoimmunity among reproductive-age females. Autoantibodies may predate clinical disease by years; thus, methylmercury exposure may be relevant to future autoimmune disease risk. Citation Somers EC, Ganser MA, Warren

  13. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  14. Senescence and age-specific trade-offs between reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-03-01

    Although studies on laboratory species and natural populations of vertebrates have shown reproduction to impair later performance, little is known of the age-specific associations between reproduction and survival, and how such findings apply to the ageing of large, long-lived species. Herein we develop a framework to examine population-level patterns of reproduction and survival across lifespan in long-lived organisms, and decompose those changes into individual-level effects, and the effects of age-specific trade-offs between fitness components. We apply this to an extensive longitudinal dataset on female semi-captive Asian timber elephants (Elephas maximus) and report the first evidence of age-specific fitness declines that are driven by age-specific associations between fitness components in a long-lived mammal. Associations between reproduction and survival are positive in early life, but negative in later life with up to 71% of later-life survival declines associated with investing in the production of offspring within this population of this critically endangered species.

  15. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  16. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  17. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  18. Factors Influencing the Prognosis of Octogenarians with Aortic Stenosis in the Advanced Aging Societies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuai; Yamaguchi, Kazuto; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Saki; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Endo, Akihiro; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recognition of clinical symptoms is critical to developing an effective therapeutic strategy for aortic valve stenosis (AS). Although AS is common, little is known about the factors influencing the natural history of AS patients who are 80 years of age older in advanced aging societies. We investigated the natural history and indications for valve procedures in AS patients of 80 years of age or older. Methods The medical records of 108 consecutive AS patients (moderate grade or higher) who are 80 years of age or older (mean age, 84.2±3.9 years; female, 65 patients) were reviewed to investigate their symptoms, the development of congestive heart failure, the incidence of referral for aortic valve replacement and death. The median duration of follow-up was 9 months (interquartile range, 2 to 25 months). Results The probability of remaining free of events (valve replacement and death) was 29±13% in all patients. There was no significant difference in the aortic valve area of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (0.85±0.28 cm(2) vs. 0.88±0.25 cm(2), p=0.59). The aortic valve (AV) velocity and AV area index were predictors of subsequent cardiac events (p<0.05). Conclusion The severity of AS was the only factor to affect the prognosis of AS patients who were 80 years old of age or older. It is necessary to frequently monitor the subjective symptoms of such patients and to objectively measure the AV area. PMID:27580533

  19. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.

  20. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  1. The effect of aging on the hepatic metabolism of sulfo-bromophthalein in BN/Bi female and WAG/Rij male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K; Zurcher, C; Van Bezooijen, K

    1981-12-01

    The effect of aging on sulfobromophthalein (BSP) metabolism was studied in three groups of rats-BN/Bi female and WAG/Rij male and female rats-of different ages ranging from 3 to 30 months. Under Nembutal anesthesia, BSP biliary transport maximum (Tm) and relative storage capacity (S) were determined by a single infusion rate method by directly determining Tm from bile samples collected through a common bile duct cannula. Tm values expressed as micrograms of BSP per min per g of liver were highest in the youngest rate (3-month-old) as compared with the older rats (12-, 24-, 30-month-old) for all three rat groups. Tm gradually decreased as age increased and at the age of 24 or 30 months reached a value of 66 - 70% of the highest values for 3-month-old rats. The percentage of conjugated BSP in the bile measured during the Tm period remained essentially unchanged with age in all three rat groups. S values, expressed as mg of BSP stored per mg or BSP per ml of plasma per g of liver, remained unchanged (BN/Bi female) or even increased (WAG/Rij male and female) with age. As a consequence, S values expressed per rat were higher in older age groups than in the youngest one for all three rat groups. In contrast with previous reports by other authors on man and rats, the BSP Tm appears to decrease with age regardless of rat and sex, while S does not show such a decrease. PMID:7329103

  2. Live vs. digital video disk exercise in college--aged females.

    PubMed

    Killen, Lauren G; Barry, Vaughn W; Cooper, Cathy; Coons, John M

    2014-12-01

    Although exercise digital video disk (DVD) sales have substantially increased over the past decade, little is known on the effectiveness of personal training vs. DVD exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditures and heart rates of live and DVD vigorously intense exercise sessions. Twenty active and low-to-moderate fit, college-aged females completed 2 identical exercise sessions. Each exercise session consisted of 6 exercises; 1 session was completed with a personal trainer and the other with a DVD. A portable metabolic analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption and record heart rate. Both energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and heart rate (p = 0.001) were significantly higher during the live exercise session as compared with the DVD exercise session. Rate of perceived exertion was significantly higher for the live exercise session compared with the DVD exercise session (p = 0.045). Finally, the majority (89%) of the participants reported that they preferred the live exercise session over the DVD exercise session. The results suggest that low-to-moderately fit college-aged females not only prefer exercise sessions with a personal trainer but will also demonstrate higher energy expenditures and heart rates. PMID:24918301

  3. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on spatial memory consolidation in aged females.

    PubMed

    Harburger, Lauren L; Bennett, Jennifer C; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-04-01

    Interpretation of data illustrating that estrogen, with or without progestin, is detrimental to memory in post-menopausal women is complicated by the fact that little is known about the effects of progestins on memory. The present study examined if estrogen, alone or with progesterone, affects spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized aged female mice. Mice received eight training trials in a spatial Morris water maze followed immediately by injection of water-soluble 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.2 mg/kg) or vehicle. Mice were re-tested 24 h later. All mice learned to find the platform on Day 1. On Day 2, the performance of control, but not E(2) mice, deteriorated, suggesting that E(2) enhanced memory for the platform location. In a second experiment, mice were injected with E(2) and 10 or 20 mg/kg water-soluble progesterone. The 10 mg/kg dose of progesterone did not affect estrogen's ability to enhance spatial memory consolidation, but 20 mg/kg blocked this effect. These data indicate that estrogen can improve spatial memory consolidation in aged females and that this effect can be attenuated by progesterone.

  4. Lead-induced modifications of immune responses in aging male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genova, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of lead intoxication on the immunological responses of aging male and female Balb/c mice. Both males and females on the lead diet exhibited a loss of weight after one week of treatment. The animals began to gain weight again after eight or fifteen weeks for males and females respectively. Although both groups continued to gain weight at a rate consistent with control animals, they never reached the same weights as their same-sex control counterparts. Immunofluorescent staining indicated the presence of greater renal pathology in lead-fed animals as compared to controls. Lead-fed males demonstrated the greatest pathology of any group. Both T and B cell mitogenic responses declined during the early phases of the experiment. This was followed, at age 25-27 weeks, by an increase in activity to levels greater than those of control animals. The depression and subsequent increase in mitogenic responses was mirrored in the ability of T cells to regulate B cell plaque formation when stimulated with sheep red blood cells. T cell function returned to control levels in coincidence with the increase in T and B cell mitogenicity. The return of T cell functionality to control levels coincides with the increased mitogenesis noted in T and B cell populations and the onset of weight gains by lead-fed animals. This coincidence suggests the occurrence of a physiological or immunological change which is compensating for the continued lead intoxication. One such change may be a lead induced reduction in the number or function of a T cell subset, eg. T suppressors.

  5. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  6. Reduced vasorelaxation to estradiol and G-1 in aged female and adult male rats is associated with GPR30 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Sarah H; da Silva, Ariel S; Silva, Mauro S; Chappell, Mark C

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we reported that chronic activation of the estrogen receptor GPR30 by its selective agonist G-1 decreases blood pressure in ovariectomized hypertensive mRen2.Lewis (mRen2) rats but not intact male littermates. Furthermore, G-1 relaxes female mesenteric resistance arteries via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Because of the lack of a blood pressure-lowering effect by G-1 in males and the potential influence of aging on estrogen receptor expression, we hypothesized that GPR30-dependent vasodilation and receptor expression are altered in males and aged females. Thus, we assessed the response to 17β-estradiol or G-1 in mesenteric arteries obtained from 15-wk-old normotensive Lewis and hypertensive mRen2 females and males as well as 52-wk-old Lewis females. Vasodilation to 17β-estradiol (E₂) and G-1 was significantly attenuated in 15-wk-old Lewis and mRen2 males compared with age-matched females. Pretreatment of male vessels with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME had no significant effect on the estradiol or G-1 response. In aged females, E₂ and G-1 vasorelaxation was also significantly blunted; however, L-NAME essentially abolished the response. Associated with the reduced vascular responses, GPR30 expression in mesenteric arteries was approximately 50% lower in males and aged females compared with young females. We conclude that alterations in GPR30 expression and signaling may contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging females and a greater blood pressure in hypertensive males.

  7. Age-related differences in the toxicity of ochratoxin A in female rats.

    PubMed

    Dortant, P M; Peters-Volleberg, G W; Van Loveren, H; Marquardt, R R; Speijers, G J

    2001-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in food and feedstuffs of plant and animal origin. OTA exposure is related to nephropathy in humans. Age-related differences, especially in nephro- and immunotoxicity of OTA, were investigated in young adult (aged 12 weeks) and old (aged 27-30 months) female SPF Wag rats, treated by gavage with 0, 0.07, 0.34 or 1.68 mg OTA/kg body weight for 4 weeks. In both age groups, survival was significantly decreased in the highest dose group. Clinical condition, body weight, clinical chemistry parameters (ALAT, ASAT, creatinin and urea) and target organs (as identified by weight and pathology - kidney, liver, adrenals, forestomach and brain) were affected by age and dose, but often more severely in old than in young rats. OTA induced primarily nephropathy. Old rats were more sensitive to induction of tubular karyomegaly and vacuolation/necrosis. In young rats, OTA induced a dose-related thickening of the basement membrane and reduction in splenic T-cell fraction. Decreased IgG levels were seen at 0.34 mg/kg OTA (young and old rats) and 1.68 mg/kg OTA (young rats). Vacuolation of the white brain matter (cerebellar medulla and ventral parts of the brain stem) was significantly increased in young rats at 0.34 and 1.68 mg/kg OTA and in old rats at 0.07 and 0.34 mg/kg OTA. It was concluded that: (1) the profiles of OTA toxicity for both age groups are similar, with the kidney and possibly the brain being primary target organs; (2) based on clinical and pathological data old rats are more sensitive to OTA than young rats; and (3) the immune system is probably not the primary target of OTA toxicity.

  8. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Conclusion Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade. PMID:27171234

  9. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  10. Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and age at exposure of female residents of Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G; Samuels, Steven; Turner, Wayman; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Brambilla, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In 1976, a chemical plant explosion near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a historical cohort study of females who were 40 years old at the time of explosion and residents of the most heavily contaminated areas, zones A and B. Serum samples collected near the time of the explosion were analyzed for TCDD. We also analyzed pooled serum samples collected in 1976 from females who resided in zone non-ABR, the "unexposed" zone, to assess concurrent background exposures to other dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The median lipid-adjusted TCDD level for residents of zones A and B combined was 56 ppt (range = 2.5-56,000 ppt). Zone A residents had 5-fold higher TCDD levels (n = 67, median = 272 ppt) than did zone B residents (n = 814, median = 47 ppt). The youngest children had the highest TCDD levels, which decreased with age at explosion until approximately 13 years of age and were constant thereafter. Therefore, children living in zones A and B received a disproportionately higher exposure to TCDD as a result of the explosion. Zone of residence and age were the strongest predictors of TCDD level. Chloracne, nearby animal mortality, location (outdoors vs. indoors) at the time of explosion, and consumption of homegrown food were also related to serum TCDD levels. The serum pools from zone non-ABR residents had an average TCDD concentration of 20.2 ppt, and average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 100.4 ppt. Therefore, background exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCBs unrelated to the explosion may have been substantial. As a consequence, previous SWHS studies that considered only TCDD exposure may have underestimated health effects due to total TEQ concentrations.

  11. Estradiol reduces anxiety- and depression-like behavior of aged female mice

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects of the ovarian steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2), for affective behavior have been reported in young individuals, but less is known about the effects of E2 among older individuals, and the capacity of older individuals to respond to E2 following its decline. In the present study, the effects of acute E2 administration to aged mice for anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors were investigated. Intact female C57BL/6 mice (N=18) that were approximately 24 months old were administered vehicle (sesame oil, n=9) or E2 (10 μg, n=9) subcutaneously 1h prior to behavioral testing. Mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior (open field, elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, light–dark transition task, Vogel conflict task) and depression-like behavior (forced swim task). To assess the role of general motor behavior and coordination in these aged mice, performance in an activity monitor and rotarod task, and total entries made in tasks (open field, elevated plus maze, light–dark transition task) were determined. Mice administered E2, compared to vehicle, demonstrated anti-anxiety behavior in the open field, mirror chamber, and light–dark transition task, and anti-depressive-like behavior in the forced swim task. E2 also tended to have anti-anxiety effects in the elevated plus maze and Vogel task compared to vehicle administration, but these effects did not reach statistical significance. E2 did not alter motor behavior and/or coordination in the activity monitor, open field, or rotarod tasks. Thus, an acute E2 regimen produced specific anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects, independent of effects on motor behavior, when administered to aged female C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19804793

  12. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  13. Aging reduces the efficacy of estrogen substitution to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in female spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hu, Kai; Kruchten, Patricia; Bey, Emmanuel; Maier, Sebastian K G; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Prelle, Katja; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Hartmann, Rolf W; Neyses, Ludwig; Ertl, Georg; Pelzer, Theo

    2006-10-01

    Clinical trials failed to show a beneficial effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, whereas experimental studies in young animals reported a protective function of estrogen replacement in cardiovascular disease. Because these diverging results could in part be explained by aging effects, we compared the efficacy of estrogen substitution to modulate cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac gene expression among young (age 3 months) and senescent (age 24 months) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which were sham operated or ovariectomized and injected with placebo or identical doses of 17beta-estradiol (E2; 2 microg/kg body weight per day) for 6 weeks (n=10/group). Blood pressure was comparable among sham-operated senescent and young SHRs and not altered by ovariectomy or E2 treatment among young or among senescent rats. Estrogen substitution inhibited uterus atrophy and gain of body weight in young and senescent ovariectomized SHRs, but cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated only in young rats. Cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression was lower in intact and in ovariectomized senescent compared with young SHRs and increased with estradiol substitution in aged rats. Plasma estradiol and estrone levels were lower not only in sham-operated but surprisingly also in E2-substituted senescent SHRs and associated with a reduction of hepatic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity, which converts weak (ie, estrone) into potent estrogens, such as E2. Aging attenuates the antihypertrophic effect of estradiol in female SHRs and is associated with profound alterations in cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression and estradiol metabolism. These observations contribute to explain the lower efficiency of estrogen substitution in senescent SHRs.

  14. The Perimenopausal Aging Transition in the Female Rat Brain: Decline in Bioenergetic Systems and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.; Pike, Christian J.; Mack, Wendy J.; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D.

    2015-01-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the current study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in FDG-PET brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/IGF1 and AMPK/PGC1α signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer’s. PMID:25921624

  15. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter. PMID:24611342

  16. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter.

  17. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  18. Health at advanced age: social inequality and other factors potentially impacting longevity in nine high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2013-02-01

    This article surveys the evolution of health at advanced age in nine high-income countries over the last three decades, and the variables that might explain that evolution. Life expectancy at age 65 for males and females is used as summary indicator to conceptualize "health at advanced age." A comparison of the nine countries - Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States - reveals excellent health performance for Japan, which has the greatest proportion of elderly people in the population and also the best health indicators for both males and females; the United States and Denmark perform poorly. Of all nine countries, the United States has the youngest population, the highest income per capita, and the greatest expenditure on health care, but also the highest levels of income inequality and relative poverty, and lacked universal health care coverage during the study period. Experts have considered that these three factors have probably contributed to the poor progress in the health of the elderly in the United States in recent decades. Tobacco consumption appears to be a key influence on the health of the elderly and probably explains to a large extent - with a lag of several decades - the differential evolution of health in these countries.

  19. Life-long environmental enrichment differentially affects the mnemonic response to estrogen in young, middle-aged, and aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Gresack, Jodi E; Kerr, Kristin M; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether life-long exposure to standard or enriched housing affects the ability of estrogen to improve spatial and object memory throughout the lifespan. Three-week-old female mice were maintained in standard or enriched housing up to and through ovariectomy and behavioral testing at 5, 17, or 22 months of age. Spatial memory was tested in the Morris water maze and object memory was tested using an object recognition task. Immediately after training each day, mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle or 0.2 mg/kg 17beta-estradiol. Among young females, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol alone, an effect that was reduced by enrichment. In contrast, spatial water maze performance was impaired by estradiol alone, but improved by the combination of both estradiol and enrichment. At middle-age, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol or enrichment alone, and the combination of both treatments. Spatial memory in the water maze was also improved by both treatments at middle-age, but the beneficial effects of estradiol were limited to standard-housed females. Finally, whereas enrichment in aged females significantly enhanced performance in both tasks, estradiol had no effect at this age in either task. In total, the data indicate that life-long enrichment can significantly alter the extent to which estradiol affects memory in mice throughout the lifespan. Importantly, the interaction between these treatments is highly dependent on age and type of memory tested.

  20. Age-specific responses to spring temperature in a migratory songbird: older females attempt more broods in warmer springs

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, L; Huber, S; Viverette, C; Blem, C

    2013-01-01

    Increasing global temperature has led to an interest in plasticity in the timing of annual events; however, little is known about the demographic consequences of changing phenology. Annual reproductive success varies significantly among individuals within a population, and some of that variation has to do with the number of broods attempted by reproducing adults. In birds, female age and the timing of reproduction are often predictors of multiple breeding. We hypothesize that double brooding rates may be affected by spring temperature and that the response may vary with female age. We used a long-term reproductive data set for a migratory songbird, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) to assess which factors influence (a) an individual female's probability of double brooding and (b) the annual variation in population-level double brooding rates. We found that older and earlier nesting birds are more likely to double brood, and that there is no evidence for senescence with regard to this trait such that the oldest females were most likely to double brood. Previous experience with double brooding (i.e., whether the female double brooded in the previous year) significantly increased the probability of doing so again. When assessing annual variation in the double brooding rate, we found an interaction between spring temperature and the proportion of older females in the population. Specifically, older females are more likely to double brood in years with warmer springs, but this relationship was not seen for younger females. Previous studies have shown that warmer temperatures lead to earlier and narrower peaks in resources and we hypothesize that these peaks are more available to older and earlier arriving females, enabling them to successfully raise more than one brood in a season. Understanding how different age classes respond to changing environmental conditions will be imperative to managing declining species. PMID:24223269

  1. Maitake Mushroom Extracts Ameliorate Progressive Hypertension and Other Chronic Metabolic Perturbations in Aging Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G.; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Perricone, Nicholas V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the ability of two commercially-available fractions labeled SX and D derived from the edible maitake mushroom to overcome many age-associated metabolic perturbations such as progressive, age-related elevation of blood pressure, over activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), decreased insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in an in vivo laboratory model. Design and Method: We divided forty mature, female Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) into five groups of eight. SD ingested regular rat chow containing added sucrose (20% w/w). The groups received baseline diet alone (control) or baseline diet containing captopril, niacin-bound chromium, maitake fraction SX, or maitake fraction D. In addition to blood pressure readings, the following procedures were implemented: losartan and insulin challenges, evaluation of serum ACE activity, glucose tolerance testing, blood chemistries, LNAME challenge, and measurement of various circulating cytokines. Results: We found that implementation of all test conditions stopped the gradual elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the SD over the four months of study, even reversing some of the previous elevation that occurred over time. In general, the treatment groups showed decreased activity of the RAS estimated by less lowering of SBP after losartan challenge and decreased serum ACE activity and were more sensitive to exogenous insulin challenge. TNFa levels decreased in all four test groups suggesting a lessening of the inflammatory state. Conclusions: We believe our data suggest that maitake mushroom fractions lessen age-related hypertension, at least in part, via effects on the RAS; enhance insulin sensitivity; and reduce some aspects of inflammation -- actions that should lead to a longer, healthier life span. PMID:20567593

  2. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Reproductive-Age Female Farmworkers of Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Simsek, Zeynep; Keklik, Zehra; Gurses, Gulcan; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the agricultural population worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in the reproductive-age female farmworker. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013 in southeastern region (SAR) of Turkey. A community-based representative agricultural sample (n = 705) from the agricultural areas of nine provinces of SAR was randomly determined by clustering method using Epi Info software. Questionnaires including demographic information and risk factors of HBV were administered to participants. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HBe antibodies in blood samples were measured by ELISA. Results: The prevalence of the HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HBe antibodies, and seropositivity were 5.7%, 25.9%, 28.9%, 16.4%, and 36.7%, respectively. There was no association between the HBsAg and the size of the household, age, education level, parity, and place of birth while the prevalence of HBsAg was higher in seasonal migratory farmworkers and people living in urban areas and the prevalence of anti-HBs antibody was significantly higher in women ≥ 35 years of age, those with a high parity, and those who gave birth without the assistance of health professionals (P < 0.05). The risk for HBV infection in the seasonal migratory group was 4.3 times higher in comparison to local workers (P = 0.00; OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.4), with a prevalence rate of 11%. Conclusions: The monitoring of at-risk groups like seasonal migratory farmworkers is necessary to strengthen the healthcare service provided to this population. PMID:25598790

