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Sample records for advanced age female

  1. Recent female mouse models displaying advanced reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Danilovich, Natalia; Ram Sairam, M

    2006-02-01

    Reproductive senescence occurs in all female mammals with resultant changes in numerous body functional systems and several important features may be species-specific. Those features that appear to parallel human menopause and aging include general similarity of hormone profiles across the menopausal transition, progression to cycle termination through irregular cycles, declining fertility with age, disturbances in thermogenesis, age-related gains in body weight, fat distribution and disposition towards metabolic syndrome. Structural and hormonal changes in the brain and ovary play a critical role in determining the onset of reproductive senescence. The short life span of rodents such as mice (compared to humans) and the ability to generate specific and timed gene deletions, provide powerful experimental paradigms to understand the molecular and functional changes that precede and follow the loss of reproductive capacity. In theory, any manipulation that compromises ovarian function either partly or totally would impact reproductive events at various levels followed by other dysfunctions. In this article, we provide an overview of three mouse models for the study of female reproductive aging. They are derived from different strategies and their age related phenotypes have been characterized to varying degrees. The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse, in its null and haploinsufficient state as well as the dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knockout mouse, serve as two examples of single gene deletions. A third model, using administration of a chemical toxicant such as 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) in the adult state, produces ovarian deficiencies accompanied by aging changes. These will serve as useful alternatives to previously used radical ovariectomy in young adults. It is anticipated that these new models and more that will be forthcoming will extend opportunities to understand reproductive aging and resolve controversies that abound on issues

  2. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Accumulation by Pyridoxamine Modulates Glomerular and Mesangial Cell Estrogen Receptor α Expression in Aged Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaomei; Cai, Weijing; Choi, Rhea; Striker, Gary E.; Elliot, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS) play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous). We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation, an important source of oxidant stress, contributes to these glomerular ER expression alterations. We treated 19-month old ovariectomized female mice with pyridoxamine (Pyr), a potent AGE inhibitor, in the presence or absence of E2 replacement. Glomerular ERα mRNA expression was upregulated in mice treated with both Pyr and E2 replacement and TGFβ mRNA expression decreased compared to controls. Histological sections of kidneys demonstrated decreased type IV collagen deposition in mice receiving Pyr and E2 compared to placebo control mice. In addition, anti-AGE defenses Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1) were also upregulated in glomeruli following treatment with Pyr and E2. Mesangial cells isolated from all groups of mice demonstrated similar ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression changes to those of whole glomeruli. To demonstrate that AGE accumulation contributes to the observed age-related changes in the glomeruli of aged female mice, we treated mesangial cells from young female mice with AGE-BSA and found similar downregulation of ERα, SIRT1, and AGER1 expression. These results suggest that inhibition of intracellular AGE accumulation with pyridoxamine may protect glomeruli against age-related oxidant stress by preventing an increase of TGFβ production and by regulation of the estrogen receptor. PMID:27428057

  3. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age.

  4. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  5. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  6. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  7. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  8. [Female sexuality in middle and advanced adulthood].

    PubMed

    von Sydow, K

    1992-01-01

    A study of female sexuality based on 91 interviews with women aged 50 to 91 years (birth-cohorts: 1895 to 1936) is presented. 53% of the interview-partners in this study are sexually active (intercourse: 34%; masturbation: 30%; lesbian sexuality: 1%). 65% report sexual interest. During the past year 58% of the women experienced sexual dreams, 43% sexual fantasies. 26% of the interview-partners had never experienced orgasm. Several age- and cohort-differences are reported. Quotations illustrate the variability of female sexual experiences. PMID:1609538

  9. Effects of Age on Female Reproductive Success in Drosophila bipectinata

    PubMed Central

    Somashekar, K; Krishna, Ms; Hegde, Sn; Jayaramu, SC

    2011-01-01

    Female age influence on mating success, courtship activities, mating latency, copulation duration, fecundity, ovarioles number, and wing length has been studied using isofemale lines of Drosophila bipectinata collected at three different localities. It was observed that in all localities, middle-aged D. bipectinata females had significantly greater mating success, showed less rejection responses to courting male, mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and ovariole number than young and old-aged females. Further, old-aged females had comparatively less fitness traits than young age females. This research suggests the occurrence of age specific female reproductive success as follows: middle-aged > young > old-aged. PMID:22235980

  10. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  11. Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Virginia E.

    It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…

  12. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  13. Neonatal amygdala lesions advance pubertal timing in female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Shannon B.Z.; Raper, Jessica; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Wallen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Social context influences the timing of puberty in both humans and nonhuman primates, such as delayed first ovulation in low-ranking rhesus macaques, but the brain region(s) mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing are unknown. The amygdala is important for responding to social information and thus, is a potential brain region mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing. In this study, female rhesus macaques living in large, species-typical, social groups received bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions at one month of age and pubertal timing was examined beginning at 14 months of age. Pubertal timing was affected in neonatal amygdala-lesioned females (Neo-A), such that they experienced significantly earlier menarche and first ovulation than did control females (Neo-C). Duration between menarche and first ovulation did not differ between Neo-A and Neo-C females, indicating earlier first ovulation in Neo-A females was likely a consequence of earlier menarche. Social rank of Neo-A females was related to age at menarche, but not first ovulation, and social rank was not related to either event in Neo-C females. It is more likely that amygdalectomy affects pubertal timing through its modulation of GABA-ergic mechanisms rather than as a result of the removal of a social-contextual inhibition on pubertal timing. PMID:25462903

  14. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  15. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in advanced age].

    PubMed

    Haag, G

    1985-02-01

    The psychosocial rehabilitation of older persons is one of the main problems in health policy. About one quarter of the over 65-year-olds face psychic problems, without, to a large extent, receiving adequate treatment and rehabilitative care. Substantial deficits exist above all in the out-patient and non-residential service sectors. In in-patient care, existing methods for psychosocial intervention (such as psychoanalysis, behavioural, client-centered, family, Gestalt, milieu, or music and dance therapy, psychodrama, reality orientation training, or resensitization techniques) are hardly ever used. This absence of applied geronto-psychology is attributable to the shortcomings of available assessment methods, multiple methodical problems of intervention research, and--above all--to insufficient staff positions for psychosocial professions in the gerontological sector. Provision of further permanent posts for psychosocial workers; development of age-specific assessment methods; interdisciplinary and systematic interventional research; the development of ambulatory, community-based services as well as intensive support for existing self-help efforts are therefore called for. PMID:3983463

  16. AGING AND RESPONSES TO TOXINS IN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female reproductive functions improve after puberty to reach a maximum within the first quarter of the lifespan of most mammals. hereafter, there are progressive declines with age leading in most mammalian species to a loss of fertility by midlife. The changes are complex and the...

  17. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  18. The effects of female age on fecundity and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Nugent, D; Balen, A H

    2001-01-01

    In industrialized countries worldwide, women are delaying childbearing for a variety of reasons, including pursuit of career, greater financial independence, improved and more accessible contraception and longer life expectancy. In terms of fertility and maternity, those aged > or = 35 years are considered to be of advanced maternal age and there are usually marked reductions in both the fecundity rate for spontaneous conceptions and the success rates with assisted conception. These decreases are thought to be due mainly to oocyte ageing, and the established success of oocyte donation from younger individuals to older recipients supports this contention. For those who achieve a pregnancy at an advanced maternal age there is a greater likelihood of aneuploidy (assuming conception with the woman's own oocytes), hypertensive and other medical disorders, birth by Caesarean section and maternal mortality. However, most of the complications associated with advanced maternal age are caused by age-related confounding variables, and older premenopausal women in good health should not require special attention. The data on perinatal mortality rates are encouraging and in the absence of congenital abnormalities perinatal mortality is probably not much increased, if at all, in older mothers. Pregnancy is now possible for postmenopausal women with the application of oocyte donation, but these individuals have a significantly higher likelihood of cardiovascular ageing and should be considered at increased risk of vascular complications during pregnancy. PMID:11591256

  19. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. PMID:25934599

  20. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  1. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  2. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  3. Raloxifene prevents endothelial dysfunction in aging ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Ming; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Au, Chak Leung; Tsang, Suk Ying; Fung, Kwok Pui; Laher, Ismail; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Huang, Yu

    2006-05-01

    Lack of an appropriate animal model has delayed the better understanding of mechanisms related to higher cardiovascular risk in women after menopause. The aging female rat may share some menopausal changes observed in women. However, most studies have attempted to mimic menopause by ovariectomizing young (6-12 weeks old) animals without taking into accounts the influence of aging and of declining ovarian function. Therefore, the present study examined changes in vascular reactivity in the aging (15 months old) female rat after ovariectomy and the effects of chronic raloxifene therapy on vascular reactivity and eNOS protein expression. Aortic rings were prepared from the three experimental groups of rats: sham-operated control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized aging rats receiving daily oral administration of raloxifene for 3 months. Aortic rings were suspended in organ baths for the measurement of isometric tension. Rings with endothelium contracted significantly more to phenylephrine after inhibition of nitric oxide/cyclic GMP-signaling pathway by L-NAME or ODQ (as an index of basal nitric oxide release) in control and raloxifene-treated ovariectomized rats than in ovariectomized rats. This effect was abolished upon mechanical removal of the endothelium. Phenylephrine induced greater contractions only in rings with endothelium from ovariectomized rats as compared with control rats and raloxifene treatment normalized this response. In the presence of L-NAME or ODQ, phenylephrine-induced contraction was similar in rings from the three groups. Rings relaxed more to thapsigargin and acetylcholine in raloxifene-treated ovariectomized rats than in ovariectomized rats. There was no significant difference in aortic eNOS protein contents among the different groups. These results suggest that chronic oral administration of raloxifene to aging ovariectomized female rats augmented the bioavailability of endothelial nitric oxide in isolated aortic rings without altering e

  4. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  5. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  6. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  7. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  8. Phenomenal advanced age of pupping in a captive Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi).

    PubMed

    Temte, Jonathan L; Flynn, Erin

    2015-11-01

    To better define the life history in the captive environment, we describe the reproductive history and advanced age of pupping of a female Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) at the Henry Vilas Zoo (HVZ) in Madison, Wisconsin. This female gave birth to a viable pup on May 16, 2012, at the age of 42 years and is the oldest documented birth reported for this species. This female also demonstrated high temporal fidelity to her previously described birth timing. The pup's sire was also 42 years at the time of birth. Captive harbor seals can remain reproductively healthy into their 5th decade. PMID:26452165

  9. Recent advances in vertebrate aging research 2009.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Among the notable trends seen in this year's highlights in mammalian aging research is an awakening of interest in the assessment of age-related measures of mouse health in addition to the traditional focus on longevity. One finding of note is that overexpression of telomerase extended life and improved several indices of health in mice that had previously been genetically rendered cancer resistant. In another study, resveratrol supplementation led to amelioration of several degenerative conditions without affecting mouse lifespan. A primate dietary restriction (DR) study found that restriction led to major improvements in glucoregulatory status along with provocative but less striking effects on survival. Visceral fat removal in rats improved their survival, although not as dramatically as DR. An unexpected result showing the power of genetic background effects was that DR shortened the lifespan of long-lived mice bearing Prop1(df), whereas a previous report in a different background had found DR to extend the lifespan of Prop1(df) mice. Treatment with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, enhanced the survival of even elderly mice and improved their vaccine response. Genetic inhibition of a TOR target made female, but not male, mice live longer. This year saw the mTOR network firmly established as a major modulator of mammalian lifespan. PMID:20331443

  10. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  11. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  12. The Neuroendocrine physiology of female reproductive aging: an update

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Nejat, Edward; Dicken, Cary

    2010-01-01

    The transition into menopause is a complex process that affects fertility and increases the risk for a number of health problems in aging women that include, but are not limited to osteoporosis, heart disease, diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. Improved nutrition and enhanced access to medical care have increased the average lifespan for women in developed countries, and many will spend more than one third of their life in a post-menopausal state. Epidemiological studies indicate that a delayed natural menopause confers longevity and decelerates the appearance of much age-related morbidity, suggesting that developing treatments to delay menopause would significantly improve quality of life for women. Although menopause is ultimately defined by ovarian follicular exhaustion, several lines of scientific evidence in humans and animals now suggest that dysregulation of estradiol feedback mechanisms and hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction contributes to the onset and progression of reproductive senescence, independent of ovarian failure. This article provides a brief update on our current understanding of the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the onset of and transition into female reproductive senescence. PMID:20570066

  13. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals. PMID:23940839

  14. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples’ fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  15. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility.

  16. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    PubMed Central

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  17. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  18. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female.

    PubMed

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E; Wilson, Andrew S; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Nosch, Marie Louise; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  19. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised. PMID:21599775

  20. Meta-analysis of Paternal Age and Schizophrenia Risk in Male Versus Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaräisänen, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. Methods: We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. Results: There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case–control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (≥30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25–29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (≥50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46–1.89, P < 0.01]. A significant increase in risk was also found for younger fathers (<25) in males (RR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02–1.14, P = 0.01) but not females (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.97–1.14, P = 0.28). The population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) was 10% for paternal age ≥30 and 5% for paternal age <25. Discussion: Both APA (≥30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers. PMID:20185538

  1. Stereotype Threat? Male and Female Students in Advanced High School Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corra, Mamadi

    Propositions of stereotype threat theory imply that the social consequences of academic distinction in advanced quantitative areas (such as math and the physical sciences) for women may promote the under representation of female students in advanced quantitative academic courses. The hypothesis that female students will be underrepresented in advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses is tested using academic performance and enrollment data for high school students in a "Student/Parent Informed Choice" (open registration) school district in North Carolina. Results show female students to be overrepresented in both advanced verbal/writing intensive (honors and advanced placement English, foreign language, and social science) and advanced quantitative (honors and advanced placement math and physical science) courses compared to their proportion of the student body. More surprisingly, results also indicate female students (compared to male students) to be overrepresented in advanced courses compared to their proportion of high-performing students. Furthermore, as with patterns observed at the district level, additional analysis of enrollment data for the entire state reveals similar results. Taken together, the findings call into question the prevailing presumption that female students continue to be underrepresented in math and physical science courses. Instead, the changing social context within which females and males experience schooling may provide an explanation for the findings.

  2. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  3. Changes in Age-Related Reproductive Tactics in the Female of the Butterfly, Eurema hecabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Masato; Obara, Yoshiaki; Kato, Yoshiomi

    The occurrence of mate solicitation by virgin females was investigated in the butterfly Euremahecabe. Young (1-day-old) virgin females rarely showed mate solicitation to male model, however, old (at least 6-day-old) virgin females frequently showed such flight. The duration of solicitation was significantly longer in older females than in younger ones. The age-related behavioral change occurs with female oogenesis (Hiroki and Kato 1996), and such behavior may thus be a result of female adaptation to maximize their fecundity.

  4. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  5. Advanced Paternal Age at Birth: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Eating Pathology in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced paternal age at birth has been linked to several psychiatric disorders in offspring (e.g., schizophrenia), and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie these associations. This study is the first to investigate whether advanced paternal age at birth is associated with eating disorder risk using a twin study design capable of examining both phenotypic and genetic associations. Methods In a large, population-based sample of female twins ages 8–17 years in mid-puberty or beyond (N = 1,722), we investigated whether advanced paternal age was positively associated with disordered eating symptoms and an eating disorder history (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder) in offspring. Biometric twin models examined whether genetic and/or environmental factors underlie paternal age effects for disordered eating symptoms. Results Advanced paternal age was positively associated with disordered eating symptoms and an eating disorder history, where the highest level of pathology was observed in offspring born to fathers ≥ 40 years old. Results were not accounted for by maternal age at birth, body mass index, socioeconomic status, fertility treatment, or parental psychiatric history. Twin models indicated decreased genetic, and increased environmental, effects on disordered eating with advanced paternal age. Conclusions Advanced paternal age increased risk for the full spectrum of eating pathology, independent of several important covariates. However, contrary to leading hypotheses, environmental rather than genetic factors accounted for paternal age-disordered eating associations. These data highlight the need to explore novel (potentially environmental) mechanisms underlying the effects of advanced paternal age on offspring eating disorder risk. PMID:23795717

  6. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  7. Increased Adipocyte Area in Injured Muscle With Aging and Impaired Remodeling in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Fearing, Caitlin M; Melton, David W; Lei, Xiufen; Hancock, Heather; Wang, Hanzhou; Sarwar, Zaheer U; Porter, Laurel; McHale, Matthew; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrated that young male and female mice similarly regenerated injured skeletal muscle; however, female mice transiently increased adipocyte area within regenerated muscle in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We extended these observations to investigate the effect of aging and sex on sarcopenia and muscle regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury to the tibialis anterior muscle of young, middle, and old-aged C57Bl/6J male and female mice was used to measure regenerated myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), adipocyte area, residual necrosis, and inflammatory cell recruitment. Baseline (uninjured) myofiber CSA was decreased in old mice of both sexes compared to young and middle-aged mice. Regenerated CSA was similar in male mice in all age groups until baseline CSA was attained but decreased in middle and old age female mice compared to young females. Furthermore, adipocyte area within regenerated muscle was transiently increased in young females compared to young males and these sex-dependent increases persisted in middle and old age female mice and were associated with increased Pparg Young female mice had more pro-inflammatory monocytes/macrophages in regenerating muscle than young male mice and increased Sca-1(+)CD45(-)cells. In conclusion, sex and age influence pro-inflammatory cell recruitment, muscle regeneration, and adipocyte area following skeletal muscle injury. PMID:26273023

  8. Age-dependent female responses to a male ejaculate signal alter demographic opportunities for selection

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Claudia; Green, Darrell; Mills, Walter E.; Chapman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    A central tenet of evolutionary explanations for ageing is that the strength of selection wanes with age. However, data on age-specific expression and benefits of sexually selected traits are lacking—particularly for traits subject to sexual conflict. We addressed this by using as a model the responses of Drosophila melanogaster females of different ages to receipt of sex peptide (SP), a seminal fluid protein transferred with sperm during mating. SP can mediate sexual conflict, benefitting males while causing fitness costs in females. Virgin and mated females of all ages showed significantly reduced receptivity in response to SP. However, only young virgin females also showed increased egg laying; hence, there was a narrow demographic window of maximal responses to SP. Males gained significant ‘per mating’ fitness benefits only when mating with young females. The pattern completely reversed in matings with older females, where SP transfer was costly. The overall benefits of SP transfer (hence opportunity for selection) therefore reversed with female age. The data reveal a new example of demographic variation in the strength of selection, with convergence and conflicts of interest between males and ageing females occurring over different facets of responses to a sexually antagonistic trait. PMID:23843383

  9. Research Advances in Aging 1984-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has, for the past several years, focused attention on a wide range of clinical problems associated with aging, including falls and gait disorders, bone fractures, urinary incontinence, and hypertension. Understanding the causes of and exploring possible treatments for Alzheimer's disease has been another of…

  10. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  11. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.

    PubMed

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  12. Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

  13. Graded response to short photoperiod during development and early adulthood in Siberian hamsters and the effects on reproduction as females age

    PubMed Central

    Place, Ned J.; Cruickshank, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Short day (SD) lengths delay puberty, suppress ovulation, inhibit sexual behavior, and decelerate reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). To date, the modulation of the age-associated decline in reproductive outcomes has only been demonstrated in female hamsters experiencing different day lengths during development. To determine if developmental delay is necessary for photo-inhibition to decelerate reproductive aging, hamsters raised in LD were transferred to SD as young adults and remained there for 6 months. Females that demonstrated the most immediate and sustained photo-inhibition were found to have greater numbers of ovarian primordial follicles at advanced ages (9 and 12 months) than did females held in LD, nonresponders to SD, and females with a marginal SD-response. Similarly, for females raised in SD from conception to 6 months of age, prolonged developmental delay was associated with greater numbers of primordial follicles at later ages as compared to hamsters that became refractory to SD. A robust response to SD in juvenile and adult hamsters is associated with decelerated reproductive aging, which may result in greater reproductive success in older females as compared to age-matched individuals demonstrating a more modest response to SD. PMID:19470367

  14. Age classification using facial feature extraction on female and male images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Toygar, Önsen

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents age classification on facial images using subpattern-based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) method. Classification of age intervals are conducted separately on female and male facial images since the aging process for female and male is different for human beings in real life. The age classification performance of the holistic approaches is compared with the performance of subpattern-based LBP approach in order to demonstrate the performance differences between these two types of approaches. To be consistent with the research of others, our work has been tested on two publicly available databases namely FGNET and MORPH. The experiments are performed on these aging databases to demonstrate the age classification performance on female and male facial images of human beings using subpatternbased LBP method with several parameter settings. The results are then compared with the results of age classification of the holistic PCA and holistic subspace LDA methods.

  15. [Drivers of advanced age in traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Bilban, Marjan

    2002-12-01

    The elderly are vulnerable and potentially unpredictable active participants in traffic who deserve special attention. Longer life expectancy entails a greater number of senior drivers, that is, persons with various health problems and difficulties accompanying old age. At the turn of the millennium, the share of population aged 65 or more in Slovenia was around 13%, and in 25 years it will be near as much as 19%. The share of drivers from this age group was 28% a year ago, and it is expected to reach about 54%. Numerous studies have shown that there are many differences in driving attitude between the young and the elderly. The young are by large active victims, and their main offense and cause of accident is speeding, while the elderly are more passive and their main offense is ignoring and enforcing the right of way. This paper focuses on the differences in the occurrence and type of injuries between the young and the elderly drivers, based on an analysis of all road accidents in Slovenia in the period between 1998-2000. Older people (over 65) caused only 4.7% of all road accidents (16.7% of all accidents involving pedestrians, 11.5% of all involving cyclists, 2.7% involving motorcyclists and 5% of all accidents involving car drivers). Of all accidents, 89.3% were without injuries, and the fatal outcome was registered in 0.4% accidents. Among the elderly (65-74 years of age), however, this share was 1%, and rising to 2.7% with the age 75 and above. By calculating the weight index, which discriminates between minor and severe injuries, and the fatal outcome, it was established that age groups 65-74 and > or = 75 cause three and five times greater damage, respectively than age groups from 18 to 54 years. With years, psychophysical changes lead to a drop in driving ability, which in turn increases the risk of road accidents. It is true that elderly people cause less traffic accidents (and also drive less) than the young, but when they are involved in an accident

  16. Age-Related Differences in Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance among Female Masters Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Gail M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in muscular strength and muscular endurance among 73 female masters swimmers aged 24 to 71 years. While an age-related decline in muscular strength was apparent, the results failed to reveal a similar trend for endurance, suggesting that swimming influences endurance more than strength among women.…

  17. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  18. The effect of male and female age on Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) fecundity.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Patrick C; Bolyard, Joshua L; Onufrieva, Ksenia S; Hickman, Andrea D

    2014-06-01

    Insects that reproduce sexually must locate a suitable mate, and many species have evolved efficient communication mechanisms to find each other. The number of reproductively viable individuals in a population can be an important constraint in the growth of populations. One factor that can affect insect fecundity is the age of mating adults, as fecundity tends to decline with age. Field observations collected annually on Lymantria dispar (L.) from 2001 to 2007 and 2009 consistently revealed a small proportion of egg masses (generally < 10% in each year) in which > 0 but < 5% of eggs were fertilized in an egg mass consisting of approximately 200-500 eggs. In these studies, male age was unknown but female age was fixed at < 24 h, which, according to previous studies on the effect of female L. dispar age on reproductive success, should have been optimal for fertilization. In this article, we analyzed field data (2001-2007 and 2009) to explore patterns in the occurrence of low-fertilized egg masses. We supplemented these data with laboratory experiments that examined the interacting role of male and female age, and multiple male matings. We observed that increases in male and female age reduce the rate of fertilization, which is furthermore reduced, as males mate multiple times as they age. This article highlights the importance of both female and male age at the time of mating in an invading species, with ramifications to low-density populations in this and other sexually reproducing insect species. PMID:25026667

  19. The Swedish tant: a marker of female aging.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents and analyzes findings from interviews with women aged 45-65; popular magazines targeting women in this age category, and popular books and blogs on a Swedish age-sensitive concept, tant. The term can be used in many different senses, ranging from polite to derogatory, connoting "aunt," or "granny," but also "little old lady" and "biddy"; the term tantig translating to "frumpish." The article discusses different representations of tant, how she is used as a symbol of invisibility and no longer being seen as a sexual being, but outdated. The concept is used as a warning, indicating an unwanted way to grow old, when addressing middle-aged and older women. As of recently, tant has come to be celebrated by young women, praised for moral courage, for thrift and being represented as free from the male gaze, no longer aiming to please or fretting about appearances. The article sheds light on the different uses of the concept, where who is categorizing whom is of utmost importance. The tant is used as a symbol for doing age either by derogation or by celebration. PMID:23488648

  20. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  1. Predictors of Driving Outcomes in Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Jamie L.; Johnson, Amy M.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop predictive models for real-life driving outcomes in older drivers. Demographics, driving history, on-road driving errors, and performance on visual, motor, and neuropsychological test scores at baseline were assessed in 100 older drivers (ages 65–89 years [72.7]). These variables were used to predict time to driving cessation, first moving violation, or crash. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, significant individual predictors for driving cessation were greater age and poorer scores on Near Visual Acuity, Contrast Sensitivity, Useful Field of View, Judgment of Line Orientation, Trail Making Test-Part A, Benton Visual Retention Test, Grooved Pegboard, and a composite index of overall cognitive ability. Greater weekly mileage, higher education, and “serious” on-road errors predicted moving violations. Poorer scores from Trail Making Test-Part B or Trail Making Test (B-A) and serious on-road errors predicted crashes. Multivariate models using “off-road” predictors revealed (1) age and Contrast Sensitivity as best predictors for driving cessation; (2) education, weekly mileage, and Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall for moving violations; and (3) education, number of crashes over the past year, Auditory Verbal Learning Task-Recall, and Trail Making Test (B-A) for crashes. Diminished visual, motor, and cognitive abilities in older drivers can be easily and noninvasively monitored with standardized off-road tests, and performances on these measures predict involvement in motor vehicle crashes and driving cessation, even in the absence of a neurological disorder. PMID:22182364

  2. Impact of aging on heat shock protein expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, A M; Pulugulla, S H; Pant, D B; Posimo, J M; Crum, T S; Leak, R K

    2014-07-01

    Many heat shock proteins are chaperones that help refold or degrade misfolded proteins and battle apoptosis. Because of their capacity to protect against protein misfolding, they may help keep diseases of aging at bay. A few reports have examined heat shock proteins (eg. Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70, and heat shock cognate 70 or Hsc70) as a function of age in the striatum and nigra. In the present study, we examined the impact of aging on Hsp25, heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 or Hsp32), Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsc70, Hsc/Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), Hsp90, and ubiquitinated proteins in the nigra and striatum of the female rat by infrared immunoblotting. Female animals are not typically examined in aging studies, adding further to the novelty of our study. Striatal HO1 and Hsp40 were both higher in middle-aged females than in the oldest group. Hsp60 levels were also highest in middle age in the nigra, but were highest in the oldest animals in the striatum. Striatal levels of Hsc70 and the co-chaperone Hip were lower in the oldest group relative to the youngest animals. In contrast, Hsp25 rose with advancing age in both regions. Hsp25 was also colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase in nigral neurons. Ubiquitinated proteins exhibited a trend to rise in the oldest animals in both regions, and K48 linkage-specific ubiquitin rose significantly from 4-6 to 16-19 months in the striatum. Our study reveals a complex array of age-related changes in heat shock proteins. Furthermore, the age-related rises in some proteins, such as Hsp25, may reflect endogenous adaptations to cellular stress. PMID:24723229

  3. Interrelationship among Dental, Skeletal and Chronological Ages in Urban and Rural Female Children

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, A; Rehani, U

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This study was an attempt, to determine chronological age, dental age and skeletal age, and to establish interrelationship, amongst the dental, skeletal and chronological ages and their differences if any between rural and urban female children. The study included 80 girls aged 8 to 14 years from rural and urban areas. Material and methods: The subjects were divided into 4 Groups: Group I, II, III, and IV. Group I and II comprising of rural female subjects, wherein Group I comprised of 8 to 11 years and Group II comprised of 11 to 14 years old females. Group III and IV comprising of urban females wherein Group III included 8 to 11 years and Group IV comprised of 11 to 14 years old females. Orthopantomograms and hand and wrist radiographs were taken. The calcification status of permanent teeth was evaluated from orthopantomograms, and dental age was calculated according to Demirjian’s method. The stages of ossification of various carpal bones were evaluated from the hand-wrist radiograph using radiographic atlas of Greulich and Pyle and skeletal age was calculated. The chronological age was recorded from the actual date of birth. Results: Data collected was statistically analyzed. Conclusion: Highly significant correlation was observed between dental and skeletal age (r=0.752, p-value < 0.01) in total sample. Strong correlation of chronological age with dental and skeletal age was also observed (r=0.650, r = 0.620, respectively). Out of all three correlations, dental age and skeletal age had the maximum correlation in total sample. While comparing rural and urban sample as regard to ages or correlations no significant difference was found (p-value < 0.01).