  3. Shoulder disorders in female working-age population: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most common pathologies in the general population. However, research into the prevalence of upper arm MSDs is hampered by a lack of uniformity in case definition, and by the absence of a gold standard for measurement. Furthermore, some sectors of the population have benefited from extensive research whilst others have largely been ignored. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: to investigate the prevalence of shoulder MSDs in a working age female population not exposed to specific occupational risk factors such as heavy and/or repetitive work, assessing the differences in prevalence recorded by using three different standard measurement tools. Methods 302 working aged women were enrolled in this study (age 20–55 years). Each subject underwent three different assessments: standardized questionnaires for symptoms and disability and the SF36 health survey, a clinical assessment performed by a blinded orthopaedic specialist, and an imaging assessment by means of ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) if indicated. Results According to the questionnaire 77 subjects (25.5%) complained of shoulder pain whilst 225 (74.5%) were asymptomatic. According to the clinical examination, 31 subjects (10.3%) resulted positive, whereas 271 subjects (89.7%) had normal shoulders. According to the imaging findings, 26 subjects (8.6%) had alterations to the anatomical structures of the shoulder, whilst 276 subjects (91.4%) had no detectable abnormalities in either shoulder. In all assessments, the prevalence increased with age (p = 0.001). Conclusion Depending on the outcome measure used, the prevalence of reported MSDs of the shoulder varies considerably. There is a striking difference between the prevalence of subjective reported symptoms and the standardized clinical/imaging examinations. However, the results of all the assessments did concur in one aspect; there was a significant trend of increased

  4. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  5. Generalized Joint Laxity and Ligament Injuries in High School–Aged Female Volleyball Players in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generalized joint laxity has been linked to ligamentous injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament tear and ankle sprain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate generalized joint laxity and incidence of ligament injuries in high school–aged female volleyball players. It was hypothesized that volleyball players with a past history of sprains would have increased generalized joint laxity compared with those without any history and that athletes with multiple sprains would demonstrate with a higher generalized joint laxity score than those who had only 1 sprain. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty-seven subjects were tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI). They were categorized into 2 groups based on the presence of past ligament injury: injury group (IG) and noninjury group (NG). The IG group was further divided into 2 groups based on whether they had a single ligamentous injury (IGS) or multiple injuries (IGM) in the past to study whether there was any difference in scores between the subgroups. The collected data were analyzed statistically with 1-way analysis of variance. Results: Subjects in the IG group scored significantly higher on the BHJMI than those in the NG group. The mean score for the IG group was 2.40 ± 1.42, as opposed to 1.24 ± 1.09 for the NG group (P = .006). Eleven subjects in the IG group had suffered multiple injuries or recurrent injuries (IGM) and scored significantly higher than the remaining 19 individuals in the IG group, who had only sustained a single injury (IGS). The mean BHJMI scores were 3.18 ± 1.47 and 1.95 ± 1.22 for IGM and IGS, respectively (P = .02). Conclusion: Female athletes with a high generalized joint laxity score may be more prone to ligament injury and potentially to recurrent ligament injuries. PMID:27761474

  6. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  7. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  8. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  9. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  10. Ovarian failure-resistant effects of catalpol in aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Lu, Ye; Liu, Daniel; Ru, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside obtained from various natural sources, has many biological functions. However, its ovarian failure-resistant effect has scarcely been studied. The present study used senile 14-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats to examine the in vivo ovarian failure-resistant activity of catalpol. Daily oral graded doses of catalpol (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks significantly increased the levels of serum 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) but reduced follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Electron microscopic analysis and flow cytometry showed that catalpol significantly retarded apoptosis of the ovarian granulocytes of the rats. These findings suggest that catalpol works on the sex organs by nourishing ovarian tissues and improving both the quality and quantity of follicles, thus leading to rebalanced E2 and P4 levels in aged rats so that catalpol has a direct in vivo antiaging effect on the rat ovarian system. PMID:25177027

  11. Human mortality at very advanced age might be constant.

    PubMed

    Klemera, P; Doubal, S

    1997-11-01

    An attempt was made to identify the course of the mortality rate at the upper tail of human age. The only known data suitable for this purpose were published by Riggs and Millecchia (J.E. Riggs, R.J. Millecchia, Mech. Ageing Dev. 62 (1992) 191-199) and our analysis follows up their results. By means of mathematical elaboration it was proved that these data imply a constant mortality rate (approx. 25% per year) at ages above 113 years for men and above 116 years for women. Indirect arguments supporting the validity of the source data are discussed. Nevertheless, even if the source data are mistaken, we proved they cannot be the product of purely random errors and our results may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of those systematic errors. PMID:9379712

  12. Improvement of ovarian response and oocyte quality of aged female by administration of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advancing female age remains a difficult problem in infertility treatment. Ovarian angiogenesis plays an important role in follicular development and the activation of ovarian angiogenesis has been emerged as a new strategy for the improvement of age-related decline of oocyte quality. BMP-6 affect gonadotropin signals in granulosa cells and it promotes normal fertility by enabling appropriate response to LH and normal oocyte quality. BMP-6 has a potential role in regulation of angiogenesis and regulates the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins (Ids). Ids involved in the control and timing of follicle selection and granulosa cells differentiation. Especially, Id-1 is well-characterized target of BMP-6 signaling. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-administration of BMP-6 during superovulation process improves ovarian response, oocyte quality and expression of Id-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ovary of aged female using a mouse model. Methods Aged C57BL/6 female mice (26–31 weeks old) were superovulated by injection with 0.1 mL of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) containing recombinant mouse BMP-6 at various doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng), followed by injection with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 48 h later. Then, the mice were immediately paired with an individual male. The aged control group was superovulated without BMP-6. Young mice of 6–9 weeks old were superovulated without BMP-6 as a positive control for superovulation and in vitro culture of embryos. Eighteen hours after hCG injection, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Both ovaries of each mouse were provided in the examination of ovarian expression of Id-1 and VEGF by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of 0.1 ng BMP-6 significantly increased the number and blastocyst formation rate of oocytes ovulated and ovarian expression of Id-1 and

  13. Using Histopathologic Evidence to Differentiate Reproductive Senescence from Xenobiotic Effects in Middle-aged Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Norimitsu; Houle, Christopher; Mirsky, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    The female reproductive cycle is orchestrated by cyclical and coordinated hormonal changes under the direction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Any disruption of the HPG axis may lead to functional and structural alterations in the female reproductive system. Test article-related disturbances in the estrous cycle can be recognized in nonclinical toxicity studies by staging the cycle based on microscopic evaluation of female reproductive organs. In chronic rat toxicity studies, an additional complication is the development of reproductive senescence, which is associated with natural alterations in the reproductive cycle leading to changes in the female reproductive system that can potentially be confused with test article effects. The current article describes the features of persistent estrus, one stage of reproductive senescence, in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats and discusses elements to help differentiate senescence from induced effects.

  14. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  15. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  16. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  17. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator.

  18. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator. PMID:19278855

  19. Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric in an Advanced Composition Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Catherine E.

    A college composition course based on teaching the difference between male and female modes of rhetoric offers advantages over the traditional course in reference, persuasive, and expressive discourse: the appeal to student emotion provided by the terms "female" and "male," and the clarity of the terms in delineating the possibilities and…

  20. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies.

  1. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  2. Long-term, progressive, aerobic training increases adiponectin in middle-aged, overweight, untrained males and females.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Pooja P; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J; Firek, Anthony F; Hessinger, David A

    2011-04-01

    Adipose tissue secretes the adipokine, adiponectin (ADPN), which increases insulin sensitivity. Because some of the metabolic effects of exercise and ADPN are similar, exercise has been proposed to increase ADPN. However, most short-term (≤3 mos) and constant-effort exercise protocols have not produced increases in ADPN. Furthermore, no direct comparisons of male and female subjects on the effect of exercise on ADPN levels have been reported. We hypothesized that long-term (6 mos), progressive training would increase ADPN levels in both males and females. We recruited middle-aged, untrained males and females to participate in an interventional study employing a marathon training regimen progressing from 9.7 to 88.5 km (6 to 55 miles) per week over 6 mos. At baseline, we matched the mean ages of the male and female groups. We collected and stored fasting plasma samples and recorded body measurements at 0 (baseline) and 6 mos. Stored samples were analysed for insulin, glucose, and ADPN. ADPN increased significantly among both males (from 5.89 ± 2.46 (mean ± SD) to 7.65 ± 3.18 μg/ml; p < 0.05) and females (from 8.48 ± 3.22 to 10.56 ± 4.05 μg/ml; p < 0.05). The extent of the increase in ADPN was similar in the male (40.7 ± 50%; median, 12.1%) and female (27.0 ± 31.1%; median, 22.3%) groups. However, there was no significant reduction in insulin resistance as measured by the HOMA-IR scores in either group. We conclude that long-term, progressive aerobic training increases circulating ADPN levels in middle-aged, untrained males and females. PMID:21271804

  3. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  4. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  5. Dietary Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male and Female Broilers From Forty-Nine to Sixty-Three Days of Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate digestible (dig) Lys requirements of male and female broiler chickens from 49 to 63 d of age. A dose-response diet consisting of corn, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal was formulated to be adequate in dig amino acid concentrations with the exception of Lys. ...

  6. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  7. Does Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products Contribute to the Aging Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Nicklett, Emily J.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background. Aging is a complex multifactorial process characterized by accumulation of deleterious changes in cells and tissues, progressive deterioration of structural integrity and physiological function across multiple organ systems, and increased risk of death. Methods. We conducted a review of the scientific literature on the relationship of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with aging. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of bioactive molecules that are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Results. Humans are exposed to AGEs produced in the body, especially in individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism, and AGEs ingested in foods. AGEs cause widespread damage to tissues through upregulation of inflammation and cross-linking of collagen and other proteins. AGEs have been shown to adversely affect virtually all cells, tissues, and organ systems. Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that elevated circulating AGEs are associated with increased risk of developing many chronic diseases that disproportionally affect older individuals. Conclusions. Based on these data, we propose that accumulation of AGEs accelerate the multisystem functional decline that occurs with aging, and therefore contribute to the aging phenotype. Exposure to AGEs can be reduced by restriction of dietary intake of AGEs and drug treatment with AGE inhibitors and AGE breakers. Modification of intake and circulating levels of AGEs may be a possible strategy to promote health in old age, especially because most Western foods are processed at high temperature and are rich in AGEs. PMID:20478906

  8. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  9. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  10. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  11. Characterization of recovery, repair, and inflammatory processes following contusion spinal cord injury in old female rats: is age a limitation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is steadily rising in the elderly human population, few studies have investigated the effect of age in rodent models. Here, we investigated the effect of age in female rats on spontaneous recovery and repair after SCI. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) female rats received a moderate contusion SCI at T9. Behavioral recovery was assessed, and immunohistocemical and stereological analyses performed. Results Aged rats demonstrated greater locomotor deficits compared to young, beginning at 7 days post-injury (dpi) and lasting through at least 28 dpi. Unbiased stereological analyses revealed a selective increase in percent lesion area and early (2 dpi) apoptotic cell death caudal to the injury epicenter in aged versus young rats. One potential mechanism for these differences in lesion pathogenesis is the inflammatory response; we therefore assessed humoral and cellular innate immune responses. No differences in either acute or chronic serum complement activity, or acute neutrophil infiltration, were observed between age groups. However, the number of microglia/macrophages present at the injury epicenter was increased by 50% in aged animals versus young. Conclusions These data suggest that age affects recovery of locomotor function, lesion pathology, and microglia/macrophage response following SCI. PMID:25512759

  12. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  13. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65-75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  14. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Handyside, Alan H; Montag, Markus; Magli, M Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception and spontaneous miscarriage demonstrates that trisomies arise mainly in female meiosis and particularly in the first meiotic division. Here, we studied copy number gains and losses for all chromosomes in the two by-products of female meiosis, the first and second polar bodies, and the corresponding zygotes in women of advanced maternal age undergoing IVF, using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Analysis of the segregation patterns underlying the copy number changes reveals that premature predivision of chromatids rather than non-disjunction of whole chromosomes causes almost all errors in the first meiotic division and unlike natural conception, over half of aneuploidies result from errors in the second meiotic division. Furthermore, most abnormal zygotes had multiple aneuploidies. These differences in the aetiology of aneuploidy in IVF compared with natural conception may indicate a role for ovarian stimulation in perturbing meiosis in ageing oocytes. PMID:22317970

  15. Gender inequality in career advancement for females in Japanese academic surgery.

    PubMed

    Okoshi, Kae; Nomura, Kyoko; Fukami, Kayo; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the participation of women in medicine has increased from 10.6% (1986) to 19.7% (2012) in Japan. However, women continue to be underrepresented in the top tiers of academic medicine. We highlight gender inequality and discuss the difficulties faced by female surgeons in Japanese academic surgery. Using anonymous and aggregate employment data of medical doctors at Kyoto University Hospital from 2009 and 2013, and a commercially-published faculty roster in 2012-2013, we compared gender balance stratified by a professional and an academic rank. The numbers of total and female doctors who worked at Kyoto University Hospital were 656 and 132 (20.1%) in 2009 and 655 and 132 (20.2%) in 2013, respectively. Approximately half the men (n = 281) were in temporary track and the rest (n = 242) were in tenure track, but only one fifth of women (n = 24) were in tenure track compared to 108 women in temporary track (p < 0.0001) in 2013. There were three female associate professors in basic medicine (8.1%), two female professors in clinical non-surgical medicine (3.9%) and one female lecturer in clinical surgical medicine (2.3%) in 2012. Fewer female doctors were at senior positions and at tenure positions than male doctors at Kyoto University Hospital. There were no female associate and full professors in surgery. The status of faculty members indicates the gender differences in leadership opportunities in Japanese academic surgery.

  16. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  17. Instruction and Jump-Landing Kinematics in College-Aged Female Athletes Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Etnoyer, Jena; Cortes, Nelson; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Onate, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Instruction can be used to alter the biomechanical movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: To determine the effects of instruction through combination (self and expert) feedback or self-feedback on lower extremity kinematics during the box–drop-jump task, running–stop-jump task, and sidestep-cutting maneuver over time in college-aged female athletes. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-three physically active women (age = 21.47 ± 1.55 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.08 m, mass = 63.78 ± 12.00 kg) with no history of ACL or lower extremity injuries or surgery in the 2 months before the study were assigned randomly to 3 groups: self-feedback (SE), combination feedback (CB), or control (CT). Intervention(s): Participants performed a box–drop-jump task for the pretest and then received feedback about their landing mechanics. After the intervention, they performed an immediate posttest of the box–drop-jump task and a running–stop-jump transfer test. Participants returned 1 month later for a retention test of each task and a sidestep-cutting maneuver. Kinematic data were collected with an 8-camera system sampled at 500 Hz. Main Outcome Measure(s): The independent variables were feedback group (3), test time (3), and task (3). The dependent variables were knee- and hip-flexion, knee-valgus, and hip- abduction kinematics at initial contact and at peak knee flexion. Results: For the box–drop-jump task, knee- and hip-flexion angles at initial contact were greater at the posttest than at the retention test (P < .001). At peak knee flexion, hip flexion was greater at the posttest than at the pretest (P = .003) and was greater at the retention test than at the pretest (P = .04); knee valgus was greater at the retention test than at the pretest (P = .03) and posttest (P = .02). Peak knee flexion was greater for the CB than the SE group (P = .03

  18. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  19. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  20. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  1. Advancing the Aging and Technology Agenda in Gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T.; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R.; Czaja, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this “Forum” position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area. PMID:25165042

  2. Advancing the Aging and Technology Agenda in Gerontology.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Richard; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Matthews, Judith T; De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Beach, Scott R; Czaja, Sara J

    2015-10-01

    Interest in technology for older adults is driven by multiple converging trends: the rapid pace of technological development; the unprecedented growth of the aging population in the United States and worldwide; the increase in the number and survival of persons with disability; the growing and unsustainable costs of caring for the elderly people; and the increasing interest on the part of business, industry, and government agencies in addressing health care needs with technology. These trends have contributed to the strong conviction that technology can play an important role in enhancing quality of life and independence of older individuals with high levels of efficiency, potentially reducing individual and societal costs of caring for the elderly people. The purpose of this "Forum" position article is to integrate what we know about older adults and technology systems in order to provide direction to this vital enterprise. We define what we mean by technology for an aging population, provide a brief history of its development, introduce a taxonomy for characterizing current technology applications to older adults, summarize research in this area, describe existing development and evaluation processes, identify factors important for the acceptance of technology among older individuals, and recommend future directions for research in this area.

  3. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  4. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  5. Chronological progression of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in females 12 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lauren E; Buckner, Ellen; Miller, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary study of cross-sectional data was to examine patterns of scores on the Eating Disorders Inventory in a healthy sample of female adolescents thought to have a high potential for risk. Data were obtained as part of a consultation to identify risk of developing eating disorders. The screening and subsequent group level analysis was carried out with 44 female dancers 12 to 17 years of age enrolled in grades 7 to 12 in a Magnet school. This secondary analysis examined three components of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3): body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia for the purpose of comparing group findings across ages and grades. Some level of body dissatisfaction was widespread in the population, body dissatisfaction increased beginning notably at age 14 and increased sharply at age 15, with further increases until age 16. The correlation between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness was shown to be statistically significant (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Awareness that body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness increase at ages 15 and 16 means disordered eating may begin at this time. If body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness begins early in life and markedly increases at ages 14 and 15, eating disorder prevention must begin in childhood and continue into adolescence. PMID:24757916

  6. Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ERα/ERβ Balance in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novensà, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2− production in young females, while increased O2− in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ERβ/ERα) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ERβ/ERα in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2−. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5′flanking region of ERα gene. PMID:21966501

  7. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  8. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  9. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Cummings, Carl S.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying oxytocin biology in the context of social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human subjects are typically restricted to peripheral oxytocin assessments because opportunities to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are rare. A few studies have examined CSF oxytocin levels in captive adult primates, but none to our knowledge have been conducted under free-ranging conditions and inclusive of young infants. The main goal of the present study was to establish feasibility of quantifying CSF oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus monkeys living on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. CSF oxytocin levels were examined in relation to individuals’ demographic and reproductive characteristics, as well as in relation to plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females (ages 7–26 years; N = 31) and 35.94 to 77.3 pg/ml in infants (ages 38–134 days; N = 17). CSF oxytocin levels were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former correlation was driven by reproductive status. CSF oxytocin levels were unrelated to dominance rank or plasma cortisol levels. In contrast to a previous study of plasma oxytocin concentrations in this population, CSF oxytocin levels did not differ significantly between lactating and non-lactating females. In summary, these findings: 1) provide feasibility data for examining CSF oxytocin biology in free-ranging nonhuman primates and 2) indicate that CSF oxytocin levels may be a biomarker of age-related central nervous system changes across lifespan development. Although our study did not report significant associations between CSF oxytocin levels and socially-relevant demographic variables, the relationships between CSF oxytocin levels and assessments of social functioning warrant future investigation. PMID:20528088

  10. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    DOE PAGES

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNiamore » (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.« less

  11. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNia (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.

  12. The effects of age and previous experience on social rank in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus spadiceus.

    PubMed

    Kim; Zuk

    2000-08-01

    Social rank can influence lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We examined the effects of morphology, age, previous social experience and aggressiveness on social rank in all-female flocks of red junglefowl. None of the morphological characters measured (mass, tarsus length, comb height or comb length) appeared to play a role in determining rank. Older females were not more likely to be dominant, while previous social experience and aggression levels were both important in dominance determination. Flock-experienced hens were more likely to be dominant as were more aggressive individuals. Red junglefowl females most likely use a combination of characters to establish social order in a newly formed flock. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10973726

  13. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Kaushik, Sonia; Benke, Geza P; Borg, Brigitte M; Smith, Catherine L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time. Results In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females) participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze). The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation) FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1) and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2) mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted steeper decline in females than males. Conclusion Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD. PMID:27307725

  14. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  15. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence. PMID:23421697

  16. Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Benno, Y; Nakao, H; Uchida, K; Mitsuoka, T

    1992-08-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora of male beagle dogs in two different age groups; I) less than month 12 of age, and II) more than year 11 of age, was compared. No detectable difference occurred on the microflora of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in both dogs. Large bowel (cecum, colon and rectum) microflora in both dogs yielded the different microbial populations. In all regions of large bowel, the levels of bacteroides, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and staphylococci in the elderly dogs were lower than those in the younger animals, whereas the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and streptococci in the elderly animals were higher than those in the youngers. The high incidence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed with advances in age, but not that of spiral shaped rods. The result of this study shows that the advances in age of beagle dogs yield some changes in the microbial population of large bowel in the animals.