  4. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  5. Age at diagnosis of female breast cancer in Oman: Issues and implications

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Itrat; Monem, Essam Abdul; Al Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar; Al Kharusi, Suad; Nada, Ayman Mohammad; Al Lawati, Jawad; Al Lawati, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed globally, about 23% of the diagnosed cancers. BC incidence varies geographically, highest in Western Europe and lowest in Africa. BC in females is strongly correlated to age, the highest incidence rate amongst older women reinforcing the importance of hormonal status. BC in young females has an aggressive phenotype. There is a shared observation amongst practicing oncologists that BC in Middle East and the developing world presents at an earlier age. Aim and Objective: The aims of this study are to evaluate the age at presentation of female BC in Oman, and to compare our data with international and regional published data. It discusses the impact of young age Breast Cancer. Materials and Methods: All diagnosed female BC cases registered from 1996-2010 all over the country, were retrieved from the National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health. BC cases were analyzed with respect to age at presentation. The data were compared with regional and international data. Results: A total of 14,109 cancer cases were recorded during the period of study. BC was the leading malignancy as 1,294 cases (9.1%). Female BC patients were 1,230; denoting 19.2% of all female cancers. 53.5% of female BC presented below 50 years of age. Male BC constituted 5% of total, with 67% of male BC occurring over 50 years of age. Compared with data from Oman, the highest rates in UK and other Western countries are above 50 years of age. These rates are four to 10 times higher than local in different age groups. Interestingly, these rates increase with increasing age in UK from 40-45 to up to 85+, keep on increasing and go up to four times higher with higher age. This phenomenon, of increasing incidence rates with age, is not observed in our local population. Discussion: BC is significantly correlated to age as reported from Western population. BC is reported at a younger age from developing and Arab World, which need to

  6. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  7. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Anna C.; Muroy, Sandra E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  8. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  9. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  10. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors. PMID:26842787

  11. Neuroendocrine modulation and repercussions of female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, Phyllis M; Smith, Matthew J; Dubal, Dena B; Wilson, Melinda E; Rau, Shane W; Cashion, Adrienne B; Böttner, Martina; Rosewell, Katherine L

    2002-01-01

    The menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life. During the postmenopausal period, plasma estrogen concentrations decrease dramatically and remain low for the rest of her life, unless she chooses to take hormone replacement therapy. During the past 20 years, we have learned that changes in the central nervous system are associated with and may influence the timing of the menopause in women. Recently, it has become clear that estrogens act on more than just the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, and other reproductive organs. In fact, they play roles in a wide variety of nonreproductive functions. With the increasing life span of humans from approximately 50 to 80 years and the relatively fixed age of the menopause, a larger number of women will spend over one third of their lives in the postmenopausal state. It is not surprising that interest has increased in factors that govern the timing of the menopause and the repercussions of the lack of estrogen on multiple aspects of women's health. We have used animal models to better understand the complex interactions between the ovary and the brain that lead to the menopause and the repercussions of the hypoestrogenic state. Our results show that when rats reach middle age, the patterns and synchrony of multiple neurochemical events that are critical to the preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) surge undergo subtle changes. The precision of rhythmic pattern of neurotransmitter dynamics depends on the presence of estradiol. Responsiveness to this hormone decreases in middle-aged rats. The lack of precision in the coordination in the output of neural signals leads to a delay and attenuation of the luteinizing hormone surge, which lead to irregular estrous cyclicity and, ultimately, to the cessation of reproductive cycles. We also have examined the impact of the lack of estrogen on the vulnerability of the brain to injury. Our work establishes that the absence of estradiol increases the extent of cell

  12. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  13. Experienced Control in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Age Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Phyllis G.

    Adolescent determination of behavior can be viewed as the result of perceived locus of control. To investigate adolescent perceptions of control in terms of age, loci of control (internal or external), situations (community and home), and direction of control (from or over the environment), 909 adolescents (345 males, 564 females), aged 11-19,…

  14. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  15. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  16. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  17. Advance directives as an instrument in an ageing Europe.

    PubMed

    Goffin, Tom

    2012-04-01

    Advance directives are written or oral statements that are intended to govern healthcare decision-making for their authors, for both positive and negative decisions, should they lose decisional capacity in the future. In a Europe which is facing an ageing population, advance directives play an increasing role to (help) formulate the wishes from elderly patient once they start losing the capacity to decide independently. Advance directives should not only be used as a formulation of the patients' previously made decision, but can also be used as guidelines to better understand the previous expressed wishes of the patient. If the advance directive is formulated in too vague form, the healthcare proxy and/or the healthcare trustee can help the physician interpret the directive. This broader approach towards advance directives is reflected in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as on the European legislative level. PMID:22558655

  18. The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-01-01

    Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

  19. The Relationship between Teaching Styles and Autonomy among Iranian Female EFL Teachers, Teaching at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baradaran, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at inspecting the existence of a significant relationship between teachers' teaching styles and their Autonomy. For this reason, two questionnaires with regard to the main variables were given to 175 female English language teachers, teaching at advanced levels. Moreover, non-parametric Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis…

  20. Does Cancer Reduce Labor Market Entry? Evidence for Prime-Age Females

    PubMed Central

    Moran, John R.; Short, Pamela Farley

    2014-01-01

    Existing studies of the labor market status of cancer survivors have focused on the extent to which cancer disrupts the employment of individuals who were working when diagnosed with cancer. We examine how surviving cancer affects labor market entry and usual hours of work among females age 28-54 who were not working when first diagnosed. We find that prime-age females have employment rates two to six years after diagnosis that are 12 percentage points lower than otherwise similar women who were initially out of the labor force, full-time employment rates that are 10 percentage points lower, and usual hours of work that are 5 hours per week lower. These estimates are somewhat larger than estimates for prime-age women employed at the time of diagnosis and highlight the importance of considering non-working females when assessing the economic and psychosocial burden of cancer. PMID:24243912

  1. Older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038

  2. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  3. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  4. Infection susceptibility and immune senescence with advancing age replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lijun; Jiang, Tony T; Kinder, Jeremy M; Ertelt, James M; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-12-01

    Aging confers increased susceptibility to common pathogens including influenza A virus. Despite shared vulnerability to infection with advancing age in humans and rodents, the relatively long time required for immune senescence to take hold practically restricts the use of naturally aged mice to investigate aging-induced immunological shifts. Here, we show accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice with spontaneous mutation in the nuclear scaffolding protein, lamin A, replicate infection susceptibility, and substantial immune cell shifts that occur with advancing age. Naturally aged (≥ 20 month) and 2- to 3-month-old Lmna(Dhe) mice share near identically increased influenza A susceptibility compared with age-matched Lmna(WT) control mice. Increased mortality and higher viral burden after influenza infection in Lmna(Dhe) mice parallel reduced accumulation of lung alveolar macrophage cells, systemic expansion of immune suppressive Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells, and skewed immune dominance among viral-specific CD8⁺T cells similar to the immunological phenotype of naturally aged mice. Thus, aging-induced infection susceptibility and immune senescence are replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice. PMID:26248606

  5. Barriers to and Facilitators of Female Deans' Career Advancement in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    Although the slow progress of female academics compared to their male colleagues and the challenges that female academic leaders have to face in taking leadership roles have been well-documented, very little is known about female academic leaders and managers' career advancement in developing countries like Vietnam. This paper reports on an…

  6. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  7. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  8. Revisiting Data Related to the Age of Onset and Developmental Course of Female Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Children who exhibit persistently elevated levels of conduct problems (CP) from early childhood, so called “early-starters,” are known to be at increased risk for continued CP throughout middle childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Theoretical and empirical work has focused on this subgroup of children characterized by similar risk factors, an early age of onset, and a persistent developmental course of CP. However, females were historically neglected from this literature. Although research on female CP has increased, conclusions drawn from limited prior work continue to predominate. The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the updated literature to determine the percentage of females who show the early-starter CP pattern relative to two other trajectories often theorized to be more characteristic of females: early-starting desisting and adolescent onset CP. The findings suggest that a subgroup of females exhibits an early-starting and persistent CP pattern, while a separate group of females demonstrates an onset of CP in adolescence. In addition, although it has been argued that females with childhood CP are not likely to show CP into adolescence and adulthood, evidence for early-starting desisting CP was inconsistent. The results are discussed with respect to implications for developmental taxonomy theory and future basic research in the area of CP development, as well as intervention efforts. PMID:23076722

  9. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  10. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  11. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  12. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  13. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  14. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  15. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  16. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote melanogenesis through receptor for AGEs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is linked with development or aggravation of many degenerative processes or disorders, including aging and atherosclerosis. AGEs production in skin cells is known to promote stiffness and loss of elasticity through their buildup in connective tissue. However, the impact of AGEs has yet to be fully explored in melanocytes. In this study, we confirmed the existence of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in melanocytes in western blot and immunofluorescence along with increased melanin production in ex vivo skin organ culture and in vitro melanocyte culture following AGEs treatment. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 are considered as key regulatory proteins in AGEs-induced melanogenesis. In addition, blockage experiment using anti-RAGE blocking antibody has indicated that RAGE plays a pivotal role in AGE-mediated melanogenesis. Therefore, it is apparent that AGEs, known markers of aging, promote melanogenesis via RAGE. In addition, AGEs could be implicated in pigmentation associated with photoaging according to the results of increased secretion of AGEs from keratinocytes following UV irradiation. AGE-mediated melanogenesis may thus hold promise as a novel mean of altering skin pigmentation. PMID:27293210

  18. [Role of age in +Gz and +Gx tolerance by female candidates to astronauts].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianiuk, V Iu; Kotovskaia, A R; Vil'-Vil'iams, I F; Filatova, L M; Koloteva, M I

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed was the role of age in the tolerance of +Gz (up to 5 units) and +Gx (up to 8 units) by female candidates to cosmonauts on the stage of initial centrifuge selection in the years of 1979 through to 1993. Selection was made of 26 healthy non-flying women aged 23 to 39 who were divided into 4 groups with 5-year intervals. Female tolerance of g-loads and shifts in a number of physiological parameters during centrifugation were discovered to be age-dependent. The poorest tolerance of +Gz and +Gx loads was typical of women below 25 years, the best, at the age of 31 to 40 years. It was stated that tolerance of these demanding g-loads by women, especially below 30, was generally worse compared with men. There were also some distinctions in the cardiovascular response in women and men. These results point to the significance of centrifugation in selection female candidates to cosmonauts irrespective of their age. PMID:9661770

  19. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime. PMID:23723359

  20. Suicide ideation and acceptability among females aged 15 to 34 years in rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long

    2014-02-01

    The suicide rate of females is very close to that of males in China, in contrast to Western societies, in which the rates of male suicide outnumber those of females by three to four times. This study investigated the prevalence of suicidal ideation and prosuicide attitude (acceptability) among females of childbearing age. With the Chinese version of the Scale for Suicide Ideation and the General Social Survey questionnaire, we examined the demographic and psychological risk factors of suicide among Chinese rural young females aged 15 to 34 years. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the factors related to suicidal ideation and suicide acceptability. The prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and suicide acceptability among the sampled females are 22.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Education, depression, social support, hopelessness, and negative life events were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Ethnicity, education, abortion, and depression were significantly associated with suicide acceptability. There is statistical difference between suicide ideation and acceptability. The results indicate that mental disorder remains a major risk factor of suicidal ideation. Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics are associated with suicide acceptability. PMID:24469529

  1. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. PMID:26878754

  2. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  3. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  4. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  5. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  6. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and diabetic vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Diabetic vascular complication is a leading cause of acquired blindness, end-stage renal failure, a variety of neuropathies and accelerated atherosclerosis, which could account for disabilities and high mortality rates in patients with diabetes. Chronic hyperglycemia is essentially involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Among various metabolic derangements implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complication, advanced glycation end product (AGE) hypothesis is most compatible with the theory of 'hyperglycemic memory'. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of diabetic vascular complication, specially focusing on AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) system. Several types of AGE inhibitors and their therapeutic implications in this devastating disorder are also discussed here. PMID:18220586

  7. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  8. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  9. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  10. Growth and development of female dancers aged 8-16 years.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2008-01-01

    Little data are available on the growth and development of young female dancers. The objective of this study was to determine whether the body structure and adipose tissue distribution of dancers aged 8-16 years differ from that of non-dancer girls. Our cross-sectional study included a group of 1,482 female dancers, aged 8-16 years, and a control group of 226 female non-dancers of similar age cohorts. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were recorded and 15 indices calculated. In none of the linear anthropometric measures, were significant differences found between the two groups. The only significant difference relates to the extent and distribution of adipose tissue: At age 8, both groups show similar weight while at age 13 non-dancers are significantly heavier than dancers (48.4 +/- 9.8 kg for non-dancers and 40.6 +/- 8.7 kg for dancers). At age 15, weight differences between the two groups decrease to only 2 kg. The differences in weight are also expressed in skinfold thickness and chest circumference. Patterns of adipose tissue distribution differ between the two groups. Mean age at menarche was 13.1 years among dancers and 12.3 years in non-dancers. In conclusion, musculoskeletal development was found to be very similar in dancers and non-dancers. The specific body type reported for professional dancers is more likely acquired via "teacher's selection" and not training programs. Parents should not dread the possibility that dance training will delay the growth or reduce the height of their daughters. PMID:18203124

  11. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  12. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  13. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  14. Sirtuin Functions in Female Fertility: Possible Role in Oxidative Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Vitti, Maurizio; Santini, Silvano; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    In search for strategies aimed at preventing oxidative threat to female fertility, a possible role of sirtuins has emerged. Sirtuins (silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins), NAD+ dependent enzymes with deacetylase and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, are emerging as key antiaging molecules and regulators in many diseases. Recently, a crucial role for SIRT1 and SIRT3, the main components of sirtuin family, as sensors and guardians of the redox state in oocytes, granulosa cells, and early embryos has emerged. In this context, the aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge from research papers on the role of sirtuins in female fertility with particular emphasis on the impairment of SIRT1 signalling with oocyte aging. On this basis, the authors wish to build up a framework to promote research on the possible role of sirtuins as targets for future strategies for female fertility preservation. PMID:26075037

  15. Reproductive senescence, fertility and reproductive tumour profile in ageing female Han Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchard, Terri L; Klein, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A study using vehicle administration in 104 female rats investigated reproductive aging in Han Wistar rats as a useful tool to interprete carcinogenicity studies where hormonal patterns are perturbated. From 16 weeks of age oestrous cycles were monitored every 6 weeks to investigate reproductive ageing. A subset of 20 females was used to assess fertility at 21 months of age. The animals were necropsied after 106-107 weeks on study and female reproductive organs, mammary glands and pituitary glands were examined for hyperplasias and/or tumours. The majority of rats had regular oestrous cycles up to 6 months of age. After this age, there was a rapid decline in the number of rats with regular oestrous cycles and an increase in irregular cycles and cycles in persistent di-oestrus with an occasional pro-oestrus. By the end of the study, the majority of animals were acyclic and the few remaining cyclic animals had irregular cycles. In the fertility assessment, 19/20 animals mated but only four animals became pregnant. These pregnant animals had normal numbers of corpora lutea of pregnancy but had high pre-implantation losses and could not sustain a viable pregnancy. 65 animals (62.5%) showed adenomas and/or pituitary hyperplasia in the pituitary gland at necropsy. The pituitary tumours were likely to be prolactin secreting that give rise to pseudopregnancy and mammary tumours, demonstrated by the fact that 43/65 (66%) of the affected animals had histopathological signs of these conditions. Multiple corpora lutea were found in 61% of all animals at time of termination. Only one uterine tumour was seen in this study probably due to lack of persistent oestrus seen in these animals. PMID:26655996

  16. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  17. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  18. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  19. [Neutrophilic dermatosis in ulcerative colitis occurring in advanced age].

    PubMed

    López Maldonado, M D; Calvo Catalá, J; Ronda Gasulla, A; Hortelano Martínez, E; Herrera Ballester, A; Febrer Bosch, I

    1994-08-01

    The Neutrophilic dermatosis (ND) is considered as an independent entity with diverse clinical manifestations among which there are: gangrenous pyoderma, nodous erythema, Sweets Syndrome, vesiculopustula eruptions associated to ulcerous colitis and intestinal short circuit syndrome with or without short circuit. Histologically, they are characterized by infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, generally at the dermic level, but also at the epidermic. They are usually associated to systemic diseases, especially to chronic intestinal inflammatory disease. Our aim was to describe two forms of clinical presentation of neutrophilic dermatosis: gangrenous pyoderma and vesiculopustula eruption, associated to ulcerous colitis starting at advances ages. PMID:7772690

  20. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    PubMed

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties. PMID:24313599

  1. Microarray and proteomic analysis of the cardioprotective effects of cold blood cardioplegia in the mature and aged male and female

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kendra M.; Barnett, Reanne J.; Bhasin, Monoj K.; Daly, Christian; Dillon, Simon T.; Libermann, Towia A.; Levitsky, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have shown that the cardioprotection afforded by cardioplegia is modulated by age and gender and is significantly decreased in the aged female. In this report we use microarray and proteomic analyses to identify transcriptomic and proteomic alterations affecting cardioprotection using cold blood cardioplegia in the mature and aged male and female heart. Mature and aged male and female New Zealand White rabbits were used for in situ blood perfused cardiopulmonary bypass. Control hearts received 30 min sham ischemia and 120 min sham reperfusion. Global ischemia (GI) hearts received 30 min of GI achieved by cross-clamping of the aorta. Cardioplegia (CP) hearts received cold blood cardioplegia prior to GI. Following 30 min of GI the hearts were reperfused for 120 min and then used for RNA and protein isolation. Microarray and proteomic analyses were performed. Functional enrichment analysis showed that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation and calcium signaling pathways were significantly enriched in all experimental groups. Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway were significantly changed in the aged male only (P < 0.05), while glyoxylate/dicarboxylate metabolism was significant in the aged female only (P < 0.05). Our data show that specific pathways associated with the mitochondrion modulate cardioprotection with CP in the aged and specifically in the aged female. The alteration of these pathways significantly contributes to decreased myocardial functional recovery and myonecrosis following ischemia and may be modulated to allow for enhanced cardioprotection in the aged and specifically in the aged female. PMID:22968637

  2. Definition of advanced age in HIV infection: looking for an age cut-off.

    PubMed

    Blanco, José R; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-09-01

    The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50-59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07-11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people. PMID:22607516

  3. Definition of Advanced Age in HIV Infection: Looking for an Age Cut-Off

    PubMed Central

    Jarrín, Inmaculada; Vallejo, Manuel; Berenguer, Juan; Solera, Carmen; Rubio, Rafael; Pulido, Federico; Asensi, Victor; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52–0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46–0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37–1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31–1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50–59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07–11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people. PMID:22607516

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 110 - Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Female Members) (Sample) D Appendix D to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. D Appendix D to Part 110—Application of Advanced Course Formula (Male and Female Members) (Sample) Zone...

  8. Adverse effects of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2-subunit deletion and high-fat diet on heart function and ischemic tolerance in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Slámová, K; Papoušek, F; Janovská, P; Kopecký, J; Kolář, F

    2016-03-14

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a role in metabolic regulation under stress conditions, and inadequate AMPK signaling may be also involved in aging process. The aim was to find out whether AMPK alpha2-subunit deletion affects heart function and ischemic tolerance of adult and aged mice. AMPK alpha2(-/-) (KO) and wild type (WT) female mice were compared at the age of 6 and 18 months. KO mice exhibited subtle myocardial AMPK alpha2-subunit protein level, but no difference in AMPK alpha1-subunit was detected between the strains. Both alpha1- and alpha2-subunits of AMPK and their phosphorylation decreased with advanced age. Left ventricular fractional shortening was lower in KO than in WT mice of both age groups and this difference was maintained after high-fat feeding. Infarct size induced by global ischemia/reperfusion of isolated hearts was similar in both strains at 6 months of age. Aged WT but not KO mice exhibited improved ischemic tolerance compared with the younger group. High-fat feeding for 6 months during aging abolished the infarct size-reduction in WT without affecting KO animals; nevertheless, the extent of injury remained larger in KO mice. The results demonstrate that adverse effects of AMPK alpha2-subunit deletion and high-fat feeding on heart function and myocardial ischemic tolerance in aged female mice are not additive. PMID:26596312

  9. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women. PMID:27318135

  10. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  11. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  12. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  13. Improvements in IVF in women of advanced age.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-07-01

    Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes. Physician contribution to this decision should in our opinion be restricted to accurate outcome information for both options. Achievable pregnancy and live birth rates in older women are, however, frequently underestimated, thereby mistakenly biasing fertility providers, private insurance companies and even regulatory government agencies. Restriction on access to IVF for older women is then often the consequence. In this review, we summarize the limited published data on best treatments of 'older' ovaries, while also addressing treatment approaches that should be avoided in older women. This focused review, therefore, to a degree is subjective. Research addressing aging ovaries in IVF has been disappointingly sparse, and has in our opinion too heavily concentrated on methods of embryo selection (ES), which, especially in older women, not only fail to improve IVF outcomes, but actually, negatively affect live birth chances. We conclude that, aside from breakthroughs in gamete creation, only pharmacological interventions into early (small growing follicle stages) follicle maturation will offer new potential to positively impact oocyte and embryo quality and, therefore, IVF outcomes. Research, therefore, should be accordingly redirected. PMID:27154334

  14. Age at first intercourse is inversely related to female cortisol stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2002-11-01

    The relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and salivary cortisol stress reactivity (to the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST; consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetic) was examined in healthy subjects (43 females and 36 males; ages 19-38). Women reporting earlier first intercourse had less intense cortisol increases in response to the stressor (a non-significant trend was observed for males), and faster recovery from the stressor. Results were not confounded by age, oral contraceptive use, depression scores, smoking status, or body mass index. It is concluded that earlier first intercourse is associated with less reactivity to and faster recovery from stress as indexed by this endocrine measure. Results are discussed in terms of genetic and psychological influences on first intercourse and implications for coping with interpersonal stress. PMID:12383454

  15. Reference Values of Impulse Oscillometric Lung Function Indices in Adults of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Holger; Flexeder, Claudia; Behr, Jürgen; Heier, Margit; Holle, Rolf; Huber, Rudolf M.; Jörres, Rudolf A.; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim; Karrasch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a non-demanding lung function test. Its diagnostic use may be particularly useful in patients of advanced age with physical or mental limitations unable to perform spirometry. Only few reference equations are available for Caucasians, none of them covering the old age. Here, we provide reference equations up to advanced age and compare them with currently available equations. Methods IOS was performed in a population-based sample of 1990 subjects, aged 45–91 years, from KORA cohorts (Augsburg, Germany). From those, 397 never-smoking, lung healthy subjects with normal spirometry were identified and sex-specific quantile regression models with age, height and body weight as predictors for respiratory system impedance, resistance, reactance, and other parameters of IOS applied. Results Women (n = 243) showed higher resistance values than men (n = 154), while reactance at low frequencies (up to 20 Hz) was lower (p<0.05). A significant age dependency was observed for the difference between resistance values at 5 Hz and 20 Hz (R5–R20), the integrated area of low-frequency reactance (AX), and resonant frequency (Fres) in both sexes whereas reactance at 5 Hz (X5) was age dependent only in females. In the healthy subjects (n = 397), mean differences between observed values and predictions for resistance (5 Hz and 20 Hz) and reactance (5 Hz) ranged between −1% and 5% when using the present model. In contrast, differences based on the currently applied equations (Vogel & Smidt 1994) ranged between −34% and 76%. Regarding our equations the indices were beyond the limits of normal in 8.1% to 18.6% of the entire KORA cohort (n = 1990), and in 0.7% to 9.4% with the currently applied equations. Conclusions Our study provides up-to-date reference equations for IOS in Caucasians aged 45 to 85 years. We suggest the use of the present equations particularly in advanced age in order to detect airway dysfunction. PMID

  16. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  17. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  18. Brief Communication: Adrenal Androgens and Aging: Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Compared With Women

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, James K.; Coxworth, James E.; Herndon, James G.; Hawkes, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cycling continues to similar ages in women and chimpanzees yet our nearest living cousins become decrepit during their fertile years and rarely outlive them. Given the importance of estrogen in maintaining physiological systems aside from fertility, similar ovarian aging in humans and chimpanzees combined with somatic aging differences indicates an important role for nonovarian estrogen. Consistent with this framework, researchers have nominated the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS), which can be peripherally converted to estrogen, as a biomarker of aging in humans and other primates. Faster decline in production of this steroid with age in chimpanzees could help explain somatic aging differences. Here, we report circulating levels of DHEAS in captive female chimpanzees and compare them with published levels in women. Instead of faster, the decline is slower in chimpanzees, but from a much lower peak. Levels reported for other great apes are lower still. These results point away from slowed decline but toward increased DHEAS production as one of the mechanisms underlying the evolution of human longevity. PMID:23818143

  19. Whole Genome Sequences of a Male and Female Supercentenarian, Ages Greater than 114 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sebastiani, Paola; Riva, Alberto; Montano, Monty; Pham, Phillip; Torkamani, Ali; Scherba, Eugene; Benson, Gary; Milton, Jacqueline N.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Andersen, Stacy; Schork, Nicholas J.; Steinberg, Martin H.; Perls, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    Supercentenarians (age 110+ years old) generally delay or escape age-related diseases and disability well beyond the age of 100 and this exceptional survival is likely to be influenced by a genetic predisposition that includes both common and rare genetic variants. In this report, we describe the complete genomic sequences of male and female supercentenarians, both age >114 years old. We show that: (1) the sequence variant spectrum of these two individuals’ DNA sequences is largely comparable to existing non-supercentenarian genomes; (2) the two individuals do not appear to carry most of the well-established human longevity enabling variants already reported in the literature; (3) they have a comparable number of known disease-associated variants relative to most human genomes sequenced to-date; (4) approximately 1% of the variants these individuals possess are novel and may point to new genes involved in exceptional longevity; and (5) both individuals are enriched for coding variants near longevity-associated variants that we discovered through a large genome-wide association study. These analyses suggest that there are both common and rare longevity-associated variants that may counter the effects of disease-predisposing variants and extend lifespan. The continued analysis of the genomes of these and other rare individuals who have survived to extremely old ages should provide insight into the processes that contribute to the maintenance of health during extreme aging. PMID:22303384

  20. Neuropathologic basis of white matter hyperintensity accumulation with advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Woltjer, Randall; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Green, Sarah; Tran, Huong; Howieson, Diane B.; Wild, Katherine; Silbert, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine which vascular pathology measure most strongly correlates with white matter hyperintensity (WMH) accumulation over time, and whether Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology correlates with WMH accumulation. Methods: Sixty-six older persons longitudinally followed as part of an aging study were included for having an autopsy and >1 MRI scan, with last MRI scan within 36 months of death. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the associations between longitudinal WMH accumulation and the following neuropathologic measures: myelin pallor, arteriolosclerosis, microvascular disease, microinfarcts, lacunar infarcts, large-vessel infarcts, atherosclerosis, neurofibrillary tangle rating, and neuritic plaque score. Each measure was included one at a time in the model, adjusted for duration of follow-up and age at death. A final model included measures showing an association with p < 0.1. Results: Mean age at death was 94.5 years (5.5 SD). In the final mixed-effects models, arteriolosclerosis, myelin pallor, and Braak score remained significantly associated with increased WMH accumulation over time. In post hoc analysis, we found that those with Braak score 5 or 6 were more likely to also have high atherosclerosis present compared with those with Braak score 1 or 2 (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Accumulating white matter changes in advanced age are likely driven by small-vessel ischemic disease. Additionally, these results suggest a link between AD pathology and white matter integrity disruption. This may be due to wallerian degeneration secondary to neurodegenerative changes. Alternatively, a shared mechanism, for example ischemia, may lead to both vascular brain injury and neurodegenerative changes of AD. The observed correlation between atherosclerosis and AD pathology supports the latter. PMID:23935177

  1. Association between hair mineral and age, BMI and nutrient intakes among Korean female adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Se Ra; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Na Ri; Chung, Hwan Wook

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the association between hair mineral levels and nutrient intakes, age, and BMI in female adults who visited a woman's clinic located in Seoul. Dietary intakes were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and mineral levels were measured in collected hairs, and the relationship between these was examined. The average daily nutrient intakes of subjects were compared to those of the KDRIs, and the energy intake status was fair. The average intake of calcium in women of 50 years and over was 91.35% of KDRIs and the potassium intake was greatly below the recommended levels in all age groups. In the average hair mineral contents in subjects, calcium and copper exceeded far more than the reference range while selenium was very low with 85.19% of subjects being lower than the reference value. In addition, the concentrations of sodium, potassium, iron, and manganese in the hair were below the reference ranges in over 15% of subjects. The concentrations of sodium, chromium, sulfur, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with age, but the hair zinc level showed a negative correlation (P < 0.05) with age. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chromium, and cadmium in the hair showed positive correlations (P < 0.05) with BMI. Some mineral levels in subjects of this study showed significant correlations with nutrient intakes, but it seems that the hair mineral content is not directly influenced by each mineral intake. As described above, some hair mineral levels in female adults deviated from the normal range, and it is considered that nutritional intervention to control the imbalance of mineral nutrition is required. Also, as some correlations were shown between hair mineral levels and age, BMI, and nutrient intakes, the possibility of utilizing hair mineral analysis for specific purposes in the future is suggested. PMID:20090887

  2. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  3. When Granny Is the Wolf: Understanding and Approaching College-aged Female Victims of Acquaintance Rape.

    PubMed

    Lam, Charlene; Roman, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    College is generally felt to be an exciting time in the lives of young people; however, some college-aged students find themselves in difficult situations. For young women especially, acquaintance rape in the college years is a risk. While men can also be victims of sexual assault, it is far more common for women to be victimized. This article reviews the literature of acquaintance rape, including situational risk factors, perpetrator characteristics, and victim characteristics, as well as strategies to prevent revictimization, utilizing a female victim as the composite case. PMID:19763203

  4. Effects of acute ethanol administration of female rat liver as a function of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Rikans, L.E.; Snowden, C.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats, aged 4, 14, and 25 months, received 4.0 g/kg of ethanol by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Blood alcohol concentrations 2.5, 6 and 16 hr after ethanol injection were similar in the three age groups. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished 6 hr after ethanol injection, and there were no age-dependent differences in the depleted levels (3.2 {plus minus} 0.1, 3.5 {plus minus} 0.2, and 3.0 {plus minus} 0.5 {mu}g GSH/g liver). However, GSH contents in livers of young-adult rats approached control levels after 16 hr, whereas they remained depressed in older rats. Serum levels of hepatic enzymes were significantly elevated 6 hr after ethanol administration. The increases were greater in middle-aged and old rats than in young-adult rats. The results suggest that middle-aged and old rats are more susceptible than young rats to the acute toxicity of ethanol.

  5. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  6. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  7. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  8. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.

  9. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  10. An Update on Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Old Age and Its Relevance to Old Age Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R.; McManus, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient’s sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women’s sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women’s sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients’ treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care. PMID:23185718

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid status in females of reproductive age with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Laura M; Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from synthetic BCAA-free medical foods with variable fatty acid content. Given the restrictive diet and the importance of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in neurological development, this study evaluated the dietary and fatty acid status of females of reproductive age with MSUD attending a metabolic camp. Healthy controls of similar age and sex were selected from existing normal laboratory data. Total lipid fatty acid concentration in plasma and erythrocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Participants with MSUD had normal to increased concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte alpha linolenic acid (ALA) but significantly lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total lipid fatty acids compared with controls (plasma DHA: MSUD 1.03 +/- 0.35, controls 2.87 +/- 1.08; P = 0.001; erythrocyte DHA: MSUD 2.58 +/- 0.58, controls 3.66 +/- 0.80; P = 0.011). Dietary records reflected negligible or no DHA intake over the 3-day period prior to the blood draw (range 0-2 mg). These results suggest females of reproductive age with MSUD have lower blood DHA concentrations than age-matched controls. In addition, the presence of ALA in medical foods and the background diet may not counter the lack of preformed DHA in the diet. The implications of these results warrant further investigation. PMID:20217236

  12. Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Vapalahti, Olli

    2015-09-01

    1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Using 9 years empirical data in a PUUV endemic area in Central Finland, we found differences between reproductive characteristics of PUUV-infected and uninfected female bank voles. 3. Young infected females had a significantly higher, and old individuals lower, likelihood of reproducing than uninfected animals during the middle of the breeding season. The implication is that PUUV infection may have long-term deleterious effects that are observed at old age, while in young individuals, the infection may enhance breeding probability by directing resources towards current breeding. 4. Moreover, PUUV infection was related with the mother's body condition. Infected mothers were in poorer condition than uninfected mothers in the early breeding season, but were in better condition than uninfected mothers during the middle of the breeding season. Offspring body condition was positively associated with mother's body condition, which, in turn, was related to the PUUV infection status of the mother. 5. Our findings indicate that chronic infection may affect the reproduction of female hosts, but the effect is dependent on the host age. The effect of chronic hantavirus infection was small and density-independent and hence unlikely to contribute to the cyclic population dynamics of the host. However, the effects on a female's reproductive output might affect the abundance of young susceptible individuals in the

  13. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  14. Lead-induced modifications of immune responses in aging male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genova, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of lead intoxication on the immunological responses of aging male and female Balb/c mice. Both males and females on the lead diet exhibited a loss of weight after one week of treatment. The animals began to gain weight again after eight or fifteen weeks for males and females respectively. Although both groups continued to gain weight at a rate consistent with control animals, they never reached the same weights as their same-sex control counterparts. Immunofluorescent staining indicated the presence of greater renal pathology in lead-fed animals as compared to controls. Lead-fed males demonstrated the greatest pathology of any group. Both T and B cell mitogenic responses declined during the early phases of the experiment. This was followed, at age 25-27 weeks, by an increase in activity to levels greater than those of control animals. The depression and subsequent increase in mitogenic responses was mirrored in the ability of T cells to regulate B cell plaque formation when stimulated with sheep red blood cells. T cell function returned to control levels in coincidence with the increase in T and B cell mitogenicity. The return of T cell functionality to control levels coincides with the increased mitogenesis noted in T and B cell populations and the onset of weight gains by lead-fed animals. This coincidence suggests the occurrence of a physiological or immunological change which is compensating for the continued lead intoxication. One such change may be a lead induced reduction in the number or function of a T cell subset, eg. T suppressors.

  15. Obstacles in Advancement of Young Female Geoscientists: Research Results from the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    While the number of women receiving advanced degrees in the geosciences has been rising, the faces of scientific leaders in academia remain dominantly male. Women are currently underrepresented in tenure-track positions in Earth science departments at research universities. Additionally, women are less likely to have more senior positions within their academic institutions. ESWN is a peer-mentoring network of early career women in the Earth sciences. We conducted a survey of ESWN members as part of an evaluation-with-research study that aims to determine the career needs of young female geoscientists. We also conducted a survey of the co-ed Earth Science Jobs list also run by ESWN and used its male and female members as comparison samples. The survey data provide insight into critical career junctures for women in geosciences and identify salient issues that institutions will need to address to successfully recruit, retain and promote women scientists. Prior research has shown that women are subjected to unintended and unrecognized biases that can have an ultimate impact on their productivity, advancement, and success. Our data corroborate these findings: women consistently rated the professional atmosphere in their departments and their interactions with colleagues less favorably than men. Moreover, women indicated lower rates of collaboration with colleagues in their unit compared to their male peers. Possibly due to this discrepancy in collaboration, women also reported lower research productivity than men in our study. Attaining work/life balance is a particular concern to early-career scientists, especially since tenure clock and the biological clock can coincide and reduce the opportunity for women to achieve tenure and have children. Family issues may impact the success of women in academic careers, such as travel to meetings and field work. Our research shows that women's partners more often worked in STEM fields, potentially complicating women's careers by

  16. Contribution of dietary advanced glycation end products (AGE) to circulating AGE: role of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathleen E; Prasad, Chandan; Vijayagopal, Parakat; Juma, Shanil; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Imrhan, Victorine

    2015-12-14

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether macronutrient content (low-fat v. high-fat diet) influences an indicator of advanced glycation end products (AGE), N(ε) carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), in the context of a 1-d, high-AGE diet. The effect of the diets on inflammatory markers was also assessed. A total of nineteen overweight and obese adults (nine men and ten women) without known disease were recruited to participate in a crossover challenge of a high-fat, high-AGE (HFHA) and low-fat, high-AGE (LFHA) diet. In each phase patients had fasting blood drawn, followed by consumption of a high-fat or low-fat breakfast test meal, then three postprandial blood draws at 1, 2 and 3 h after consuming the test meal. After consuming high-AGE meals for the remainder of the day, participants returned the next day for a follow-up analysis. A different pattern in the 3-h post-meal CML and soluble receptor for AGE response to the two diets was observed (P=0·01 and 0·05, respectively). No change in serum CML was observed following consumption of a LFHA breakfast (535 (25th-75th percentile 451-790) to 495 (25th-75th percentile 391-682) ng/ml; P=0·36), whereas a rise in CML occurred after the HFHA breakfast (463 (25th-75th percentile 428-664) to 578 (25th-75th percentile 474-865) ng/ml; P=0·05). High sensitivity C-reactive protein and high molecular weight adiponectin were not affected by either diet. These findings suggest that dietary CML may not be as important in influencing serum CML as other dietary factors. In addition, acute exposure to dietary CML may not influence inflammation in adults without diabetes or kidney disease. This is contrary to previous findings. PMID:26392152

  17. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Conclusion Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade. PMID:27171234

  18. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved. PMID:17615910

  19. Factors Influencing the Prognosis of Octogenarians with Aortic Stenosis in the Advanced Aging Societies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuai; Yamaguchi, Kazuto; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Ito, Saki; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Endo, Akihiro; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recognition of clinical symptoms is critical to developing an effective therapeutic strategy for aortic valve stenosis (AS). Although AS is common, little is known about the factors influencing the natural history of AS patients who are 80 years of age older in advanced aging societies. We investigated the natural history and indications for valve procedures in AS patients of 80 years of age or older. Methods The medical records of 108 consecutive AS patients (moderate grade or higher) who are 80 years of age or older (mean age, 84.2±3.9 years; female, 65 patients) were reviewed to investigate their symptoms, the development of congestive heart failure, the incidence of referral for aortic valve replacement and death. The median duration of follow-up was 9 months (interquartile range, 2 to 25 months). Results The probability of remaining free of events (valve replacement and death) was 29±13% in all patients. There was no significant difference in the aortic valve area of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (0.85±0.28 cm(2) vs. 0.88±0.25 cm(2), p=0.59). The aortic valve (AV) velocity and AV area index were predictors of subsequent cardiac events (p<0.05). Conclusion The severity of AS was the only factor to affect the prognosis of AS patients who were 80 years old of age or older. It is necessary to frequently monitor the subjective symptoms of such patients and to objectively measure the AV area. PMID:27580533

  20. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  1. The Perimenopausal Aging Transition in the Female Rat Brain: Decline in Bioenergetic Systems and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.; Pike, Christian J.; Mack, Wendy J.; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D.

    2015-01-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the current study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in FDG-PET brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/IGF1 and AMPK/PGC1α signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer’s. PMID:25921624

  2. The perimenopausal aging transition in the female rat brain: decline in bioenergetic systems and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C; Morgan, Todd E; Finch, Caleb E; Pike, Christian J; Mack, Wendy J; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D

    2015-07-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the present study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic, and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (AMPK/PGC1α) signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later-life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer's. PMID:25921624

  3. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  4. Mental representations of physically and sexually abused latency-aged females.

    PubMed

    Stovall, G; Craig, R J

    1990-01-01

    The mental representations and self-concept of 20 sexually abused, 20 physically abused, and 20 nonabused but distressed females, ages 7-12, were studied using the TAT and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Results were analyzed both statistically from objective scoring systems, and clinically from direct observations and from an analysis of the interaction of abused children with the examiner. The results show that while the mental representations did not statistically differ between the sexually and physically abused children, the abused groups did differ in their internal images compared to nonabused but distressed children. Also, abused children tended to split off from consciousness the more negative aspects of their perceptions. The results demonstrate that it is abuse per se, and not simply family distress, that results in impaired object relations. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:2340431

  5. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. PMID:25399677

  6. MRI of the wrist is not recommended for age determination in female football players of U-16/U-17 competitions.

    PubMed

    Tscholl, P M; Junge, A; Dvorak, J; Zubler, V

    2016-03-01

    Age determination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist is a reliable method in male football players to evaluate their eligibility to participate in Under 17 tournaments. MRI of the wrist was performed in 487 female volunteers aged 13-19 years from Brazil, Germany, Malaysia, and Tanzania, and in 139 female football players participating in Under-16 and Under-17 football tournaments. A previously validated method for grading fusion of the distal radial epiphysis in male adolescent was used. Moderate correlation of chronological age and epiphyseal fusion was found in the normative control group (r = .59) and weak correlation in female football players (r = .27). Complete fusion of the distal radial epiphysis was observed in two 15-year-old volunteers of the control group (1.7%) and in 17.6% (3 of 17) of 14-year-old football players. Up to 10.8% (47 of 437) in the control group and 14.4% (20 of 139) of the football players 17 years or younger had complete fused epiphysis. Because of earlier osseous maturity in female adolescents, the grade of fusion of the distal radial epiphysis on MRI is not recommended for pretournament age determination for the age of 17 and younger in female. PMID:25880786

  7. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance. PMID:26039033

  8. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Reproductive-Age Female Farmworkers of Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Simsek, Zeynep; Keklik, Zehra; Gurses, Gulcan; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the agricultural population worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in the reproductive-age female farmworker. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013 in southeastern region (SAR) of Turkey. A community-based representative agricultural sample (n = 705) from the agricultural areas of nine provinces of SAR was randomly determined by clustering method using Epi Info software. Questionnaires including demographic information and risk factors of HBV were administered to participants. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HBe antibodies in blood samples were measured by ELISA. Results: The prevalence of the HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HBe antibodies, and seropositivity were 5.7%, 25.9%, 28.9%, 16.4%, and 36.7%, respectively. There was no association between the HBsAg and the size of the household, age, education level, parity, and place of birth while the prevalence of HBsAg was higher in seasonal migratory farmworkers and people living in urban areas and the prevalence of anti-HBs antibody was significantly higher in women ≥ 35 years of age, those with a high parity, and those who gave birth without the assistance of health professionals (P < 0.05). The risk for HBV infection in the seasonal migratory group was 4.3 times higher in comparison to local workers (P = 0.00; OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.4), with a prevalence rate of 11%. Conclusions: The monitoring of at-risk groups like seasonal migratory farmworkers is necessary to strengthen the healthcare service provided to this population. PMID:25598790

  9. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  10. Cumulative live birth rate and assisted reproduction: impact of female age and transfer day

    PubMed Central

    Abuzeid, M.I.; Bolonduro, O.; La Chance, J.; Abozaid, T.; Urich, M.; Ullah, K.; Ali, T.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies on assisted reproductive technology examine live birth rate per cycle. However, after a cycle fails, couples often want to know what their chances are of having a live birth if they continue treatment. From a patients’ perspective, the cumulative probability of live birth is more informative. Materials and Methods: This study includes patients who underwent fresh, frozen and non-donor ICSI cycles at our IVF unit between 2006-2012. Patients were divided into two groups; Group 1 represented those who underwent only Day 5 transfers, Group 2 represented only Day 3 transfers. Patients who underwent both were excluded. ­Cycles were analyzed until the first live birth or the end of the 3rd cycle. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we estimated the cumulative live birth rates for each group and according to female age. Results: The mean age for Group 1 was significantly lower than for Group 2. After 3 cycles, Group 1’s CLBR was 79% versus 66% in Group 2. When analyzing the live births by age and group, there was a significant difference in the CLBR after 3 cycles with the women less than 35 years having the highest CLBR and the women 40 years or older having the lowest CLBR. Conclusion: In women less than 35 years, excellent CLBR can be achieved irrespective of the transfer day. For women 40 years and above, better results of CLBR are observed with Day 5 transfers. Our findings may impact the counseling of couples considering IVF treatment. PMID:25374657

  11. Neonatal stress affects the aging trajectory of female rats on the endocrine, temperature, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Baldy, Cécile; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Human and animal studies on sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory regulation show that the effects of sex hormones are heterogeneous. Because neonatal stress results in sex-specific disruption of the respiratory control in adult rats, we postulate that it might affect respiratory control modulation induced by ovarian steroids in female rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of adult female rats exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is ∼30% smaller than controls (24), but consequences of NMS on respiratory control in aging female rats are unknown. To address this issue, whole body plethysmography was used to evaluate the impact of NMS on the HVR (12% O2, 20 min) of middle-aged (MA; ∼57 wk old) female rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator 3 h/day for 10 consecutive days (P3 to P12). Controls were undisturbed. To determine whether the effects were related to sexual hormone decline or aging per se, experiments were repeated on bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) young (∼12 wk old) adult female rats. OVX and MA both reduced the HVR significantly in control rats but had little effect on the HVR of NMS females. OVX (but not aging) reduced the anapyrexic response in both control and NMS animals. These results show that hormonal decline decreases the HVR of control animals, while leaving that of NMS female animals unaffected. This suggests that neonatal stress alters the interaction between sex hormone regulation and the development of body temperature, hormonal, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia. PMID:25652536

  12. Intensity-dependent effect of ageing on fatigue during intermittent contractions of the human calf muscle in males and females.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Heather; Egana, Mikel; Green, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Ageing reduces fatigue during submaximal intermittent contractions, but the influence of intensity on this ageing effect in males and females is not clear. Younger males (n = 8; 23 ± 2 years), younger females (n = 8; 22 ± 1 years), older males (n = 8; 67 ± 5 years) and older females (n = 10; 64 ± 7 years) completed intermittent calf contractions at four submaximal intensities (30-70 %MVC) for up to 20 min. MVC was assessed during exercise at 30-60 s intervals and its linear rate of decline represented fatigue. Individual relationships between intensity and fatigue (%MVC min(-1)) were fitted to a biphasic function consisting of a linear and nonlinear component. There was no age × sex × intensity interaction for fatigue (3-way ANOVA, P = 0.46). However, there were significant interactive effects of age and sex on endurance at 70 %MVC, fatigue at 70 %MVC and the linear component of the intensity-fatigue relationship. Endurance was lower and fatigue and its linear component were greater (P < 0.05) in younger males compared with other groups, but not different between younger and older females. This suggests that there is an intensity-dependent effect of human ageing on fatigue during submaximal exercise that is specific to males. PMID:25911632

  13. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  14. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  15. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  16. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator. PMID:19278855

  17. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  18. Evidence of female-produced sex pheromone of Adelphocoris suturalis (Hemiptera: Miridae): effect of age and time of day.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilin; Luo, Jing; Lu, Chong; Zhao, Bo; Meng, Juan; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2011-08-01

    After the reduction in the use of broad-spectrum insecticides, Adelphocoris suturalis (Hemiptera: Miridae) has become an important pest of transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in China. A. suturalis is a highly mobile insect, moving rapidly in and out of crop fields, and traps baited with sex pheromones may be useful in monitoring and controlling its numbers. However, little is currently known regarding the chemical communication based on sex pheromones by this species. To use the synthesized sex pheromone effectively as part of the integrated pest management, some fundamental biological parameters under which the pheromone is produced must be understood. In this study, attractiveness of adult females or males of A. suturalis to conspecific individuals was examined by Y-tube bioassay; we also investigated the female sexually mature age and circadian rhythm of male attraction to females of A. suturalis in the field in 2008 and 2010. Y-tube bioassay results indicated that only males were attracted to odors from sexually mature virgin females. Two-year field trapping experiments showed that 4-18-d-old virgin females effectively attracted males, and males were attracted to virgin females during the scotophase, with a peak between 1900 and 2300 hours. These results improve our understanding of the sexual communication behavior of A. suturalis and provide evidence of female-produced sex pheromone in this species. PMID:21882682

  19. Dietary Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male and Female Broilers From Forty-Nine to Sixty-Three Days of Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate digestible (dig) Lys requirements of male and female broiler chickens from 49 to 63 d of age. A dose-response diet consisting of corn, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal was formulated to be adequate in dig amino acid concentrations with the exception of Lys. ...

  20. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  1. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  2. Mitochondrial dynamics: Orchestrating the journey to advanced age.

    PubMed

    Biala, Agnieszka K; Dhingra, Rimpy; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A

    2015-06-01

    Aging is a degenerative process that unfortunately is an inevitable part of life and risk factor for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. Among the several theories purported to explain the effects of age on cardiac dysfunction, the mitochondrion has emerged a central regulator of this process. Hence, it is not surprising that abnormalities in mitochondrial quality control including biogenesis and turnover have such detrimental effects on cardiac function. In fact mitochondria serve as a conduit for biological signals for apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy respectively. The removal of damaged mitochondria by autophagy/mitophagy is essential for mitochondrial quality control and cardiac homeostasis. Defects in mitochondrial dynamism fission/fusion events have been linked to cardiac senescence and heart failure. In this review we discuss the impact of aging on mitochondrial dynamics and senescence on cardiovascular health. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CV Aging. PMID:25918048

  3. Inhibition and breaking of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) with bis-2-aminoimidazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mike A.; Furlani, Robert E.; Podell, Brendan K.; Ackart, David F.; Haugen, Jessica D.; Melander, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), unregulated modifications to host macromolecules that occur as a result of metabolic dysregulation, play a role in many diabetes related complications, inflammation and aging, and may lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Small molecules that have the ability to inhibit AGE formation, and even break preformed AGEs have enormous therapeutic potential in the treatment of these disease states. We report the screening of a series of 2-aminoimidazloles for anti-AGE activity, and the identification of a bis-2-aminoimidazole lead compound that possesses superior AGE inhibition and breaking activity compared to the known AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine. PMID:26146419

  4. Characterization of recovery, repair, and inflammatory processes following contusion spinal cord injury in old female rats: is age a limitation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is steadily rising in the elderly human population, few studies have investigated the effect of age in rodent models. Here, we investigated the effect of age in female rats on spontaneous recovery and repair after SCI. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) female rats received a moderate contusion SCI at T9. Behavioral recovery was assessed, and immunohistocemical and stereological analyses performed. Results Aged rats demonstrated greater locomotor deficits compared to young, beginning at 7 days post-injury (dpi) and lasting through at least 28 dpi. Unbiased stereological analyses revealed a selective increase in percent lesion area and early (2 dpi) apoptotic cell death caudal to the injury epicenter in aged versus young rats. One potential mechanism for these differences in lesion pathogenesis is the inflammatory response; we therefore assessed humoral and cellular innate immune responses. No differences in either acute or chronic serum complement activity, or acute neutrophil infiltration, were observed between age groups. However, the number of microglia/macrophages present at the injury epicenter was increased by 50% in aged animals versus young. Conclusions These data suggest that age affects recovery of locomotor function, lesion pathology, and microglia/macrophage response following SCI. PMID:25512759

  5. Female and Male Modes of Rhetoric in an Advanced Composition Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Catherine E.

    A college composition course based on teaching the difference between male and female modes of rhetoric offers advantages over the traditional course in reference, persuasive, and expressive discourse: the appeal to student emotion provided by the terms "female" and "male," and the clarity of the terms in delineating the possibilities and…

  6. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  7. Spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle induces anxiogenic-related behaviors in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rebecca A M; Asth, Laila; Engelberth, Rovena C; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that women during perimenopause and menopause have a higher incidence in the diagnoses of psychiatric problems compared with men. However, little literature information about the influence of spontaneous perimenopause on anxiety- and mood-related behaviors in mice is available. To this aim, we compared the behavioral responses of middle-aged and young adult female mice both in the diestrus phase in the elevated plus-maze, open field and forced swimming tests. In middle-aged mice, the duration of the estrous cycle was significantly prolonged compared to young adults, thus indicating that our middle-aged mice are in the perimenopausal period. In the elevated plus-maze test, middle-aged mice explored less the open arms when compared to young adults, suggesting an anxiogenic-like phenotype. No significant differences were observed in the estrogen plasma levels and emotional behavior in the forced swim and open field tests. In conclusion, the spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle increased anxiety in middle-aged females. These data suggest that the perimenopausal period has a significant influence on anxiety-related behaviors in female mice. PMID:25980629

  8. Hypokalemic paralysis in a middle-aged female with classic Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Inherited classic Bartter syndrome (cBS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder resulting from inactivating mutations in the asolateral chloride channel (C1C-Kb) and usually presents in early infancy or childhood with mild to moderate hypokalemia. Profound hypokalemic paralysis in patients with cBS is extremely rare, especially in middle age. A 45-year-old Chinese female patient was referred for evaluation of chronic severe hypokalemia despite regular K+ supplementation (1 mmol/kg/d). She had had two episodes of muscle paralysis due to severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.9 - 2.1 mmol/l) in the past 3 years. She denied vomiting, diarrhea, or the use of laxatives or diuretics. Her blood pressure was normal. Biochemical studies showed hypokalemia (K+ 2.5 mmol/l) with renal potassium wasting, metabolic alkalosis (HCO3- 32 mmol/l), normomagnesemia (Mg2+ 0.8 mmol/l), hypercalciuria (calcium to creatinine ratio 0.5 mmol/mmol; normal < 0.22 mmol/mol), high plasma renin activity, but normal plasma aldosterone concentration. Abdominal sonography revealed neither renal stones nor nephrocalcinosis. Acquired causes of cBS such as autoimmune disease and drugs were all excluded. Molecular analysis of the CLCNKB gene, encoding ClC-Kb, and SLC12A3, encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), revealed compound heterozygous mutations in CLCNKB (L335P and G470E) inherited from her parents; her SLC12A3 was normal. These two mutations were not identified in 100 healthy subjects. Her plasma K+ concentration rose to 3 - 3.5 mmol/l after the addition of spironolactone. Inherited cBS may present with hypokalemic paralysis and should be considered in adult patients with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:22854165

  9. Human mortality at very advanced age might be constant.

    PubMed

    Klemera, P; Doubal, S

    1997-11-01

    An attempt was made to identify the course of the mortality rate at the upper tail of human age. The only known data suitable for this purpose were published by Riggs and Millecchia (J.E. Riggs, R.J. Millecchia, Mech. Ageing Dev. 62 (1992) 191-199) and our analysis follows up their results. By means of mathematical elaboration it was proved that these data imply a constant mortality rate (approx. 25% per year) at ages above 113 years for men and above 116 years for women. Indirect arguments supporting the validity of the source data are discussed. Nevertheless, even if the source data are mistaken, we proved they cannot be the product of purely random errors and our results may contribute to the elucidation of the origin of those systematic errors. PMID:9379712

  10. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  11. Evaluation of sexuality in a Paraguayan mid-aged female urban population using the six-item Female Sexual Function Index.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S C; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Ortiz-Benegas, M E; Palacios-De Franco, Y

    2016-06-01

    Background There are scant data related to sexuality assessed among mid-aged women from Paraguay. Objective To assess sexual function in a sample of mid-aged Paraguayan women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 265 urban-living women from Asunción (Paraguay) aged 40-65 years were surveyed with the six-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6) and a questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Results The median age of the sample was 48 years, 48.2% were postmenopausal (median/interquartile range age at menopause 46/13 years), 11.3% used hormone therapy, 37.0% used psychotropic drugs, 44.5% had hypertension, 7.2% diabetes, 46.1% abdominal obesity and 89.4% had a partner (n = 237). Overall, 84.1% (223/265) of surveyed women were sexually active, presenting a median total FSFI-6 score of 23.0, and 25.6% obtained a total score of 19 or less, suggestive of sexual dysfunction (lower sexual function). Upon bivariate analysis, several factors were associated with lower total FSFI-6 scores; however, multiple linear regression analysis found that lower total FSFI-6 scores (worse sexual function) were significantly correlated to the postmenopausal status and having an older partner, whereas coital frequency was positively correlated to higher scores (better sexual function). Conclusion In this pilot sample of urban-living, mid-aged Paraguayan women, as determined with the FSFI-6, lower sexual function was related to menopausal status, coital frequency and partner age. There is a need for more research in this regard in this population. PMID:26940601

  12. Chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in the sorafenib age

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Koji; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    The kinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only systemic therapy proven to have a positive effect on survival of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After development of sorafenib and its introduction as a therapeutic agent used in the clinic, several critical questions have been raised. Clinical parameters and biomarkers predicting sorafenib efficacy are the most important issues that need to be elucidated. Although it is difficult to know the responders in advance using conventional characteristics of patients, there are specific serum cytokines and/or gene amplification in tumor tissues that have been reported to predict efficacy of sorafenib. Risk and benefits of continuation of sorafenib beyond radiological progression is another issue to consider because no other standard therapy for advanced HCC as yet exists. In addition, effectiveness of the expanded application of sorafenib is still controversial, although a few studies have shed some light on combinational treatment with sorafenib for intermediate-stage HCC. Recently, over 50 relevant drugs have been developed and are currently under investigation. The efficacy of some of these drugs has been extensively examined, but none have demonstrated any superiority over sorafenib, so far. However, there are several drugs that have shown efficacy for treatment after sorafenib failure, and these are proceeding to further studies. To address these issues and questions, we have done extensive literature review and summarize the most current status of therapeutic application of sorafenib. PMID:24764653

  13. Does Accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products Contribute to the Aging Phenotype?

    PubMed Central

    Nicklett, Emily J.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background. Aging is a complex multifactorial process characterized by accumulation of deleterious changes in cells and tissues, progressive deterioration of structural integrity and physiological function across multiple organ systems, and increased risk of death. Methods. We conducted a review of the scientific literature on the relationship of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with aging. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of bioactive molecules that are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Results. Humans are exposed to AGEs produced in the body, especially in individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism, and AGEs ingested in foods. AGEs cause widespread damage to tissues through upregulation of inflammation and cross-linking of collagen and other proteins. AGEs have been shown to adversely affect virtually all cells, tissues, and organ systems. Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that elevated circulating AGEs are associated with increased risk of developing many chronic diseases that disproportionally affect older individuals. Conclusions. Based on these data, we propose that accumulation of AGEs accelerate the multisystem functional decline that occurs with aging, and therefore contribute to the aging phenotype. Exposure to AGEs can be reduced by restriction of dietary intake of AGEs and drug treatment with AGE inhibitors and AGE breakers. Modification of intake and circulating levels of AGEs may be a possible strategy to promote health in old age, especially because most Western foods are processed at high temperature and are rich in AGEs. PMID:20478906

  14. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  15. Recommendations for managing cutaneous disorders associated with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Philippe; Dréno, Brigitte; Krutmann, Jean; Luger, Thomas Anton; Triller, Raoul; Meaume, Sylvie; Seité, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly aged population worldwide means more people are living with chronic diseases, reduced autonomy, and taking various medications. Health professionals should take these into consideration when managing dermatological problems in elderly patients. Accordingly, current research is investigating the dermatological problems associated with the loss of cutaneous function with age. As cell renewal slows, the physical and chemical barrier function declines, cutaneous permeability increases, and the skin becomes increasingly vulnerable to external factors. In geriatric dermatology, the consequences of cutaneous aging lead to xerosis, skin folding, moisture-associated skin damage, and impaired wound healing. These problems pose significant challenges for both the elderly and their carers. Most often, nurses manage skin care in the elderly. However, until recently, little attention has been paid to developing appropriate, evidence-based, skincare protocols. The objective of this paper is to highlight common clinical problems with aging skin and provide some appropriate advice on cosmetic protocols for managing them. A review of the literature from 2004 to 2014 using PubMed was performed by a working group of six European dermatologists with clinical and research experience in dermatology. Basic topical therapy can restore and protect skin barrier function, which relieves problems associated with xerosis, prevents aggravating moisture-associated skin damage, and enhances quality of life. In conclusion, the authors provide physicians with practical recommendations to assist them in implementing basic skin care for the elderly in an integrated care approach. PMID:26929610

  16. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  17. Perceptual restoration of degraded speech is preserved with advancing age.