  17. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  18. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification.

  19. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  20. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  1. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  2. Age differences in genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping during adulthood: a study of female twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; MacGregor, Alexander J; Cherkas, Lynn; Williams, Frances M K; Spector, Tim D

    2012-07-01

    The way people cope with stressors of day to day living has an important influence on health. The aim of the present study was to explore whether genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping differ over time during adulthood. The brief COPE was mailed to a large sample of the UK female twins (N = 4,736) having a wide range of age (20-87 years). Factor analyses of the items of the brief COPE yielded three coping scales: 'Problem-Solving', 'Support Seeking', and 'Avoidance'. Monozygotic and dizygotic twin correlations tended to become lower with age for all three scales, suggesting that unique environmental factors may become more important with age during adulthood. Model-fitting results showed that relative influences of unique environmental factors increased from 60 % at age 20 years to 74% at age 87 years for 'Problem-Solving' and 56 % at age 20 years to 76% at age 87 years for 'Avoidance'. During the same age period, genetic factors decreased from 40 to 26 % for 'Problem-Solving' and from 44 to 24 % for 'Avoidance'. For 'Seeking Support', the magnitude of genetic and unique environmental factors was not significantly different across the adulthood. For all three scales, shared environmental effects were negligible. Overall, our findings implicate that the effects of environment that stem from idiosyncratic experience of stressful life events accumulate and become increasingly important in adulthood.

  3. Contact allergy to topical medicaments becomes more common with advancing age: an age-stratified study.

    PubMed

    Green, Carl M; Holden, Catherine R; Gawkrodger, David J

    2007-04-01

    Eczema is common in the elderly people who often use topical medicaments. Previous studies in the elderly people have noted allergic positive patch tests in between 43% and 64% of those tested. We set out to assess whether medicament contact allergies are more common in elderly patients. We undertook a retrospective age-stratified study of all patients patch tested at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, between January 1994 and July 2005. We confirmed that contact allergy to topical medicaments is more common in those aged more than 70 years compared with the younger age groups. There was no sex difference. The commonest problematic allergen types found in medicaments were fragrances and preservatives. The most frequent individual allergens were fragrance mix, Myroxylon pereirae, lanolins, local anaesthetic agents, neomycin and gentamicin, and tixocortol pivolate. The pattern of medicament contact allergens was similar to that of the younger age groups except that multiple allergic positives were more frequent and sensitivities to local anaesthetics and Myroxylon pereirae were proportionally more common. Elderly patients were more likely to have multiple contact allergies than the younger ones. Care needs to be taken when prescribing topical medicaments to elderly patients with eczema, especially for preparations that contain perfumes, lanolins, and local anaesthetics.

  4. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  5. Physiological responses and RPE during underwater treadmill walking in women of middle and advanced age.

    PubMed

    Shono, T; Fujishima, K; Hotta, N; Ogaki, T; Ueda, T; Otoki, K; Teramoto, K; Shimizu, T

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses and RPE during water walking using the Flowmill, which has a treadmill at the base of a water flume, in order to obtain basic data for prescribing water walking for people of middle and advanced age. Twenty healthy female volunteers with an age of 59.1 +/- 5.2 years took part in this study. They belonged to the same swimming club and regularly swam and exercised in water. Walking in water took place in the Flowmill. Subjects completed four consecutive bouts of 4 min duration at progressively increasing speeds (20, 30, 40 and 50 m/min) with 1 min rest between each bout. In addition, water velocity was adjusted to the walking speed of each bout. Subjects were instructed to swing both arms in order to maintain their balance during walking in water. The water depth was to the level of the xiphoid process and the water temperature was 30.31 +/- 0.08 degrees C. Both heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) increased exponentially as walking speed increased. HR was 125 +/- 15 bpm, and VO2 was 18.10 +/- 2.72 ml/kg.min-1 during walking in water at 50 m/min, which was the highest speed. The exercise intensity at this speed was equivalent to 5.2 +/- 0.8 Mets. The relationship between HR and VO2 during walking in water showed a highly significant linear relationship in each subject. There was also a highly significant linear relationship in the mean HR and VO2 of all subjects. Blood lactate concentration (LA) measured at rest and immediately after each bout was 1.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l at rest, 1.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l at 20 m/min, 1.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at 30 m/min, 1.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/l at 40 m/min, and 2.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/l at 50 m/min. LA at 50 m/min was significantly higher than at rest and at the other speeds. The relationship between HR and RPE during walking in water showed a highly significant linear relationship. The relationship between walking speed and energy expenditure calculated from VO2 and the respiratory exchange

  6. Impact of Father Absence During Childhood on College Age Females' Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. R.; Parish, T. S.

    This study was carried out with a group of 98 female volunteers. The control group consisted of 27 who had not lost their fathers; the experimental group consisted of 71 who had lost their fathers due to death or divorce. All subjects were administered two checklists to measure personal adjustment and security. Results revealed that fatherless…

  7. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  8. High-titer measles vaccination before 9 months of age and increased female mortality: do we have an explanation?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-07-01

    In 1989, high-titer (HT) Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine with a titer more than 10(4.7) plaque-forming-units was recommended by the World Health Organization for use in areas with a high incidence of measles in children younger than 9 months. In 1992, the recommendation was rescinded following reports from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Haiti showing an increased incidence of female mortality occurring after administration of HT Edmonston-Zagreb vaccination. We reviewed 9 studies of HT measles vaccines that reported data on mortality. These reports included 4 randomized trials comparing HT vaccine administered to children younger than 9 months with standard-titer (ST) vaccines (10(3.0) to 10(4.0) plaque-forming-units) given at 9 months of age. Five studies from Zaire, Haiti, Senegal, Rwanda, and Zaire had no control group receiving ST vaccine at 9 months of age, but investigators were able to examine the female-to-male mortality ratio within these HT studies. Investigators have hypothesized that HT vaccine had caused immune suppression similar to that of measles infection. The present review suggests first that the HT vaccine itself is unlikely to be the cause because the effect was not found in all studies. Second, the increased mortality started only after 9 to 10 months of age when controls received ST measles vaccine, and HT groups received the "control vaccine." It was not found in the studies that provided another measles vaccine instead of control vaccine. Third, because the HT studies with excess mortality rates showed increased female mortality rates, we need to find environmental or contextual conditions associated with increased female mortality rates in some studies to explain the problem associated with HT measles vaccination. PMID:12913835

  9. Differences in Retinal Structure and Function between Aging Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats are Strongly Influenced by the Estrus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chaychi, Samaneh; Polosa, Anna; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biological sex and age are considered as two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina, an effect that might be governed by sexual hormones such as estrogen. The purpose of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal function and structure of rodents and also clarify the effect that the estrus cycle might exert on the retinal function of female rats. Method The retinal function of 50 normal male and female albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated with the electroretinogram (ERG) at postnatal day (P) 30, 60, 100, 200, and 300 (n = 5–6 male and female rats/age). Following the ERG recording sessions, retinal histology was performed in both sexes. In parallel, the retinal function of premenopausal and menopausal female rats aged P540 were also compared. Results Sex and age-related changes in retinal structure and function were observed in our animal model. However, irrespective of age, no significant difference was observed in ERG and retinal histology obtained from male and female rats. Notwithstanding the above we did however notice that between P60 and P200 there was a gradual increase in ERG amplitudes of female rats compared to males. Furthermore, the ERG of premenopausal female rats aged 18 months old (P540) was larger compared to age-matched menopausal female rats as well as that of male rats. Conclusion Our results showed that biological sex and age can influence the retinal function and structure of albino SD rats. Furthermore, we showed that cycled female rats have better retinal function compared to the menopausal female rats suggesting a beneficial effect of the estrus cycle on the retinal function. PMID:26317201

  10. Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Mets, Tony; Njemini, Rose; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to chronic diseases such as age-related muscle wasting, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be proinflammatory, this systematic review examined the relation between the dietary intake of AGEs and inflammatory processes. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were screened systematically. Seventeen relevant studies in humans or animals were included. The intervention studies in humans showed mainly a decrease in inflammation in subjects on a low-AGE diet, while an increase in inflammation in subjects on a high-AGE diet was less apparent. About half of the observational studies found a relationship between inflammatory processes and AGEs in food. When the results are considered together, the dietary intake of AGEs appears to be related to inflammatory status and the level of circulating AGEs. Moreover, limiting AGE intake may lead to a decrease in inflammation and chronic diseases related to inflammatory status. Most of the trials were conducted in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and thus additional studies in healthy individuals are needed. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the effects of lifetime exposure of dietary AGEs on aging and health.

  11. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  12. Germ-line transmission of trisomy 21: Data from 80 families suggest an implication of grandmaternal age and a high frequency of female-specific trisomy rescue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents

  13. Heart valve disease in elderly Chinese population: effect of advanced age and comorbidities on treatment decision-making and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kui; Li, Jun; Wan, Yun; Hong, Tao; Lu, Shu-Yang; Guo, Chang-Fa; Wang, Chun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of elderly patients with symptomatic severe heart valve disease are treated conservatively despite clear indications for surgical intervention. However, little is known about how advanced age and comorbidities affect treatment decision-making and therapeutic outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 234, mean age: 78.5 ± 3.7 years) with symptomatic severe heart valve disease hospitalized in our center were included. One hundred and fifty-one patients (65%) were treated surgically (surgical group) and 83 (35%) were treated conservatively (conservative group). Factors that affected therapeutic decision-making and treatment outcomes were investigated and long-term survival was explored. Results Isolated aortic valve disease, female sex, chronic renal insufficiency, aged ≥ 80 years, pneumonia, and emergent status were independent factors associated with therapeutic decision-making. In-hospital mortality for the surgical group was 5.3% (8/151). Three patients (3.6%) in the conservative group died during initial hospitalization. Low cardiac output syndrome and chronic renal insufficiency were identified as predictors of in-hospital mortality in the surgical group. Conservative treatment was identified as the single risk factor for late death in the entire study population. The surgical group had better 5-year (77.2% vs. 45.4%, P < 0.0001) and 10-year (34.5% vs. 8.9%, P < 0.0001) survival rates than the conservative group, even when adjusted by propensity score-matched analysis. Conclusions Advanced age and geriatric comorbidities profoundly affect treatment decision-making for severe heart valve disease. Valve surgery in the elderly was not only safe but was also associated with good long-term survival while conservative treatment was unfavorable for patients with symptomatic severe valve disease. PMID:27605940

  14. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article.

  15. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H.; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article. PMID:27247673

  16. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  17. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by immunological and genetic methods in female sex workers and the local female population of reproductive age in Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Syada Monira; Hossain, Md Akram; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Mahmud, Md Chand; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Nasir Uddin; Khan, Emily Rahman; Sakib, Md Annaz Mus; Ghosh, Souvik; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the accurate prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Mymensingh, a local area in central-northern Bangladesh, 40 female sex workers (FSW) and 110 sexually active women (SAW, non-FSW) of reproductive age from a local community with clinical symptoms were examined by an immunochromatography test (ICT) and plasmid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during a 1-year period from July 2011 to June 2012 using the endocervical swab as a specimen. By ICT and/or PCR, the C. trachomatis detection rate was 58% and 27% in FSW and SAW, respectively, showing a significant difference (P < 0.01). Two C. trachomatis strains from FSW were determined to be serovar D by ompA-based PCR and sequencing analysis. The highest prevalence was found among women aged 15 to 35 years. A lower socioeconomic status was considered to be an important risk factor for C. trachomatis infection in FSW but not in SAW. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections in FSW and SAW in the same local area in Bangladesh.

  18. Reproductive senescence in female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): age- and season-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian functions and fecundity rates.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, M; Mitsunaga, F; Shimizu, K

    1995-06-01

    Age- and season-related changes in gonadotropin-gonadal functions were studied in captive female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata), with special reference to reproductive senescence. In experiment 1, a total of 57 nonlactating females at ages 3-32 yr were used. Blood samples were collected for at least one breeding season (September through March), and changes in plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol, and progesterone were examined. In experiment 2, two groups of females (older females, n = 5, over 21 yr old; mature females, n = 5, aged 8-12 yr) received s.c. injections of 50 micrograms/kg of estradiol benzoate during the mid-breeding season. In experiment 1, ovarian functions as well as fecundity rates were maintained in the animals aged 5-20 yr. A decline in ovarian activity became apparent at 21-25 yr of age, when animals exhibited a slight increase in plasma LH during the breeding season. Onset of menopause occurred at around 27 yr of age, near the end of the life span. Menopausal females exhibited a marked seasonal difference in plasma LH concentrations, with high levels during the breeding season. In experiment 2, estradiol treatment elicited an LH surge in both old and mature females. The marked seasonal difference in plasma LH, as well as the maintenance of LH response to estradiol in menopausal females, suggests a possibility that biannual changes in sensitivity of the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis to the negative feedback action of estradiol are maintained even after menopause.

  19. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) system in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsui, Takanori

    2006-03-01

    Vascular complications are a leading cause of blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. There is a growing body of evidence that formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) progress during normal aging, and at an extremely accelerated rate in diabetes, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Furthermore, the interaction by AGEs of their receptor, RAGE, activates down-stream signaling and evokes inflammatory responses in vascular wall cells. Therefore, inhibition of AGE formation or blockade of the RAGE signaling may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention to prevent diabetic vascular complications. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy, especially focusing on the AGE-RAGE system. Several types of inhibitors of the AGE-RAGE system and their therapeutic implications are also reviewed here. PMID:16712466

  20. Surface exposure dating of Little Ice Age ice cap advances on Disko Island, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Timothy; Jomelli, Vincent; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Brunstein, Daniel; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Swingedouw, Didier; Favier, Vincent; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    Little Ice Age (LIA: 1200-1920 AD) glacier advances in Greenland often form the most extensive positions of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) ice cap and margins since the Early Holocene. Across Greenland these advances are commonly represented by un-vegetated moraines, usually within 1-5 km of the present ice margin. However, chronological constraints on glacier advances during this period are sparse, meaning that GrIS and ice cap behavior and advance/retreat chronology remains poorly understood during this period. At present the majority of ages are based on historical accounts, ice core data, and radiocarbon ages from proglacial threshold lakes. However, developments in the accuracy and precision of surface exposure methods allow dating of LIA moraine boulders, permitting an opportunity to better understand of ice dynamics during this period. Geomorphological mapping and surface exposure dating (36Cl) were used to interpret moraine deposits from the Lyngmarksbræen on Disko Island, West Greenland. A Positive Degree Day (PDD) model was used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) and mass balance changes for two distinct paleo-glacial extents. Three moraines (M1, M2, and M3) were mapped in the field, and sampled for 36Cl surface exposure dating. The outermost moraine (M1) was of clearly different morphology to the inner moraines, and present only in small fragments. M2 and M3 were distinct arcuate termino-lateral moraines within 50 m of one another, 1.5 km from the present ice margin. The weighted average of four 36Cl ages from M1 returned an early Holocene age of 8.4 ± 0.6 ka. M2 (four samples) returned an age of 0.57 ± 0.04 ka (1441 AD) and M3 (four samples) returned an age of 0.28 ± 0.02 ka (1732 AD). These surface exposure ages represent the first robustly dated Greenlandic ice cap moraine sequence from the LIA. The two periods of ice cap advance and marginal stabilisation are similar to recorded periods of LIA GrIS advance in west Greenland, constrained

  1. Hypermethylation of FOXP3 Promoter and Premature Aging of the Immune System in Female Patients with Panic Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Prelog, Martina; Hilligardt, Deborah; Schmidt, Christian A.; Przybylski, Grzegorz K.; Leierer, Johannes; Almanzar, Giovanni; El Hajj, Nady; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Haaf, Thomas; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities associated with pathological conditions, such as higher infection rates, inflammatory diseases, cancer or cardiovascular events are common in patients with panic disorder. In the present study, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), Forkhead-Box-Protein P3 gene (FOXP3) methylation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and relative telomere lengths (RTLs) were investigated in a total and subsamples of 131 patients with panic disorder as compared to 131 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in order to test for a potential dysfunction and premature aging of the immune system in anxiety disorders. Significantly lower TRECs (p = 0.004) as well as significant hypermethylation of the FOXP3 promoter region (p = 0.005) were observed in female (but not in male) patients with panic disorder as compared to healthy controls. No difference in relative telomere length was discerned between patients and controls, but significantly shorter telomeres in females, smokers and older persons within the patient group. The presently observed reduced TRECs in panic disorder patients and FOXP3 hypermethylation in female patients with panic disorder potentially reflect impaired thymus and immunosuppressive Treg function, which might partly account for the known increased morbidity and mortality of anxiety disorders conferred by e.g. cancer and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27362416

  2. Ultrasound determination of gestational age using placental thickness in female dogs: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age -0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys. PMID:22848867

  3. Ultrasound Determination of Gestational Age Using Placental Thickness in Female Dogs: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age −0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys. PMID:22848867

  4. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  5. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  6. Cosmogenic 10Be constraints on Little Ice Age glacial advances in the eastern Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Li, Yingkui; Harbor, Jon; Liu, Gengnian; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Presumed Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented by a set of fresh, sharp-crested, boulder covered and compact moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in the Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have constrained the formation ages of these moraines. We report 31 10Be exposure ages from presumed LIA moraines in six glacial valleys in the Urumqi River headwater area and the Haxilegen Pass area of the eastern Tian Shan, China. Our results reveal that the maximum LIA glacial extent occurred mainly around 430 ± 100 yr, a cold and wet period as indicated by proxy data from ice cores, tree rings, and lake sediments in Central Asia. We also dated a later glacial advance to 270 ± 55 yr. However, 10Be exposure ages on several presumed LIA moraines in front of small, thin glaciers are widely scattered and much older than the globally recognized timing of the LIA. Historical topographic maps indicate that most glaciers were more extensive in the early 1960s, and two of our 10Be sample sites were located close to the ice front at that time. Boulders transported by these small and thin glaciers may be reworked from deposits originally formed prior to the LIA glacial advances, producing apparently old and widely scattered exposure ages due to varied nuclide inheritance. Other published ages indicated an earlier LIA advance around 790 ± 300 yr in the easternmost Tian Shan, but in our study area the more extensive advance around 430 ± 100 yr likely reworked or covered deposits from this earlier event.

  7. Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zach, Karie N; Smith Machin, Ariane L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-07-01

    Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation. PMID:21658548

  8. Advance in diagnosis of female genital tract tumor with laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ai-Hua; Tseng, Quen; Lian, Shao-Hui

    1998-11-01

    In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of malignant tumors with laser fluorescence, in 1996, our group successfully created the computerized laser fluorescence spectrograph type II with more reliable images shown overshadowing the naked eye method before 74 cases of female genital tract diseases had been examined by the LFS II resulting in 10 positive cases which were also proven pathologically as malignant tumors, without nay false negative, 3 cases presented suspicious positive but all were proven pathologically as non-tumors lesions, the false positive rate was 4 percent. Our work showed that the method of LFS II can provide a more rapid and accurate diagnosis for the clinical malignant tumors.

  9. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  10. Proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal of osteoprogenitors in vertebral cell populations from aged and young female rats.