    PubMed

    Saija, Jefta D; Akyürek, Elkan G; Andringa, Tjeerd C; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-02-01

    Cognitive skills, such as processing speed, memory functioning, and the ability to divide attention, are known to diminish with aging. The present study shows that, despite these changes, older adults can successfully compensate for degradations in speech perception. Critically, the older participants of this study were not pre-selected for high performance on cognitive tasks, but only screened for normal hearing. We measured the compensation for speech degradation using phonemic restoration, where intelligibility of degraded speech is enhanced using top-down repair mechanisms. Linguistic knowledge, Gestalt principles of perception, and expectations based on situational and linguistic context are used to effectively fill in the inaudible masked speech portions. A positive compensation effect was previously observed only with young normal hearing people, but not with older hearing-impaired populations, leaving the question whether the lack of compensation was due to aging or due to age-related hearing problems. Older participants in the present study showed poorer intelligibility of degraded speech than the younger group, as expected from previous reports of aging effects. However, in conditions that induce top-down restoration, a robust compensation was observed. Speech perception by the older group was enhanced, and the enhancement effect was similar to that observed with the younger group. This effect was even stronger with slowed-down speech, which gives more time for cognitive processing. Based on previous research, the likely explanations for these observations are that older adults can overcome age-related cognitive deterioration by relying on linguistic skills and vocabulary that they have accumulated over their lifetime. Alternatively, or simultaneously, they may use different cerebral activation patterns or exert more mental effort. This positive finding on top-down restoration skills by the older individuals suggests that new cognitive training methods

  18. Multiple meiotic errors caused by predivision of chromatids in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilisation

    PubMed Central

    Handyside, Alan H; Montag, Markus; Magli, M Cristina; Repping, Sjoerd; Harper, Joyce; Schmutzler, Andreas; Vesela, Katerina; Gianaroli, Luca; Geraedts, Joep

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy is a major cause of pregnancy loss, abnormal pregnancy and live births following both natural conception and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and increases exponentially with maternal age in the decade preceding the menopause. Molecular genetic analysis following natural conception and spontaneous miscarriage demonstrates that trisomies arise mainly in female meiosis and particularly in the first meiotic division. Here, we studied copy number gains and losses for all chromosomes in the two by-products of female meiosis, the first and second polar bodies, and the corresponding zygotes in women of advanced maternal age undergoing IVF, using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array CGH). Analysis of the segregation patterns underlying the copy number changes reveals that premature predivision of chromatids rather than non-disjunction of whole chromosomes causes almost all errors in the first meiotic division and unlike natural conception, over half of aneuploidies result from errors in the second meiotic division. Furthermore, most abnormal zygotes had multiple aneuploidies. These differences in the aetiology of aneuploidy in IVF compared with natural conception may indicate a role for ovarian stimulation in perturbing meiosis in ageing oocytes. PMID:22317970

  19. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  20. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant. PMID:25277528

  1. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  2. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNia (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.

  3. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNiamore » (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.« less

  4. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  5. The effects of age and previous experience on social rank in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus spadiceus.

    PubMed

    Kim; Zuk

    2000-08-01

    Social rank can influence lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We examined the effects of morphology, age, previous social experience and aggressiveness on social rank in all-female flocks of red junglefowl. None of the morphological characters measured (mass, tarsus length, comb height or comb length) appeared to play a role in determining rank. Older females were not more likely to be dominant, while previous social experience and aggression levels were both important in dominance determination. Flock-experienced hens were more likely to be dominant as were more aggressive individuals. Red junglefowl females most likely use a combination of characters to establish social order in a newly formed flock. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10973726

  6. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  7. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Kaushik, Sonia; Benke, Geza P; Borg, Brigitte M; Smith, Catherine L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time. Results In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females) participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze). The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation) FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1) and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2) mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted steeper decline in females than males. Conclusion Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD. PMID:27307725

  8. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W; Kim, Ivana K

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  9. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Miller, Joan W.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:26239130

  10. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  11. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Daniel O; Dobolyi, David G; Isaacs, David A; Roman, Olivia C; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; Donahue, Manus J; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H; Landman, Bennett A; Bowman, Aaron B; Dawant, Benoit M; Rane, Swati

    2016-05-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson's Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2(nd), or 3(rd) order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  12. Female Gender and Differences in Outcome after Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Does Age Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Rawa; Farag, Mina; Gertner, Victor; Szabó, Gabor; Weymann, Alexander; Veres, Gabor; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Bruckner, Tom; Karck, Matthias; Kallenbach, Klaus; Beller, Carsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female gender is a known risk factor for early and late mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Higher age of women at operation may influence outcome, since age per se is also an important risk factor. The purpose of our study was to analyze possible gender differences in outcome after isolated CABG in different age groups to delineate the impact of female gender and age. Methods All patients over 60 years of age undergoing isolated CABG at our department during 2001 and 2011 were included and categorized by age into sexagenarians (2266, 16.6% women), septuagenarians (2332, 25.4% women) and octogenarians (374, 32% women) and assessed by gender for 30-day and 180-day mortality. Results Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in women only amongst septuagenarians (7.1 vs. 4.7%, p = 0.033). Same differences apply for 180-day mortality (12.3 vs. 8.2%, p = 0.033) and estimated one-year survival (81.6 ± 4.2 vs. 86.9 ± 2.2%, p = 0.001). Predictive factors for 30-day mortality of septuagenarian were logistic EuroSCORE (ES) (p = 0.003), perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) (p<0.001), pneumonia (p<0.001), abnormal LV-function (p<0.04) and use of LIMA graft (p<0.001), but not female gender. However, female gender was found to be an independent predictor for 180-day mortality (HR 1.632, p = 0.001) in addition to ES, use of LIMA graft, perioperative MI, pneumonia and abnormal LV function (HR 1.013, p = 0.004; HR 0.523, p<0.001; HR 2.710, p<0.001; HR 3.238, p<0.001; HR 2.013, p<0.001). Conclusion Women have a higher observed probability of early death after CABG in septuagenarians. However, female gender was not found to be an independent risk factor for 30-day, but for 180-day survival. Therefore, reduction of high impact risk factors such as perioperative MI and enhancement of LIMA use should be future goals. In view of our findings, decision for surgical revascularization should not be based on gender. PMID:26845158

  13. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial. PMID:24940529

  14. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position

    PubMed Central

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010–2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  15. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain. PMID:24764631

  16. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  17. Advanced glycation end-products: a common pathway in diabetes and age-related erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Neves, D

    2013-08-01

    Reactive derivatives of non-enzymatic glucose-protein condensation reactions integrate a heterogeneous group of irreversible adducts called advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Numerous studies have investigated the role of the AGEs in cardiovascular system; however, its contribution to erectile dysfunction (ED) that is an early manifestation of cardiovascular disease has been less intensively investigated. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning AGEs effects in the cavernous tissue of the penis and in ED onset, particularly on diabetes and aging, conditions that not only favor AGEs formation, but also increase risk of developing ED. The specific contribution of AGE on intra- and extracellular deposition of insoluble complexes, interference in activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase, NO bioavailability, endothelial-dependent vasodilatation, as well as molecular pathways activated by receptor of AGEs are presented. Finally, the interventional actions that prevent AGEs formation, accumulation or activity in the cavernous tissue and that include nutritional pattern modulation, nutraceuticals, exercise, therapeutic strategies (statins, anti-diabetics, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-5, anti-hypertensive drugs) and inhibitors of AGEs formation and crosslink breakers, are discussed. From this review, we conclude that despite the experiments conducted in animal models pointing to the AGE/RAGE axis as a potential interventional target with respect to ED associated with diabetes and aging, the clinical data have been very disappointing and, until now, did not provide evidence of benefits of treatments directed to AGE inactivation. PMID:23822116

  18. Peripubertal administration of icariin and icaritin advances pubertal development in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Hyosuk; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-03-01

    Epimedii Herba is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China and exerts estrogenic activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripubertal administration of Epimedii Herba on pubertal development in female rats using a modified protocol of the rodent 20-day pubertal female assay. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old after weaning, 10 rats per group) were divided into five groups: saline (Con), ethinyl estradiol (E2), Epimedii Herba ext (Ext), icariin (ICI), and icaritin (ICT), which were administered by oral gavage (E2 by subcutaneous injection) from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND40. The time to vaginal opening (VO) was shorter for the Epimedii groups, particularly for the ICT group (p<0.05). Treatment with ICI and ICT significantly increased the duration of the estrus cycle (ICI, 2.78 days; ICT, 4.0 days; control, 1.78 days). Ovary weight was reduced by E2 treatment and increased by the Ext, ICI, and ICT treatments while the weight of the uterus and pituitary glands increased significantly only in the E2 and ICT groups. Although Epimedii Herba displayed relatively weak estrogenic activity, its repeated administration could affect pubertal development in female rats. PMID:24116294

  19. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  20. Differences in Retinal Structure and Function between Aging Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats are Strongly Influenced by the Estrus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chaychi, Samaneh; Polosa, Anna; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biological sex and age are considered as two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina, an effect that might be governed by sexual hormones such as estrogen. The purpose of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal function and structure of rodents and also clarify the effect that the estrus cycle might exert on the retinal function of female rats. Method The retinal function of 50 normal male and female albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated with the electroretinogram (ERG) at postnatal day (P) 30, 60, 100, 200, and 300 (n = 5–6 male and female rats/age). Following the ERG recording sessions, retinal histology was performed in both sexes. In parallel, the retinal function of premenopausal and menopausal female rats aged P540 were also compared. Results Sex and age-related changes in retinal structure and function were observed in our animal model. However, irrespective of age, no significant difference was observed in ERG and retinal histology obtained from male and female rats. Notwithstanding the above we did however notice that between P60 and P200 there was a gradual increase in ERG amplitudes of female rats compared to males. Furthermore, the ERG of premenopausal female rats aged 18 months old (P540) was larger compared to age-matched menopausal female rats as well as that of male rats. Conclusion Our results showed that biological sex and age can influence the retinal function and structure of albino SD rats. Furthermore, we showed that cycled female rats have better retinal function compared to the menopausal female rats suggesting a beneficial effect of the estrus cycle on the retinal function. PMID:26317201

  1. Age Differences and Generational Gaps: College Women and Their Mothers' Attitudes toward Female Roles in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingrove, C. Ray; Slevin, Kathleen F.

    1982-01-01

    Research on attitudes toward the female role in society revealed that the attitudinal gap between older mothers and their daughters is much greater than that between younger mothers and their daughters. The difference is attributed to the more liberal views of older mothers' daughters compared to younger mothers' daughters. (Author/MJL)

  2. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  3. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) co-localize with AGE receptors in the retinal vasculature of diabetic and of AGE-infused rats.

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, A. W.; Li, Y. M.; Gardiner, T. A.; Bucala, R.; Archer, D. B.; Vlassara, H.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), formed from the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and lipids with reducing sugars, have been implicated in many diabetic complications; however, their role in diabetic retinopathy remains largely unknown. Recent studies suggest that the cellular actions of AGEs may be mediated by AGE-specific receptors (AGE-R). We have examined the immunolocalization of AGEs and AGE-R components R1 and R2 in the retinal vasculature at 2, 4, and 8 months after STZ-induced diabetes as well as in nondiabetic rats infused with AGE bovine serum albumin for 2 weeks. Using polyclonal or monoclonal anti-AGE antibodies and polyclonal antibodies to recombinant AGE-R1 and AGE-R2, immunoreactivity (IR) was examined in the complete retinal vascular tree after isolation by trypsin digestion. After 2, 4, and 8 months of diabetes, there was a gradual increase in AGE IR in basement membrane. At 8 months, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells of the retinal vessels showed dense intracellular AGE IR. AGE epitopes stained most intensely within pericytes and smooth muscle cells but less in basement membrane of AGE-infused rats compared with the diabetic group. Retinas from normal or bovine-serum-albumin-infused rats were largely negative for AGE IR. AGE-R1 and -R2 co-localized strongly with AGEs of vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells of either normal, diabetic, or AGE-infused rat retinas, and this distribution did not vary with each condition. The data indicate that AGEs accumulate as a function of diabetes duration first within the basement membrane and then intracellularly, co-localizing with cellular AGE-Rs. Significant AGE deposits appear within the pericytes after long-term diabetes or acute challenge with AGE infusion conditions associated with pericyte damage. Co-localization of AGEs and AGE-Rs in retinal cells points to possible interactions of pathogenic significance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID

  4. 17β-Estradiol and genistein acute treatments improve some cerebral cortex homeostasis aspects deteriorated by aging in female rats.

    PubMed

    Morán, Javier; Garrido, Pablo; Alonso, Ana; Cabello, Estefanía; González, Celestino

    2013-04-01

    Aging is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and impaired cerebral glucose homeostasis. These changes increase neural sensitivity to metabolic damage contributing to cognitive decline, being the decrease in plasma estrogen following menopause one of the main factors involved in aged females. Phytoestrogens as genistein are structurally similar to 17β-estradiol, bind to estrogen receptors, and can evoke both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Estrogens and phytoestrogens have neuroprotective potential, but the physiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Young and aged female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and treated acutely with 17β-estradiol (1.4μg/kg body weight), genistein (10 or 40 mg/kg body weight), or vehicle. Cortical expression of glucose transporter-3 (GLUT-3) and -4 (GLUT-4), cytochrome c oxidase (CO), estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and -β (ERβ) was measured by Western blotting. There was an age-related decline in GLUT-4, CO and ERβ levels. Both drugs, estradiol and genistein, were able to reverse GLUT-3 downregulation in the cortex following late ovariectomy. However, genistein was the only treatment able to restore completely GLUT-4 levels in aged rats. In contrast, estradiol was more potent than genistein at increasing CO, a marker of cerebral oxidative metabolism. As regards ER levels, estradiol increased the ERα67 quantity diminished by late ovariectomy, while genistein did the same with the other ERα isoform, ERα46, highlighting drug-specific differences in expression changes for both isoforms. On the other hand, no treatment-related differences were found regarding ERβ levels. Therefore, genistein like estradiol could be suitable treatments against cortical metabolic dysfunction caused by aging. These treatments may hold promise as neuroprotective strategies against diabetes and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23419687

  5. Age-specific changes in electrocardiographic parameters in bipolar limb leads of conscious female native cats of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Subhashree; Mahapatra, A. P. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Kundu, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study and compare the age-specific changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters in bipolar limb leads of conscious female native cats of Odisha. Materials and Methods: 20 healthy female native cats aged between 4 and 36 months of age were selected for the study. These queens were divided into two groups of 10 animals each. Group 1 constituted the queens aged 4-10 months (before puberty) with a mean weight of 2.28 kg (±0.4 standard error [SE]), and those aged 11-36 months (after puberty) with a mean weight of 3.72 kg (±0.6 SE) were in Group 2. The ECG was recorded with a 12-lead standard ECG recorder, Cardiart 108 T-MK VII-BPL (India) in the Leads I, II, and III. Results: The mean heart rates were 160.73 (±7.83) beats/min and 139.09 (±2.72) beats/min in the cats aged 4-10 months and 11-36 months, respectively. Significant differences existed among Q- and R-wave amplitudes and duration of QT-interval in Lead I. In Lead II, duration of QT and RR intervals, duration of ST-segment and amplitudes of P- and R-waves varied significantly. Significant differences were also observed in the P- and R-wave amplitudes in Lead III. The mean electrical axis was 63.11 (±1.98°) and 50.03 (±4.86°) in the cats aged 4-10 months and 11-36 months, respectively. Conclusion: Since the ECG studies on conscious cats are scanty, and the number of native cats being presented in veterinary hospitals and clinics has increased drastically, there is a need to establish the reference values for ECG parameters in conscious native cats so that the cardiovascular abnormalities can be predicted. PMID:27051200

  6. Germ-line transmission of trisomy 21: Data from 80 families suggest an implication of grandmaternal age and a high frequency of female-specific trisomy rescue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents

  7. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  8. Hypermethylation of FOXP3 Promoter and Premature Aging of the Immune System in Female Patients with Panic Disorder?

    PubMed

    Prelog, Martina; Hilligardt, Deborah; Schmidt, Christian A; Przybylski, Grzegorz K; Leierer, Johannes; Almanzar, Giovanni; El Hajj, Nady; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Haaf, Thomas; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities associated with pathological conditions, such as higher infection rates, inflammatory diseases, cancer or cardiovascular events are common in patients with panic disorder. In the present study, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), Forkhead-Box-Protein P3 gene (FOXP3) methylation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and relative telomere lengths (RTLs) were investigated in a total and subsamples of 131 patients with panic disorder as compared to 131 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in order to test for a potential dysfunction and premature aging of the immune system in anxiety disorders. Significantly lower TRECs (p = 0.004) as well as significant hypermethylation of the FOXP3 promoter region (p = 0.005) were observed in female (but not in male) patients with panic disorder as compared to healthy controls. No difference in relative telomere length was discerned between patients and controls, but significantly shorter telomeres in females, smokers and older persons within the patient group. The presently observed reduced TRECs in panic disorder patients and FOXP3 hypermethylation in female patients with panic disorder potentially reflect impaired thymus and immunosuppressive Treg function, which might partly account for the known increased morbidity and mortality of anxiety disorders conferred by e.g. cancer and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27362416

  9. The Influence of Age on the M Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training to Reduce Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Sugimoto, Dai; Thomas, Staci; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In female athletes, sports-related injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) increase during adolescence and peak in incidence during the mid- to late teens. Although biomechanical investigations indicate that a potential window of opportunity exists for optimal timing for the initiation of integrative neuromuscular training (NMT) in young female athletes, the influence of the timing of initiation of these programs on the efficacy of ACL injury reduction has yet to be evaluated. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of the current report was to systematically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding the influence of age of NMT implementation on the effectiveness for reduction of ACL injury incidence. The hypothesis tested was that NMT would show a greater effect in younger populations. Study Design Meta-analysis; Level of evidence 1a. Methods Data were pooled from 14 clinical trials that met the inclusion criteria of (1) number of ACL injuries reported; (2) NMT program used; (3) female participants were included; (4) investigations used prospective, controlled trials; and (5) age of participants was documented or was obtainable upon contact with the authors. A meta-analysis with odds ratio (OR) was used to compare the ratios of ACL injuries between intervention and control groups among differing age categorizations. Results A meta-analysis of the 14 included studies demonstrated significantly greater knee injury reduction in female athletes who were categorized in the preventive NMT group compared with those who were in the control group (OR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.35, 0.83). Lower ACL injuries in mid-teens (OR 0.28; CI: 0.18, 0.42) compared with late teens (OR 0.48; CI: 0.21, 1.07) and early adults (OR 1.01; CI: 0.62, 1.64) were found in participants undergoing NMT. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis revealed an age-related association between NMT implementation and reduction of ACL incidence. Both

  10. Combined Effect of Fetal Sex and Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ≥40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women <40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

  11. Age-Group-Specific Associations between the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Relevant Risk Factors in Male and Female Patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xingqi; Gu, Wei; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Mei; Li, Yan; Gao, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Aim To seek accurate and credible correlation manner between gender, age, and obesity; and the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in large-scale population. Methods Totals of 1,975 male and 378 female OSA patients were sequentially recruited. Centralized covariant tendencies between age, body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratio (WHR); and OSA severity, were explored in a gender-specific manner via multiple statistical analyses. The accuracies of observed correlations were further evaluated by adaptive multiple linear regression. Results All of age, BMI, WHR, smoking, drinking, and OSA severity differed between males and females. BMI and WHR were positively and (approximately) linearly associated with OSA severity in both males and females. Restricted cubic spline analysis was more effective than was the Pearson correlation approach in correlating age with AHI, and provided age crossover points allowing further piecewise linear modeling for both males and females. Multiple linear regression showed that increasing age was associated with OSA exacerbation in males aged ≤40 years and in females aged 45–53 years. BMI, WHR, and diabetes were independently associated with OSA severity in males with age-group-specific pattern. In females, only BMI was associated with OSA severity at all ages. Conclusions In male patients, BMI and WHR are prominent risk factors for OSA exacerbation. Age and diabetes are associated with OSA severity in males of particular ages. In females, BMI is also a prominent risk factor for severe OSA, and OSA severity increased with age in the range 45–53 years. PMID:25211035

  12. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  13. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  14. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  15. Effects of Bak Foong Pills and Menoease Pills on white blood cell distribution in old age female rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alice Lok Sze; Gou, Yu Lin; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of Bak Foong Pills (BFP) and the new BFP-derived post-menopause formula, Menoease Pills (MBFP), on the distribution of peripheral white blood cells (WBC) between BFP/MBFP-treated and non-treated rats. Eighteen months old female SD rats were used to mimic post-menopausal and old age animal models. The percentage distribution of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes were measured using flow cytometry with and without treatments of BFP or MBFP. Results showed that WBC distribution in old age rats were significantly different from that of adult rats, suggesting that as the animal aged, their WBC distributions were altered. Old age rats were observed to have much lower percentages of lymphocytes, but higher percentages of granulocytes when compared to the adult rats, indicating possible attenuated immunity. Following treatment with BFP or MBFP, WBC populations were found to be redistributed back into the ranges observed in adult animals. Furthermore, MBFP, was found to alter WBC distribution in a dose-dependent manner. When compared to estrogen (E(2)), a well documented regulator of immune function, results showed that MBFP was able to show significantly greater effects on WBC redistribution compared to E(2). However, in ovariectomised (ovx) old age rats, neither MBFP nor E(2) treated groups showed any changes in WBC redistribution. These results indicate that MBFP may share similarities to E(2). Indeed, the effect of MBFP and E(2) seems to require intact ovaries, which are believed to be necessary for the modulation of WBC distributions and immune functions. Overall, our findings suggest that BFP and MBFP may be able to regulate WBC population in old age female rats, and thus, indicate their potential role on improving the attenuated immunity evident in post-menopausal and elderly women. PMID:14646184

  16. Age-related changes in skin barrier function - quantitative evaluation of 150 female subjects.

    PubMed

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-04-01

    The protection against water loss and the prevention of substances and bacteria penetrating into the body rank as the most important functions of the skin. This so-called 'skin barrier function' is the natural frontier between the inner organism and the environment, and is primarily formed by the epidermis. An impairment of the skin barrier function is often found in diseased and damaged skin. An influence of ageing on skin barrier function is widely accepted, but has not been conclusively evaluated yet. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study was to assess the potential influence of ageing on skin barrier function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, sebum content and pH value. One hundred and fifty healthy women aged 18-80, divided into five age groups with 30 subjects each, were evaluated in this study. TEWL, hydration level, sebum secretion and pH value of hydro-lipid acid film were measured with worldwide acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at cheek, neck, décolleté, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Whereas TEWL and stratum corneum hydration showed only very low correlation with subject's age, the sebum production decreased significantly with age, resulting in the lowest skin surface lipids levels measured in subjects older than 70 years. The highest skin surface pH was measured in subjects between 50 and 60 years, whereas the eldest age group had the lowest mean pH. The dorsum of the hand was the location with the highest TEWL and lowest stratum corneum hydration in all age groups. The results show that only some parameters related to skin barrier function are influenced by ageing. Whereas sebum production decreases significantly over lifetime and skin surface pH is significantly increased in menopausal woman, TEWL and stratum corneum hydration show only minor variations with ageing. PMID:23113564

  17. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  18. Development and evaluation of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan

    PubMed Central

    Silvester, William; Parslow, Ruth A; Lewis, Virginia J; Fullam, Rachael S; Sjanta, Rebekah; Jackson, Lynne; White, Vanessa; Hudson, Rosalie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report on the quality of advance care planning (ACP) documents in use in residential aged care facilities (RACF) in areas of Victoria Australia prior to a systematic intervention; to report on the development and performance of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan template used during the intervention. Design An audit of the quality of pre-existing documentation used to record resident treatment preferences and end-of-life wishes at participating RACFs; development and pilot of an aged care specific Advance Care Plan template; an audit of the completeness and quality of Advance Care Plans completed on the new template during a systematic ACP intervention. Participants and setting 19 selected RACFs (managed by 12 aged care organisations) in metropolitan and regional areas of Victoria. Results Documentation in use at facilities prior to the ACP intervention most commonly recorded preferences regarding hospital transfer, life prolonging treatment and personal/cultural/religious wishes. However, 7 of 12 document sets failed to adequately and clearly specify the resident's preferences as regards life prolonging medical treatment. The newly developed aged care specific Advance Care Plan template was met with approval by participating RACFs. Of 203 Advance Care Plans completed on the template throughout the project period, 49% included the appointment of a Medical Enduring Power of Attorney. Requests concerning medical treatment were specified in almost all completed documents (97%), with 73% nominating the option of refusal of life-prolonging treatment. Over 90% of plans included information concerning residents’ values and beliefs, and future health situations that the resident would find to be unacceptable were specified in 78% of completed plans. Conclusions Standardised procedures and documentation are needed to improve the quality of processes, documents and outcomes of ACP in the residential aged care sector. PMID:23626906

  19. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  20. Effects of estradiol and genistein on the insulin signaling pathway in the cerebral cortex of aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Morán, Javier; Garrido, Pablo; Cabello, Estefanía; Alonso, Ana; González, Celestino

    2014-10-01

    Menopause leads to a decrease in estrogen production that increases central insulin resistance, contributing to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. We have evaluated the influence of aging and estradiol or genistein treatments on some key stages of the insulin signaling pathway in the cerebral cortex. Young and aged female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and treated acutely with 17β-estradiol (1.4μg/kg body weight), two doses of genistein (10 or 40mg/kg body weight), or vehicle. The cortical expression of several key insulin signaling pathway components was analyzed by western blotting. Our results showed an age-related deterioration in the interactions between the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p85α) and the activated form of insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS1tyr612), as well as between p85α and the 46kDa isoform of the estrogen receptor α (ERα46). Moreover, aging also decreased the translocation of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. 17β-Estradiol but not genistein reduced the negative impact of aging on central insulin sensitivity by favoring this GLUT4 translocation, and therefore could be neuroprotective against the associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, protein kinase B (Akt) activation by genistein suggests that other possible mechanisms are involved in the neuroprotective effects of this phytoestrogen during the aging process. PMID:25086228

  1. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  2. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  3. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  4. Menstrual cycles continue into advanced old age in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Gould, Kenneth G; Hawkes, Kristen; Wijayawardana, Sameera R; Chen, Jian; Easley, Kirk A; Herndon, James G

    2008-09-01

    A long postreproductive lifespan may distinguish women from all other female primates. A long-held consensus among reproductive scientists has been that our closest living relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), experiences menstrual cycles until death. However, a recent study of biannual assessments of gonadotropins, but lacking observations of menstruation, concluded that menopause occurs in chimpanzees between 35 and 40 yr of age. A separate report, but on wild chimpanzees, documented fertility through the 40-44 age range in all populations studied. These contradictory reports pose questions about differences between wild and captive populations and about assessments of menopause. The present study revisits this controversy by analyzing longitudinal records of anogenital swelling and menstruation in 89 female chimpanzees aged 6 to 59 yr (n = 2386 records on cycle length), monitored for most of their adult lives at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Twenty of these chimpanzees were observed past 39 yr of age; all 20 displayed menstrual cycles beyond this age, as confirmed by at least two observations of menses about 35 days apart. Three of these were older than 50 yr and still displayed menstrual cycles. Only the oldest female appeared menopausal, with cycles of anogenital swelling ceasing 2 yr prior to her death at age 59. Random-effects statistical modeling reveals a slight decrease in cycle length until 20 yr of age and a slight lengthening thereafter. Mean cycle length across the lifespan is 35.4 days. Our findings, based upon actual observations of menstrual cycles, suggest that menopause in the chimpanzee is rare, occurring near the end of the lifespan. PMID:18495682

  5. A National Network to Advance the Field of Cancer and Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Shari B.; Abramsohn, Emily; Andersen, Barbara L.; Baron, Shirley R.; Carter, Jeanne; Dickler, Maura; Florendo, Judith; Freeman, Leslie; Githens, Katherine; Kushner, David; Makelarski, Jennifer A.; Yamada, Diane; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding sexual health issues in cancer patients is integral to care for the continuously growing cancer survivor population. Aim To create a national network of active clinicians and researchers focusing on the prevention and treatment of sexual problems in woman and girls with cancer. Methods Interdisciplinary teams from the University of Chicago and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center jointly developed the mission for a national conference to convene clinicians and researchers in the field of cancer and female sexuality. The invitee list was developed by both institutions and further iterated through suggestions from invitees. The conference agenda focused on three high-priority topics under the guidance of a professional facilitator. Breakout groups were led by attendees recognized by collaborators as experts in those topics. Conference costs were shared by both institutions. Main Outcome Measure Development of Scientific Working Groups (SWGs) Results One hundred two clinicians and researchers were invited to attend the 1st National Conference on Cancer and Female Sexuality. Forty-three individuals from 20 different institutions across 14 states attended, including representation from eight NCI-funded cancer centers. Attendees included PhD researchers (n=19), physicians (n=16), and other health care professionals (n=8). Breakout groups included: 1) Defining Key Life Course Sexuality Issues; 2) Building a Registry; and 3) Implementing Sexual Health Assessment. Breakout group summaries incorporated group consensus on key points and priorities. These generated six SWGs with volunteer leaders to accelerate future research and discovery: 1) Technology-Based Interventions; 2) Basic Science; 3) Clinical Trials; 4) Registries; 5) Measurement; and 6) Secondary Data Analysis. Most attendees volunteered for at least one SWG (n=35), and many volunteered for two (n=21). Conclusion This 1st National Conference demonstrated high motivation and broad

  6. [Advances and challenges in treatment for female victims of sexual violence].