    PubMed

    Bellows, C G; Pei, W; Jia, Y; Heersche, J N M

    2003-06-01

    A significant contribution to the bone loss associated with aging is likely to be a decline in bone formation. We have characterized and compared the number, capacity for proliferation and differentiation and the self-renewal ability of osteoprogenitors of aged (17-26-month-old) and young (1.5-month-old) female Wistar rats using limiting dilution analyses and continuous subculture experiments. Cells were obtained from outgrowths of explants of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L6) and grown in alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM), 10% FBS and 50 microg/ml ascorbic acid with or without dexamethasone (Dex; 0.3-300 nM) or progesterone (Prog; 0.01-10 microM). Growth curves for cell populations of both age groups were similar with population doubling times of 27.1 and 26.7 h for the aged and young animals, respectively. Osteoprogenitors from both age groups formed bone nodules when cultured in the presence of either Dex or Prog. Limiting dilution analysis in the presence of 10 nM Dex showed no difference between the aged and young rats in the number of colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-F), alkaline phosphatase-positive colony forming units-fibroblast (AP+ CFU-F) or colony forming units-osteoblast (CFU-O). No differences were also found for any progenitor within the aged group. Limiting dilution analysis in the presence of 3 microM Prog showed no differences in the numbers of CFU-F, AP+ CFU-F or CFU-O between the aged and young groups or within the aged group. Continuous subculture of cells in the presence of 10 nM Dex revealed that the number of nodules per 10(4) plated cells increased in second subculture over first subculture cells in the young group but decreased in the aged group. Also, in third to fifth subculture cells, the number of nodules was lower in the aged group than in the young group. A similar pattern was observed in the presence of 3 microM Prog. Results indicate that the cell population doubling times, growth characteristics, and the number of CFU-F and

  11. ERα Variants Affect Age at Onset of Alzheimer's Disease in a Multiethnic Female Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, S.C.; Park, N.; Cheng, R.; Clark, L.N.; Lee, J. H.; Schupf, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies of gene variants that affect estrogen activity investigate their association with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women of different ethnicities. We investigated the influence of ESR1 polymorphisms on age at onset of AD in a multiethnic cohort of women. Methods Among 1,436 women participating in the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), association with age at AD onset was assessed for 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ESR1 gene using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for presence of an APOE ε4 allele, years of education, and body mass index (BMI). Results Six SNPs in self-identified White women were protectively associated with delayed age of AD onset in this self-identified group, including the two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) (HR range 0.420 – 0.483). Two separate SNPs were found to affect age of AD onset in self-identified Black women. Conclusions ESR1 polymorphisms affect age of onset for AD in women, and risk alleles vary by ethnicity. These effects are possibly due to different linkage disequilibrium patterns or differences in comorbid environmental or cultural risk factors mediating SNP effect on risk for AD. PMID:24732579

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM (CHC13). A McDonald, Y M Sey and J E Simmons. NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.
    Disinfection, by chlorination or by ozonation followed by treatment with either chlorine or chloramine, of water containi...

  13. Advances in Disentangling Age, Cohort, and Time Effects: No Quadrature of the Circle, but a Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on Schaie's (1965) general developmental model, various data-driven and theory-based approaches to the exploration and disentangling of age, cohort, and time effects on human behavior have emerged. This paper presents and discusses an advancement of data-driven interpretations that stresses parsimony when interpreting the results of…

  14. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  15. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  16. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  17. [Effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus in D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Yu-Mei; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Wu-Qing

    2013-08-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus of D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging. Aging female mice model caused by D-galactose were used as model group, the aging model mice intragastrically administered with kinetin solution (daily 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were used as kinetin groups, and the mice with solvent as normal group (n = 20). To detect the effects of kinetin, estrous cycle, estradiol content, ovarian and uterine wet weight and organ index, SOD and GSH-Px activities, MDA and total protein contents, as well as the reserve function of ovaries were examined. The results showed that, kinetin-induced changes in two kinetin groups were observed, compared with the model group: (1) the estrous cycle was shortened; (2) serum estradiol content was significantly increased; (3) the wet weights of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (4) SOD and GSH-Px activities of ovary and uterus were significantly higher; (5) the MDA contents of the ovary and uterus were reduced significantly; (6) total protein contents of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (7) the numbers of mature oocytes in fallopian tubes were increased significantly. The results show that kinetin can protect ovary and uterus against oxidative damage, prevent low estrogen secretion caused by ovarian oxidative damage, shorten the estrous cycle in mice, and eventually maintain ovarian and uterine vitalities.

  18. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  19. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  20. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease.

  1. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease. PMID:27470058

  2. Age at first oral contraceptive use as a major determinant of vertebral bone mass in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hartard, Manfred; Kleinmond, Christine; Kirchbichler, Alexander; Jeschke, Dieter; Wiseman, Michael; Weissenbacher, Ernst Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter; Erben, Reinhold G

    2004-10-01

    It was the aim of this retrospective analysis to examine the influence of low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and of the spine in young female endurance athletes. Data on training intensity, dietary intake, menarche, menstrual cycle disorders, years of OC use, and age at first OC use were determined by a self-report questionnaire. Only athletes performing regular endurance exercise for more than 3 years with more than 3 h of exercise per week were included in this study and underwent a clinical assessment including measurement of weight, height, spine, and hip BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and collection of a blood sample. The data from 75 regularly exercising endurance athletes aged 18-35 years (26.5 +/- 4.8 years) were initially included in this analysis. Six athletes were later excluded due to oligo-/amenorrhea. Subjects were allocated into the OC group when they reported OC use for more than 3 years in women younger than 22 years of age, or when they reported OC use for more than 50% of the time after menarche in women aged 22-35 years. There were no differences in age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, menarche, training intensity, age at start of training, or any serum parameters between OC users (n = 31) and control subjects (n = 38). However, OC users had 7.9% lower spine BMD and 8.8% lower proximal femur BMD (P < 0.01 for both sites). When the relationship between BMD of the spine and OC use was further analyzed by a stepwise model of multiple regression analysis using OC years, age at OC initiation, BMI, and menarche as independent variables, age at first OC use was found to be the best predictor of vertebral BMD, while the only significant predictor of femoral neck BMD was BMI. We conclude that OC use is associated with decreased BMD of the spine and the femoral neck in female endurance athletes, and that early age at initiation of OC use may be an important risk factor

  3. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  4. Proactive gait strategies to mitigate risk of obstacle contact are more prevalent with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Muir, B C; Haddad, J M; Heijnen, M J H; Rietdyk, S

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine if healthy older adults adopt strategies to decrease the likelihood of obstacle contact, and to determine how these strategies are modified as a function of advancing age. Three age groups were examined: 20-25 yo (N = 19), 65-79 yo (N = 11), and 80-91 yo (N = 18). Participants stepped over a stationary, visible obstacle on a walkway. Step length and gait speed progressively decreased with advancing age; the shorter step length resulted in closer foot placement to the obstacle and an associated increased risk of obstacle contact. Lead (first limb to cross the obstacle) and trail (second) limb trajectories were examined for behavior that mitigated the risk of contact. (1) Consistent trail foot placement before the obstacle across all ages allowed space and time for the trail foot to clear the obstacle. (2) To avoid lead limb contact due to closer foot placement before and after the obstacle, the lead toe was raised more vertically after toe-off, and then the foot was extended beyond the landing position (termed lead overshoot) and retracted backwards to achieve the shortened step length. Lead overshoot progressively increased with advancing age. (3) Head angle was progressively lower with advancing age, an apparent attempt to gather more visual information during approach. Overall, a series of proactive strategies were adopted to mitigate risk of contact. However, the larger, more abrupt movements associated with a more vertical foot trajectory and lead overshoot may compromise whole body balance, indicating a possible trade-off between risk of contact and stability.

  5. Circulatory response to single circuit weight and walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J; Pihl, E

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare circulatory responses to circuit weight (CWT) and aerobic walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females. Thirty-three middle-aged pre-menopausal females participated in the experiment. They were divided into overweight (n=18, 36.2 +/- 6.3 years, 166.3 +/- 8.0 cm, 83.5 +/- 9.7 kg, BMI 30.2 +/- 3.1 kg m-2) and non-overweight control (n=15, 34.1 +/- 6.3 years, 165.0 +/- 5.6 cm, 61.6 +/- 5.0 kg, BMI 22.7 +/- 1.5 kg m-2) groups. Individual physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using the cycle ergometer test (calculated at the level of predicted HRmax (205 - (1/2) age). A CWT session consisted of leg extension, bench press, sit-ups and leg press exercises. The subjects performed four circuits at the maximal possible speed, using a work-to-rest ratio of 60 s. Blood pressure (BP) was measured during every rest period between the exercises, and the heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously during the whole CWT programme. During the walking training session, the subjects walked as fast as possible on the indoor track. The total energy cost of the walking training session was the same as during the CWT session, approximately 270 kcal, and was controlled by a CALTRAC accelerometer. HR and BP were measured every 5 min during the walking training session. The PWC index was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the overweight group in comparison with the control females (215.4 +/- 76.1 and 187.9 +/- 42.4 W, respectively). The resting BP was normal in both groups (<140/90 mmHg). HR was between 120 and 140 beats min-1 during CWT and walking sessions. There were no differences in BP during both training sessions in overweight and control subjects. It was concluded that both CWT and walking training sessions were acceptable forms of physical activity to increase cardiovascular fitness in middle-aged overweight and normal body weight females.

  6. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.

  7. Acute effects of 17 β-estradiol and genistein on insulin sensitivity and spatial memory in aged ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ana; González-Pardo, Héctor; Garrido, Pablo; Conejo, Nélida M; Llaneza, Plácido; Díaz, Fernando; Del Rey, Carmen González; González, Celestino

    2010-12-01

    Aging is characterized by decline in metabolic function and insulin resistance, and both seem to be in the basis of neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive dysfunction. Estrogens prevent age-related changes, and phytoestrogens influence learning and memory. Our hypothesis was that estradiol and genistein, using rapid-action mechanisms, are able to modify insulin sensitivity, process of learning, and spatial memory. Young and aged ovariectomized rats received acute treatment with estradiol or genistein. Aged animals were more insulin-resistant than young. In each age, estradiol and genistein-treated animals were less insulin-resistant than the others, except in the case of young animals treated with high doses of genistein. In aged rats, no differences between groups were found in spatial memory test, showing a poor performance in the water maze task. However, young females treated with estradiol or high doses of genistein performed well in spatial memory task like the control group. Only rats treated with high doses of genistein showed an optimal spatial memory similar to the control group. Conversely, acute treatment with high doses of phytoestrogens improved spatial memory consolidation only in young rats, supporting the critical period hypothesis for the beneficial effects of estrogens on memory. Therefore, genistein treatment seems to be suitable treatment in aged rats in order to prevent insulin resistance but not memory decline associated with aging. Acute genistein treatment is not effective to restore insulin resistance associated to the early loss of ovarian function, although it can be useful to improve memory deficits in this condition. PMID:20467821

  8. The effect of age on discrete kinematics of the elite female tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2013-10-01

    The importance of the flat serve in tennis is well documented, with an abundance of research evaluating the service technique of adult male players. Comparatively, the female and junior serves have received far less attention. Therefore, the aims of this study were to quantify the flat serve kinematics in elite prepubescent, pubescent, and postpubescent female tennis players. Full body, racket, and ball kinematics were derived using a 22-camera Vicon motion capture system. Racket velocity was significantly lower in the prepubescent group than in the two older groups. In generating racket velocity, the role of the serving arm appears to become more pronounced after the onset of puberty, whereas leg drive and "shoulder-over-shoulder" rotation mature even later in development. These factors are proposed to relate to strength deficits and junior players' intentions to reduce the complexity of the skill. Temporally, coupling perception (cues from the ball) and action (body movements) are less refined in the prepubescent serve, presumably reducing the "rhythm" (and dynamism) of the service action. Practically, there appears scope for equipment scaling to preserve kinematic relevance between the junior and senior serve and promote skill acquisition.

  9. Age at menopause: A fundamental data of interest to acquire in female patients' anamnesis.

    PubMed

    Sciomer, Susanna; De Carlo, Carlotta; Moscucci, Federica; Maffei, Silvia

    2016-07-15

    Although menopause is a universal phenomenon among women, the timing of the onset and the duration of the menopausal transition and the timing of the final menstrual period are not so codified. Compelling evidence supports the idea that the different impact of cardiovascular disease and the differences in vascular biology in men and women may be, at least in part, related to the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of sex steroid hormones. Indeed, androgens and estrogens influence a multitude of vascular biological processes and their cardiovascular effects are multifaceted. Gender pharmacology has proven that men and women have tiny but not paltry different effects to the same drug. Estrogens exert potential beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system in both sexes. It is evident that there is a need for the physician who approaches the female patient, to stress the main anamnestic data concerning her hormonal life starting from menarche, through pregnancy, until menopause. Thus it will be not only a formality becoming a cornerstone of the first doctor-patient relationship, both for in- and outpatient, we will have a clear and complete representation of the etiology and evolution of cardiovascular diseases that increasingly afflict the female gender. PMID:27128561

  10. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25387669

  11. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31 ± 1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  12. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  13. Lack of age-related increase in average glycemia in a non-Westernized sample of rural Yucatec Maya females.

    PubMed

    McLorg, Penelope A

    2005-01-01

    Age-related decline in glucose processing and the associated progressively higher circulating glucose levels are considered well-established biological aging phenomena. However, their occurrence in non-Westernized populations characterized by less mechanization and dietary processing has not been well-studied. This research extends evaluation of lifestyle conditions of diet and physical activity beyond those of Westernized areas and examines aging patterns in blood glucose among rural Yucatec Maya. The purpose is to investigate whether deteriorating glucose processing is intrinsic to human aging, while controlling for body composition in a non-Westernized setting. Data were gathered from 60 nondiabetic Maya women, 40-85 years of age, living in 16 rural villages around Merida, Yucatan. Information regarding personal history, diet, and physical activity was collected through interviews. Body composition was assessed through anthropometric and derived indicators of body size, fat distribution, body mass index, intra-abdominal fat, and total fat and fat-free masses. Glycemia was measured through microvenous samples analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fructosamine, to demonstrate average circulating glucose under customary living conditions. As indicated by glycation, average glycemia is not higher in older Maya females (age group F for HbA(1c) = 0.88, P > 0.05; age group F for fructosamine = 0.38, P > 0.05). Further, correlations between age and HbA(1c) (r = -0.13, P > 0.05) and fructosamine (r = -0.10, P > 0.05) are negative and not significant. The absence of significant, positive age associations with HbA(1c) and fructosamine persists when effects of body composition are taken into account. Thus, decline in glucose regulation does not appear to be a feature of aging in this non-Westernized sample, suggesting that age-related deterioration in glucose processing is not universal among human populations. Results suggest that relationships of age with

  14. Lack of association of CFD polymorphisms with advanced age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jiexi; Chen, Yuhong; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhou, Xinrong; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Kevin; Hughes, Guy; Kasuga, Daniel; Bedell, Matthew; Lee, Clara; Ferreyra, Henry; Kozak, Igor; Haw, Weldon; Guan, Jean; Shaw, Robert; Stevenson, William; Weishaar, Paul D.; Nelson, Mark H.; Tang, Luosheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible central vision loss worldwide. Research has linked AMD susceptibility with dysregulation of the complement cascade. Typically, complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), and complement component 3 (C3) are associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigated the association between complement factor D (CFD), another factor of the complement system, and advanced AMD in a Caucasian population. Methods Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1683564, rs35186399, rs1683563, rs3826945, rs34337649, and rs1651896, across the region covering CFD, were chosen for this study. One hundred and seventy-eight patients with advanced AMD and 161 age-matched normal controls were genotyped. Potential positive signals were further tested in another independent 445 advanced AMD patients and 190 controls. χ2 tests were performed to compare the allele frequencies between case and control groups. Results None of the six SNPs of CFD was found to be significantly associated with advanced AMD in our study. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CFD may not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to AMD because no association was found between the six SNPs analyzed in the CFD region and advanced AMD. PMID:21139680

  15. Relationship of decrease in fecundity with advancing age to structural changes in mouse endometrium

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, KIYOSHI; YAMADA, JINZO

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between decrease in fecundity and structural changes in the antimesometrial endometrium of the mouse. Fecundity was calculated as the number of animals showing a placental sign/number of copulated animals ×100 (%). Structural changes in the endometrium were examined by electron microscopy. A negative correlation between age and fecundity was found. Fecundity was 50% at 7 mo of age. At this age, amorphous material appeared in the region between the basement membrane deep to the luminal epithelium and the subepithelial cells. This material was sometimes attached to the basement membrane. It increased in amount with advancing age, as fecundity decreased. The structure of the uterine luminal epithelial cells did not alter with age. The results indicated that decrease in fecundity with advancing age is correlated with the appearance of amorphous material beneath the basal lamina of the endometrial epithelium. It is suggested that this could impair communication between the luminal epithelium and the endometrial stroma, which plays an important role in implantation. PMID:10697293

  16. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  17. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis.

  18. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  19. Reduced neuronal signaling in the ageing apolipoprotein-E4 targeted replacement female mice.

    PubMed

    Yong, Shan-May; Lim, Mei-Li; Low, Chian-Ming; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2014-10-10

    The effect of ApoE on NMDAR-dependent ERK/CREB signaling is isoform-dependent, and ApoE4 accelerates memory decline in ageing. However, this isoform-dependent function on neuronal signaling during ageing is unclear. In this study, we have examined NMDAR-associated ERK/CREB signal transduction in young and aged huApoE3 and huApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice. At 12 weeks huApoE4 mouse brain, increased NR1-S896 phosphorylation was linked to higher protein kinase C (PKC) activation. This up-regulation was accompanied by higher phosphorylation of AMPA GluR1-S831, CaMKII, ERK1/2 and CREB. But at 32 weeks, there was no significant difference between huApoE3 and huApoE4 TR mice on NMDAR-associated ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, in 72-week-old huApoE4 TR mice, protein phosphorylation that were increased in younger mice were significantly reduced. Lower NR1-S896 phosphorylation was linked to reduced PKC, GluR1-S831, CaMKII, ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation in huApoE4 TR mice as compared to huApoE3 TR mice. Furthermore, we have consistently detected lower ApoE levels in young and aged huApoE4 TR mouse brain, and this was associated with reduced expression of the ApoE receptor, LRP1 and NR2A-Y1246 phosphorylation. These results suggest age-specific, isoform-dependent effects of ApoE on neuronal signaling.

  20. Younger Dryas Age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H. ); Hendy, C.H. )

    1994-06-03

    A corrected radiocarbon age of 11,050 [+-] 14 years before present for an advance of the Franz Josef Glacier to the Waiho Loop terminal moraine on the western flank of New Zealand's Southern Alps shows that glacier advance on a South Pacific island was synchronous with initiation of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Hence, cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas probably reflects global rather than regional forcing. The source for Younger Dryas climatic cooling may thus lie in the atmosphere rather than in a North Atlantic thermohaline switch. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of Northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) numbers throughout the western United States have been attributed to declining habitat quantity and quality. Improving our understanding of how interannual ecologic site variability affects nutritional status and fitness of different bird age classes will lead to improved land management and conservation strategies. Greater Sage Grouse were sampled from two Population Management Units located in northern Nevada, United States: Tuscarora (TU) and Lone Willow (LW) during 15 March-11 April 2004 and 14-20 March 2005. Twenty (16 yearlings, four adults) and 17 (7 yearlings, 10 adults) female Sage Grouse were captured and bled during 2004, and 12 (four yearlings, eight adults) and 14 (10 yearlings, four adults) were sampled during 2005 in TU and LW, respectively. Samples were evaluated to examine the effect of site, age, and year on specific hematologic and serum chemistry parameters. Several differences between age classes, sites, and years were detected for a number of fitness indicators; however, actual values fell within normal ranges of variation for Sage Grouse or other avian species. Differences were also detected for several parameters more closely related to reproductive fitness, including total plasma and serum proteins, and serum calcium and phosphorus. Yearlings had lower plasma protein (P<0.0001) and lower serum protein than did adults (P=0.0003). In 2004, TU yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than the adults, and in 2005, LW yearlings had lower levels than adults (P=0.008). Females on the TU site had lower serum phosphorus than the LW females (P<0.0001). Overall, adult females weighed more than yearlings (P=0.0004). Lower values found in yearlings, and on the TU management unit, indicate a lower production potential, particularly in unfavorable years. A lower intrinsic ability of yearlings to reproduce, combined with lower nutrition potentials and associated annual variations on certain types

  2. Metabonomic investigations of age- and batch-related variations in female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia V; Saric, Jasmina; Yap, Ivan K S; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-12-01

    The NMRI outbred mouse model is widely used for studying metabolic disease, toxicity, and infection, yet information regarding baseline metabolism of this murine strain is relatively sparse. Using different batches of female NMRI mice, we assessed the stability of the metabolic phenotype with increasing age and weight, and determined the influence of acclimatization on the metabolic profile of biofluids (urine, plasma, and faecal water). Differences in urinary concentrations of 3-ureidopropionate, 2-oxoisocaproate, trimethylamine, and glycine were detected between three batches of 9-week-old female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. An acclimatization period of 2 weeks was imposed after the mice entered the laboratory environment. Strong differences in the faecal metabolome pre- and post-acclimatization were found (reduction in amino acid concentrations), whilst the urine metabolome showed increased levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetyl glycine, and hippurate with decreased excretion of formate and betaine post-acclimatization. Temporal variation in the metabolite profiles over a 16-week study stabilized around 7-week-old animals. The results from this study strongly argue for inclusion of an acclimatization period prior to starting an investigative procedure, and suggest that the metabolic phenotypes of female NMRI mice are more stable at around 7 weeks of age. We have also identified a set of metabolites that are more susceptible to variation in concentration. This information can serve as a benchmark in order to establish confidence in systematic variation attributable to pathology or therapeutic intervention above the background metabolic variation in the NMRI mouse. PMID:24121299

  3. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  4. A prospective study of young females' sexual subjectivity: associations with age, sexual behavior, and dating.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Ducat, Wendy H; Boislard-Pepin, Marie-Aude

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perceptions are important aspects of sexuality, which can undergo significant change during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe these changes among girls (N = 251; ages 16-25) over one year, and to examine associations of sexual self-perceptions (sexual subjectivity) with age, sexual behavior, and romantic status. Sexual body-esteem, perceptions of entitlement to desire and pleasure, sexual efficacy, and sexual self-reflection were investigated as elements of sexual subjectivity. All sexual subjectivity elements were higher among girls who had more sexual experience and/or had steady romantic partners during the study. Perception of entitlement to desire and pleasure increased over time, whereas sexual body-esteem showed the most stability and had minimal associations with sexual or romantic experiences. The greatest increases in sexual subjectivity were found among girls who began the study with the least sociosexual experience and self-reflection also increased for girls who had first coitus after the start of the study. Overall, girls who had sexual intercourse the earliest (before age 16) had the highest sexual subjectivity, but sexual subjectivity increased the most among girls without coital experience or who had more recent first coitus.