    PubMed

    Villela, Wilza V; Lago, Tânia

    2007-02-01

    This article analyzes treatment for female victims of sexual violence, with a focus on partnerships between government and the organized women's movement. The central references are the specific literature and testimony by key social actors who have participated in this process. The results show that despite the real and symbolic importance of care for rape victims, the government and the women's movement have not succeeded in guaranteeing the expansion of these services or adequately linking the discussion of sexual violence to women's right to abortion under any circumstances. It is thus necessary to step up the measures on this agenda. PMID:17221098

  7. Advances in management of the female athlete triad and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Zach, Karie N; Smith Machin, Ariane L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-07-01

    Although there are numerous benefits to women from athletic participation, a complex combination of endocrine and metabolic factors exaggerates risk for a serious health concern: the female athlete triad. The purpose of this article is to provide updates on new issues related to the triad, specifically the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction-a potential fourth component to the triad that is a concern for future cardiovascular risk, public health issues, and athletic performance. Folic acid should be considered a potential safe and inexpensive therapeutic treatment to restore endothelial-dependent vasodilation. PMID:21658548

  8. Heart valve disease in elderly Chinese population: effect of advanced age and comorbidities on treatment decision-making and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kui; Li, Jun; Wan, Yun; Hong, Tao; Lu, Shu-Yang; Guo, Chang-Fa; Wang, Chun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of elderly patients with symptomatic severe heart valve disease are treated conservatively despite clear indications for surgical intervention. However, little is known about how advanced age and comorbidities affect treatment decision-making and therapeutic outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 234, mean age: 78.5 ± 3.7 years) with symptomatic severe heart valve disease hospitalized in our center were included. One hundred and fifty-one patients (65%) were treated surgically (surgical group) and 83 (35%) were treated conservatively (conservative group). Factors that affected therapeutic decision-making and treatment outcomes were investigated and long-term survival was explored. Results Isolated aortic valve disease, female sex, chronic renal insufficiency, aged ≥ 80 years, pneumonia, and emergent status were independent factors associated with therapeutic decision-making. In-hospital mortality for the surgical group was 5.3% (8/151). Three patients (3.6%) in the conservative group died during initial hospitalization. Low cardiac output syndrome and chronic renal insufficiency were identified as predictors of in-hospital mortality in the surgical group. Conservative treatment was identified as the single risk factor for late death in the entire study population. The surgical group had better 5-year (77.2% vs. 45.4%, P < 0.0001) and 10-year (34.5% vs. 8.9%, P < 0.0001) survival rates than the conservative group, even when adjusted by propensity score-matched analysis. Conclusions Advanced age and geriatric comorbidities profoundly affect treatment decision-making for severe heart valve disease. Valve surgery in the elderly was not only safe but was also associated with good long-term survival while conservative treatment was unfavorable for patients with symptomatic severe valve disease.

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-I regulates LH release by modulation of kisspeptin and NMDA-mediated neurotransmission in young and middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Yao, Dachun; Shu, Jun; Sun, Yan; Etgen, Anne M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated potential mechanisms by which age and IGF-I receptor (IGF-Ir) signaling in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus affect estradiol-positive feedback effects on GnRH neuronal activation and on kisspeptin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced LH release and on the abundance of NMDA receptor subunits Nr1 and Nr2b and Kiss1r transcript and protein in the hypothalamus of young and middle-aged female rats. We infused vehicle, IGF-I, or JB-1, a selective antagonist of IGF-Ir, into the third ventricle of ovariectomized female rats primed with estradiol or vehicle and injected with vehicle, kisspeptin (3 or 30 nmol/kg), or NMDA (15 or 30 mg/kg). Regardless of dose, NMDA and kisspeptin resulted in significantly more LH release, GnRH/c-Fos colabeling, and c-Fos immunoreative cells in young than in middle-aged females. Estradiol priming significantly increased Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b receptor transcript and protein abundance in young but not middle-aged female hypothalamus. JB-1 attenuated kisspeptin and NMDA-induced LH release, numbers of GnRH/c-Fos and c-Fos cells, and Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b transcript and protein abundance in young females to levels observed in middle-aged females. IGF-I significantly enhanced NMDA and kisspeptin-induced LH release in middle-aged females without increasing numbers of GnRH/c-Fos or c-Fos immunoreactive cells. IGF-I infusion in middle-aged females also increased Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b protein and transcript to levels that were equivalent to young estradiol-primed females. These findings indicate that age-related changes in estradiol-regulated responsiveness to excitatory input from glutamate and kisspeptin reflect reduced IGF-Ir signaling. PMID:24617524

  10. Ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on birth prevalence of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnood, B; Pryde, P; Wall, S; Singh, J; Mittendorf, R; Lee, K S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on the risk of Down syndrome might reflect differences in use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. METHODS: Maternal age-specific odds of Down syndrome and amniocentesis use were compared among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites via birth data for the years 1989 to 1991. RESULTS: The odds ratio and population attributable risk of Down syndrome due to maternal age of 35 years or older were highest for Mexican Americans, intermediate for African Americans, and lowest for non-Hispanic Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age has a greater impact on the risk of Down syndrome for African American and, particularly, Mexican American women than for non-Hispanic White women. This difference in impact might reflect lower availability or use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. PMID:11076250

  11. Socioeconomic variation in admission for diseases of female genital system and breast in a national cohort aged 15-43.

    PubMed Central

    Kuh, D.; Stirling, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate socioeconomic variation among young women in the risk of hospital admission for diseases (including neoplasms) of the female genital system and breast and for the common surgical procedures of dilatation and curettage and hysterectomy. DESIGN--Large nationally representative cohort study with individual records of confirmed admissions to NHS and private hospitals since birth and data on occupational and educational experience. SETTING--England, Scotland, and Wales. PATIENTS--General population sample of 1628 women, 1549 of whom had a complete admissions record for the ages of 15-43 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The percentage of women admitted for neoplasms or other diseases of the female genital system and breast or who had dilatation and curettage or hysterectomy between the ages of 15 and 43 years. RESULTS--By the age of 43, 35% of women had been admitted, 17% had undergone dilatation and curettage at least once, and 10% had had a hysterectomy. There were significant inverse educational gradients, the risk of admission increasing more than twofold between the most and least educated women. The differential risk was most striking for disorders of menstruation, in which only 1% of those with the highest educational qualifications and 19% of those with minimal qualifications had been admitted to hospital. There was a significant educational gradient in the hysterectomy rate (from 1% to 15%) and a twofold difference in the risk of dilatation and curettage. There were also significant gradients in risk of admission and of hysterectomy according to partner's social class. CONCLUSIONS--Socioeconomic variations in the risk of dilatation and curettage and of hysterectomy were large. Lessening the socioeconomic gradient in risks of admissions and surgery for diseases of the female genital system and breast, particularly for menstrual disorders, could have important resource implications. PMID:7580490

  12. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H.; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article. PMID:27247673

  13. Mindful Sustainable Aging: Advancing a Comprehensive Approach to the Challenges and Opportunities of Old Age.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Håkan; Bülow, Pia H; Kazemi, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of this article is to present a new concept called mindful sustainable aging (MSA), which is informed by mindfulness practices that support the physical, the mental, and especially, the social and the existential dimensions of old life. The concept of MSA is discussed and compared with four influential psychosocial theories in the field of gerontology, i.e., activity theory, disengagement theory, successful aging theory and gerotranscendence theory. The article ends with reviewing research on how mindfulness practice can help to manage, diminish and/or improve a number of serious physical conditions that are common among older people. The potential of mindfulness when it comes to facilitating for older adults in their quest for spiritual and existential meaning is discussed extensively throughout the article. PMID:27247673

  14. Acute effects of 17 β-estradiol and genistein on insulin sensitivity and spatial memory in aged ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ana; González-Pardo, Héctor; Garrido, Pablo; Conejo, Nélida M; Llaneza, Plácido; Díaz, Fernando; Del Rey, Carmen González; González, Celestino

    2010-12-01

    Aging is characterized by decline in metabolic function and insulin resistance, and both seem to be in the basis of neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive dysfunction. Estrogens prevent age-related changes, and phytoestrogens influence learning and memory. Our hypothesis was that estradiol and genistein, using rapid-action mechanisms, are able to modify insulin sensitivity, process of learning, and spatial memory. Young and aged ovariectomized rats received acute treatment with estradiol or genistein. Aged animals were more insulin-resistant than young. In each age, estradiol and genistein-treated animals were less insulin-resistant than the others, except in the case of young animals treated with high doses of genistein. In aged rats, no differences between groups were found in spatial memory test, showing a poor performance in the water maze task. However, young females treated with estradiol or high doses of genistein performed well in spatial memory task like the control group. Only rats treated with high doses of genistein showed an optimal spatial memory similar to the control group. Conversely, acute treatment with high doses of phytoestrogens improved spatial memory consolidation only in young rats, supporting the critical period hypothesis for the beneficial effects of estrogens on memory. Therefore, genistein treatment seems to be suitable treatment in aged rats in order to prevent insulin resistance but not memory decline associated with aging. Acute genistein treatment is not effective to restore insulin resistance associated to the early loss of ovarian function, although it can be useful to improve memory deficits in this condition. PMID:20467821

  15. Age at menopause: A fundamental data of interest to acquire in female patients' anamnesis.

    PubMed

    Sciomer, Susanna; De Carlo, Carlotta; Moscucci, Federica; Maffei, Silvia

    2016-07-15

    Although menopause is a universal phenomenon among women, the timing of the onset and the duration of the menopausal transition and the timing of the final menstrual period are not so codified. Compelling evidence supports the idea that the different impact of cardiovascular disease and the differences in vascular biology in men and women may be, at least in part, related to the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of sex steroid hormones. Indeed, androgens and estrogens influence a multitude of vascular biological processes and their cardiovascular effects are multifaceted. Gender pharmacology has proven that men and women have tiny but not paltry different effects to the same drug. Estrogens exert potential beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system in both sexes. It is evident that there is a need for the physician who approaches the female patient, to stress the main anamnestic data concerning her hormonal life starting from menarche, through pregnancy, until menopause. Thus it will be not only a formality becoming a cornerstone of the first doctor-patient relationship, both for in- and outpatient, we will have a clear and complete representation of the etiology and evolution of cardiovascular diseases that increasingly afflict the female gender. PMID:27128561

  16. Postweaning dietary genistein exposure advances puberty without significantly affecting early pregnancy in C57BL/6J female mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Zhao, Fei; Diao, Honglu; Xiao, Shuo; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    An epidemiological study indicates higher plasma level of genistein in girls with earlier puberty. This study tests the hypothesis in C57BL/6J mice that postweaning (peripubertal) dietary genistein exposure could result in earlier puberty in females assessed by vaginal opening, estrous cyclicity, corpus luteum and mammary gland development. Newly weaned female mice were fed with 0, 5, 100, or 500 ppm genistein diets. Decreased age at vaginal opening, increased length on estrus stage, and accelerated mammary gland development were detected in 100 and 500 ppm genistein-treated groups. Increased presence of corpus luteum was found in 5 ppm genistein-treated group at 6 weeks old only. Increased expression of epithelial-specific genes but not that of ERα and ERβ was detected in 500 ppm genistein-treated mammary glands at 5 weeks old. No significant adverse effect on embryo implantation was observed. These data demonstrate causal effect of dietary genistein on earlier puberty in female mice. PMID:24365114

  17. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  18. Cosmogenic 10Be constraints on Little Ice Age glacial advances in the eastern Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanan; Li, Yingkui; Harbor, Jon; Liu, Gengnian; Yi, Chaolu; Caffee, Marc W.

    2016-04-01

    Presumed Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented by a set of fresh, sharp-crested, boulder covered and compact moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in the Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have constrained the formation ages of these moraines. We report 31 10Be exposure ages from presumed LIA moraines in six glacial valleys in the Urumqi River headwater area and the Haxilegen Pass area of the eastern Tian Shan, China. Our results reveal that the maximum LIA glacial extent occurred mainly around 430 ± 100 yr, a cold and wet period as indicated by proxy data from ice cores, tree rings, and lake sediments in Central Asia. We also dated a later glacial advance to 270 ± 55 yr. However, 10Be exposure ages on several presumed LIA moraines in front of small, thin glaciers are widely scattered and much older than the globally recognized timing of the LIA. Historical topographic maps indicate that most glaciers were more extensive in the early 1960s, and two of our 10Be sample sites were located close to the ice front at that time. Boulders transported by these small and thin glaciers may be reworked from deposits originally formed prior to the LIA glacial advances, producing apparently old and widely scattered exposure ages due to varied nuclide inheritance. Other published ages indicated an earlier LIA advance around 790 ± 300 yr in the easternmost Tian Shan, but in our study area the more extensive advance around 430 ± 100 yr likely reworked or covered deposits from this earlier event.

  19. Occupational Embeddedness, Perceived Risk, and the Quality of Reach Motion in Females Aged 7 to 9 Years.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Abigail; Rice, Martin S

    2015-01-01

    The perceived meaning ascribed to objects can influence the motor control efficiency in adults when reaching. However, little is known whether the same phenomenon occurs in pediatric females. Twenty-seven girls aged 7 to 9 years recruited from Girl Scout Brownie troupes and afterschool programs were asked to reach for plastic and porcelain teacups in the context of a "tea party" scenario. No differences were found in most of the motion capture variables (p > .05), and effect sizes were small. It is likely that the perceived meaning of the tea party was so robust that it overwhelmed any perceived differences inherent between the two conditions. Future research is needed to clarify the age at which children can qualitatively discern meaningful differences between objects. PMID:26020356

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM (CHC13). A McDonald, Y M Sey and J E Simmons. NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.
    Disinfection, by chlorination or by ozonation followed by treatment with either chlorine or chloramine, of water containi...

  1. Advances in Disentangling Age, Cohort, and Time Effects: No Quadrature of the Circle, but a Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masche, J. Gowert; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on Schaie's (1965) general developmental model, various data-driven and theory-based approaches to the exploration and disentangling of age, cohort, and time effects on human behavior have emerged. This paper presents and discusses an advancement of data-driven interpretations that stresses parsimony when interpreting the results of…

  2. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  3. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  4. Effects of cadmium, calcium, age and parity on bone mineral, density and strength in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Weanling female rats were fed diets containing one of three levels of Ca (0.3, 0.6, or 0.9%) and one of four levels of Cd (0, 1, 5, or 10 ppm) in the drinking water. One half of each group was fed first as adolescents (55 days) and the other half as mature (110 days) females. Approximately 10 animals from each group were sacrificed after the first pregnancy and the remaining animals after the fourth pregnancy. Reproductive performance, plasma and bone Ca and P and bone density and strength were measured. After the first pregnancy, offspring of dams treated with 5 or 10 ppm Cd were smaller at birth than offspring of dams treated with 0 or 1 ppm Cd. After the fourth pregnancy, the decreased birth weight was evident only in offspring of dams treated with 10 ppm Cd. Offspring of dams fed 5 or 10 ppm Cd or the 0.3% Ca diet had decreased weaning weight regardless of parity. A 0.3% Ca diet superimposed upon a 5 or 10 ppm Cd intake decreased weaning weight of the male offspring after the first, but not the fourth, pregnancy with the offspring of adolescent dams affected more than those of mature dams. Offspring of dams fed the 0.9% Ca diet did not differ in weaning weight from the offspring of dams fed the 0.6% Ca diet. The 0.3% Ca diet depressed the plasma Ca and the 0.9% Ca diet elevated the plasma Ca and depressed the plasma P when compared to the 0.6% diet.

  5. Advanced aging phenotype is revealed by epigenetic modifications in rat liver after in utero malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye J; Tozour, Jessica N; Delahaye, Fabien; Zhao, Yongmei; Cui, Lingguang; Barzilai, Nir; Einstein, Francine Hughes

    2016-10-01

    Adverse environmental exposures of mothers during fetal period predispose offspring to a range of age-related diseases earlier in life. Here, we set to determine whether a deregulated epigenetic pattern is similar in young animals whose mothers' nutrition was modulated during fetal growth to that acquired during normal aging in animals. Using a rodent model of maternal undernutrition (UN) or overnutrition (ON), we examined cytosine methylation profiles of liver from young female offspring and compared them to age-matched young controls and aged (20-month-old) animals. HELP-tagging, a genomewide restriction enzyme and sequencing assay demonstrates that fetal exposure to two different maternal diets is associated with nonrandom dysregulation of methylation levels with profiles similar to those seen in normal aging animals and occur in regions mapped to genes relevant to metabolic diseases and aging. Functional consequences were assessed by gene expression at 9 weeks old with more significant changes at 6 months of age. Early developmental exposures to unfavorable maternal diets result in altered methylation profiles and transcriptional dysregulation in Prkcb, Pc, Ncor2, and Smad3 that is also seen with normal aging. These Notch pathway and lipogenesis genes may be useful for prediction of later susceptibility to chronic disease. PMID:27470058

  6. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of Northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) numbers throughout the western United States have been attributed to declining habitat quantity and quality. Improving our understanding of how interannual ecologic site variability affects nutritional status and fitness of different bird age classes will lead to improved land management and conservation strategies. Greater Sage Grouse were sampled from two Population Management Units located in northern Nevada, United States: Tuscarora (TU) and Lone Willow (LW) during 15 March-11 April 2004 and 14-20 March 2005. Twenty (16 yearlings, four adults) and 17 (7 yearlings, 10 adults) female Sage Grouse were captured and bled during 2004, and 12 (four yearlings, eight adults) and 14 (10 yearlings, four adults) were sampled during 2005 in TU and LW, respectively. Samples were evaluated to examine the effect of site, age, and year on specific hematologic and serum chemistry parameters. Several differences between age classes, sites, and years were detected for a number of fitness indicators; however, actual values fell within normal ranges of variation for Sage Grouse or other avian species. Differences were also detected for several parameters more closely related to reproductive fitness, including total plasma and serum proteins, and serum calcium and phosphorus. Yearlings had lower plasma protein (P<0.0001) and lower serum protein than did adults (P=0.0003). In 2004, TU yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than the adults, and in 2005, LW yearlings had lower levels than adults (P=0.008). Females on the TU site had lower serum phosphorus than the LW females (P<0.0001). Overall, adult females weighed more than yearlings (P=0.0004). Lower values found in yearlings, and on the TU management unit, indicate a lower production potential, particularly in unfavorable years. A lower intrinsic ability of yearlings to reproduce, combined with lower nutrition potentials and associated annual variations on certain types

  7. Metabonomic investigations of age- and batch-related variations in female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia V; Saric, Jasmina; Yap, Ivan K S; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-12-01

    The NMRI outbred mouse model is widely used for studying metabolic disease, toxicity, and infection, yet information regarding baseline metabolism of this murine strain is relatively sparse. Using different batches of female NMRI mice, we assessed the stability of the metabolic phenotype with increasing age and weight, and determined the influence of acclimatization on the metabolic profile of biofluids (urine, plasma, and faecal water). Differences in urinary concentrations of 3-ureidopropionate, 2-oxoisocaproate, trimethylamine, and glycine were detected between three batches of 9-week-old female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. An acclimatization period of 2 weeks was imposed after the mice entered the laboratory environment. Strong differences in the faecal metabolome pre- and post-acclimatization were found (reduction in amino acid concentrations), whilst the urine metabolome showed increased levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetyl glycine, and hippurate with decreased excretion of formate and betaine post-acclimatization. Temporal variation in the metabolite profiles over a 16-week study stabilized around 7-week-old animals. The results from this study strongly argue for inclusion of an acclimatization period prior to starting an investigative procedure, and suggest that the metabolic phenotypes of female NMRI mice are more stable at around 7 weeks of age. We have also identified a set of metabolites that are more susceptible to variation in concentration. This information can serve as a benchmark in order to establish confidence in systematic variation attributable to pathology or therapeutic intervention above the background metabolic variation in the NMRI mouse. PMID:24121299

  8. Uteroplacental insufficiency causes a nephron deficit, modest renal insufficiency but no hypertension with ageing in female rats.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Karen M; Mazzuca, Marc Q; Siebel, Andrew L; Mibus, Amy; Arena, Debbie; Tare, Marianne; Owens, Julie A; Wlodek, Mary E

    2009-06-01

    In rats, uteroplacental insufficiency induced by uterine vessel ligation restricts fetal growth and impairs mammary development compromising postnatal growth. In male offspring, this results in a nephron deficit and hypertension which can be reversed by improving lactation and postnatal growth. Here, growth, blood pressure and nephron endowment in female offspring from mothers which underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (Restricted) on day 18 of pregnancy were examined. Sham surgery (Control) and a reduced litter group (Reduced at birth to 5, equivalent to Restricted group) were used as controls. Offspring (Control, Reduced, Restricted) were cross-fostered on postnatal day 1 onto a Control (normal lactation) or Restricted (impaired lactation) mother. Restricted-on-Restricted offspring were born small but were of similar weight to Control-on-Control by postnatal day 35. Blood pressure was not different between groups at 8, 12 or 20 weeks of age. Glomerular number was reduced in Restricted-on-Restricted offspring at 6 months without glomerular hypertrophy. Cross-fostering a Restricted pup onto a Control dam resulted in a glomerular number intermediate between Control-on-Control and Restricted-on-Restricted. Blood pressure, along with renal function, morphology and mRNA expression, was examined in Control-on-Control and Restricted-on-Restricted females at 18 months. Restricted-on-Restricted offspring did not become hypertensive but developed glomerular hypertrophy by 18 months. They had elevated plasma creatinine and alterations in renal mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1), collagen IV (alpha1) and matrix matelloproteinase-9. This suggests that perinatally growth restricted female offspring may be susceptible to onset of renal injury and renal insufficiency with ageing in the absence of concomitant hypertension. PMID:19359373

  9. Bioinformatics and Microarray Analysis of miRNAs in Aged Female Mice Model Implied New Molecular Mechanisms for Impaired Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    He, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Kang; Liu, Jin; He, Yi-Xin; Tang, Tao; Li, Jie; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Lu, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing in aged females is still a challenge in clinics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in fracture healing. This study aims to identify the miRNAs that potentially contribute to the impaired fracture healing in aged females. Transverse femoral shaft fractures were created in adult and aged female mice. At post-fracture 0-, 2- and 4-week, the fracture sites were scanned by micro computed tomography to confirm that the fracture healing was impaired in aged female mice and the fracture calluses were collected for miRNA microarray analysis. A total of 53 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and 5438 miRNA-target gene interactions involved in bone fracture healing were identified. A novel scoring system was designed to analyze the miRNA contribution to impaired fracture healing (RCIFH). Using this method, 11 novel miRNAs were identified to impair fracture healing at 2- or 4-week post-fracture. Thereafter, function analysis of target genes was performed for miRNAs with high RCIFH values. The results showed that high RCIFH miRNAs in aged female mice might impair fracture healing not only by down-regulating angiogenesis-, chondrogenesis-, and osteogenesis-related pathways, but also by up-regulating osteoclastogenesis-related pathway, which implied the essential roles of these high RCIFH miRNAs in impaired fracture healing in aged females, and might promote the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27527150

  10. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The "Brain Age Gap Estimation" (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2 DM

  11. Advanced glycation end products overload might explain intracellular cobalamin deficiency in renal dysfunction, diabetes and aging.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Shannan, Batool; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to aging. Cobalamin (Cbl) is required for cell growth and functions, and its deficiency causes serious complications. Diabetics and renal patients show high concentrations of Cbl, but metabolic evidence of Cbl deficiency that is reversible after Cbl treatment. Cbl might be sequestered in blood and cannot be delivered to the cell. Megalin mediates the uptake of transcobalamin-Cbl complex into the proximal tubule cells. Megalin is involved in the uptake and degradation of AGEs. In aging, diabetes or renal dysfunction, AGEs might overload megalin thus lowering Cbl uptake. Transcobalamin-Cbl might retain in blood. Shedding of megalin and transcobalamin receptor under glycation conditions is also a possible mechanism of this phenomenon. PMID:21880434

  12. Aging and Loss of Circulating 17β-Estradiol Alters the Alternative Splicing of ERβ in the Female Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Shults, Cody L; Pinceti, Elena; Rao, Yathindar S; Pak, Toni R

    2015-11-01

    Loss of circulating 17β-estradiol (E2) that occurs during menopause can have detrimental effects on cognitive function. The efficacy of hormone replacement therapy declines as women become farther removed from the menopausal transition, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in E2 efficacy are unknown. We hypothesized that aging and varying lengths of E2 deprivation alters the ratio of alternatively spliced estrogen receptor (ER)β isoforms in the brain of female rats. Further, we tested whether changes in global transcriptional activity and splicing kinetics regulate the alternative splicing of ERβ. Our results revealed brain region-specific changes in ERβ alternative splicing in both aging and E2-deprivation paradigms and showed that ERβ could mediate E2-induced alternative splicing. Global transcriptional activity, as measured by phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, was also regulated by age and E2 in specific brain regions. Finally, we show that inhibition of topoisomerase I resulted in increased ERβ2 splice variant expression. PMID:26295370

  13. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  14. A prospective study of young females' sexual subjectivity: associations with age, sexual behavior, and dating.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Ducat, Wendy H; Boislard-Pepin, Marie-Aude

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perceptions are important aspects of sexuality, which can undergo significant change during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe these changes among girls (N = 251; ages 16-25) over one year, and to examine associations of sexual self-perceptions (sexual subjectivity) with age, sexual behavior, and romantic status. Sexual body-esteem, perceptions of entitlement to desire and pleasure, sexual efficacy, and sexual self-reflection were investigated as elements of sexual subjectivity. All sexual subjectivity elements were higher among girls who had more sexual experience and/or had steady romantic partners during the study. Perception of entitlement to desire and pleasure increased over time, whereas sexual body-esteem showed the most stability and had minimal associations with sexual or romantic experiences. The greatest increases in sexual subjectivity were found among girls who began the study with the least sociosexual experience and self-reflection also increased for girls who had first coitus after the start of the study. Overall, girls who had sexual intercourse the earliest (before age 16) had the highest sexual subjectivity, but sexual subjectivity increased the most among girls without coital experience or who had more recent first coitus. PMID:21491139

  15. Voluntary exercise promotes beneficial anti-aging mechanisms in SAMP8 female brain.

    PubMed

    Bayod, Sergi; Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Kaliman, Perla; Ortuño-Sahagun, Daniel; Escorihuela, Rosa M; Pallàs, Mercè

    2015-02-01

    Regular physical exercise mediates health and longevity promotion involving Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-regulated pathways. The anti-aging activity of SIRT1 is achieved, at least in part, by means of fine-tuning the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by preventing the transition of an originally pro-survival program into a pro-aging mechanism. Additionally, SIRT1 promotes mitochondrial function and reduces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), the master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, by using senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) as a model for aging, we determined the effect of wheel-running as a paradigm for long-term voluntary exercise on SIRT1-AMPK pathway and mitochondrial functionality measured by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex content in the hippocampus and cortex. We found differential activation of SIRT1 in both tissues and hippocampal-specific activation of AMPK. These findings correlated well with significant changes in OXPHOS in the hippocampal, but not in the cerebral cortex, area. Collectively, the results revealed greater benefits of the exercise in the wheel-running intervention in a murine model of senescence, which was directly related with mitochondrial function and which was mediated through the modulation of SIRT1 and AMPK pathways. PMID:25027560

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal

  17. Adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) activity and age of females near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene on a southern California dairy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarah M; Mullens, Bradley A