  5. Bioinformatics and Microarray Analysis of miRNAs in Aged Female Mice Model Implied New Molecular Mechanisms for Impaired Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    He, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Kang; Liu, Jin; He, Yi-Xin; Tang, Tao; Li, Jie; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Lu, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing in aged females is still a challenge in clinics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in fracture healing. This study aims to identify the miRNAs that potentially contribute to the impaired fracture healing in aged females. Transverse femoral shaft fractures were created in adult and aged female mice. At post-fracture 0-, 2- and 4-week, the fracture sites were scanned by micro computed tomography to confirm that the fracture healing was impaired in aged female mice and the fracture calluses were collected for miRNA microarray analysis. A total of 53 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and 5438 miRNA-target gene interactions involved in bone fracture healing were identified. A novel scoring system was designed to analyze the miRNA contribution to impaired fracture healing (RCIFH). Using this method, 11 novel miRNAs were identified to impair fracture healing at 2- or 4-week post-fracture. Thereafter, function analysis of target genes was performed for miRNAs with high RCIFH values. The results showed that high RCIFH miRNAs in aged female mice might impair fracture healing not only by down-regulating angiogenesis-, chondrogenesis-, and osteogenesis-related pathways, but also by up-regulating osteoclastogenesis-related pathway, which implied the essential roles of these high RCIFH miRNAs in impaired fracture healing in aged females, and might promote the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27527150

  6. Adjusting to personal and organisational change: views and experiences of female nurses aged 40-60 years.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Sarah; Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The Australian nursing workforce is ageing and there is a well-documented shortage of nurses. This global phenomenon means that retaining nurses in the workforce is gaining in importance as older nurses retire and leave nursing. The existing literature reveals deficiencies in knowledge about older nurses as they adapt to ageing often within stressful work environments. The aim of this narrative-based study, informed by feminist principles, was to explore the views and experiences of female registered nurses aged 40-60 years, in acute hospital and community health care settings. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 h duration were gathered during late 2004. The transcribed narratives were subjected to thematic analysis. Two major themes were identified. The first theme: "Feeling uncared for" contained three sub-themes--Unsupportive work relationships: "We should be helping each other"; Workplace bullying: "It hurts me and I feel really bad"; and, Stress and burnout: "It's just like being in a pressure cooker all the time". The second major theme identified was "Adapting to ageing: my nursing career". Findings of this research suggest some unmet support needs for older nurses in the workforce which could discourage them from remaining in nursing. The findings highlight a need for further research into the support needs of older nurses. PMID:18780674

  7. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances). The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501), whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284) and 78% (N = 229), respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253), 83% (N = 277) and 78% (N = 234), respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs. PMID:27768689

  9. Bone Formation is Affected by Matrix Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Mostafa, Ahmed Jenan; Appleford, Mark; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wang, Xiaodu

    2016-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in bone extracellular matrix as people age. Although previous evidence shows that the accumulation of AGEs in bone matrix may impose significant effects on bone cells, the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation in vivo is still poorly understood. To address this issue, this study used a unique rat model with autograft implant to investigate the in vivo response of bone formation to matrix AGEs. Fluorochrome biomarkers were sequentially injected into rats to label the dynamic bone formation in the presence of elevated levels of matrix AGEs. After sacrificing animals, dynamic histomorphometry was performed to determine mineral apposition rate (MAR), mineralized surface per bone surface (MS/BS), and bone formation rate (BFR). Finally, nanoindentation tests were performed to assess mechanical properties of newly formed bone tissues. The results showed that MAR, MS/BS, and BFR were significantly reduced in the vicinity of implant cores with high concentration of matrix AGEs, suggesting that bone formation activities by osteoblasts were suppressed in the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In addition, MAR and BFR were found to be dependent on the surrounding environment of implant cores (i.e., cortical or trabecular tissues). Moreover, MS/BS and BFR were also dependent on how far the implant cores were away from the growth plate. These observations suggest that the effect of matrix AGEs on bone formation is dependent on the biological milieu around the implants. Finally, nanoindentation test results indicated that the indentation modulus and hardness of newly formed bone tissues were not affected by the presence of elevated matrix AGEs. In summary, high concentration of matrix AGEs may slow down the bone formation process in vivo, while imposing little effects on bone mineralization.

  10. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  11. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals.

  12. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Advancing maternal age and trisomy screening: the practice challenges of facilitating choice and gaining consent.

    PubMed

    Birt, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies such as Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 (Patau's, Edward's and Down's syndrome respectively) is offered to all pregnant women in the first two trimesters.This article explores the varying considerations of consent for this type of screening, particularly in relation to women of advancing age who are at increased risk of carrying a pregnancy affected by a trisomy. The practical challenges or barriers of gaining valid, meaningful informed consent are discussed. PMID:26753259

  14. Off-ice fitness of elite female ice hockey players by team success, age, and player position.

    PubMed

    Ransdell, Lynda B; Murray, Teena M; Gao, Yong

    2013-04-01

    This study examined off-ice fitness profiles of 204 elite female ice hockey players from 13 countries who attended a high-performance camp organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) in Bratislava, Slovakia, in July of 2011. Athletes were tested using standardized protocols for vertical jump (centimeters), long jump (centimeters), 4-jump average (centimeters), elasticity ratio (4-vertical jump average/vertical jump), pull-up or inverted row (n), aerobic fitness (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), body mass (kilograms), and body composition (% fat). These variables were examined relative to team success in major international hockey competition (group 1: Canada and USA, group 2: Sweden and Finland, group 3: All other participating countries), age group (Under 18 and Senior/Open Levels), and player position (forwards, defenders, and goalies). The athletes from countries with the best international records weighed more, yet had less body fat, had greater lower body muscular power and upper body strength, and higher aerobic capacity compared with their less successful counterparts. Compared with the younger athletes, athletes from the senior-level age group weighed more and had higher scores for lower body power, pull-ups, and aerobic capacity. There were no significant differences in anthropometric or fitness data based on player position. This study is the first to report the physical characteristics of a worldwide sample of elite female ice hockey players relative to team performance, age, and player position. Coaches should use these data to identify talent, test for strengths and weaknesses in conditioning programs, and design off-ice programs that will help athletes match the fitness profiles of the most successful teams in the world.

  15. Effect of age and season on the thyroid hormone activity of Mizoram strain female mithun (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Lalsangpuii; Ali, M. Ayub; Devi, L. Inaotombi; Behera, Parthasarathi; Ralte, Lalsanglura

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to generate baseline data on the normal values of the thyroidhormone (TH) activity as well as their correlation with age and season. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from jugular vein of 30 female mithun’s of three different age groups viz. Calves (6 months to 1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (above 3 years) during the three season’s viz. Monsoon, winter and spring of a year. The serum was analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) activity. Result: The result showed a significantly (p<0.05) a higher T3 level in heifers followed by adults and calves and higher T4 level in adults followed by heifers and calves in all the seasons. The TSH level was higher in heifers in all the seasons. The winter season recorded higher level of T3, T4, and TSH as compared to the other seasons of a year. Conclusion: The TSH and T3 level were the highest for aheifer, whereas T4 level was the highest for adults inall the season. Furthermore, the higher level of TH was observed in winter season. The increased level of the TH during the winter season signifies their calorigenic effect. Similarly in heifers, the increased T3 concentrations show its importance in reproductive physiology and its association with ovarian activity. This indicates that age and season have aprofound effect on TH activity of Mizoram strain female mithun. PMID:27047046

  16. Sex-specific parental care strategies via nestling age: females pay more attention to nestling demands than males do in the horned lark, Eremophila alpestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jing; Du, Bo; Liu, Nai-Fa; Bao, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-06-01

    In many species, nestling demands vary continuously during early development and both parents have different parental care strategies at each nestling age. Sexual conflict arises when each parent expects its partner investing more in parental care. It is largely unknown how the two parents respond to the dynamics of nestling demands and resolve the sexual conflict during nestling period, especially on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To address this question, we monitored parental care behaviors of horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) using video-recording systems. We found that male horned larks invested less in parental care, but had a larger body size than females, which is consistent with the parental investment hypothesis. Only the female brooded nestlings, but both parents contributed to feeding efforts. Feeding rates of males and females were negatively correlated, indicating that they used evolutionarily stable strategies. Strategies of parental care via nestling age were sex-specific. Females continuously adjusted care behaviors to follow the dynamics of nestling demands as nestling age increased, such as decreasing brood attentiveness and increasing feeding rate. By contrast, male feeding rate showed no significant correlation with nestling age, but increased with the synchrony feeding rate. We suggest the synchrony feeding behavior may act as a control measure for females to promote and assess the males' contribution. We consider low mating opportunities drive males to act as assistants for females, and correspondingly cause males to pay less attention to nestling demands than females. PMID:24882094

  17. Parental education is related to C-reactive protein among female middle-aged community volunteers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Marsland, Anna L; Flory, Janine D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Cohen, Sheldon; Manuck, Stephen B

    2009-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that socioeconomic attributes of both childhood and adulthood confer risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examine the association of both parental and individual educational attainment with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory mediator relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology, in a mid-life community sample. Subjects were 811 men and women (394 men/417 women; 87% European-American/13% African-American), 30-54 years of age. Plasma concentrations of CRP were determined from blood samples obtained at a single session following an overnight fast. Regression analyses adjusting for age and race showed both parental education and individual education to be associated inversely with CRP in women, but not men. The relationship of parental education with CRP in women persisted on multivariable adjustment for both lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, exercise, body mass index) and individual SES. Independent of reported personal educational attainment, mid-life adult women whose parents achieved fewer years of educational attainment exhibit higher levels of circulating CRP than women with higher parental education. This association may help explain the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality conferred by low childhood socioeconomic status.

  18. Effect of postural angle on back muscle activities in aging female workers performing computer tasks.

    PubMed

    Kamil, Nabilla Sofia Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of postural angle on back muscle activity during a computer task in aging women. [Subjects] Seventeen women ≥50 years old participated. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform computer-related tasks for 20 minutes on a workstation that simulated typical office working conditions. Back posture was measured from the measured trunk and pelvic angles. Electromyography activities were recorded simultaneously from the cervical erector spinae, longissimus, and multifidus muscles. [Results] The lowest mean percentages of maximum voluntary contraction for the cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscles were obtained when the upper trunk and pelvic angles were between 0° to -5° from the sagittal plane. The back muscle activities increased as the upper trunk and pelvic angles exceeded 0°. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between upper trunk angle and cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscle activities. Similarly, pelvic angle was significantly correlated with cervical erector spinae and multifidus muscle activities. [Conclusion] A neutral back posture minimizes muscle activities in aging women performing computer tasks.

  19. Changes in splicing factor expression are associated with advancing age in man.

    PubMed

    Holly, Alice C; Melzer, David; Pilling, Luke C; Fellows, Alexander C; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harries, Lorna W

    2013-09-01

    Human ageing is associated with decreased cellular plasticity and adaptability. Changes in alternative splicing with advancing age have been reported in man, which may arise from age-related alterations in splicing factor expression. We determined whether the mRNA expression of key splicing factors differed with age, by microarray analysis in blood from two human populations and by qRT-PCR in senescent primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Potential regulators of splicing factor expression were investigated by siRNA analysis. Approximately one third of splicing factors demonstrated age-related transcript expression changes in two human populations. Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) transcript expression correlated with splicing factor expression in human microarray data. Senescent primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells also demonstrated alterations in splicing factor expression, and changes in alternative splicing. Targeted knockdown of the ATM gene in primary fibroblasts resulted in up-regulation of some age-responsive splicing factor transcripts. We conclude that isoform ratios and splicing factor expression alters with age in vivo and in vitro, and that ATM may have an inhibitory role on the expression of some splicing factors. These findings suggest for the first time that ATM, a core element in the DNA damage response, is a key regulator of the splicing machinery in man.

  20. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  1. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  2. Age-related changes in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Ito, Ayami; Yamada, Ayano; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes affect drug pharmacokinetics. Limited information exists on the alteration in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes with aging. We examined the effects of aging on the mRNA levels of representative hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes by analyzing their levels in 10-, 30- and 50-week-old male and female rats. Levels of mRNA of drug transporters including multidrug resistance protein (Mdr)1a, multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1a1, and the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A1, CYP3A2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 were analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of transporters in male rats did not decrease with age, while the mRNA levels of Bcrp and Oatp1a1 in female rats decreased with age. The mRNA levels of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in male rats were higher than those in female rats. The mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes decreased with age in female but not male rats. In particular, the mRNA levels of UGT1A1 in 10-week-old female rats were higher than those in male rats. mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes are more susceptible to aging in female than male rats. The age-related decreases in the mRNA levels of Bcrp, Oatp1a1, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in female rats may affect the metabolism and transport of substrates. This study showed that aging affected the mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes in rats.

  3. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative.

  4. The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners' views of dying in prison.

    PubMed

    Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini

    With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.

  5. Fitness Consequences of Advanced Ancestral Age over Three Generations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi; Bazykin, Georgii A.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid rise in age at parenthood in contemporary societies has increased interest in reports of higher prevalence of de novo mutations and health problems in individuals with older fathers, but the fitness consequences of such age effects over several generations remain untested. Here, we use extensive pedigree data on seven pre-industrial Finnish populations to show how the ages of ancestors for up to three generations are associated with fitness traits. Individuals whose fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers fathered their lineage on average under age 30 were ~13% more likely to survive to adulthood than those whose ancestors fathered their lineage at over 40 years. In addition, females had a lower probability of marriage if their male ancestors were older. These findings are consistent with an increase of the number of accumulated de novo mutations with male age, suggesting that deleterious mutations acquired from recent ancestors may be a substantial burden to fitness in humans. However, possible non-mutational explanations for the observed associations are also discussed. PMID:26030274

  6. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  7. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Inge; Mooyaart, Antien; Baguet, Audrey; Zutinic, Ana; Baelde, Hans; Achten, Eric; Taes, Youri; De Heer, Emile; Derave, Wim

    2011-04-01

    Carnosine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, where it is involved in several physiological functions. The muscle carnosine content measured within a population can vary by a factor 4. The aim of this study was to further characterize suggested determinants of the muscle carnosine content (diet, gender and age) and to identify new determinants (plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone). We investigated a group of 149 healthy subjects, which consisted of 94 men (12 vegetarians) and 55 women. Muscle carnosine was quantified in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior using magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy and blood samples were collected to determine CNDP1 genotype, plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone concentrations. Compared to women, men have 36, 28 and 82% higher carnosine concentrations in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, whereas circulating testosterone concentrations were unrelated to muscle carnosine levels in healthy men. The carnosine content of the M. soleus is negatively related to the subjects' age. Vegetarians have a lower carnosine content of 26% in gastrocnemius compared to omnivores. In contrast, there is no difference in muscle carnosine content between omnivores with a high or low ingestion of β-alanine. Muscle carnosine levels are not related to the polymorphism of the CNDP1 gene or to the enzymatic activity of the plasma carnosinase. In conclusion, neither CNDP1 genotype nor the normal variation in circulating testosterone levels affects the muscular carnosine content, whereas vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age are the factors associated with reduced muscle carnosine stores.

  8. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  9. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

  10. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Modulates Endothelial Blood-Brain Barrier Function in Ischemic Middle-Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Bake, Shameena; Okoreeh, Andre K; Alaniz, Robert C; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I-treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I-treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females.

  12. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  13. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.

  14. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  15. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  16. Endocrine and fluid metabolism in males and females of different ages after bedrest, acceleration and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Krauhs, J. M.; Sandler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle flight simulations were conducted to determine the effects of weightlessness, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and acceleration of fluid and electrolyte excretion and the hormones that control it. Measurements were made on male and female subjects of different ages before and after bedrest. After admission to a controlled environment, groups of 6 to 14 subjects in the age ranges 25 to 35, 35 to 45, 45 to 55 to 65 years were exposed to +3 G sub z for 15 minutes (G1) and to LBNP (LBNP1) on different days. On 3 days during this prebedrest period, no tests were conducted. Six days of bedrest followed, and the G sub z (G2) and LBNP (LBNP2) tests were run again. Hormones, electrolytes, and other parameters were measured in 24-hour urine pools throughout the experiment. During bedrest, cortisol and aldosterone excretion increased. Urine volume decreased, and specific gravity and osmolality increased. Urinary electrolytes were statistically unchanged from levels during the non-stress control period. During G2, cortisol increased significantly over its control and bedrest levels. Urine volume, sodium, and chloride were significantly lower; specific gravity and osmolality were higher during the control period or bedrest. The retention of fluids and electrolytes after +G sub z may at least partially explain decreased urine volume and increased osmolality observed during bedrest in this study. There were some who indicated that space flight would not affect the fluid and electrolyte metabolism of females or older males any more severely than it has affected that of male astronauts.

  17. ESTROGEN AND AGING AFFECT THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth M.; Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. Young females rats express more estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunolabeling in CA1sr spine synapse complexes than aged rats and ERα regulation is E sensitive in young but not aged rats. The current study examined whether estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in spine synapse complexes may be altered by age or E treatment. Young (3–4 months) and aged (22–23 months) female rats were ovariectomized 7 days prior to implantation of silastic capsules containing either vehicle (cholesterol) or E (10% in cholesterol) for 2 days. ERβ immunoreactivity (ir) in CA1sr was quantitatively analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. ERβ-ir was more prominent postsynaptically than presynaptically and both age and E treatment affected its synaptic distribution. While age decreased the spine synaptic complex localization of ERβ-ir (i.e., within 60 nm of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes), E treatment increased synaptic ERβ in both young and aged rats. In addition, the E treatment, but not age, increased dendritic shaft labeling. This data demonstrates that like ERα the levels of ERβ-ir decrease in CA1 axospinous synapses with age, however, unlike ERα the levels of ERβ-ir increase in these synapses in both young and aged rats in response to E. This suggests that synaptic ERβ may be a more responsive target to E, particularly in aged females. PMID:20875808

  18. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P <0.001), and differed among all populations, with the Aleutian population possessing the oldest average AFR (4.29 ?? 0.09 years) followed by PWS (4.05 ?? 0.24 years), Sitka (3.80 ?? 0.21 years), and Kodiak (3.19 ?? 0.37 years). The difference in average AFR among populations supports life-history theory and provides evidence of phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  19. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  20. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu.

  1. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

  2. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  3. Association of advanced age with concentrations of uraemic toxins in CKD.

    PubMed

    Rroji, Merita; Eloot, Sunny; Dhondt, Annemie; Van Biesen, Wim; Glorieux, Griet; Neirynck, Nathalie; Vandennoortgate, Nele; Liabeuf, Sophie; Massy, Ziad; Vanholder, Raymond

    2016-02-01

    To our knowledge, there are no studies on advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) analysing the impact of ageing on serum concentrations of uraemic toxins while adjusting for renal function. Knowledge of this feature, however, could influence prognostic assessment and therapeutic decision-making, e.g. about when to start dialysis or how intensive it should be. Indeed, the slowing down of metabolism with age may result in lower uraemic toxin concentrations, hence reducing their toxic effects. In this case, a later start of dialysis or less intensive dialysis may become justified in an already fragile population that might enjoy a better quality of life without a survival disadvantage with conservative treatment. We assessed the impact of advancing age on uraemic solute concentrations [blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA), β2-microglobulin and a large array of protein-bound solutes] by matching 126 maintenance haemodialysis patients subdivided into two age-groups, younger vs. older (using the median as cut-off: 72 years). Concentrations were compared after age stratification and were matched with patient and dialysis characteristics. In addition, 93 non-dialysed CKD patients (median as cut-off: 70 years), with a comparable average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between younger and older age-groups, were analysed. In haemodialysis patients, carboxy-methyl-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) levels were markedly higher and BUN and uric acid borderline lower in the older age-group. All other solutes showed no difference. At multifactor analysis, the concentration of several uraemic toxins was associated with residual renal function and protein intake in the overall haemodialysis group and the younger group, but the association with most solutes, especially those protein-bound, was lost in the older age-group. No differences were found in non-dialysed CKD patients. It was concluded that in this

  4. Landing Error Scoring System Differences Between Single-Sport and Multi-Sport Female High School–Aged Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in

  5. Who Will Do Science? Trends, and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…

  6. A Study of the Participation and Achievement of Black, Hispanic and Female Students in Mathematics, Science and Advanced Technologies in Virginia Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Don; And Others

    This study conducted a statistical analysis to look at the participation and achievement of Black, Hispanic, and female secondary education students in mathematics, science, and advanced technology programs in schools in Virginia, compared to those of White students and male students. In particular, the study applied descriptive and inferential…

  7. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  8. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jonathan; Xu, Beibei; Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Le, Quynh-Thu; Mell, Loren K.; Murphy, James D.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  9. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  10. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  11. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  12. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-12

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation.

  13. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C.; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J.; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. PMID:26663425

  14. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  15. Estradiol valerate elicits antidepressant-like effects in middle-aged female rats under chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Romano-Torres, Mónica; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like actions of estradiol valerate (1 or 2 mg/rat, single injection) or citalopram (5 or 10 mg/kg, chronically administered for 21 days) given independently or combined at low doses, to middle-aged ovariectomized female rats, as a model of human menopause. Animals were exposed to chronic mild stress, a model of depression that mimics anhedonia as revealed by diminished sucrose solution intake. Stressed rats decreased their sucrose preference 1 week after chronic stress and treatment with vehicle did not reverse this reduction. A single injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/rat) produced an antidepressant-like action, evidenced as an increase in sucrose preference specific to stressed rats. Chronic citalopram (10 mg/kg) produced an antidepressant-like effect after 1 week. A single low-dose of estradiol valerate (1 mg/rat) did not potentiate or shorten the latency of action of chronic citalopram (5 mg/kg). These results reveal the antidepressant-like action of estrogens in middle-aged rats exposed to chronic stress. These data may be of importance for clinical depression in menopausal women. PMID:20168212

  16. Age- and gender-related changes in the distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of normal male and female bone. Possible involvement of osteocalcin in bone remodeling.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R T; Park, Y K; Clarke, B L; Fitzpatrick, L A

    1994-01-01

    With increasing age, bone undergoes changes in remodeling that ultimately compromise the structural integrity of the skeleton. The presence of osteocalcin in bone matrix may alter bone remodeling by promoting osteoclast activity. Whether age- and/or gender-related differences exist in the distribution of osteocalcin within individual bone remodeling units is not known. In this study, we determined the immunohistochemical distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of iliac crest bone biopsies obtained from normal male and female volunteers, 20-80 yr old. Four different distribution patterns of osteocalcin within individual osteons were arbitrarily defined as types I, II, III, or IV. The frequency of appearance of each osteon type was determined as a percent of the total osteons per histologic section. The proportion of osteons that stained homogeneously throughout the concentric lamellae (type I) decreased in females and males with increasing age. The proportion of osteons that lack osteocalcin in the matrix immediately adjacent to Haversian canals (type III) increased in females and males with age. Osteons staining intensely in the matrix adjacent to Haversian canals (type II) increased in females and was unchanged in aging males. Osteons that contained osteocalcin-positive resting lines (type IV) increased in bone obtained from males with increasing age but were unchanged in females. Sections of bone immunostained for osteopontin (SPP-I), osteonectin, and decorin did not reveal multiple patterns or alterations in staining with gender or increasing age. We suggest that the morphology of individual bone remodeling units is heterogeneous and the particular morphologic pattern of osteocalcin distribution changes with age and gender. These results suggest that differences in the distribution of osteocalcin in bone matrix may be responsible, in part, for the altered remodeling of bone associated with gender and aging. Images PMID:8132785

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species Differentially Regulate Bone Turnover in an Age-Specific Manner in Catalase Transgenic Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Alund, Alexander W; Mercer, Kelly E; Suva, Larry J; Pulliam, Casey F; Chen, Jin-Ran; Badger, Thomas M; Van Remmen, Holly; Ronis, Martin J J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic ethyl alcohol (EtOH) consumption results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in bone and osteopenia due to increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. In this study, transgenic C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing human catalase (TgCAT) were used to test whether limiting excess hydrogen peroxide would protect against EtOH-mediated bone loss. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the skeletons of 6-week-old female chow-fed TgCAT mice revealed a high bone mass phenotype with increased cortical bone area and thickness as well as significantly increased trabecular bone volume (P < 0.05). Six-week-old wild-type (WT) and TgCAT female mice were chow fed or pair fed (PF) liquid diets with or without EtOH, approximately 30% of calories, for 8 weeks. Pair feeding of WT had no demonstrable effect on the skeleton; however, EtOH feeding of WT mice significantly reduced cortical and trabecular bone parameters along with bone strength compared with PF controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, EtOH feeding of TgCAT mice had no effect on trabecular bone compared with PF controls. At 14 weeks of age, there was significantly less trabecular bone and cortical cross-sectional area in TgCAT mice than WT mice (P < 0.05), suggesting impaired normal bone accrual with age. TgCAT mice expressed less collagen1α and higher sclerostin mRNA (P < 0.05), suggesting decreased bone formation in TgCAT mice. In conclusion, catalase overexpression resulted in greater bone mass than in WT mice at 6 weeks and lower bone mass at 14 weeks. EtOH feeding induced significant reductions in bone architecture and strength in WT mice, but TgCAT mice were partially protected. These data implicate ROS signaling in the regulation of bone turnover in an age-dependent manner, and indicate that excess hydrogen peroxide generation contributes to alcohol-induced osteopenia. PMID:27189961

  18. Protein-bound advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) as bioactive amino acid derivatives in foods.

    PubMed

    Henle, T

    2005-12-01

    The Maillard reaction or nonenzymatic browning is of outstanding importance for the formation of flavour and colour of heated foods. Corresponding reactions, also referred to as "glycation", are known from biological systems, where the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) shall play an important pathophysiological role in diabetes and uremia. In this review, pathways leading to the formation of individual protein-bound lysine and arginine derivatives in foods are described and nutritional consequences resulting from this posttranslational modifications of food proteins are discussed. PMID:15997413

  19. Learning to bypass the central bottleneck: declining automaticity with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Maquestiaux, François; Laguë-Beauvais, Maude; Ruthruff, Eric; Hartley, Alan; Bherer, Louis

    2010-03-01

    Does advancing age reduce the ability to bypass the central bottleneck through task automatization? To answer this question, the authors asked 12 older adults and 20 young adults to first learn to perform an auditory-vocal task (low vs. high pitch) in 6 single-task sessions. Their dual-task performance was then assessed with a psychological refractory period paradigm, in which the highly practiced auditory-vocal task was presented as Task 2, along with an unpracticed visual-manual Task 1. Converging evidence indicated qualitative differences in dual-task performance with age: Whereas the vast majority of young adults bypassed the bottleneck, at most 1 of the 12 older adults was able to do so. Older adults are either reluctant to bypass the bottleneck (as a matter of strategy) or have lost the ability to automatize task performance. PMID:20230138

  20. Social relationships of nulliparous young adult females beyond the ordinary age of the first birth in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We describe the social relationships of young adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adult females (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adult females was less than the grooming they gave. Young adult females who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adult females than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adult females who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adult females were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers.

  1. EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN AND AGING ON THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF PHOSPHORYLATED AKT-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF THE FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; Akama, Keith T.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.; Morrison, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The estrogen 17β-estradiol (E) increases the axospinous synaptic density and plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region of young female rats but fails to do so in aged female rats. This E stimulus on synaptic plasticity is associated with the phosphorylation-dependent activation of Akt kinase. Our previous findings demonstrated that increased estrogen levels subsequently increase phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)-immunoreactivity (-IR) within the dendritic shafts and spines of pyramidal neurons in young female rats. Therefore, because Akt can promote cell survival and growth, we tested the hypothesis that the less plastic synapses of aged female rats would contain less E-stimulated pAkt-IR. Here, young (3-4 months) and aged (22-23 months) female rats were ovariectomized seven days prior to a 48-hour administration of either vehicle or E. The pAkt-IR synaptic distribution was then analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. In both young and aged rats, pAkt-IR was found in dendritic spines and terminals, and pAkt-IR was particularly abundant at the post-synaptic density. Quantitative analyses revealed that the percentage of pAkt-labeled synapses was significantly greater in young rats compared to aged rats. Nonetheless, E treatment significantly increased pAkt-IR in pre- and post-synaptic profiles of both young and aged rats, although the stimulus in young rats was notably more widespread. These data support the evidence that hormone-activated signaling associated with cell growth and survival is diminished in the aged brain. However, the observation that E can still increase pAkt-IR in aged synapses presents this signaling component as a candidate target for hormone replacement therapies. PMID:20709039

  2. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  3. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  4. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated

  5. Alterations in Mouse Hypothalamic Adipokine Gene Expression and Leptin Signaling following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and with Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C.; Nash, Mark S.; Bethea, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF), resistin (Rstn), long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3) gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR) as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:22815920

  6. Altered levels of mitochondrial DNA are associated with female age, aneuploidy, and provide an independent measure of embryonic implantation potential.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Elpida; Spath, Katharina; Alfarawati, Samer; Kaper, Fiona; Craig, Andrew; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Kokocinski, Felix; Cohen, Jacques; Munne, Santiago; Wells, Dagan

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a vital role in embryo development. They are the principal site of energy production and have various other critical cellular functions. Despite the importance of this organelle, little is known about the extent of variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between individual human embryos prior to implantation. This study investigated the biological and clinical relevance of the quantity of mtDNA in 379 embryos. These were examined via a combination of microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), providing information on chromosomal status, amount of mtDNA, and presence of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. The quantity of mtDNA was significantly higher in embryos from older women (P=0.003). Additionally, mtDNA levels were elevated in aneuploid embryos, independent of age (P=0.025). Assessment of clinical outcomes after transfer of euploid embryos to the uterus revealed that blastocysts that successfully implanted tended to contain lower mtDNA quantities than those failing to implant (P=0.007). Importantly, an mtDNA quantity threshold was established, above which implantation was never observed. Subsequently, the predictive value of this threshold was confirmed in an independent blinded prospective study, indicating that abnormal mtDNA levels are present in 30% of non-implanting euploid embryos, but are not seen in embryos forming a viable pregnancy. NGS did not reveal any increase in mutation in blastocysts with elevated mtDNA levels. The results of this study suggest that increased mtDNA may be related to elevated metabolism and are associated with reduced viability, a possibility consistent with the 'quiet embryo' hypothesis. Importantly, the findings suggest a potential role for mitochondria in female reproductive aging and the genesis of aneuploidy. Of clinical significance, we propose that mtDNA content represents a novel biomarker with potential value for in vitro fertilisation

  7. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  8. Recent Demographic Developments in France: Relatively Low Mortality at Advanced Ages

    PubMed Central

    Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali

    2013-01-01

    France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements. The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971–1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality. PMID:24285939

  9. Trapping oestrid parasites of reindeer: the relative age, fat body content and gonotrophic conditions of Cephenemyia trompe and Hypoderma tarandi females caught in baited traps.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Nilssen, A C

    1996-10-01

    Dissection of flies caught in northern Norway revealed that only mated, gravid females of H.tarandi (L.) and larviparous C.trompe (Modeer) were caught in host-mimicking CO2-baited traps. Trapped females had the same gonotrophic and fat body (FB) conditions as females caught on and around reindeer. Most trapped females of both species were of middle to old age, having only one-half to no FB reserves left and only a few to moderate numbers of eggs or larvae remaining. Most young females trapped also had previously oviposited or larviposited at least once, and some newly eclosed, mated females were present throughout the fly season. Based on the known location of reindeer herds, it was evident that trapped flies that had recently oviposited or larviposited had dispersed into the trapping area from 25-100 km away. Declining FB reserves sustained wild-caught C.trompe females (and in utero larvae) in the laboratory for 14 days and H.tarandi females for 18 days. Reserve FB also was depleted during long flights. Females of both species that flew for the longest times (5.1-11.7 h) on a laboratory flight mill had low FB reserves, but nearly maximum numbers of eggs or larvae. Conversely, most females that flew for less than 5 h on the light mill had little or no FB remaining, and few eggs or larvae. The large FB reserves accumulated as larvae feed in the vertebrate host enable the non-feeding adults to survive and infect their hosts even after prolonged periods of flight-inhibiting climatic conditions. PMID:8994136

  10. [Estimation of the biological age in females of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus by changes in the body shape and surface of cuticle].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Grigor'eva, L A; Leonovich, S A

    2009-01-01

    A method of visual estimation of the biological age of living hungry tick females by visible changes in the depth of marginal groove and the structure of the alloscutum cuticle during natural ageing is developed. In recently activated individuals, the body is convex and the marginal groove is exposed, demonstrating distinctly visible cuticular microfolds (Figs 1-4). In attenuated ticks, the body is flattened and marginal fold overlays the marginal groove, concealing cuticular microfolds (Figs 5-8).

  11. Education and Cognitive Ability as Direct, Mediating, or Spurious Influences on Female Age at First Birth: Behavior Genetic Models Fit to Danish Twin Data1

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McGue, Matt; Behrman, Jere R.; Petersen, Inge; Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The authors study education and cognitive ability as predictors of female age at first birth (AFB), using monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs from the Middle-Aged Danish Twin survey. Using mediated regression, they replicate findings linking education (and not cognitive ability) to AFB. But in a behavior genetic model, both relationships are absorbed within a latent variable measuring the shared family environment. Two interpretations are relevant. First, variance in AFB emerges from differences between families, not differences between sisters within the same family. Second, even in a natural laboratory sensitive to genetic variance in female fertility—during demographic transition—the variance in AFB was non-genetic, located instead within the shared environment. PMID:19569405

  12. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  13. Barely legal: is attraction and estimated age of young female faces disrupted by alcohol use, make up, and the sex of the observer?

    PubMed

    Egan, Vincent; Cordan, Giray

    2009-05-01

    One 'reasonable ground' for unlawful sex with a minor is mistaken age. Alcohol consumption and make-up are often deemed further influences on impaired perception. Two hundred and forty persons in bars and cafes rated the attractiveness of composite faces of immature and mature females with and without additional makeup, alcohol users having their concurrent blood-alcohol level measured using a breathalyser. A non-sex-specific preference for immature faces over sexually mature faces was found. Alcohol and make-up did not inflate attractiveness ratings in immature faces. While alcohol consumption significantly inflated attractiveness ratings for participants viewing made-up sexually mature faces, greater alcohol consumption itself did not lead to overestimation of age. Although alcohol limited the processing of maturity cues in female observers, it had no effect on the age perceptions of males viewing female faces, suggesting male mate preferences are not easily disrupted. Participants consistently overestimated the age of sexually immature- and sexually mature-faces by an average of 3.5 years. Our study suggests that even heavy alcohol consumption does not interfere with age-perception tasks in men, so is not of itself an excuse for apparent mistaken age in cases of unlawful sex with a minor.

  14. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  15. DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS? T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Bremser, R. Cooper and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    The relations...

  16. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  18. Prenatal exposure to ethinylestradiol alters the morphologic patterns and increases the predisposition for prostatic lesions in male and female gerbils during ageing.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana P S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Caires, Cássia R S; Falleiros-Junior, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-02-01

    Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) which acts as an oestrogen agonist; this compound is known as an oral contraceptive. Male and female rodents exposed to EE during critical time points of development, such as in the prenatal period, show alterations in their reproductive tract during adulthood. Few studies have placed an emphasis on the effects of EE during ageing. Thus, this study had as it's objective the analysis of the morphological and immunohistochemical effects of exposure to EE in the prenatal period on ventral male prostate and female prostate of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during ageing. The animals were exposed to EE (15 μg/kg/day) during the 18-22th days of prenatal life (EE/PRE group), and the analyses were performed when the male and female reached 12 months of age. Our results showed an increase in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), which was observed in the male and female prostate of EE/PRE groups. Immunohistochemistry showed a rise in prostatic epithelial and basal cells immunoreactivity, respectively, and to AR and p63 in the male EE/PRE. There were alterations in the morphological pattern of the prostatic glands and increase in predisposition to emergence of prostatic lesions of both sexes during ageing. Despite male and female having been exposed to the same doses of EE, the "exposure to EE promoted modifications" more accentuated in the male prostate. Thus the male gland is more sensitive to the action of this synthetic oestrogen than the female prostate. PMID:26852889

  19. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  20. Clinical profile of patients with advanced age and inflammatoric dilated cardiomyopathy on endomyocardial biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Chen, Ting-Hui; Schmidt, Andreas; Saenger, Joerg; Lauer, Bernward

    2015-01-01

    Background Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is an important tool when patients with inflammatoric cardiomyopathy (DCMi) are evaluated. We aimed to assess the clinical profile of elderly patients with DCMi on EMB. Methods Retrospective study of all consecutive patients hospitalized from January 2007 to December 2011 with clinical suspicion of DCMi undergoing EMB. Patients with evidence of DCMi on EMB (Group 1 ≥ 70 years, n = 85; Group 3 < 70 years; n = 418) were compared to patients of the same age group without evidence of DCMi on EMB (Group 2 ≥ 70 years, n = 45; Group 4 < 70 years; n = 147). Results Among 24,275 patients treated at our institution during the study period, 695 had clinical suspicion of DCMi and underwent EMB; 503 (2.1%) patients had DCMi on EMB. There were more male patients in Group 1, mean age was 74 ± 2.8 years, mean ejection fraction was 38% ± 14%. On presentation, signs of hemodynamic compromise (NYHA functional class III/IV, low cardiac output/index, and low cardiac power index) were more frequent in Group 1. EMB revealed viral genome in 78% of the patients, parvovirus B19 (PVB) was frequently encountered in both age groups (Group 1: 69.4% vs. Group 2: 59.6%); detection of more than one viral genome was more frequent in Group 1 (21.2% vs. 11.2%; P = 0.02) whereas the extent of immune response was significantly lower in individuals with advanced age. Conclusions In patients ≥ 70 years with DCMi on EMB signs of hemodynamic compromise, detection of multiple viral genomes together with an overall lower extent of immune response were more frequently observed. PMID:26788036

  1. Marfanoid habitus, inguinal hernia, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features: a new collagenopathy?

    PubMed

    Mégarbané, André; Hanna, Nadine; Chouery, Eliane; Jalkh, Nadine; Mehawej, Cybel; Boileau, Catherine

    2012-05-01

    We report on two sibs, a girl, and a boy, with tall stature, long, and triangular faces, prominent foreheads with high frontal hairlines, telecanthus, downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, ptosis of the eyelids, everted lower eyelids, large ears, long noses, full, and everted vermilions, highly arched and narrow palates, tooth crowding, thin and long uvulae, coloboma of the alae, hyperextensible joints, long digits, positive thumb signs, flat feet, slightly diminished muscle strength, myopia, astigmatia, inguinal hernia, and vesical diverticula. Total body X-rays showed the presence of advanced bone age in both sibs and bilateral hallux valgus in the girl. Array-CGH did not reveal any pathological CNV. Molecular analysis of FBN1, FBN2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and CHST14 gene was normal, and SNP linkage analysis excluded more candidate genes. Differential diagnoses and the possibility that we might be reporting on a hitherto unreported syndrome are discussed.

  2. Age of the crowfoot advance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. A glacial event coeval with the Younger Dryas oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, M.A.; Rutter, N.W. ); Osborn, G. )

    1994-05-01

    A suite of sediment core samples was recovered from two lakes, Crowfoot and Bow lakes, that are adjacent to the Crowfoot moraine type locality, to identify and radiocarbon date sediments related to the Crowfoot advance. The Crowfoot moraine system, widely recognized throughout northwestern North America, represents a glacial advance that is post-Wisconsin and pre-Mazama tephra in age. An interval of inorganic sediments bracketed by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of ca. 11,330 and 10,100 [sup 14]C yr B.P. is associated with the Crowfoot moraine. The Crowfoot advance is therefore approximately synchronous with the European Younger Dryas cold event (ca. 11,000-10,000 [sup 14]C yr B.P.). Furthermore, the termination of the Crowfoot advance also appears to have been abrupt. These findings illustrate that the climatic change responsible for the European Younger Dryas event extended beyond the northern Atlantic basin and western Europe. Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) depressions associated with the Crowfoot advance are similar to those determined for the Little Ice Age advance, whereas Younger Dryas ELA depressions in Europe significantly exceed Little Ice Age ELA depressions. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Age-dependent changes in the ratio of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol released by virgin females of Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, N; Yasui, H; Wakamura, S; Mochizuki, F; Arakaki, N

    2012-12-01

    The females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release two enantiomers of 2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol. The ratio describing the relative proportions of these two enantiomers (R/S ratio) has not yet been investigated. (R)-2-Butanol has been shown to attract males in laboratory and field experiments, whereas (S)-2-butanol tends to inhibit them. To determine the R/S ratio of the 2-butanol emitted by virgin females, we collected 2-butanol from young (53 days old), mature (63 days old) and old females (73 days old) using water, extracted with an SPME fibre and subsequently injected into GC-MS. The major component of the 2-butanol emitted by the young females was (R)-2-butanol, but as the females aged, the component ratio favoured (S)-2-butanol. Young females released an 80:20 mixture of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol, whereas old females released a 45:55 mixture. The EAG response of male antennae to a 50:50 ratio (racemic mixture) showed a similar dose-response curve to that of (R)-2-butanol. The male orientation responses to (R)-2-butanol decreased when the relative proportion of (S)-2-butanol increased. An inhibitory and/or masking effect of (S)-2-butanol on male orientation behaviour was also observed in the flight tunnel assay. These results suggest that males are more strongly attracted to young females than to old females. We also discuss the possibility of using 2-butanol isomers as a control or monitoring agent for this insect.