    2010-10-01

    The number of adult male and female house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), near varying levels of (Z)-9-tricosene alone (5, 50, or 100 micdrol) or combined (50 microl) with sugar was determined using conical screened traps on a dairy in southern California. Overall, significantly more males than females were collected in the traps. Significantly more flies (male and female) were collected in traps with (Z)-9-tricosene. There were no significant differences among doses of (Z)-9-tricosene alone, but numbers of both sexes were significantly higher in traps baited with (Z)-9-tricosene and sugar compared with the 5- and 50-microl doses without sugar. The age of female flies collected in traps was determined by pterin analysis. Mean female ages ranged from 94.7 to 99.6 degree-days (6.3-6.8 d of age) and did not differ significantly among treatments. Dissections of a subset of females from each treatment determined that collected females were primarily nongravid (86.3%). Proportions of gravid females that were collected did not differ among treatments. PMID:21061998

  18. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Sex-specific parental care strategies via nestling age: females pay more attention to nestling demands than males do in the horned lark, Eremophila alpestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jing; Du, Bo; Liu, Nai-Fa; Bao, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-06-01

    In many species, nestling demands vary continuously during early development and both parents have different parental care strategies at each nestling age. Sexual conflict arises when each parent expects its partner investing more in parental care. It is largely unknown how the two parents respond to the dynamics of nestling demands and resolve the sexual conflict during nestling period, especially on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To address this question, we monitored parental care behaviors of horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) using video-recording systems. We found that male horned larks invested less in parental care, but had a larger body size than females, which is consistent with the parental investment hypothesis. Only the female brooded nestlings, but both parents contributed to feeding efforts. Feeding rates of males and females were negatively correlated, indicating that they used evolutionarily stable strategies. Strategies of parental care via nestling age were sex-specific. Females continuously adjusted care behaviors to follow the dynamics of nestling demands as nestling age increased, such as decreasing brood attentiveness and increasing feeding rate. By contrast, male feeding rate showed no significant correlation with nestling age, but increased with the synchrony feeding rate. We suggest the synchrony feeding behavior may act as a control measure for females to promote and assess the males' contribution. We consider low mating opportunities drive males to act as assistants for females, and correspondingly cause males to pay less attention to nestling demands than females. PMID:24882094

  20. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25387669

  1. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31 ± 1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25387669

  2. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction. PMID:25250588

  3. Effect of age and season on the thyroid hormone activity of Mizoram strain female mithun (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Lalsangpuii; Ali, M. Ayub; Devi, L. Inaotombi; Behera, Parthasarathi; Ralte, Lalsanglura

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to generate baseline data on the normal values of the thyroidhormone (TH) activity as well as their correlation with age and season. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from jugular vein of 30 female mithun’s of three different age groups viz. Calves (6 months to 1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (above 3 years) during the three season’s viz. Monsoon, winter and spring of a year. The serum was analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) activity. Result: The result showed a significantly (p<0.05) a higher T3 level in heifers followed by adults and calves and higher T4 level in adults followed by heifers and calves in all the seasons. The TSH level was higher in heifers in all the seasons. The winter season recorded higher level of T3, T4, and TSH as compared to the other seasons of a year. Conclusion: The TSH and T3 level were the highest for aheifer, whereas T4 level was the highest for adults inall the season. Furthermore, the higher level of TH was observed in winter season. The increased level of the TH during the winter season signifies their calorigenic effect. Similarly in heifers, the increased T3 concentrations show its importance in reproductive physiology and its association with ovarian activity. This indicates that age and season have aprofound effect on TH activity of Mizoram strain female mithun. PMID:27047046

  4. Events in Early Life are Associated with Female Reproductive Ageing: A UK Biobank Study.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Katherine S; Perry, John R B; Henley, William E; Melzer, David; Weedon, Michael N; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The available oocyte pool is determined before birth, with the majority of oocytes lost before puberty. We hypothesised that events occurring before birth, in childhood or in adolescence ('early-life risk factors') could influence the size of the oocyte pool and thus the timing of menopause. We included cross-sectional data from 273,474 women from the UK Biobank, recruited in 2006-2010 from across the UK. We analysed the association of early menopause with events occurring before adulthood in 11,781 cases (menopause aged under 45) and 173,641 controls (menopause/pre-menopausal at ≥45 years), in models controlling for potential confounding variables. Being part of a multiple birth was strongly associated with early menopause (odds ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.11, 1.82, P = 8.0 × 10(-9), fully-adjusted model). Earlier age at menarche (odds ratio = 1.03, confidence interval: 1.01, 1.06, P = 2.5 × 10(-6)) and earlier year of birth were also associated with EM (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 1.00, 1.04, P = 8.0 × 10(-6)). We also confirmed previously reported associations with smoking, drinking alcohol, educational level and number of births. We identified an association between multiple births and early menopause, which connects events pre-birth, when the oocyte pool is formed, with reproductive ageing in later life. PMID:27094806

  5. Events in Early Life are Associated with Female Reproductive Ageing: A UK Biobank Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Perry, John R. B.; Henley, William E.; Melzer, David; Weedon, Michael N.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The available oocyte pool is determined before birth, with the majority of oocytes lost before puberty. We hypothesised that events occurring before birth, in childhood or in adolescence (‘early-life risk factors’) could influence the size of the oocyte pool and thus the timing of menopause. We included cross-sectional data from 273,474 women from the UK Biobank, recruited in 2006–2010 from across the UK. We analysed the association of early menopause with events occurring before adulthood in 11,781 cases (menopause aged under 45) and 173,641 controls (menopause/pre-menopausal at ≥45 years), in models controlling for potential confounding variables. Being part of a multiple birth was strongly associated with early menopause (odds ratio = 1.42, confidence interval: 1.11, 1.82, P = 8.0 × 10−9, fully-adjusted model). Earlier age at menarche (odds ratio = 1.03, confidence interval: 1.01, 1.06, P = 2.5 × 10−6) and earlier year of birth were also associated with EM (odds ratio = 1.02, confidence interval: 1.00, 1.04, P = 8.0 × 10−6). We also confirmed previously reported associations with smoking, drinking alcohol, educational level and number of births. We identified an association between multiple births and early menopause, which connects events pre-birth, when the oocyte pool is formed, with reproductive ageing in later life. PMID:27094806

  6. Advanced age decreases local calcium signaling in endothelium of mouse mesenteric arteries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boerman, Erika M; Everhart, Jesse E; Segal, Steven S

    2016-05-01

    Aging is associated with vascular dysfunction that impairs tissue perfusion, physical activity, and the quality of life. Calcium signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) is integral to vasomotor control, exemplified by localized Ca(2+) signals within EC projections through holes in the internal elastic lamina (IEL). Within these microdomains, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization is integral to smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation via coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. However, the effects of aging on local EC Ca(2+) signals (and thereby signaling between ECs and SMCs) remain unclear, and these events have not been investigated in vivo. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aging affects either the number or the size of IEL holes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that local EC Ca(2+) signaling is impaired with advanced age along with a reduction in IEL holes. In anesthetized mice expressing a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent protein (GCaMP2) selectively in ECs, our findings illustrate that for mesenteric arteries controlling splanchnic blood flow the frequency of spontaneous local Ca(2+) signals in ECs was reduced by ∼85% in old (24-26 mo) vs. young (3-6 mo) animals. At the same time, the number (and total area) of holes per square millimeter of IEL was reduced by ∼40%. We suggest that diminished signaling between ECs and SMCs contributes to dysfunction of resistance arteries with advanced age.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/aging-impairs-endothelial-ca2-signaling/. PMID:26945073

  7. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  8. Age-related changes in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Ito, Ayami; Yamada, Ayano; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes affect drug pharmacokinetics. Limited information exists on the alteration in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes with aging. We examined the effects of aging on the mRNA levels of representative hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes by analyzing their levels in 10-, 30- and 50-week-old male and female rats. Levels of mRNA of drug transporters including multidrug resistance protein (Mdr)1a, multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1a1, and the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A1, CYP3A2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 were analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of transporters in male rats did not decrease with age, while the mRNA levels of Bcrp and Oatp1a1 in female rats decreased with age. The mRNA levels of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in male rats were higher than those in female rats. The mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes decreased with age in female but not male rats. In particular, the mRNA levels of UGT1A1 in 10-week-old female rats were higher than those in male rats. mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes are more susceptible to aging in female than male rats. The age-related decreases in the mRNA levels of Bcrp, Oatp1a1, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in female rats may affect the metabolism and transport of substrates. This study showed that aging affected the mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes in rats. PMID:24899460

  9. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative. PMID:25801548

  10. Genetic evidence that lower circulating FSH levels lengthen menstrual cycle, increase age at menopause and impact female reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Beaumont, Robin N.; Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E.; Tuke, Marcus A.; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Wood, Andrew R.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Weedon, Michael N.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How does a genetic variant in the FSHB promoter, known to alter FSH levels, impact female reproductive health? SUMMARY ANSWER The T allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; c.-211G>T) results in longer menstrual cycles and later menopause and, while having detrimental effects on fertility, is protective against endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; c.-211G>T) affects levels of FSHB transcription and, as a result, circulating levels of FSH. FSH is required for normal fertility and genetic variants at the FSHB locus are associated with age at menopause and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We used cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank to look at associations between the FSHB promoter polymorphism and reproductive traits, and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for length of menstrual cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS We included white British individuals aged 40–69 years in 2006–2010, in the May 2015 release of genetic data from UK Biobank. We tested the FSH-lowering T allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; c.-211G>T) for associations with 29, mainly female, reproductive phenotypes in up to 63 350 women and 56 608 men. We conducted a GWAS in 9534 individuals to identify genetic variants associated with length of menstrual cycle. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The FSH-lowering T allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; MAF 0.16) was associated with longer menstrual cycles [0.16 SD (c. 1 day) per minor allele; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12–0.20; P = 6 × 10−16], later age at menopause (0.13 years per minor allele; 95% CI 0.04–0.22; P = 5.7 × 10−3), greater female nulliparity [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% CI 1.02–1.11; P = 4.8 × 10−3] and lower risk of endometriosis (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.69–0.90; P = 4.1 × 10−4). The FSH-lowering T allele was not associated with other female

  11. Younger Dryas Age advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H. ); Hendy, C.H. )

    1994-06-03

    A corrected radiocarbon age of 11,050 [+-] 14 years before present for an advance of the Franz Josef Glacier to the Waiho Loop terminal moraine on the western flank of New Zealand's Southern Alps shows that glacier advance on a South Pacific island was synchronous with initiation of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic region. Hence, cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas probably reflects global rather than regional forcing. The source for Younger Dryas climatic cooling may thus lie in the atmosphere rather than in a North Atlantic thermohaline switch. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  13. Biochemical alterations during the obese-aging process in female and male monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bautista, René J; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Del C Escobar-Villanueva, María; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Fainstein, Mina Konigsberg; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual's health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  14. Using Twitter for prenatal health promotion: encouraging a multivitamin habit among college-aged females.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Kim, Eunice; Guadagmo, Marie; Donovan-Kicken, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Half of the pregnancies in the United States are unplanned and the highest rate of these unplanned pregnancies occurs in young women aged 18-24y. Serious birth defects, such as those that affect the neural tube, occur early in pregnancy, most of the time before a woman knows she is pregnant. These neural tube defects can be reduced by 50-72% with an adequate daily intake of folic acid. In continuing the research on how to effectively communicate the important benefits of folic acid to young women, this study sought to investigate the use of social media as a tool for health promotion. Young women are considered the 'power users' of social media and the current study uses Twitter as a vehicle for multivitamin promotion messages due to the ability to quickly share content and the potential to attract viral attention through re-tweets. PMID:23138084

  15. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Inge; Mooyaart, Antien; Baguet, Audrey; Zutinic, Ana; Baelde, Hans; Achten, Eric; Taes, Youri; De Heer, Emile; Derave, Wim

    2011-04-01

    Carnosine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, where it is involved in several physiological functions. The muscle carnosine content measured within a population can vary by a factor 4. The aim of this study was to further characterize suggested determinants of the muscle carnosine content (diet, gender and age) and to identify new determinants (plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone). We investigated a group of 149 healthy subjects, which consisted of 94 men (12 vegetarians) and 55 women. Muscle carnosine was quantified in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior using magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy and blood samples were collected to determine CNDP1 genotype, plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone concentrations. Compared to women, men have 36, 28 and 82% higher carnosine concentrations in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, whereas circulating testosterone concentrations were unrelated to muscle carnosine levels in healthy men. The carnosine content of the M. soleus is negatively related to the subjects' age. Vegetarians have a lower carnosine content of 26% in gastrocnemius compared to omnivores. In contrast, there is no difference in muscle carnosine content between omnivores with a high or low ingestion of β-alanine. Muscle carnosine levels are not related to the polymorphism of the CNDP1 gene or to the enzymatic activity of the plasma carnosinase. In conclusion, neither CNDP1 genotype nor the normal variation in circulating testosterone levels affects the muscular carnosine content, whereas vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age are the factors associated with reduced muscle carnosine stores. PMID:20865290

  16. Effects of cadmium, calcium, age and parity on bone mineral, density and strength in female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, B.F.

    1985-06-01

    Weanling female rats were fed diets containing one of three levels of calcium and one of four levels of cadmium in the drinking water. Approximately 10 animals from each group were sacrificed after the first pregnancy and the remaining animals after the fourth pregnancy. Reproductive performance, plasma and bone Ca and P and bone density and strength were measured. After the first pregnancy, offspring of dams treated with 5 or 10 ppM Cd were smaller at birth than offspring of dams treated with 0 or 1 ppM Cd. Offspring of dams fed 5 or 10 ppM Cd or the 0.3% Ca diet had decreased weaning weight regardless of parity. Cadmium treatment had no effect on the plasma Ca or the Ca-P ratio. At Cd levels of 5 or 10 ppM the plasma P was increased. The 0.3% Ca diet depressed the plasma Ca and the 0.9% Ca diet elevated the plasma Ca and depressed the plasma P when compared to the 0.6% diet. Parity did not affect plasma Ca but, after four pregnancies, plasma P was decreased. Plasma Ca of mature dams was higher than that of adolescent dams but plasma P was unaffected. Bone mineral, density and strength were decreased by the 0.3% Ca diet especially when Cd levels reached 10 ppM. Increasing dietary Ca above normal increased femur Ca of dams fed 1 ppM Cd but did not increase the Ca of the femur of dams given higher levels of Cd. After the first pregnancy, femur Ca of mature dams was greater than that of adolescent dams. After the fourth pregnancy, femurs of mature dams were less strong than those of adolescent dams; however, the density was the same. Increasing dietary Ca above 0.6% lessened the detrimental effects of 5 ppM Cd ingestion on bone density. Mature dams were less affected by the 0.3% Ca 10 ppM Cd treatment than were adolescent dams. 60 refs., 3 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. A middle-aged female with recurrent sinopulmonary infections: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yalavarthy, Umesh C; Panda, Mukta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a form of severe antibody deficiency with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 100,000. The disorder apparently results from currently undefined immune deregulations resulting in failed B-cell differentiation with impaired secretion of immunoglobulins. It has a broad range of clinical symptoms including recurrent infections of the respiratory tract, chronic lung disease, autoimmune diseases, liver and gastrointestinal disorders, granulomatous infiltrations, lymphoma and solid tumors. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a one-day history of high-grade fever and productive cough associated with retrosternal chest pain. The patient had been discharged one week prior after a prolonged stay in an intensive care unit with multiorgan failure requiring temporary hemodialysis for two weeks secondary to sepsis. Past medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, recurrent pneumonias and recurrent sinus infections since adolescence. She had a temperature of 99.8°F, was tachycardic (137/min), tachypneic (26/min) with a blood pressure of 109/59 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 88% on 2 l/min nasal oxygen. Physical examination was significant for bibasilar rhonchi. Laboratory data were significant for leukocytosis of 15,700/mm3. Chest X-ray demonstrated bibasilar infiltrates. The patient was started on intravenous levofloxacin and vancomycin, and sputum gram stain and cultures were performed. Given the patient's recurrent respiratory infections, an underlying immunologic disorder was considered. Work-up revealed immunoglobulin A (IgA) 11 mg/dl (normal 70–400 mg/dl), immunoglobulin M (IgM) 2 mg/dl (normal 40–230 mg/dl) and IgG 53 mg/dl (normal 700–1,600 mg/dl). The patient was diagnosed with CVID and started on intravenous immunoglobulin. She was initially started on a four-week regimen of intravenous immunoglobulin, which was later switched to a three

  18. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti. PMID:25802436

  19. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti. PMID:25802436

  20. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Modulates Endothelial Blood-Brain Barrier Function in Ischemic Middle-Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Bake, Shameena; Okoreeh, Andre K; Alaniz, Robert C; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I-treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I-treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females. PMID:26556536

  1. Cortical neurons express nerve growth factor receptors in advanced age and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, E J; Kordower, J H

    1992-01-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody directed against the primate nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor, we examined the expression of NGF receptors within neuronal perikarya of normal adult human cerebral cortex (27-98 years old) and individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). This expression of cortical NGF receptors was compared with that seen in other neurological diseases and normal human development as well as in young and aged nonhuman primates. NGF receptor-containing cortical neurons were not observed in young adults (less than 50 years old) and were observed only infrequently in non-demented elderly individuals (50-80 years old). In contrast, numerous NGF receptor-containing cortical neurons were seen in AD patients of all ages and in one 98-year-old nondemented patient. In advanced age and AD, numerous NGF receptor-positive neurons were located within laminae II-VI of temporal association cortices whereas only a few were seen in the subicular complex, entorhinal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdaloid complex. These perikarya appeared healthy, with bipolar, fusiform, or multipolar morphologies and extended varicose dendritic arbors. These neurons failed to express neurofibrillary tangle-bearing material. In contrast to AD, NGF receptor-containing cortical neurons were not observed in Parkinson disease, Pick disease, or Shy-Drager syndrome. The NGF receptor-containing cortical neurons seen in advanced age and AD were similar in morphology to those observed in human fetal cortex. No NGF receptor-containing cortical neurons were observed in young or aged nonhuman primates. These findings suggest that neurons within the human cerebral cortex exhibit plasticity in their expression of NGF receptors in AD and extreme advanced aging. Images PMID:1309947

  2. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  3. Increased cardiovascular and renal risk is associated with low nephron endowment in aged females: an ovine model of fetal unilateral nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reetu R; Jefferies, Andrew J; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R; Lombardo, Paul; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Hilliard, Lucinda; Denton, Kate M; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    Previously we have shown that ovariectomised (OVX) female sheep have reduced renal function and elevated blood pressure from 6 months of age following fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) at 100 days of gestation (term = 150 days). In the current study we examined if in intact female sheep the onset of decline in renal function and elevation in blood pressure was prevented. Studies were performed at 1 year, 2 and 5 years of age. Following fetal uni-x at 100 days, intact female sheep had ~30% reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 1 year, which did not exacerbate with age (P(treatment) = 0.0001, P(age) = 0.7). In contrast renal blood flow was similar between the treatment groups at 1 year of age but had declined in the uni-x animals at 5 years of age (P(treatment × age) = 0.046). Interestingly, intact uni-x sheep did not develop elevations in arterial pressure until 2 years of age. Furthermore, uni-x animals had a similar capacity to respond to a cardiac challenge at 1 year and 2 years of age, however, cardiac functional reserve was significantly reduced compared to sham group at 5 years of age. Uni-x animals exhibited an increase in left ventricular dimensions at 5 years of age compared to the sham animals and compared to 2 years of age (P(treatment)<0.001, P(treatment × age)<0.001). In conclusion, the onset of renal dysfunction preceded the onset of hypertension in intact female uni-x sheep. Furthermore, this study showed that the intact females are protected from the impact of a reduced nephron endowment on cardiovascular health early in life as opposed to our findings in young male sheep and OVX uni-x female sheep. However, with ageing this protection is lost as evidenced by presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function in 5 year old uni-x female sheep. PMID:22879965

  4. ESTROGEN AND AGING AFFECT THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth M.; Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. Young females rats express more estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunolabeling in CA1sr spine synapse complexes than aged rats and ERα regulation is E sensitive in young but not aged rats. The current study examined whether estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in spine synapse complexes may be altered by age or E treatment. Young (3–4 months) and aged (22–23 months) female rats were ovariectomized 7 days prior to implantation of silastic capsules containing either vehicle (cholesterol) or E (10% in cholesterol) for 2 days. ERβ immunoreactivity (ir) in CA1sr was quantitatively analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. ERβ-ir was more prominent postsynaptically than presynaptically and both age and E treatment affected its synaptic distribution. While age decreased the spine synaptic complex localization of ERβ-ir (i.e., within 60 nm of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes), E treatment increased synaptic ERβ in both young and aged rats. In addition, the E treatment, but not age, increased dendritic shaft labeling. This data demonstrates that like ERα the levels of ERβ-ir decrease in CA1 axospinous synapses with age, however, unlike ERα the levels of ERβ-ir increase in these synapses in both young and aged rats in response to E. This suggests that synaptic ERβ may be a more responsive target to E, particularly in aged females. PMID:20875808

  5. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  6. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  7. Sleepwalking Into Infertility: The Need for a Public Health Approach Toward Advanced Maternal Age.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2015-01-01

    In Western countries today, a growing number of women delay motherhood until their late 30s and even 40s, as they invest time in pursuing education and career goals before starting a family. This social trend results from greater gender equality and expanded opportunities for women and is influenced by the availability of contraception and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, advanced maternal age is associated with increased health risks, including infertility. While individual medical solutions such as ART and elective egg freezing can promote reproductive autonomy, they entail significant risks and limitations. We thus argue that women should be better informed regarding the risks of advanced maternal age and ART, and that these individual solutions need to be supplemented by a public health approach, including policy measures that provide women with the opportunity to start a family earlier in life without sacrificing personal career goals. PMID:26575814

  8. Endocrine and fluid metabolism in males and females of different ages after bedrest, acceleration and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Krauhs, J. M.; Sandler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle flight simulations were conducted to determine the effects of weightlessness, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and acceleration of fluid and electrolyte excretion and the hormones that control it. Measurements were made on male and female subjects of different ages before and after bedrest. After admission to a controlled environment, groups of 6 to 14 subjects in the age ranges 25 to 35, 35 to 45, 45 to 55 to 65 years were exposed to +3 G sub z for 15 minutes (G1) and to LBNP (LBNP1) on different days. On 3 days during this prebedrest period, no tests were conducted. Six days of bedrest followed, and the G sub z (G2) and LBNP (LBNP2) tests were run again. Hormones, electrolytes, and other parameters were measured in 24-hour urine pools throughout the experiment. During bedrest, cortisol and aldosterone excretion increased. Urine volume decreased, and specific gravity and osmolality increased. Urinary electrolytes were statistically unchanged from levels during the non-stress control period. During G2, cortisol increased significantly over its control and bedrest levels. Urine volume, sodium, and chloride were significantly lower; specific gravity and osmolality were higher during the control period or bedrest. The retention of fluids and electrolytes after +G sub z may at least partially explain decreased urine volume and increased osmolality observed during bedrest in this study. There were some who indicated that space flight would not affect the fluid and electrolyte metabolism of females or older males any more severely than it has affected that of male astronauts.

  9. Advancing maternal age and trisomy screening: the practice challenges of facilitating choice and gaining consent.

    PubMed

    Birt, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies such as Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 (Patau's, Edward's and Down's syndrome respectively) is offered to all pregnant women in the first two trimesters.This article explores the varying considerations of consent for this type of screening, particularly in relation to women of advancing age who are at increased risk of carrying a pregnancy affected by a trisomy. The practical challenges or barriers of gaining valid, meaningful informed consent are discussed. PMID:26753259

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P <0.001), and differed among all populations, with the Aleutian population possessing the oldest average AFR (4.29 ?? 0.09 years) followed by PWS (4.05 ?? 0.24 years), Sitka (3.80 ?? 0.21 years), and Kodiak (3.19 ?? 0.37 years). The difference in average AFR among populations supports life-history theory and provides evidence of phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

  12. Detection of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on human skin by in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. A.; Pereira, L.; Ali, S. M.; Pizzol, C. D.; Tellez, C. A.; Favero, P. P.; Santos, L.; da Silva, V. V.; Praes, C. E. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aging process involves the reduction in the production of the major components of skin tissue. During intrinsic aging and photoaging processes, in dermis of human skin, fibroblasts become senescent and have decreased activity, which produce low levels of collagen. Moreover, there is accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs have incidence in the progression of age-related diseases, principally in diabetes mellitus and in Alzheimer's diseases. AGEs causes intracellular damage and/or apoptosis leading to an increase of the free radicals, generating a crosslink with skin proteins and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to detect AGEs markers on human skin by in vivo Confocal Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and a CCD detector from the skin surface down to 120 μm depth. We analyzed the confocal Raman spectra of the skin dermis of 30 women volunteers divided into 3 groups: 10 volunteers with diabetes mellitus type II, 65-80 years old (DEW); 10 young healthy women, 20-33 years old (HYW); and 10 elderly healthy women, 65-80 years old (HEW). Pentosidine and glucosepane were the principally identified AGEs in the hydroxyproline and proline Raman spectral region (1000-800 cm-1), in the 1.260-1.320 cm-1 region assignable to alpha-helical amide III modes, and in the Amide I region. Pentosidine and glucosepane calculated vibrational spectra were performed through Density Functional Theory using the B3LYP functional with 3-21G basis set. Difference between the Raman spectra of diabetic elderly women and healthy young women, and between healthy elderly women and healthy young women were also obtained with the purpose of identifying AGEs Raman bands markers. AGEs peaks and collagen changes have been identified and used to quantify the glycation process in human skin.