  4. [Influence of beta-endorphin on the proliferative and phagocytic activity of peripheral blood cells from males and females in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gileva, S G

    2013-01-01

    It was revealed that beta-endorphin modulation of lymphocyte proliferative activity in male donors was predominantly observed under younger age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 years, while with age it gradually decreased and disappeared as such in group of donors under 50-60 years. Meanwhile, females demonstrated prolonged modulating effect of peptide on the proliferation. In female group under 50-59 years the peptide was found to render marked promoting effect on the spontaneous proliferation in concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-10) M that was induced by suboptimal PHA concentration of 10(-10) M, whereas women in the range of 30-39 years showed that beta-endorphin suppressed the PHA-induced proliferative response. Male donors in age group of 20-29 years demonstrated beta-endorphin-stimulated and in age group of 50-59 years beta-endorphin-suppressed uptake capacity of neutrophils. In female donors from all age groups the effect of beta-endorphin on neutrophil phagocyte activity was not observed. PMID:23885558

  5. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  6. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults.

  7. Lysozyme enhances renal excretion of advanced glycation endproducts in vivo and suppresses adverse age-mediated cellular effects in vitro: a potential AGE sequestration therapy for diabetic nephropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, F.; Cai, W.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Vlassara, H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lysozyme (LZ), a host-defense protein, contains an 18 amino-acid domain with high affinity binding for sugar-derived proteins or lipids, called advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), that are implicated in diabetes- and age-dependent complications (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A) The effects of LZ on AGE- removal were tested in vivo. LZ was injected (200 ug/day, i.p., X2 weeks) in non-obese diabetic (NOD), db/db (+/+) mice, and non-diabetic, AGE-infused Sprague-Dawley rats. B) LZ: AGE interactions with macrophage-like T1B-183 cells (Mf) and mesangial cells (MC) were tested in vitro. RESULTS: A) In NOD mice, LZ reduced the elevated basal serum AGE (sAGE) (p < 0.05), enhanced urinary AGE (uAGE) excretion by approximately 2-fold (p < 0.01), while it reduced albuminuria (UA), p < 0.005. In db/db mice, LZ infusion also reduced the elevated sAGE (p < 0.05), doubled uAGE excretion (p < 0.05), and decreased UA (p < 0.01). In addition, LZ maintained normal sAGE in normal rats infused with AGE-BSA, as it doubled the urinary AGE (uAGE) clearance (p < 0.01). B) LZ stimulated the uptake and degradation of (125) I-labeled AGE-BSA and (25) I-human serum AGE by Mf, while suppressing AGE-induced TNFalpha and IGF-I production. In MC, LZ suppressed the AGE-promoted PDGF-B, alpha1 type IV collagen, and tenascin mRNA levels, and restored the AGE-suppressed expression and activity of MMP-9, but not MMP-2. CONCLUSION: LZ may act to: a) accelerate renal in-vivo AGE clearance, b) suppress macrophage and mesangial cell- specific gene activation in vitro, and c) improve albuminuria due to diabetes. These data suggest that LZ by sequestering AGEs may protect against diabetic renal damage. PMID:11788787

  8. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  9. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring). PMID:26952382

  10. Physiological age of field-collected female taiga ticks, Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae), and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor; Kovalevskii, Yuri V; Korenberg, Edward I

    2006-01-01

    In some studies the prevalence of tick infection (infection rate) and the intensity of infection are negatively correlated with unfed tick age (in the broad sense of this term). However, no special research has been carried out to consider the phenomenon thoroughly. The infection indices of the female taiga ticks, Ixodes persulcatus, infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were related to tick physiological age, an index that more precisely reflects tick physiological state than the time of tick collection in the field or the duration of tick survival under laboratory conditions. A novel quantitative technique of physiological age determination based on the evaluation of the ratios between sizes of the stable (scutum) and the changing (alloscutum) structures of the tick body was used. The age was estimated in accordance with the classical age-grade scale introduced by Balashov and a more fractional scale determined by the new technique. In total, 131 female ticks were examined for their infection and physiological age, 46 of which were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. (mean infection rate 35.1%). The minimal intensity of infection was 0.4 bacterial cells per 100 fields of view whereas the maximal infection was 172 cells. There was no difference between the prevalence of infection in ticks of different physiological age. The intensity of infection obviously differed between ticks of different age groups in the scale introduced by Balashov but did not significantly differ between ticks of different age groups according to the fractional age-grade scale. The data concerning the relationships between Borrelia burgdorferi and unfed Ixodes ticks are considered.

  11. Prolonged ovarian hormone deprivation alters the effects of 17β-estradiol on microRNA expression in the aged female rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yathindar S; Shults, Cody L; Pinceti, Elena; Pak, Toni R

    2015-11-10

    Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) has beneficial effects on cognitive function in peri- but not post-menopausal women, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in E2 action remain unclear. We propose that there is a biological switch in E2 action that occurs coincident with age and length of time after ovarian hormone depletion, and we hypothesized that age-dependent regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be the molecular basis for that switch. Previously we showed that miRNAs are regulated by E2 in young compared to aged female rats. Here we tested whether increasing lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation in aged females altered E2 regulation of these mature miRNAs. In addition, we determined where along the miRNA biogenesis pathway E2 exerted its effects. Our results showed that age and increased lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation abolished the ability of E2 to regulate mature miRNA expression in the brain. Further, we show that E2 acted at specific points along the miRNA biogenesis pathway.

  12. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive functions in aged female rats: the role of oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Okudan, Nilsel

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on cognitive functions as well as oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in aged female rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups according to age (young vs. aged) and treatment (GBE vs. vehicle). GBE or vehicle was given for 30 d, and a series of behavioral tests were performed. Following behavioral testing, blood samples and brain tissues were obtained for analysis of BDNF, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and glutathione levels, and superoxide dismutase activity. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were lower in the aged rats. Based on Morris water maze probe trial findings, GBE supplementation increased the number of platform crossings in the aged rats. MDA and 8-OHdG levels were lower in the brain tissue, and BDNF levels were higher in plasma in the rates treated with GBE. Based on these findings, we concluded that GBE supplementation improved cognitive functions by decreasing oxidative damage and increasing the BDNF level in aged female rats.

  13. A statewide survey of age at first intercourse for adolescent females and age of their male partners: relation to other risk behaviors and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Saltzman, H

    2000-06-01

    In a statewide survey of a representative sample of adolescent girls in 8th-12th grades (N = 4201), information was obtained on age at first intercourse and age of their male partners. Excluding intercourse experiences where physical force was threatened or used, 31% had intercourse by age 15 and 45% by age 16. Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, girls who first had sex between age 13 and age 15 or between age 16 and age 18 did not have a large percentage of much older partners (5 or more years older; 12 and 7%, respectively). The percentage of much older partners was higher, however, for girls who had sex in very early adolescence, ages 11-12 (34%). Much older male partners were associated with greater problem behaviors for girls who first had intercourse in very early adolescence (11-12), but less so for those who first had intercourse between age 13 and age 15 (truancy only) and not at all for those who first had intercourse at between 16 and 18. Regardless of partner's age disparity, earlier age at first intercourse during adolescence was associated with a greater number of other problem behaviors. The implications of these findings for recent calls to enforce statutory rape laws more stringently to reduce teenage pregnancy were discussed. PMID:10992978

  14. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  15. Vulnerability to health problems in female informal caregivers of persons with HIV/AIDS and age-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Lee, P

    2001-01-01

    The health of informal caregivers is often studied from the perspective of caregivers' and care receivers' personal and interpersonal characteristics. This study offers an alternative explanation based on a vulnerable populations framework and considers the role of resource availability to the health status of informal caregivers (n=76). Caregivers in a convenience sample were females of diverse ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and care recipients were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) or age-related dementias (ARD). Personal interviews using structured instruments were conducted with caregivers who were attending outpatient clinics at a public hospital and a VA hospital. Instruments included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-Scale (CES-D), the Global Health Assessment (GHA), the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (MBPC) and items from the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) measuring anger, anxiety and loneliness. Caregivers were experiencing both physical and mental health problems. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among resources available to caregivers, conditions that put caregivers at risk for poorer health, and health status itself. Analyses were conducted for each group of caregivers separately (HIV and ARD) and for the total group, using depressive symptoms and perception of physical health as dependent variables. In caregivers of people with HIV/AIDS (PWHIV), caregiver distress over care recipient symptoms, anxiety and education were related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, anger and functional status of the PWHIV were related to caregivers' perception of poorer physical health. In caregivers of people with ARD, there were no significant predictors for depressive symptoms or perception of physical health. In the total group of caregivers, lower income and more anger were related to depressive symptom

  16. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  17. Dating the Little Ice Age Advance of Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, Using Pro-glacial Lake Sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, H. A.; Briner, J. P.; Csatho, B. M.

    2009-05-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet's (GIS) largest and fastest outlet glacier, Jakobshavn Isbrae, is one of the most significant contributors to GIS mass loss, draining an estimated 6.5% of the GIS area (Rignot and Kanagaratnam, 2006). Jakobshavn Isbrae has retreated significantly since the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1250- 1900; Csatho et al., 2008), and continues to exhibit rapid changes in velocity and ice calving front position (Joughin et al., 2004). However, it is unknown for how long Jakobshavn Isbrae was at or near its extensive LIA position because there is a lack of chronological control on the LIA advance phase. We collected sediment cores from lakes just beyond the LIA margin to constrain the time when the advancing glacier's silt-laden meltwater entered the lake basins. Sediment cores from South Oval and Ice Boom lakes (informal names), which no longer receive glacial meltwater from Jakobshavn Isbrae because it has retreated out of their catchments, contain gyttja/glacial-silt/gyttja sequences that represent their non-glacial/pro-glacial/non-glacial histories. One additional site, ice-dammed Lake Morten (informal name), completely drained sometime between 1985 and 2001 AD. Outcrops of laminated sediments in the lake basin overly an intact tundra landscape. Four AMS radiocarbon dates from macrofossils immediately below the LIA sediments from the three lake basins reveal that Jakobshavn Isbrae reached its LIA maximum extent between 530±10 and 370±60 cal yr BP (1400-1640 AD). Furthermore, the continuous nature of the LIA-sediment units in all sites indicates that Jakobshavn Isbrae remained at or near its LIA maximum position between 1400-1640 AD and into the 20th century. Finally, pre-LIA organic-rich sediments at all sites continue uninterrupted down to basal sediments deposited during regional deglaciation in the Early Holocene. AMS radiocarbon ages on macrofossils from basal sediments at all sites range from 7220±40 to 8130±60 cal yr BP. We therefore interpret

  18. At what level of heat load are age-related impairments in the ability to dissipate heat evident in females?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ). In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat.

  19. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  20. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  1. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  2. Aging: overview.

    PubMed

    Harman, D

    2001-04-01

    Aging is a universal process that began with the origination of life about 3.5 billion years ago. Accumulation of the diverse deleterious changes produced by aging throughout the cells and tissues progressively impairs function and can eventually cause death. Aging changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn process--the aging process. The chance of death at a given age serves as a measure of the average number of aging changes accumulated by persons of that age, that is, of physiologic age, and the rate of change of this measure as the rate of aging. Chances for death are decreased by improvements in general living conditions. As a result, during the past two millennia average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B), determined by the chances for death, of humans has risen from 30 years, in ancient Rome, to almost 80 years today in the developed countries. Chances for death in the developed countries are now near limiting values and ALE-Bs are approaching plateau values that are 6-9 years less than the potential maximum of about 85 years. Chances for death are now largely determined by the inherent aging process after age 28. Only 1.1% of female cohorts in Sweden die before this age; the remainder die off at an exponentially increasing rate with advancing age. The inherent aging process limits ALE-B to around 85 years, and the maximum life span (MLS) to about 122 years. Past efforts to increase ALE-B did not require an understanding of aging. Such knowledge will be necessary in the future to significantly increase ALE-B and MLS, and to satisfactorily ameliorate the medical, economic, and social problems associated with advancing age. The many theories advanced to account for aging should be used, to the extent it is feasible, to help with these important practical problems, including applications of the free radical theory of aging. Past measures evolved by societies to ensure adequate care for older individuals are

  3. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in healthy females between 9 and 26 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Nelly; Ansah, Nana Akosua; Marino, Deborah; Saah, Alfred; Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2015-01-01

    Due to sporadic and not easily accessible cervical cancer screening, human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in Sub-Saharan African women. This study was designed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in sub-Saharan African women. This seven month, double-blind study enrolled 250 healthy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected females ages 9-26 residing in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal. Thirty females ages 13-15 and 120 females ages 16-26 received qHPV vaccine. In addition, 100 females ages 9-12 y were randomized in a 4:1 ratio to receive either qHPV vaccine (n = 80) or placebo (n = 20 ). The primary immunogenicity hypothesis was that an acceptable percentage of subjects who received the qHPV vaccine seroconvert to HPV6/11/16/18 at 4 weeks post-dose 3, defined as the lower bound of the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) exceeding 90%. The primary safety objective was to demonstrate that qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated when administered in a 3-dose regimen. The pre-specified statistical criterion for the primary immunogenicity hypothesis was met: the lower bound of the 95% exact binomial CI on the seroconversion rate was at least 98% for each vaccine HPV type and all subjects seroconverted by 4 weeks post-dose 3. Across vaccination groups, the most common adverse events (AE) were at the injection site, including pain, swelling, and erythema. No subject discontinued study medication due to an AE and no serious AEs were reported. There were no deaths. This study demonstrated that qHPV vaccination of sub-Saharan African women was highly immunogenic and generally well tolerated. PMID:25912475

  4. Search for promotion factors of ultrasound bone measurement in Japanese males and pre/post-menarcheal females aged 8-14 years.

    PubMed

    Kohri, Toshiyuki; Kaba, Naoko; Murakami, Tetsuo; Narukawa, Teruaki; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sakai, Takeo; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    There is little evidence regarding the associations between bone growth and environmental factors among growing children, especially in Asians. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to search for the promotion factors of bone growth in Japanese children during growth. The study subjects were male (n=333) and pre/post-menarcheal female (n=179/n=68) school children aged 8-14 y. Bone status at the calcaneus was evaluated by quantitative ultrasound (Benus III), and the bone area ratio (BAR) was used as an evaluation index. Dietary intakes were assessed via brief self-administered diet history questionnaires. The participants were asked to record all of their activities for 3 d (2 weekdays and 1 holiday). They were also required to provide the most recent anthropometric measurement records at their schools and answer questions about the frequency of fractures and, for females, the length of time since menarche. Multiple regression analysis with dummy variables demonstrated that age, magnesium (more than the RDA), vitamin B(1) (more than the RDA), mean physical activity intensity per day (more than 1.7 METs), vitamin C (more than the RDA) and calcium (more than the RDA) were significantly positive influential factors of BAR for males. For premenarcheal females, age, vitamin A (more than the RDA), BMI, and mean physical activity intensity per day (more than 1.7 METs) were significantly positive influential factors of BAR, and for postmenarcheal females, only BMI and age were significantly positive influential factors of BAR. The results suggest that several manageable factors correlate with the bone mass, and the associations differ depending on gender and menarcheal status. PMID:23132310

  5. Bone Aging by Advanced Glycation End Products: A Multiscale Mechanical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganeko, K; Masaki, C; Shibata, Y; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Miyazaki, T; Hosokawa, R

    2015-12-01

    The quality and quantity of mandibular bone are essential prerequisites for osseointegrated implants. Only the Hounsfield unit on preoperative computed tomography is currently used as a clinical index. Nevertheless, a considerable mismatch occurs between bone quality and the Hounsfield unit. Loss of bone toughness during aging has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept is unlikely evidence based at the level of mechanical properties. Nonenzymatic bone matrix cross-links associated with advanced glycation end products predominate as a consequence of aging. Thus, loss of tissue integrity could diminish the bone toughening mechanism. Here, we demonstrate an impaired bone toughening mechanism caused by mimicking aging in rabbits on a methionine-rich diet, which enabled an enhanced nonenzymatically cross-linked bone matrix. A 3-point bending test revealed a greater reduction in femoral fracture resistance in rabbits on a methionine-rich diet, despite higher maximum and normalized breaking forces (287.3 N and 88.1%, respectively), than in rabbits on a normal diet (262.2 N and 79.7%, respectively). In situ nanoindentation on mandibular cortical bone obtained from rabbits on a methionine-rich diet did not enable strain rate-dependent stiffening and consequent large-dimensional recovery during rapid loading following constant displacement after a rapid-load indentation test as compared with those in rabbits on a normal diet. Such nanoscale structure-function relationships dictate resistance to cracking propagation at the material level and allow for the overall bone toughening mechanism to operate under large external stressors. The strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with strain-energy transfer to the superior cross-linked bone matrix network of the normal diet, while the reduction in the enzymatically cross-linked matrix in bone samples from rabbits on a methionine-rich diet likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanism. The

  6. Altered serum glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) and soluble AGE receptor levels indicate carbonyl stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mayu; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Katsuta, Narimasa; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higa, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Hotta, Yuri; Hanzawa, Ryo; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Gohda, Tomohito; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Arai, Heii

    2015-04-23

    Recent cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that measurements of peripheral blood carbonyl stress markers such as the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and the reactive carbonyl-detoxifying B6 vitamin pyridoxal could be used as therapeutic biological markers in subpopulations of schizophrenia patients. Glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGE) have strong neurotoxicity, and soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE) may ameliorate the effects of AGEs. In the present study, we measured Glycer-AGEs and sRAGE levels to determine their potential as diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical biological markers in patients with schizophrenia. After enrollment of 61 admitted Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia and 39 healthy volunteers, 54 patients were followed up from the acute stage to remission. Serum biomarkers were measured in blood samples taken before breakfast using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and Glycer-AGEs were significantly higher and sRAGE levels were significantly lower in patients with acute schizophrenia than in healthy controls. Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios were also higher in schizophrenia patients and were stable during the clinical course. Furthermore, discriminant analyses confirmed that Glycer-AGEs and Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios are significant diagnostic markers for schizophrenia, and distinguished between patients and healthy controls in 70.0% of cases. However, these markers of carbonyl stress were not correlated with clinical features, including disease severity, or with daily chlorpromazine doses. These data indicate the potential of Glycer-AGEs, RAGEs, and their relative ratios as diagnostic markers for patients with schizophrenia.

  7. The Influence of the Age, the Years of Training, and the BMI on the Average Muscle Power in Male and Female Rowers.

    PubMed

    Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157

  8. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  9. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives and social theories from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own theories or theoretical perspectives. We build on past work to further advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the…

  10. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  11. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  12. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  13. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Schmutz, Joel A

    2016-10-15

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  14. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km), cycling (180 km), running (42 km), and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii. Methods The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011. Results The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05), while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years) were significantly (P < 0.05) younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years). During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05), but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01). Conclusion Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event. PMID:24198600

  15. Monitoring by Parents and Hypothesized Male-Female Differences in Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cohort Re-sampled from Age 12 to 17 Years: An Exploratory Study Using a "Mutoscope" Approach.

    PubMed

    Seedall, Ryan B; Anthony, James C

    2015-07-01

    The link between adept parental monitoring (PM) and later positive behavioral and health outcomes already has motivated intervention trials, but questions remain about which specific facets and mechanisms of PM make a difference. Our current research questions concern fundamental male-female differences in PM facets as manifest in a US cohort, re-sampled each year at age 12 through 17 years during an interval from 2004 to 2009. We hypothesized emergence, by mid-adolescence, of a specific male-female difference in a "limit time with friends" (LTF) facet of adept PM, with overall PM levels held constant. The data, arranged using a "mutoscope" approach, are from six successive nationally representative independent cross-sectional sample surveys of the cohort, with each adolescent measured only once, via a multi-item PM module nested within the larger survey. Estimates and tests of male-female differences are from a "multiple indicators, multiple causes" latent structure model appropriate for complex survey data. In evidence consistent with the advance hypothesis and with PM level held constant via the model, the LTF facet generally was more relaxed for boys as compared to girls, in a difference that emerged by mid-adolescence, possibly due to greater LTF constraints for girls at mid-adolescence. This research adds to the knowledge base about male-female similarities and differences in facets of PM. As a specific PM facet, LTF might function as a mechanism suitable for deliberate intervention and as a possible specific target in "micro-trials" of new prevention research. We acknowledge limitations such as omitted variables, including social media effects, not measured in this investigation's national surveys, but of potential importance in future research on peer influence as might have more distal parenting determinants.

  16. Advancing Paternal Age Is Associated with Deficits in Social and Exploratory Behaviors in the Offspring: A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. Methods C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. Principal Findings The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. Conclusions Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors. PMID:20041141

  17. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Winsauer, Peter J.; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Weed, Peter F.; Sutton, Jessie L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to Δ9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD) 75–180 (early adulthood onward) or PD 35–140 (adolescence onward). During this time, the four groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC) were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for Δ9-THC (0.56–56 mg/kg) and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (0.32–10 mg/kg). Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic Δ9-THC, all of the Δ9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic Δ9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R) and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1) was affected more by OVX than chronic Δ9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity. PMID:26191005

  18. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  19. Identity Development of Gifted Female Adolescents: The Influence of Career Development, Age, and Life-Role Salience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    This study identified a set of factors, including vocational exploration and commitment, commitment to the role of work, and participation in the role of studying, which explained 43.3 percent of the variance in the identity development of 95 gifted female adolescents. Of these factors, vocational exploration and commitment contributed the most to…

  20. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent.

  1. Advancing knowledge gained from sediment budgets through sediment age dating and fingerprinting in small watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.; Gellis, A.; Harvey, J. W.; Hupp, C. R.; Larsen, L.; Noe, G. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schenk, E.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamics and long-term trajectories of fine sediment generally remain poorly quantified in rivers, which have implications for nutrient and contaminant transport and remediation strategies. Here we focus on two streams within the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Difficult Run and Accotink Creek. These streams have varying degrees of urbanization and diverse best management practices, making possible a comparison of sediment sources, sinks, and residence times to illuminate how land management impacts fine sediment transport. Bank erosion and floodplain accumulation in Difficult Run has been previously determined and is ongoing in Accotink Creek. Current work advances sediment budgets by quantifying the role of in-channel fine sediment storage in the bed and margins. To understand the relative storage timescales for various geomorphic features (floodplain, in-channel, etc.) and develop age distributions, sediment is dated using radionuclides of varying half-lives such as Pb-210, Cs-137, Be-7, bomb radiocarbon, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). To determine the source of sediment that is transported in suspension, sediment fingerprinting has been completed in Difficult Run and initiated in Accotink Creek. Furthermore, the present study furthers our understanding of fine sediment dynamics by fingerprinting sources of stored sediment and evaluating how they evolve over storm events and stream size. For this, we sampled sediment in storage zones before and after storm events of a specified magnitude to determine their chemical signatures with respect to various source-tracking elements and isotopes. This study represents the first such work to integrate sediment dating, sediment fingerprinting and an analysis of storage zones to understand fine sediment dynamics and long-term trajectories.

  2. Epiphyseal union at the innominate and lower limb in a modern Portuguese skeletal sample, and age estimation in adolescent and young adult male and female skeletons.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2008-02-01

    This study documents the timing of epiphyseal union at the innominate, femur, tibia, and fibula in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons. The sample was taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection and it is comprised of 57 females and 49 males between the ages of 9 and 25. Individuals are mostly representative of the middle-to-low socioeconomic segment of the early 20th century Lisbon population. A total of 18 anatomical locations were examined for epiphyseal union using a three-stage scheme: 1) no union; 2) partial union; and 3) completed union, all traces of fusion having disappeared. Results show that females are ahead of males by 1-2 years and provide similar age ranges for the stages of union than previous studies. Some variations between studies can be explained by methodological differences between dry bone and radiographic observations. However, a review of the literature indicates that socioeconomic status of a given population seems to be of decisive importance to the rate of ossification and most of the differences in skeletal maturation across studies and populations can probably be ascribed to different levels of social and economic development of the societies in which the individuals lived. Although the effects of socioeconomic status in skeletal maturation are greater during childhood than in adolescence, as to make the timing of epiphyseal union a reliable estimate of age at death, they are not negligible and age estimates should take into account the likely socioeconomic status of the individual, whose remains are under examination.

  3. Monoterpenes and epicuticular waxes help female autumn gum moth differentiate between waxy and glossy Eucalyptus and leaves of different ages.

    PubMed

    Steinbauer, Martin J; Schiestl, Florian P; Davies, Noel W

    2004-06-01

    The autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata, is a native Australian species whose preferred host, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), is an aromatic evergreen tree that has long-lived waxy leaves during the juvenile phase of growth. We compared the behavioral and antennal responses of female moths to whole leaves (new and old) and samples of foliar chemicals (from new and old leaves) from a typical E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus with responses to a glossy, half-sibling E. g. subsp. pseudoglobulus putative hybrid (the result of natural cross-pollination). We also studied larval survival and development on leaves from the same trees. In laboratory binary-choice assays, female M. privata laid more eggs on waxy leaves than on glossy leaves thereby confirming the nonpreference for the glossy tree that was observed in the field. Analyses of the monoterpenes and waxes of both trees revealed that they had comparable suites of monoterpenes and total oil contents but different suites of epicuticular waxes. Headspace extracts differed in the intensity of component monoterpenes. Gas chromatographic analyses with electroantennographic detection showed different patterns of monoterpene detection. Leaves of the glossy tree had a less diverse array of epicuticular waxes than those of the waxy tree. Electroantennographic screening of responses to wax extracts from leaves (new and old) from either tree revealed positive dose-dependent responses of female antennae to waxes from new leaves only. Binary-choice assays also revealed a strong preference by ovipositing females for new, compared to old, leaves whether they were from the waxy or the glossy tree. However, new leaves from either tree could be manipulated (by physical abrasion of epicuticular waxes) so that females would lay almost no eggs on them. Larval survival did not differ between groups reared on leaves from both trees (new and old). Over 70% of all larvae survived to pupation. However, larvae reared on leaves from the

  4. Evidence that glucose metabolism is decreased in the cerebrum of aged female senescence-accelerated mouse; possible involvement of a low hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, T; Sato, E; Inoue, A; Ishibashi, S

    1996-08-16

    d-Glucose metabolism in cerebral cells prepared from aged senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), was investigated in consideration of a sex difference. The production of 14CO2 from 6-[14C]D-glucose was reduced in female senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, a prone substrain, in comparison with that in female senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR) 2, a control substrain, whereas there was no difference in males. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into cerebral cells from female SAMP8 was also lower than that of control mice. But, the 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in SAMP8 was higher than that of SAMR2, suggesting that the low hexokinase activity was involved in the decreased glucose metabolism in cerebrum of SAMP8 females irrespective of glucose transporter. This possibility was supported by the finding that the contents of glucose 6-phosphate produced from glucose added to cerebral cells from SAMP8 was lower than that in ICR mice. PMID:8873128

  5. Sex-dependent nutritional programming: fish oil intake during early pregnancy in rats reduces age-dependent insulin resistance in male, but not female, offspring.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Fatima L C; Fernandes, Flavia S; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-02-15

    Prenatal and early postnatal nutritional status may predispose offspring to impaired glucose tolerance and changes in insulin sensitivity in adult life. The long-term consequences of changes in maternal dietary fatty acid composition were determined in rats. From day 1 until day 12 of pregnancy, rats were given isocaloric diets containing 9% nonvitamin fat based on soybean, olive, fish (FO), linseed, or palm oil. Thereafter, they were maintained on the standard diet; offspring were studied at different ages. Body weight at 4, 8, and 12 mo and lumbar adipose tissue and liver weights at 12 mo did not differ between females on the different diets, whereas in males the corresponding values were all lower in the offspring from the FO group compared with the other dietary groups. Plasma glucose concentrations (both basal and after an oral glucose load) did not change with sex or dietary group, but plasma insulin concentrations were lower in females than in males and, in males, were lowest in the FO group. Similar relations were found with both the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index. In conclusion, the intake of more n-3 fatty acids (FO diet) during early pregnancy reduced both fat accretion and age-related decline in insulin sensitivity in male offspring but not in females. It is proposed that the lower adiposity caused by the increased n-3 fatty acids during the intrauterine life was responsible of the lower insulin resistance in male offspring.

  6. Effects of aging on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity in virgin male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Life history theory posits that organisms face a trade-off between current and future reproductive attempts. The physiological mechanisms mediating such trade-offs are still largely unknown, but glucocorticoid hormones are likely candidates as elevated, post-stress glucocorticoid levels have been shown to suppress both reproductive physiology and reproductive behavior. Aged individuals have a decreasing window in which to reproduce, and are thus predicted to invest more heavily in current as opposed to future reproduction. Therefore, if glucocorticoids are important in mediating the trade-off between current and future reproduction, aged animals are expected to show decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stressors and to stimulation by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and enhanced responses to glucocorticoid negative feedback, as compared to younger animals. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse by comparing baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels, as well as corticosterone responses to dexamethasone (DEX) and CRH injections, between old (∼18-20months) and young (∼4months) virgin adults of both sexes. We also measured gonadal and uterine masses as a proxy for investment in potential current reproductive effort. Adrenal glands were weighed to determine if older animal had decreased adrenal mass. Old male mice had lower plasma corticosterone levels 8h after DEX injection than did young male mice, suggesting that the anterior pituitary of older males is more sensitive to DEX-induced negative feedback. Old female mice had higher body-mass-corrected uterine mass than did young females. No other differences in corticosterone levels or organ masses were found between age groups within either sex. In conclusion, we did not find strong evidence for age-related change in HPA activity or reactivity in virgin adult male or female California mice; however, future studies investigating HPA activity and

  7. Effects of aging on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity in virgin male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Breanna N.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory posits that organisms face a trade-off between current and future reproductive attempts. The physiological mechanisms mediating such trade-offs are still largely unknown, but glucocorticoid hormones are likely candidates as elevated, post-stress glucocorticoid levels have been shown to suppress both reproductive physiology and reproductive behavior. Aged individuals have a decreasing window in which to reproduce, and are thus predicted to invest more heavily in current as opposed to future reproduction. Therefore, if glucocorticoids are important in mediating the trade-off between current and future reproduction, aged animals are expected to show decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stressors and to stimulation by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and enhanced responses to glucocorticoid negative feedback, as compared to younger animals. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse by comparing baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels, as well as corticosterone responses to dexamethasone (DEX) and CRH injections, between old (~18–20 months) and young (~4 months) virgin adults of both sexes. We also measured gonadal and uterine masses as a proxy for investment in potential current reproductive effort. Adrenal glands were weighed to determine if older animal had decreased adrenal mass. Old male mice had lower plasma corticosterone levels 8 h after DEX injection than did young male mice, suggesting that the anterior pituitary of older males is more sensitive to DEX-induced negative feedback. Old female mice had higher body-mass-corrected uterine mass than did young females. No other differences in corticosterone levels or organ masses were found between age groups within either sex. In conclusion, we did not find strong evidence for age-related change in HPA activity or reactivity in virgin adult male or female California mice; however, future studies investigating HPA activity

  8. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  9. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  10. The changes in age of peak swim speed for elite male and female Swiss freestyle swimmers between 1994 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the age and its changes across years of peak swimming performance from 50 to 1,500 m freestyle. Data of 70,059 Swiss freestyle swimmers (33,725 women and 36,334 men) aged 10-40 years and competing from 50 to 1,500 m were analysed. The association between age and swimming speed of the annual ten fastest swimmers was investigated using single and multi-level hierarchical regression analyses. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m from 18.9 (s = 2.3) to 20.4 (s = 4.2) years but decreased in 1,500 m from 25.0 (s = 13.1) (1996) to 18.1 (s = 3.7) years. For 100-800 m, age remained at 19.1 (s = 1.1), 19.3 (s = 1.1), 18.7 (s = 1.5) and 18.5 (s = 1.3) years, respectively. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m from 23.0 (s = 4.0) to 23.0 (s = 3.5) but remained for 100-1,500 m at 22.5 (s = 1.4), 21.4 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9) and 20.3 (s = 1.1) years, respectively. Age was positively associated with swimming speed for 50-800 m, but negatively for 1,500 m. In conclusion, the age of peak swimming speed was younger in women compared to men for 50-800 m freestyle. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m but decreased in 1,500 m freestyle across years. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m freestyle.

  11. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum dilation and degeneration in Purkinje neuron dendrites of aging ethanol-fed female rats.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the extensive Purkinje neuron (PN) dendritic arbor of male rats include dilation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and dendritic regression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the molecular layer of female rats for the presence of ethanol-related SER dilation and evidence of degeneration within the PN dendritic arbor. Twenty-one 12-month-old Fischer 344 female rats (n = 7/treatment group) received a liquid ethanol, liquid control, or rat chow diet for a period of 40 weeks. Ethanol-fed rats received 35% of their dietary calories as ethanol. Pair-fed rats received a liquid control diet that was isocaloric to the ethanol diet. Chow-fed rats received standard laboratory rat chow ad libitum. At the end of treatment, tissues from the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellar vermis were viewed and photographed with the electron microscope. The diameters of SER profiles were measured and the density of degenerating bodies within the PN dendritic arbor was quantitated. In the posterior lobe, ethanol-related SER dilation was apparent. In the anterior lobe, the density of degenerating bodies within PN dendritic shafts was significantly increased but SER dilation in PN dendritic shafts was absent. These results confirm that SER dilation and dendritic degeneration in PN dendrites may precede and contribute to ethanol-related regression in female rats. In addition, comparison of these results with data obtained in male rats from a previous study suggests that PN dendrites in females may be more sensitive to the effects of ethanol.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes UCP2 and UCP3 affect mitochondrial metabolism and healthy aging in female nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Myers, Leann; Ravussin, Eric; Cherry, Katie E; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-08-01

    Energy expenditure decreases with age, but in the oldest-old, energy demand for maintenance of body functions increases with declining health. Uncoupling proteins have profound impact on mitochondrial metabolic processes; therefore, we focused attention on mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes. Alongside resting metabolic rate (RMR), two SNPs in the promoter region of UCP2 were associated with healthy aging. These SNPs mark potential binding sites for several transcription factors; thus, they may affect expression of the gene. A third SNP in the 3'-UTR of UCP3 interacted with RMR. This UCP3 SNP is known to impact UCP3 expression in tissue culture cells, and it has been associated with body weight and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The significant main effects of the UCP2 SNPs and the interaction effect of the UCP3 SNP were also observed after controlling for fat-free mass (FFM) and physical-activity related energy consumption. The association of UCP2/3 with healthy aging was not found in males. Thus, our study provides evidence that the genetic risk factors for healthy aging differ in males and females, as expected from the differences in the phenotypes associated with healthy aging between the two sexes. It also has implications for how mitochondrial function changes during aging. PMID:26965008

  13. Effects of glycine-arginine-α-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation in college-age trained females during multi-bouts of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wax, Benjamin; Hilton, Laura; Vickers, Brad; Gilliland, Katherine; Conrad, Mandy

    2013-03-01

    Glycine-arginine-α-ketoisocaproic acid (GAKIC) has been proposed to increase anaerobic high-intensity exercise performance in male subjects. However, the effects of GAKIC ingestion in female subjects have not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GAKIC supplementation on total load volume (i.e., mass lifted) and metabolic parameters during repeated bouts of submaximal leg extensions in college-age females. Nine resistance-trained females participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double blind study. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or GAKIC (10.2 g) and performed six sets of 50% of one repetition maximum leg extensions (two legs simultaneously) to failure. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the same exercise protocol. Furthermore, blood lactic acid, blood glucose, and heart rate were also measured preexercise and 5 s after the completion of the exercise protocol (postexercise). GAKIC supplementation significantly increased leg extension total load volume (GAKIC = 1721.7 ± 479.9 kg; placebo = 1479.1 ± 396.8 kg, p < .01). Heart rate and blood lactic acid were significantly increased (p < .01 for both measures) postexercise compared to preexercise, but were not significantly different between GAKIC and placebo (p = .40 for heart rate; p = .88 for lactic acid). Blood glucose was significantly decreased (p = .03) postexercise compared to preexercise, but was not significantly different (p = .78) between GAKIC and placebo. Collectively, these findings suggest that GAKIC increased lower body resistance performance in trained college-age females; however, these findings are not necessarily generalizable.

  14. Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate alters androgen receptor expression in the developing cerebellum in a region and age specific manner in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Miquel, Marta; Saft, Paul; Brug, Brenda; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenicity activity that has been related to autism. In rodents, exposure to VPA in utero leads to brain abnormalities similar than those reported in the autistic brain. Particularly, VPA reduces the number of Purkinje neurons in the rat cerebellum parallel to cerebellar abnormalities found in autism. Thus, we injected pregnant females on embryonic day 12 either with VPA (600mg/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution and obtained the cerebellum from their offspring at different postnatal time points. Testosterone has been linked to autism and plays an important role during brain development. Therefore, we identified and analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry and densitometry, respectively. We found VPA decreases AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer only in cerebellar lobule 8 at PN7, but increased it at PN14 compared to control in males. In females, VPA decreased AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer in cerebellar lobule 6 at PN14, but increased it in lobule 9 at the same time point. No differences were found in the deep Purkinje layer of any cerebellar lobule in terms of AR density neither in males nor females. We additionally found a particular AR density decreasing in both superficial and deep regions across development in the majority of cerebellar lobules in males, but in all cerebellar lobules in females. Thus, our results indicate that VPA disrupts the AR ontogeny in the developing cerebellum in an age and region specific manner in male and female rats. Future epigenetic studies including the evaluation of histone deacetylases (HDAC's) might shed light these results as HDAC's are expressed by Purkinje neurons, interact with the AR and are VPA targets. This work contributes to the understanding of the cerebellar development and it might help to understand the role of the cerebellum in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  15. Stochastic epigenetic mutations (DNA methylation) increase exponentially in human aging and correlate with X chromosome inactivation skewing in females.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Davide; Garagnani, Paolo; Pisoni, Serena; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Calzari, Luciano; Mari, Daniela; Vitale, Giovanni; Franceschi, Claudio; Di Blasio, Anna Maria

    2015-08-01

    In this study we applied a new analytical strategy to investigate the relations between stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and aging. We analysed methylation levels through the Infinium HumanMethylation27 and HumanMethylation450 BeadChips in a population of 178 subjects ranging from 3 to 106 years. For each CpG probe, epimutated subjects were identified as the extreme outliers with methylation level exceeding three times interquartile ranges the first quartile (Q1-(3 x IQR)) or the third quartile (Q3+(3 x IQR)). We demonstrated that the number of SEMs was low in childhood and increased exponentially during aging. Using the HUMARA method, skewing of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) was evaluated in heterozygotes women. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant correlation between log(SEMs) and degree of XCI skewing after adjustment for age (β = 0.41; confidence interval: 0.14, 0.68; p-value = 0.0053). The PATH analysis tested the complete model containing the variables: skewing of XCI, age, log(SEMs) and overall CpG methylation. After adjusting for the number of epimutations we failed to confirm the well reported correlation between skewing of XCI and aging. This evidence might suggest that the known correlation between XCI skewing and aging could not be a direct association but mediated by the number of SEMs.

  16. A Nanoindentation Study on Grain-Boundary Contributions to Strengthening and Aging Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced 12Cr Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jae-il; Shim, Sang Hoon; Komazaki, Shin-ichi; Honda, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Nanoindentation experiments and microstructural analysis were performed on advanced 12% Cr ferritic steel having extremely fine and complex martensitic microstructures, to answer unsolved questions on the contributions of grain boundaries to strengthening and aging degradation mechanisms in both as-tempered and thermally aged steels. Interesting features of the experimental results led us to suggest that among several high angle boundaries, block boundary is most effective in enhancing the macroscopic strength in as-tempered virgin sample, and that a decrease in matrix strength rather than reduction in grain-boundary strengthening effect is primarily responsible for the macroscopic softening behavior observed during thermal exposure.

  17. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, S; Takeuchi, M; Inagaki, Y; Nakamura, K; Imaizumi, T

    2003-01-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications via various metabolic derangements. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, especially focusing on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in diseases, including diabetic microangiopathy, will be discussed in the next review article. PMID:15224502

  18. Age-dependent changes in cocaine sensitivity across early ontogeny in male and female rats: Possible role of dorsal striatal D2High receptors

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Eaton, Shannon E.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Responsiveness to acute psychostimulant administration varies across ontogeny. Objective The purpose of the present study was to determine if age-dependent changes in D2High receptors may be responsible for the ontogeny of cocaine sensitivity in preweanling, adolescent, and adult rats. Methods [3H]-Domperidone/dopamine competition assays were used to d