  13. Fitness Consequences of Advanced Ancestral Age over Three Generations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Adam D.; Lummaa, Virpi; Bazykin, Georgii A.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid rise in age at parenthood in contemporary societies has increased interest in reports of higher prevalence of de novo mutations and health problems in individuals with older fathers, but the fitness consequences of such age effects over several generations remain untested. Here, we use extensive pedigree data on seven pre-industrial Finnish populations to show how the ages of ancestors for up to three generations are associated with fitness traits. Individuals whose fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers fathered their lineage on average under age 30 were ~13% more likely to survive to adulthood than those whose ancestors fathered their lineage at over 40 years. In addition, females had a lower probability of marriage if their male ancestors were older. These findings are consistent with an increase of the number of accumulated de novo mutations with male age, suggesting that deleterious mutations acquired from recent ancestors may be a substantial burden to fitness in humans. However, possible non-mutational explanations for the observed associations are also discussed. PMID:26030274

  14. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  15. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    PubMed

    Ford, Judith H

    2013-01-01

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  16. Estradiol valerate elicits antidepressant-like effects in middle-aged female rats under chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Romano-Torres, Mónica; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like actions of estradiol valerate (1 or 2 mg/rat, single injection) or citalopram (5 or 10 mg/kg, chronically administered for 21 days) given independently or combined at low doses, to middle-aged ovariectomized female rats, as a model of human menopause. Animals were exposed to chronic mild stress, a model of depression that mimics anhedonia as revealed by diminished sucrose solution intake. Stressed rats decreased their sucrose preference 1 week after chronic stress and treatment with vehicle did not reverse this reduction. A single injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/rat) produced an antidepressant-like action, evidenced as an increase in sucrose preference specific to stressed rats. Chronic citalopram (10 mg/kg) produced an antidepressant-like effect after 1 week. A single low-dose of estradiol valerate (1 mg/rat) did not potentiate or shorten the latency of action of chronic citalopram (5 mg/kg). These results reveal the antidepressant-like action of estrogens in middle-aged rats exposed to chronic stress. These data may be of importance for clinical depression in menopausal women. PMID:20168212

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species Differentially Regulate Bone Turnover in an Age-Specific Manner in Catalase Transgenic Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Alund, Alexander W; Mercer, Kelly E; Suva, Larry J; Pulliam, Casey F; Chen, Jin-Ran; Badger, Thomas M; Van Remmen, Holly; Ronis, Martin J J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic ethyl alcohol (EtOH) consumption results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in bone and osteopenia due to increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. In this study, transgenic C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing human catalase (TgCAT) were used to test whether limiting excess hydrogen peroxide would protect against EtOH-mediated bone loss. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the skeletons of 6-week-old female chow-fed TgCAT mice revealed a high bone mass phenotype with increased cortical bone area and thickness as well as significantly increased trabecular bone volume (P < 0.05). Six-week-old wild-type (WT) and TgCAT female mice were chow fed or pair fed (PF) liquid diets with or without EtOH, approximately 30% of calories, for 8 weeks. Pair feeding of WT had no demonstrable effect on the skeleton; however, EtOH feeding of WT mice significantly reduced cortical and trabecular bone parameters along with bone strength compared with PF controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, EtOH feeding of TgCAT mice had no effect on trabecular bone compared with PF controls. At 14 weeks of age, there was significantly less trabecular bone and cortical cross-sectional area in TgCAT mice than WT mice (P < 0.05), suggesting impaired normal bone accrual with age. TgCAT mice expressed less collagen1α and higher sclerostin mRNA (P < 0.05), suggesting decreased bone formation in TgCAT mice. In conclusion, catalase overexpression resulted in greater bone mass than in WT mice at 6 weeks and lower bone mass at 14 weeks. EtOH feeding induced significant reductions in bone architecture and strength in WT mice, but TgCAT mice were partially protected. These data implicate ROS signaling in the regulation of bone turnover in an age-dependent manner, and indicate that excess hydrogen peroxide generation contributes to alcohol-induced osteopenia. PMID:27189961

  18. Who Will Do Science? Trends, and Their Causes in Minority and Female Representation among Holders of Advanced Degrees in Science and Mathematics. A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This paper describes trends in and causes of minority and female representation among holders of advanced science and math degrees. The minority groups studied are Blacks, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, and Asian Americans, all of whom are compared with Whites. The degrees looked at include those in math, the computer sciences, physical…

  19. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  20. Translating Advances from the Basic Biology of Aging into Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lifespan and healthspan have been extended in experimental animals using interventions that are potentially translatable into humans. A great deal of thought and work are needed beyond the usual steps in drug development to advance these findings into clinical application. Realistic pre-clinical and clinical trials paradigms need to be devised. Focusing on subjects with symptoms of age-related diseases or frailty or who are at imminent risk of developing these problems, measuring effects on short-term, clinically relevant outcomes, as opposed to long-term outcomes such as healthspan or lifespan, and developing biomarkers and outcome measures acceptable to regulatory agencies will be important. Research funding is a major roadblock, as is lack of investigators with combined expertise in the basic biology of aging, clinical geriatrics, and conducting investigational new drug clinical trials. Options are reviewed for developing a path from the bench to the bedside for interventions that target fundamental aging processes. PMID:23237984

  1. Advanced age negatively impacts survival in an experimental brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ladomersky, Erik; Zhai, Lijie; Gritsina, Galina; Genet, Matthew; Lauing, Kristen L; Wu, Meijing; James, C David; Wainwright, Derek A

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, with an average age of 64 years at the time of diagnosis. To study GBM, a number of mouse brain tumor models have been utilized. In these animal models, subjects tend to range from 6 to 12 weeks of age, which is analogous to that of a human teenager. Here, we examined the impact of age on host immunity and the gene expression associated with immune evasion in immunocompetent mice engrafted with syngeneic intracranial GL261. The data indicate that, in mice with brain tumors, youth conveys an advantage to survival. While age did not affect the tumor-infiltrating T cell phenotype or quantity, we discovered that old mice express higher levels of the immunoevasion enzyme, IDO1, which was decreased by the presence of brain tumor. Interestingly, other genes associated with promoting immunosuppression including CTLA-4, PD-L1 and FoxP3, were unaffected by age. These data highlight the possibility that IDO1 contributes to faster GBM outgrowth with advanced age, providing rationale for future investigation into immunotherapeutic targeting in the future. PMID:27493076

  2. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Bangen, Katherine J.; Nation, Daniel A.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Dev, Sheena I.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Salmon, David P.; Liu, Thomas T.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs) previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors), advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor). This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus), inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus), and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus) cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines. PMID:25071567

  3. Effects of advanced aging on the neural correlates of successful recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tracy H.; Kruggel, Frithjof; Rugg, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have reported that the neural correlates of retrieval success (old>new effects) are larger and more widespread in older than in young adults. In the present study we investigated whether this pattern of age-related ‘over-recruitment’ continues into advanced age. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), retrieval-related activity from two groups (N = 18 per group) of older adults aged 84–96 yrs (‘old-old’) and 64–77 yrs (‘young-old’) was contrasted. Subjects studied a series of pictures, half of which were presented once, and half twice. At test, subjects indicated whether each presented picture was old or new. Recognition performance of the old-old subjects for twice-studied items was equivalent to that of the young-old subjects for once-studied items. Old>new effects common to the two groups were identified in several cortical regions, including medial and lateral parietal and prefrontal cortex. There were no regions where these effects were of greater magnitude in the old-old group, and thus no evidence of over-recruitment in this group relative to the young-old individuals. In one region of medial parietal cortex, effects were greater (and only significant) in the young-old group. The failure to find evidence of over-recruitment in the old-old subjects relative to the young-old group, despite their markedly poorer cognitive performance, suggests that age-related over-recruitment effects plateau in advanced age. The findings for the medial parietal cortex underscore the sensitivity of this cortical region to increasing age. PMID:19428399

  4. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate ameliorates aging effects in the dendritic tree of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of both male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kougias, Daniel G; Nolan, Suzanne O; Koss, Wendy A; Kim, Taehyeon; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-04-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), a supplement commonly used to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations, has been unexplored in the aging brain. In both healthy aging humans and rat models, there are cognitive deficits associated with age-related dendritic shrinkage within the prefrontal cortex. The present study explores the effects of relatively short- and long-term (7 and 31 weeks) oral HMB supplementation starting at 12 months of age in male and female rats on the dendritic tree of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. Since female rats continue to secrete ovarian hormones after reaching reproductive senescence, middle-aged female rats were ovariectomized to model humans. As expected, there were fewer spines and a retraction of dendritic material in the apical and basilar trees in old age controls of both sexes compared with their middle-aged counterparts. However, these losses did not occur in the HMB-treated rats in either dendrites or the total number of dendritic spines. Thus, HMB forestalled the effects of aging on the dendritic tree of this population of neurons. PMID:26973106

  5. Ovarian hormones, but not fluoxetine, impart resilience within a chronic unpredictable stress model in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Chaiton, Jessica A; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-08-01

    consequences of chronic unpredictable stress, and may modulate the effects of fluoxetine on cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and PSA-NCAM in the middle-aged female. PMID:27018449

  6. Association of advanced age with concentrations of uraemic toxins in CKD.

    PubMed

    Rroji, Merita; Eloot, Sunny; Dhondt, Annemie; Van Biesen, Wim; Glorieux, Griet; Neirynck, Nathalie; Vandennoortgate, Nele; Liabeuf, Sophie; Massy, Ziad; Vanholder, Raymond

    2016-02-01

    To our knowledge, there are no studies on advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) analysing the impact of ageing on serum concentrations of uraemic toxins while adjusting for renal function. Knowledge of this feature, however, could influence prognostic assessment and therapeutic decision-making, e.g. about when to start dialysis or how intensive it should be. Indeed, the slowing down of metabolism with age may result in lower uraemic toxin concentrations, hence reducing their toxic effects. In this case, a later start of dialysis or less intensive dialysis may become justified in an already fragile population that might enjoy a better quality of life without a survival disadvantage with conservative treatment. We assessed the impact of advancing age on uraemic solute concentrations [blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA), β2-microglobulin and a large array of protein-bound solutes] by matching 126 maintenance haemodialysis patients subdivided into two age-groups, younger vs. older (using the median as cut-off: 72 years). Concentrations were compared after age stratification and were matched with patient and dialysis characteristics. In addition, 93 non-dialysed CKD patients (median as cut-off: 70 years), with a comparable average estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between younger and older age-groups, were analysed. In haemodialysis patients, carboxy-methyl-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) levels were markedly higher and BUN and uric acid borderline lower in the older age-group. All other solutes showed no difference. At multifactor analysis, the concentration of several uraemic toxins was associated with residual renal function and protein intake in the overall haemodialysis group and the younger group, but the association with most solutes, especially those protein-bound, was lost in the older age-group. No differences were found in non-dialysed CKD patients. It was concluded that in this

  7. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jonathan; Xu, Beibei; Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J.; Martinez, Maria Elena; Le, Quynh-Thu; Mell, Loren K.; Murphy, James D.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  8. Biodemographic Analyses of Longitudinal Data on Aging, Health, and Longevity: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Akushevich, Igor; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Yashin, Anatoliy I.

    2014-01-01

    Biodemography became one of the most innovative and fastest growing areas in demography. This progress is fueled by the growing variability and amount of relevant data available for analyses as well as by methodological developments allowing for addressing new research questions using new approaches that can better utilize the potential of these data. In this review paper, we summarize recent methodological advances in biodemography and their diverse practical applications. Three major topics are covered: (1) computational approaches to reconstruction of age patterns of incidence of geriatric diseases and other characteristics such as recovery rates at the population level using Medicare claims data; (2) methodological advances in genetic and genomic biodemography and applications to research on genetic determinants of longevity and health; and (3) biodemographic models for joint analyses of time-to-event data and longitudinal measurements of biomarkers collected in longitudinal studies on aging. We discuss how such data and methodology can be used in a comprehensive prediction model for joint analyses of incomplete datasets that take into account the wide spectrum of factors affecting health and mortality transitions including genetic factors and hidden mechanisms of aging-related changes in physiological variables in their dynamic connection with health and survival. PMID:25590047

  9. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency impairs wound healing in advanced age by reducing neovascularization and fibroblast function

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Duscher, Dominik; Rustad, Kristine C.; Kosaraju, Revanth; Rodrigues, Melanie; Whittam, Alexander J.; Januszyk, Michael; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is characterized by impairments in wound healing, and evidence is accumulating that this may be due in part to a concomitant increase in oxidative stress. Extended exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and organismal death via the destructive oxidation of intra-cellular proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD/SOD3) is a prime antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space that eliminates ROS. Here, we demonstrate that reduced SOD3 levels contribute to healing impairments in aged mice. These impairments include delayed wound closure, reduced neovascularization, impaired fibroblast proliferation and increased neutrophil recruitment. We further establish that SOD3 KO and aged fibroblasts both display reduced production of TGF-β1, leading to decreased differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that wound healing impairments in ageing are associated with increased levels of ROS, decreased SOD3 expression and impaired extracellular oxidative stress regulation. Our results identify SOD3 as a possible target to correct age-related cellular dysfunction in wound healing. PMID:26663425

  10. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow's feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  11. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  12. Ameliorating Effect of Akebia quinata Fruit Extracts on Skin Aging Induced by Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seoungwoo; Son, Dahee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seungjun; Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Ryu, Dehun; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Eunsun; Park, Deokhoon

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of free radicals and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the skin plays a very important role in skin aging. Both are known to interact with each other. Therefore, natural compounds or extracts that possess both antioxidant and antiglycation activities might have great antiageing potential. Akebia quinata fruit extract (AQFE) has been used to treat urinary tract inflammatory disease in traditional Korean and Chinese medicines. In the present study, AQFE was demonstrated to possess antioxidant and antiglycation activity. AQFE protects human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from oxidative stress and inhibits cellular senescence induced by oxidative stress. We also found that AQFE inhibits glycation reaction between BSA and glucose. The antiglycation activity of AQFE was dose-dependent. In addition, the antiglycation activity of AQFE was confirmed in a human skin explant model. AQFE reduced CML expression and stimulated fibrillin-1 expression in comparison to the methyglyoxal treatment. In addition, the possibility of the extract as an anti-skin aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in RI treated with AQFE cream over an eight-week period. The overall results suggest that AQFE may work as an anti-skin aging agent by preventing oxidative stress and other complications associated with AGEs formation. PMID:26569300

  13. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated

  14. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Among Primiparae at Very Advanced Maternal Age: At What Price?

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Alon; Glasser, Saralee; Schiff, Eyal; Zahav, Aliza Segev; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-04-01

    Objectives In light of the potential physical and emotional costs to both woman and child, this study was conducted to assess pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in primiparae at very advanced maternal age (VAMA, aged ≥45) compared to younger primiparae. Methods Retrospective cohort study comparing 222 VAMA primiparae and a reference group of 222 primiparae aged 30-35, delivering at Sheba Medical Center from 2008 through 2013.Results VAMA primiparae were more likely than younger primiparae to be single, to have chronic health conditions, and higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational-hypertension (GHTN) and preeclampsia-eclampsia. VAMA primiparae conceived mostly by oocyte donation. They were more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, to deliver preterm and by cesarean birth. Infants of VAMA primiparae were at greater risk for low birthweight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. There were no differences in outcomes between VAMA primiparae with or without preexisting chronic conditions, or between those aged 45-49 and ≥50. In multivariable analysis VAMA was an independent risk factor for GDM, GHTN and preeclamsia-eclampsia, with adjusted odds ratio of 2.38 (95 % CI 1.32, 4.29), 5.80 (95 % CI 2.66, 12.64) and 2.45 (95 % CI 1.03, 5.85); respectively. The effect of age disappeared in multiple pregnancies. Conclusions Primiparity at VAMA holds a significant risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The absence of chronic medical conditions or the use of a young oocyte donor does not improve these outcomes. Multiple pregnancies hold additional risk and may diminish the effect of age. Primiparity at an earlier age should be encouraged. PMID:26686195

  15. Altered levels of mitochondrial DNA are associated with female age, aneuploidy, and provide an independent measure of embryonic implantation potential.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Elpida; Spath, Katharina; Alfarawati, Samer; Kaper, Fiona; Craig, Andrew; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Kokocinski, Felix; Cohen, Jacques; Munne, Santiago; Wells, Dagan

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a vital role in embryo development. They are the principal site of energy production and have various other critical cellular functions. Despite the importance of this organelle, little is known about the extent of variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between individual human embryos prior to implantation. This study investigated the biological and clinical relevance of the quantity of mtDNA in 379 embryos. These were examined via a combination of microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), providing information on chromosomal status, amount of mtDNA, and presence of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. The quantity of mtDNA was significantly higher in embryos from older women (P=0.003). Additionally, mtDNA levels were elevated in aneuploid embryos, independent of age (P=0.025). Assessment of clinical outcomes after transfer of euploid embryos to the uterus revealed that blastocysts that successfully implanted tended to contain lower mtDNA quantities than those failing to implant (P=0.007). Importantly, an mtDNA quantity threshold was established, above which implantation was never observed. Subsequently, the predictive value of this threshold was confirmed in an independent blinded prospective study, indicating that abnormal mtDNA levels are present in 30% of non-implanting euploid embryos, but are not seen in embryos forming a viable pregnancy. NGS did not reveal any increase in mutation in blastocysts with elevated mtDNA levels. The results of this study suggest that increased mtDNA may be related to elevated metabolism and are associated with reduced viability, a possibility consistent with the 'quiet embryo' hypothesis. Importantly, the findings suggest a potential role for mitochondria in female reproductive aging and the genesis of aneuploidy. Of clinical significance, we propose that mtDNA content represents a novel biomarker with potential value for in vitro fertilisation

  16. Study of an Unusual Advanced Glycation End-Product (AGE) Derived from Glyoxal Using Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Clavijo, Andrea F.; Duque-Daza, Carlos A.; Romero Canelon, Isolda; Barrow, Mark P.; Kilgour, David; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2014-04-01

    Glycation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that affects the physiological properties of peptides and proteins. In particular, during hyperglycaemia, glycation by α-dicarbonyl compounds generate α-dicarbonyl-derived glycation products also called α-dicarbonyl-derived advanced glycation end products. Glycation by the α-dicarbonyl compound known as glyoxal was studied in model peptides by MS/MS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. An unusual type of glyoxal-derived AGE with a mass addition of 21.98436 Da is reported in peptides containing combinations of two arginine-two lysine, and one arginine-three lysine amino acid residues. Electron capture dissociation and collisionally activated dissociation results supported that the unusual glyoxal-derived AGE is formed at the guanidino group of arginine, and a possible structure is proposed to illustrate the 21.9843 Da mass addition.

  17. Effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving with an advanced traveler information system.

    PubMed

    Dingus, T A; Hulse, M C; Mollenhauer, M A; Fleischman, R N; McGehee, D V; Manakkal, N

    1997-06-01

    This paper explores the effects of age, system experience, and navigation technique on driving, navigation performance, and safety for drivers who used TravTek, an Advanced Traveler Information System. The first two studies investigated various route guidance configurations on the road in a specially equipped instrumented vehicle with an experimenter present. The third was a naturalistic quasi-experimental field study that collected data unobtrusively from more than 1200 TravTek rental car drivers with no in-vehicle experimenter. The results suggest that with increased experience, drivers become familiar with the system and develop strategies for substantially more efficient and safer use. The results also showed that drivers over age 65 had difficulty driving and navigating concurrently. They compensated by driving slowly and more cautiously. Despite this increased caution, older drivers made more safety-related errors than did younger drivers. The results also showed that older drivers benefited substantially from a well-designed ATIS driver interface. PMID:9302887

  18. Effects of Aging on mRNA Profiles for Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Livers of Male and Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Csanaky, Iván L.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is a physiological process characterized by progressive functional decline in various organs over time. To reveal possible molecular mechanisms of altered xenobiotic disposition and toxicity in elderly individuals, age-dependent mRNA profiles for 101 xenobiotic-processing genes (XPGs), including seven uptake transporters, 41 phase I enzymes, 36 phase II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and seven transcription factors, were characterized in livers of male and female mice from 3 to 27 months of age. Gender differences across the lifespan (significant at five ages or more) were observed for 52 XPGs, including 15 male-predominant genes (e.g., Oatp1a1, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a6a, Comt, and Bcrp) and 37 female-predominant genes (e.g., Oatp1a4, Cyp2b10, Sult1a1, Ugt1a1, and Mrp3). During aging, the mRNA levels for 44% of the 101 XPGs changed in male mice and 63% changed in female mice. In male mice, mRNA levels for 40 XPGs (e.g., Oatp1a1, Ces2c, Gstm4, Gstp1, and Ces1e) were lower in aged mice (more than 21 months of age), whereas mRNA levels for four XPGs (e.g., Oat2 and Gstm2) were higher in aged mice. In female mice, mRNA levels for 43 XPGs (e.g., Oatp1a1, Cyp1a2, Ces1f, Sult3a1, Gstt2, Comt, Ent1, Fmo3, and Mrp6) were lower in aged mice, whereas mRNA levels for 21 XPGs (e.g., Oatp1a4, Nqo1, Adh7, Sult2a1/2, Gsta1, and Mrp4) were higher in aged mice. In conclusion, 51% of the 101 XPGs exhibited gender differences in liver mRNA levels across the lifespan of mice; the mRNA levels for 40% of the XPGs were lower in aged male mice and 43% were lower in aged female mice. PMID:22446518

  19. Decreased resting-state connections within the visuospatial attention-related network in advanced aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yujie; Li, Chunlin; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Zhihan; Kurata, Tomoko; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Abe, Koji; Wu, Jinglong

    2015-06-15

    Advanced aging is accompanied by a decline in visuospatial attention. Previous neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated dysfunction in specific brain areas related to visuospatial attention. However, it is still unclear how the functional connectivity between brain regions causes the decline of visuospatial attention. Here, we combined task and rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the age-dependent alterations of resting-state functional connectivity within the task-related network. Twenty-three young subjects and nineteen elderly subjects participated in this study, and a modified Posner paradigm was used to define the region of interest (ROI). Our results showed that a marked reduction in the number of connections occurred with age, but this effect was not uniform throughout the brain: while there was a significant loss of communication in the anterior portion of the brain and between the anterior and posterior cerebral cortices, communication in the posterior portion of the brain was preserved. Moreover, the older adults exhibited weakened resting-state functional connectivity between the supplementary motor area and left anterior insular cortex. These findings suggest that, the disrupted functional connectivity of the brain network for visuospatial attention that occurs during normal aging may underlie the decline in cognitive performance. PMID:25817360

  20. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  1. Biological Effects Induced by Specific Advanced Glycation End Products in the Reconstructed Skin Model of Aging.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Hervé; Zucchi, Hélène; Dai, Zhenyu; Sell, David R; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M; Asselineau, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging skin. To understand the biological effects of individual AGEs, skin reconstructed with collagen selectively enriched with N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML), N(ɛ)-(carboxyethyl)-lysine (CEL), methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), or pentosidine was studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased expression of α6 integrin at the dermal epidermal junction by CEL and CML (p<0.01). Laminin 5 was diminished by CEL and MG-H1 (p<0.05). Both CML and CEL induced a robust increase (p<0.01) in procollagen I. In the culture medium, IL-6, VEGF, and MMP1 secretion were significantly decreased (p<0.05) by MG-H1. While both CEL and CML decreased MMP3, only CEL decreased IL-6 and TIMP1, while CML stimulated TIMP1 synthesis significantly (p<0.05). mRNA expression studies using qPCR in the epidermis layer showed that CEL increased type 7 collagen (COL7A1), β1, and α6 integrin, while CML increased only COL7A1 (p<0.05). MG-H1-modified collagen had no effect. Importantly, in the dermis layer, MMP3 mRNA expression was increased by both CML and MG-H1. CML also significantly increased the mRNAs of MMP1, TIMP1, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) (p<0.05). Mixed effects were present in CEL-rich matrix. Minimally glycoxidized pentosidine-rich collagen suppressed most mRNAs of the genes studied (p<0.05) and decreased VEGF and increased MCP1 protein expression. Taken together, this model of the aging skin suggests that a combination of AGEs tends to counterbalance and thus minimizes the detrimental biological effects of individual AGEs. PMID:26309782

  2. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  3. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  4. Chronic estradiol treatment increases CA1 cell survival but does not improve visual or spatial recognition memory after global ischemia in middle-aged female rats

    PubMed Central

    De Butte-Smith, M.; Gulinello, M.; Zukin, R.S.; Etgen, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 and cognitive deficits. Physiological levels of 17β-estradiol ameliorate ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairments in young animals. In view of concerns regarding hormone therapy in postmenopausal women, we investigated whether chronic estradiol treatment initiated 14 days prior to ischemia attenuates ischemia-induced CA1 cell loss and impairments in visual and spatial memory, in ovariohysterectomized (OVX), middle-aged (9-11 months) female rats. To determine whether the duration of hormone withdrawal affects the efficacy of estradiol treatment, hormone treatment was initiated immediately (0 week), 1 week, or 8 weeks after OVX. Age-matched, OVX and gonadally intact females were studied at each OVX interval. Ischemia was induced 1 week after animals were pretested on a variety of behavioral tasks. Global ischemia produced significant neuronal loss in the CA1 and impaired performance on visual and spatial recognition. Chronic estradiol modestly but significantly increased the number of surviving CA1 neurons in animals at all OVX durations. However, in contrast with previous results in young females, estradiol did not preserve visual or spatial memory performance in middle-aged females. All animals displayed normal locomotion, spontaneous alternation and social preference, indicating the absence of global behavioral impairments. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of estradiol are different in middle-aged than in young rats. These findings highlight the importance of using older animals in studies assessing potential treatments for focal and global ischemia. PMID:19124025

  5. Prenatal exposure to ethinylestradiol alters the morphologic patterns and increases the predisposition for prostatic lesions in male and female gerbils during ageing.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana P S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Caires, Cássia R S; Falleiros-Junior, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-02-01

    Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) which acts as an oestrogen agonist; this compound is known as an oral contraceptive. Male and female rodents exposed to EE during critical time points of development, such as in the prenatal period, show alterations in their reproductive tract during adulthood. Few studies have placed an emphasis on the effects of EE during ageing. Thus, this study had as it's objective the analysis of the morphological and immunohistochemical effects of exposure to EE in the prenatal period on ventral male prostate and female prostate of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during ageing. The animals were exposed to EE (15 μg/kg/day) during the 18-22th days of prenatal life (EE/PRE group), and the analyses were performed when the male and female reached 12 months of age. Our results showed an increase in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), which was observed in the male and female prostate of EE/PRE groups. Immunohistochemistry showed a rise in prostatic epithelial and basal cells immunoreactivity, respectively, and to AR and p63 in the male EE/PRE. There were alterations in the morphological pattern of the prostatic glands and increase in predisposition to emergence of prostatic lesions of both sexes during ageing. Despite male and female having been exposed to the same doses of EE, the "exposure to EE promoted modifications" more accentuated in the male prostate. Thus the male gland is more sensitive to the action of this synthetic oestrogen than the female prostate. PMID:26852889

  6. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Kohler, Iliana; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive ageing, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971–2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35–49 and 50–72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25–29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40–49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs)of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35–49. At ages 50–72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive ageing. PMID:24997641

  7. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss.

    PubMed

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Elo, Irma T; Kohler, Iliana V; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive aging, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971-2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35-49 and 50-72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25-29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40-49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs) of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35-49. At ages 50-72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive aging. PMID:24997641

  8. Alterations in Mouse Hypothalamic Adipokine Gene Expression and Leptin Signaling following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and with Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C.; Nash, Mark S.; Bethea, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF), resistin (Rstn), long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3) gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR) as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:22815920

  9. DNA aptamer raised against advanced glycation end products (AGEs) improves glycemic control and decreases adipocyte size in fructose-fed rats by suppressing AGE-RAGE axis.

    PubMed

    Ojima, A; Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Higashimoto, Y; Ueda, S; Fukami, K; Okuda, S; Yamagishi, S

    2015-04-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) decrease adiponectin expression and suppress insulin signaling in cultured adipocytes through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) via oxidative stress generation. We have recently found that high-affinity DNA aptamer directed against AGE (AGE-aptamer) prevents the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy by blocking the harmful actions of AGEs in the kidney. This study examined the effects of AGE-aptamer on adipocyte remodeling, AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis, and adiponectin expression in fructose-fed rats. Although AGE-aptamer treatment by an osmotic mini pump for 8 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels, it significantly decreased average fasting blood glucose and had a tendency to inhibit body weight gain in fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, AGE-aptamer significantly suppressed the increase in adipocyte size and prevented the elevation in AGEs, RAGE, and an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), levels in adipose tissues of fructose-fed rats at 14-week-old, while it restored the decrease in adiponectin mRNA levels. Our present study suggests that AGE-aptamer could improve glycemic control and prevent adipocyte remodeling in fructose-fed rats partly by suppressing the AGE-RAGE-mediated oxidative stress generation. AGE-aptamer might be a novel therapeutic strategy for fructose-induced metabolic derangements. PMID:25105541

  10. Quality of advance care planning policy and practice in residential aged care facilities in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Silvester, William; Fullam, Rachael S; Parslow, Ruth A; Lewis, Virginia J; Sjanta, Rebekah; Jackson, Lynne; White, Vanessa; Gilchrist, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess existing advance care planning (ACP) practices in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Victoria, Australia before a systematic intervention; to assess RACF staff experience, understanding of and attitudes towards ACP. Design Surveys of participating organisations concerning ACP-related policies and procedures, review of existing ACP-related documentation, and pre-intervention survey of RACF staff covering their role, experiences and attitudes towards ACP-related procedures. Setting 19 selected RACFs in Victoria. Participants 12 aged care organisations (representing 19 RACFs) who provided existing ACP-related documentation for review, 12 RACFs who completed an organisational survey and 45 staff (from 19 RACFs) who completed a pre-intervention survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results Findings suggested that some ACP-related practices were already occurring in RACFs; however, these activities were inconsistent and variable in quality. Six of the 12 responding RACFs had written policies and procedures for ACP; however, none of the ACP-related documents submitted covered all information required to meet ACP best practice. Surveyed staff had limited experience of ACP, and discrepancies between self reported comfort, and levels of knowledge and confidence to undertake ACP-related activities, indicated a need for training and ongoing organisational support. Conclusions Surveyed organisations â policies and procedures related to ACP were limited and the quality of existing documentation was poor. RACF staff had relatively limited experience in developing advance care plans with facility residents, although attitudes were positive. A systematic approach to the implementation of ACP in residential aged care settings is required to ensure best practice is implemented and sustained. PMID:24644755

  11. Effects of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption on morningness-eveningness preference and sleep habits by Japanese female students aged 18-29.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Kurotani, Mamiko; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-03-01

    The relationship of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption to circadian typology and sleep health in Japanese female students was studied from an epidemiological point of view. Questionnaires on Morningness-Eveningness by Torsvall and Akerstedt (1980), sleep habits, regularity of meal intake and meal amount, and style of alcohol and cigarette consumption were administered to 800 students aged 18-29 years, attending university or training schools for nutrition specialists (Aichi Prefecture, 35 degrees N). Points from ten questions were totaled to provide estimates of sleep habits given as the Unhealthy Sleep Index (UHSI). The average and standard deviation of Morningness-Eveningness scores were 16.07+/-3.53. Students who had breakfast at regular times showed significantly higher Morningness-Eveningness scores than those who ate at irregular times. Based on an integrated analysis (ANOVA) on the effect of regularity of breakfast intake on sleep health, regular breakfast intake may link to sleep health positively via the shifting to morning-type (i.e., the phase-advance of the circadian clock). However, a similar analysis promoted the hypothesis that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking relate to sleep health negatively and directly, rather than via the shifting to evening-type (i.e., the phase-delaying of the circadian clock). In the case of young women, getting a good quality and quantity of sleep in normal life seems to be important for promoting their mental health, which may fluctuate throughout the menstruation cycle accompanied by mental symptoms as a part of premenstrual syndrome. PMID:19346668

  12. A risk score for the prediction of advanced age-related macular degeneration: Development and validation in 2 prospective cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We aimed to develop an eye specific model which used readily available information to predict risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We used the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) as our training dataset, which consisted of the 4,507 participants (contributing 1,185 affected v...

  13. Linear and Curvilinear Trajectories of Cortical Loss with Advancing Age and Disease Duration in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O.; Dobolyi, David G.; Isaacs, David A.; Roman, Olivia C.; Herb, Joshua; Wylie, Scott A.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Donahue, Manus J.; Hedera, Peter; Zald, David H.; Landman, Bennett A.; Bowman, Aaron B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Rane, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age and disease duration both contribute to cortical thinning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the pathological interactions between them are poorly described. This study aims to distinguish patterns of cortical decline determined by advancing age and disease duration in PD. A convenience cohort of 177 consecutive PD patients, identified at the Vanderbilt University Movement Disorders Clinic as part of a clinical evaluation for Deep Brain Stimulation (age: M= 62.0, SD 9.3), completed a standardized clinical assessment, along with structural brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan. Age and gender matched controls (n=53) were obtained from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and Progressive Parkinson’s Marker Initiative (age: M= 63.4, SD 12.2). Estimated changes in cortical thickness were modeled with advancing age, disease duration, and their interaction. The best-fitting model, linear or curvilinear (2nd, or 3rd order natural spline), was defined using the minimum Akaike Information Criterion, and illustrated on a 3-dimensional brain. Three curvilinear patterns of cortical thinning were identified: early decline, late decline, and early-stable-late. In contrast to healthy controls, the best-fit model for age related changes in PD is curvilinear (early decline), particularly in frontal and precuneus regions. With advancing disease duration, a curvilinear model depicts accelerating decline in the occipital cortex. A significant interaction between advancing age and disease duration is evident in frontal, motor, and posterior parietal areas. Study results support the hypothesis that advancing age and disease duration differentially affect regional cortical thickness and display regional dependent linear and curvilinear patterns of thinning. PMID:27330836

  14. Recent Demographic Developments in France: Relatively Low Mortality at Advanced Ages

    PubMed Central

    Prioux, France; Barbieri, Magali

    2013-01-01

    France had 65.3 million inhabitants as of 1 January 2012, including 1.9 million in the overseas départements. The population is slightly younger than that of the European Union as a whole. Population growth continues at the same rate, mainly through natural increase. There are now more African than European immigrants living in France. Fertility was practically stable in 2011 (2.01 children per woman), but the lifetime fertility of the 1971–1972 cohorts reached a historic low in metropolitan France (1.99 children per woman), nevertheless remaining among the highest in Europe. Abortion levels remained stable and rates among young people are no longer increasing. The marriage rate is falling and the divorce rate has stabilized (46.2 divorces per 100 marriages in 2011). The risk of divorce decreases with age, but has greatly increased among the under-70s over the last decade. Life expectancy at birth (78.4 years for men, 85.0 for women) has continued to increase at the same rate, mainly thanks to progress at advanced ages. Among European countries, France has the lowest mortality in the over-65 age group, but it ranks less well for premature mortality. PMID:24285939

  15. Immunoparesis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are disassociated in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Benjamin M; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Burris, Jason; Korde, Neha; Manasanch, Elisabet; Kwok, Mary; Annunziata, Christina; Roschewski, Mark J; Engels, Eric A; Landgren, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Immunoparesis and a skewed serum free light chain (FLC) ratio are indicators of immune dysfunction predictive of progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM). Previous studies have reported increased prevalence of MGUS by age, but no study has examined the relationship between immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratios in the elderly. We screened 453 older adults (median age, 80 years; range, 65-96) to characterize the patterns of immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratio in relation to MGUS. We defined MGUS in 4.4% of the subjects; the prevalence was 12.5% among individuals of >90 years. In MGUS (vs. non-MGUS) cases, immunoparesis and abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 70.0% (vs. 49.0%; P = 0.07) and 50.0% (vs. 12.9%; P = 0.0001), respectively. Based on small numbers, MGUS patients with abnormal FLC ratio were borderline (P = 0.07) more likely to have immunoparesis. Overall, the prevalence of immunoparesis varied in a nonlinear fashion, with lowest frequencies in the youngest and oldest groups. Our observed disassociation between MGUS prevalence and impaired immunoglobulin production suggests that separate mechanisms are involved in the development of MGUS and immunoparesis in advanced age. These findings emphasize the need for molecularly defined methods to characterize myeloma precursor states and better predict progression to MM. PMID:23169485

  16. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression. PMID:20961468

  17. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  18. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  19. The Use of Neuropathic Pain Drugs in Children with Sickle Cell Disease is Associated with Older Age, Female Gender and Longer Length of Hospital Stay

    PubMed Central

    Brandow, Amanda M.; Farley, Rebecca A.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Panepinto, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Although neuropathic pain is increasingly recognized in sickle cell disease (SCD), it is unknown how neuropathic pain drugs are used in children with SCD. Thus, we investigated use of these drugs and hypothesized older age and female gender are associated with increased neuropathic drug use and the use of these drugs is associated with longer length of stay. We analyzed the Pediatric Health Information System (2004-09) including all inpatient visits 0-18 years with any SCD-related (all genotypes) discharge diagnosis. To limit confounding we excluded psychiatric and seizure visits. Antiepileptics, tricyclic antidepressants, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were drugs of interest. Generalized Estimating Equations determined the impact of age and gender on neuropathic drug use and the impact of neuropathic drug use on length of stay. We analyzed 53,557 visits; 2.9% received ≥1 neuropathic drugs. The odds of receiving a neuropathic drug increased significantly with age [Reference group 0-4 yrs: 5-10, OR 5.7; 11-14, OR 12.5; 15-18, OR 22.8; all p<0.0001] and female gender [OR 1.5; p=0.001)]. Neuropathic drug use was associated with longer length of stay [RR 8.3; p<0.0001]. Neuropathic drug use in children with SCD was associated with older age, female gender, and longer length of stay. PMID:25222053

  20. Age of the crowfoot advance in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. A glacial event coeval with the Younger Dryas oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, M.A.; Rutter, N.W. ); Osborn, G. )

    1994-05-01

    A suite of sediment core samples was recovered from two lakes, Crowfoot and Bow lakes, that are adjacent to the Crowfoot moraine type locality, to identify and radiocarbon date sediments related to the Crowfoot advance. The Crowfoot moraine system, widely recognized throughout northwestern North America, represents a glacial advance that is post-Wisconsin and pre-Mazama tephra in age. An interval of inorganic sediments bracketed by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of ca. 11,330 and 10,100 [sup 14]C yr B.P. is associated with the Crowfoot moraine. The Crowfoot advance is therefore approximately synchronous with the European Younger Dryas cold event (ca. 11,000-10,000 [sup 14]C yr B.P.). Furthermore, the termination of the Crowfoot advance also appears to have been abrupt. These findings illustrate that the climatic change responsible for the European Younger Dryas event extended beyond the northern Atlantic basin and western Europe. Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) depressions associated with the Crowfoot advance are similar to those determined for the Little Ice Age advance, whereas Younger Dryas ELA depressions in Europe significantly exceed Little Ice Age ELA depressions. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Prolonged ovarian hormone deprivation alters the effects of 17β-estradiol on microRNA expression in the aged female rat hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Yathindar S.; Shults, Cody L.; Pinceti, Elena; Pak, Toni R.

    2015-01-01

    Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) has beneficial effects on cognitive function in peri- but not post-menopausal women, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in E2 action remain unclear. We propose that there is a biological switch in E2 action that occurs coincident with age and length of time after ovarian hormone depletion, and we hypothesized that age-dependent regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be the molecular basis for that switch. Previously we showed that miRNAs are regulated by E2 in young compared to aged female rats. Here we tested whether increasing lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation in aged females altered E2 regulation of these mature miRNAs. In addition, we determined where along the miRNA biogenesis pathway E2 exerted its effects. Our results showed that age and increased lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation abolished the ability of E2 to regulate mature miRNA expression in the brain. Further, we show that E2 acted at specific points along the miRNA biogenesis pathway. PMID:26460619

  2. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  3. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Jason R.; Francis, Carrie A.; Allen, Matthew S.; O'Connor, Shawn M.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2015-01-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n = 12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n = 11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults’ dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults. PMID:25687664

  4. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults. PMID:25687664

  5. A Priori Attitudes Predict Amniocentesis Uptake in Women of Advanced Maternal Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Grinshpun-Cohen, Julia; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rhee-Morris, Laila; Briscoe, Barbara; Pras, Elon; Towner, Dena

    2015-01-01

    Amniocentesis is an invasive procedure performed during pregnancy to determine, among other things, whether the fetus has Down syndrome. It is often preceded by screening, which gives a probabilistic risk assessment. Thus, ample information is conveyed to women with the goal to inform their decisions. This study examined the factors that predict amniocentesis uptake among pregnant women of advanced maternal age (older than 35 years old at the time of childbirth). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding risk estimates, demographics, and attitudes on screening and pregnancy termination before their first genetic counseling appointment and were followed up to 24 weeks of gestation. Findings show that women's decisions are not always informed by screening results or having a medical indication. Psychological factors measured at the beginning of pregnancy: amniocentesis risk tolerance, pregnancy termination tolerance, and age risk perception affected amniocentesis uptake. Although most women thought that screening for Down syndrome risk would inform their decision, they later stated other reasons for screening, such as preparing for the possibility of a child with special needs. Findings suggest that women's decisions regarding amniocentesis are driven not only by medical factors, but also by a priori attitudes. The authors believe that these should be addressed in the dialogue on women's informed use of prenatal tests. PMID:26065331

  6. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  7. At What Level of Heat Load Are Age-Related Impairments in the Ability to Dissipate Heat Evident in Females?

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Poirier, Martin P.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J.; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ). In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat. PMID:25790024

  8. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  9. HIV, Aging, and Advance Care Planning: Are We Successfully Planning for the Future?

    PubMed Central

    Allshouse, Amanda A.; Duong, Syki; MaWhinney, Samantha; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Studies of advance care planning (ACP) completion rates in HIV-infected persons pre-date the “graying” of the HIV epidemic. We sought to examine current ACP completion rates and factors influencing completion among HIV-infected persons. Methods HIV-1-seropositive persons aged 45–65 years on effective antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of 6 months were enrolled in a cross-sectional survey. Likelihood of ACP was assessed by demographic and clinical characteristics, tested with odds ratios (OR) and 95% Wald confidence intervals (CI), and adjusted for gender. Results Of 238 participants, 112 (47%) completed ACP. Persons ≥55 years of age (OR 2.8; CI 1.6,5.0; p<0.001), males (OR 4.1; CI 1.8,9.3; p=0.004), and persons with higher education (OR 2.2; CI 1.3,4.0; p=0.007) were more likely to have completed ACP. Persons with a cardiac event were more likely to have completed ACP (OR 5.5; CI 1.6,25; p=0.03), although this effect was diminished after adjusting for gender (OR 4.5; CI 0.95,21.4; p=0.06). HIV infection diagnosed for greater than 5 years was not associated with ACP completion (OR 1.3; CI 0.7,2.7; p=0.4). Current CD4+ cell counts were similar between those completing and not completing documentation (588 cells/μL and 604 cells/μL, respectively; p=0.7). The likelihood of ACP did not significantly differ with other comorbidities. Discussion Less than 50% of middle-aged patients in HIV care had documented ACP. In particular, women and those with lower education were at greatest risk of non-completion and may need interventions to improve ACP. PMID:22694717

  10. Advanced life events (ALEs) that impede aging-in-place among seniors.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Ramirez-Zohfeld, Vanessa; Sunkara, Priya; Forcucci, Chris; Campbell, Dianne; Mitzen, Phyllis; Cameron, Kenzie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wishes of many seniors to age-in-place in their own homes, critical events occur that impede their ability to do so. A gap exists as to what these advanced life events (ALEs) entail and the planning that older adults perceive is necessary. The purpose of this study was to identify seniors' perceptions and planning toward ALEs that may impact their ability to remain in their own home. We conducted focus groups with 68 seniors, age ≥65 years (mean age 73.8 years), living in the community (rural, urban, and suburban), using open-ended questions about perceptions of future heath events, needs, and planning. Three investigators coded transcriptions using constant comparative analysis to identify emerging themes, with disagreements resolved via consensus. Subjects identified five ALEs that impacted their ability to remain at home: (1) Hospitalizations, (2) Falls, (3) Dementia, (4) Spousal Loss, and (5) Home Upkeep Issues. While recognizing that ALEs frequently occur, many subjects reported a lack of planning for ALEs and perceived that these ALEs would not happen to them. Themes for the rationale behind the lack of planning emerged as: uncertainty in future, being too healthy/too sick, offspring influences, denial/procrastination, pride, feeling overwhelmed, and financial concerns. Subjects expressed reliance on offspring for navigating future ALEs, although many had not communicated their needs with their offspring. Overcoming the reasons for not planning for ALEs is crucial, as being prepared for future home needs provides seniors a voice in their care while engaging key supporters (e.g., offspring). PMID:26952382

  11. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in healthy females between 9 and 26 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Nelly; Ansah, Nana Akosua; Marino, Deborah; Saah, Alfred; Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2015-01-01

    Due to sporadic and not easily accessible cervical cancer screening, human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in Sub-Saharan African women. This study was designed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in sub-Saharan African women. This seven month, double-blind study enrolled 250 healthy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected females ages 9-26 residing in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal. Thirty females ages 13-15 and 120 females ages 16-26 received qHPV vaccine. In addition, 100 females ages 9-12 y were randomized in a 4:1 ratio to receive either qHPV vaccine (n = 80) or placebo (n = 20 ). The primary immunogenicity hypothesis was that an acceptable percentage of subjects who received the qHPV vaccine seroconvert to HPV6/11/16/18 at 4 weeks post-dose 3, defined as the lower bound of the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) exceeding 90%. The primary safety objective was to demonstrate that qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated when administered in a 3-dose regimen. The pre-specified statistical criterion for the primary immunogenicity hypothesis was met: the lower bound of the 95% exact binomial CI on the seroconversion rate was at least 98% for each vaccine HPV type and all subjects seroconverted by 4 weeks post-dose 3. Across vaccination groups, the most common adverse events (AE) were at the injection site, including pain, swelling, and erythema. No subject discontinued study medication due to an AE and no serious AEs were reported. There were no deaths. This study demonstrated that qHPV vaccination of sub-Saharan African women was highly immunogenic and generally well tolerated. PMID:25912475

  12. The Influence of the Age, the Years of Training, and the BMI on the Average Muscle Power in Male and Female Rowers.

    PubMed

    Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157

  13. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  14. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  15. Beneficial effects of metformin and irbesartan on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-RAGE-induced proximal tubular cell injury.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis contributes to diabetic nephropathy. An oral hypoglycemic agent, metformin may have a potential effect on the inhibition of glycation reactions. Further, since a pathophysiological crosstalk between renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and AGEs-RAGE axis is involved in diabetic nephropathy, it is conceivable that metformin and irbesartan additively could protect against the AGEs-RAGE-induced tubular cell injury. In this study, we addressed the issues. Metformin dose-dependently inhibited the formation of AGEs modification of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared with AGEs-modified BSA prepared without metformin (AGEs-MF0), those prepared in the presence of 30 mM or 100 mM metformin (AGEs-MF30 or AGEs-MF100) significantly reduced RAGE mRNA level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and transforming growth factor-β mRNA level in tubular cells. Irbesartan further inhibited the harmful effects of AGEs-MF0 or AGEs-MF30 on tubular cells. Our present study suggests that combination therapy with metformin and irbesartan may have therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy; it could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetes not only by inhibiting AGEs formation, but also by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulating RAGE expression and subsequently suppressing ROS generation. PMID:22100460

  16. Monitoring by Parents and Hypothesized Male-Female Differences in Evidence from a Nationally Representative Cohort Re-sampled from Age 12 to 17 Years: An Exploratory Study Using a "Mutoscope" Approach.

    PubMed

    Seedall, Ryan B; Anthony, James C

    2015-07-01

    The link between adept parental monitoring (PM) and later positive behavioral and health outcomes already has motivated intervention trials, but questions remain about which specific facets and mechanisms of PM make a difference. Our current research questions concern fundamental male-female differences in PM facets as manifest in a US cohort, re-sampled each year at age 12 through 17 years during an interval from 2004 to 2009. We hypothesized emergence, by mid-adolescence, of a specific male-female difference in a "limit time with friends" (LTF) facet of adept PM, with overall PM levels held constant. The data, arranged using a "mutoscope" approach, are from six successive nationally representative independent cross-sectional sample surveys of the cohort, with each adolescent measured only once, via a multi-item PM module nested within the larger survey. Estimates and tests of male-female differences are from a "multiple indicators, multiple causes" latent structure model appropriate for complex survey data. In evidence consistent with the advance hypothesis and with PM level held constant via the model, the LTF facet generally was more relaxed for boys as compared to girls, in a difference that emerged by mid-adolescence, possibly due to greater LTF constraints for girls at mid-adolescence. This research adds to the knowledge base about male-female similarities and differences in facets of PM. As a specific PM facet, LTF might function as a mechanism suitable for deliberate intervention and as a possible specific target in "micro-trials" of new prevention research. We acknowledge limitations such as omitted variables, including social media effects, not measured in this investigation's national surveys, but of potential importance in future research on peer influence as might have more distal parenting determinants. PMID:25429727

  17. IN SITU ACCUMULATION OF ADVANCED GLYCATION ENDPRODUCTS (AGES) IN BONE MATRIX AND ITS CORRELATION WITH OSTEOCLASTIC BONE RESORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Dong, X. Neil; Qin, An; Xu, Jiake; Wang, Xiaodu

    2011-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been observed to accumulate in bone with increasing age and may impose effects on bone resorption activities. However, the underlying mechanism of AGEs accumulation in bone is still poorly understood. In this study, human cortical bone specimens from young (31±6 years old), middle-aged (51±3 years old) and elderly (76±4 years old) groups were examined to determine the spatial-temporal distribution of AGEs in bone matrix and its effect on bone resorption activities by directly culturing osteoclastic cells on bone slices. The results of this study indicated that the fluorescence intensity (excitation wave length 360 nm and emission wave length 470±40 nm) could be used to estimate the relative distribution of AGEs in bone (pentosidine as its marker) under an epifluorescence microscope. Using the fluorescence intensity as the relative measure of AGEs concentration, it was found that the concentration of AGEs varied with biological tissue ages, showing the greatest amount in the interstitial tissue, followed by the old osteons, and the least amount in newly formed osteons. In addition, AGEs accumulation was found to be dependent on donor ages, suggesting that the younger the donor the less AGEs were accumulated in the tissue. Most interestingly, AGEs accumulation appeared to initiate from the region of cement lines, and spread diffusively to the other parts as the tissue aged. Finally, it was observed that the bone resorption activities of osteoclasts were positively correlated with the in situ concentration of AGEs and such an effect was enhanced with increasing donor age. These findings may help elucidate the mechanism of AGEs accumulation in bone and its association with bone remodeling process. PMID:21530698

  18. Cost-Utility Analyses of Cataract Surgery in Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To explore the cost-utility of cataract surgery in patients with advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Patients who were diagnosed as having and treated for age-related cataract and with a history of advanced AMD at the Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, were included in the study. All of the participants underwent successful phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation under retrobulbar anesthesia. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and utility value elicited by time trade-off method from patients at 3-month postoperative time were compared with those before surgery. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in a lifetime were calculated at a 3% annual discounted rate. Costs per QALY gained were calculated using the bootstrap method, and probabilities of being cost-effective were presented using a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution BCVA in the operated eye increased from 1.37 ± 0.5 (Snellen, 20/469) to 0.98 ± 0.25 (Snellen, 20/191) (p < 0.001); BCVA in the weighted average from both eyes (=75% better eye + 25% worse eye) was changed from 1.13 ± 0.22 (Snellen, 20/270) to 0.96 ± 0.17 (Snellen, 20/182) (p < 0.001). Utility values from both patients and doctors increased significantly after surgery (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Patients gained 1.17 QALYs by cataract surgery in their lifetime. The cost per QALY was 8835 Chinese yuan (CNY) (1400 U.S. dollars [USD]). It is cost-effective at the threshold of 115,062 CNY (18,235 USD) per QALY in China recommended by the World Health Organization. The cost per QALY varied from 7045 CNY (1116 USD) to 94,178 CNY (14,925 USD) in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Visual acuity and quality of life assessed by utility value improved significantly after surgery

  19. Identity Development of Gifted Female Adolescents: The Influence of Career Development, Age, and Life-Role Salience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    This study identified a set of factors, including vocational exploration and commitment, commitment to the role of work, and participation in the role of studying, which explained 43.3 percent of the variance in the identity development of 95 gifted female adolescents. Of these factors, vocational exploration and commitment contributed the most to…

  20. Intake of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increases Omega-3 Index in Aged Male and Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bačová, Barbara; Seč, Peter; Čertik, Milan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether n-3 PUFA intake affects n-3 and n-6 FA levels in plasma and red blood cells as well as omega-3 index in old male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and healthy rats. Plasma linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased due to n-3 PUFA intake in SHR and healthy rats. Comparing to healthy rats the levels of PUFA in red blood cells of SHR were lower in males and higher in females with exception of arachidonic acid, which was high in males and low in females. Feeding of rats with n-3 PUFA resulted in increase of red blood cells levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid in a sex- and strain-dependent manner. Moreover, n-3 PUFA intake decreased arachidonic acid in healthy female rats but increased it in SHR and did not affect it in males. Omega-3 index was lower in SHR comparing to healthy rats and it increased due to the consumption of n-3 PUFA. Results point out sex- and strain-related differences in red blood cells levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in basal conditions as well as in response to n-3 PUFA intake. PMID:24967252

  1. Advanced Gestational Age Increases Serum Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin Levels in Abstinent Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Cano, Sandra; Rayburn, William F.; Savich, Renate D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Anton, Raymond F.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) is a well-established and highly specific biomarker for sustained heavy consumption of alcohol. However, in pregnant women, the specificity of this biomarker might be affected by advanced gestational age, even after accounting for increased transferrin concentrations in pregnancy. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the variability in %CDT during pregnancy among alcohol-abstaining patients. Methods: Patients were recruited during one of the first prenatal care visits and followed-up to term. Abstinence was confirmed by maternal self-report and by alcohol biomarkers. Biomarkers assessed in the mother included serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, urine ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate, and whole blood phosphatidylethanol (PEth). In addition, PEth was measured in a dry blood spot card obtained from a newborn. For %CDT analysis, serum samples were collected at baseline and at term and analyzed by an internationally validated high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection method. Results: At recruitment (mean gestational age 22.6 ± 7.3 weeks), the mean %CDT concentration was 1.49 ± 0.30%, while at term, it increased to 1.67 ± 0.28% (P = 0.001). Using a conventional cutoff concentration %CDT >1.7%, 22.9 and 45.7% of the sample would be classified as ‘positive’ for this biomarker at recruitment and at term, respectively (P = 0.011 ). Conclusion: These results suggest that a conventional cutoff of 1.7% might be too low for pregnant women and would generate false-positive results. We propose that %CDT >2.0% be used as a cutoff concentration indicative of alcohol exposure in pregnant women. The sensitivity of %CDT at this cutoff for heavy drinking during pregnancy needs to be assessed further. PMID:22878591

  2. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  3. Combination treatment of r- tPA and an optimized human apyrase reduces mortality rate and hemorrhagic transformation 6h after ischemic stroke in aged female rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhenjun; Li, Xinlan; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; DiPasquale, Kenneth; Jeong, Soon Soeg; Chen, Ridong; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) is the only FDA-approved drug treatment for ischemic stroke and must be used within 4.5 hours. Thrombolytic treatment with r-tPA has deleterious effects on the neurovascular unit that substantially increases the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage if administered too late. These therapeutic shortcomings necessitate additional investigation into agents that can extend the therapeutic window for safe use of thrombolytics. In this study, combination of r-tPA and APT102, a novel form of human apyrase/ADPase, was investigated in a clinically-relevant aged-female rat embolic ischemic stroke model. We propose that successfully extending the therapeutic window of r-tPA administration would represent a significant advance in the treatment of ischemic stroke due to a significant increase in the number of patients eligible for treatment. Results of our study showed significantly reduced mortality from 47% with r-tPA alone to 16% with co-administration of APT102 and r-tPA. Co-administration decreased cortical (47±5% vs 29±5%), striatal (50±2%, vs 40±3%) and total (48±3%vs 33±4%) hemispheric infarct volume compared to r-tPA alone. APT102 improved neurological outcome (8.9±0.6, vs 6.8±0.8) and decreased hemoglobin extravasation in cortical tissue (1.9±0.1 mg/dlvs 1.4±0.1 mg/dl) striatal tissue (2.1±0.3 mg/dl vs 1.4±0.1 mg/dl) and whole brain tissue (2.0±0.2 mg/dl vs 1.4±0.1 mg/dl). These data suggest that APT102 can safely extend the therapeutic window for r-tPA mediated reperfusion to 6 h following experimental stroke without increased hemorrhagic transformation. APT102 offers to be a viable adjunct therapeutic option to increase the number of clinical patients eligible for thrombolytic treatment after ischemic stroke. PMID:24933645

  4. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J. Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22–54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ–related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm’s fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  5. Does advancing male age influence the expression levels and localisation patterns of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in human sperm?

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Jones, Celine; Amdani, Siti Nornadhirah; Yelumalai, Suseela; Mounce, Ginny; da Silva, Sarah J Martins; Child, Tim; Coward, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economic factors have led to an increasing trend for couples to delay parenthood. However, advancing age exerts detrimental effects upon gametes which can have serious consequences upon embryo viability. While such effects are well documented for the oocyte, relatively little is known with regard to the sperm. One fundamental role of sperm is to activate the oocyte at fertilisation, a process initiated by phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ), a sperm-specific protein. While PLCζ deficiency can lead to oocyte activation deficiency and infertility, it is currently unknown whether the expression or function of PLCζ is compromised by advancing male age. Here, we evaluate sperm motility and the proportion of sperm expressing PLCζ in 71 males (22-54 years; 44 fertile controls and 27 infertile patients), along with total levels and localisation patterns of PLCζ within the sperm head. Three different statistical approaches were deployed with male age considered both as a categorical and a continuous factor. While progressive motility was negatively correlated with male age, all three statistical models concurred that no PLCζ-related parameter was associated with male age, suggesting that advancing male age is unlikely to cause problems in terms of the sperm's fundamental ability to activate an oocyte. PMID:27270687

  6. Implication of advanced glycation end products (Ages) and their receptor (Rage) on myocardial contractile and mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Neviere, Remi; Yu, Yichi; Wang, Lei; Tessier, Frederic; Boulanger, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role for the development and/or progression of cardiovascular diseases, mainly through induction of oxidative stress and inflammation. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of molecules formed by non-enzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with amino acids of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. AGEs are mainly formed endogenously, while recent studies suggest that diet constitutes an important exogenous source of AGEs. The presence and accumulation of AGEs in various cardiac cell types affect extracellular and intracellular structure and function. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Activation of RAGE by AGEs causes up regulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and its target genes. of the RAGE engagement stimulates oxidative stress, evokes inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, which all contribute to the development and progression of devastating cardiovascular disorders. This review discusses potential targets of glycation in cardiac cells, and underlying mechanisms that lead to heart failure with special interest on AGE-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the myocardium. PMID:27277623

  7. Evidence that glucose metabolism is decreased in the cerebrum of aged female senescence-accelerated mouse; possible involvement of a low hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, T; Sato, E; Inoue, A; Ishibashi, S

    1996-08-16

    d-Glucose metabolism in cerebral cells prepared from aged senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), was investigated in consideration of a sex difference. The production of 14CO2 from 6-[14C]D-glucose was reduced in female senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, a prone substrain, in comparison with that in female senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR) 2, a control substrain, whereas there was no difference in males. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into cerebral cells from female SAMP8 was also lower than that of control mice. But, the 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in SAMP8 was higher than that of SAMR2, suggesting that the low hexokinase activity was involved in the decreased glucose metabolism in cerebrum of SAMP8 females irrespective of glucose transporter. This possibility was supported by the finding that the contents of glucose 6-phosphate produced from glucose added to cerebral cells from SAMP8 was lower than that in ICR mice. PMID:8873128

  8. Monoterpenes and epicuticular waxes help female autumn gum moth differentiate between waxy and glossy Eucalyptus and leaves of different ages.

    PubMed

    Steinbauer, Martin J; Schiestl, Florian P; Davies, Noel W

    2004-06-01

    The autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata, is a native Australian species whose preferred host, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), is an aromatic evergreen tree that has long-lived waxy leaves during the juvenile phase of growth. We compared the behavioral and antennal responses of female moths to whole leaves (new and old) and samples of foliar chemicals (from new and old leaves) from a typical E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus with responses to a glossy, half-sibling E. g. subsp. pseudoglobulus putative hybrid (the result of natural cross-pollination). We also studied larval survival and development on leaves from the same trees. In laboratory binary-choice assays, female M. privata laid more eggs on waxy leaves than on glossy leaves thereby confirming the nonpreference for the glossy tree that was observed in the field. Analyses of the monoterpenes and waxes of both trees revealed that they had comparable suites of monoterpenes and total oil contents but different suites of epicuticular waxes. Headspace extracts differed in the intensity of component monoterpenes. Gas chromatographic analyses with electroantennographic detection showed different patterns of monoterpene detection. Leaves of the glossy tree had a less diverse array of epicuticular waxes than those of the waxy tree. Electroantennographic screening of responses to wax extracts from leaves (new and old) from either tree revealed positive dose-dependent responses of female antennae to waxes from new leaves only. Binary-choice assays also revealed a strong preference by ovipositing females for new, compared to old, leaves whether they were from the waxy or the glossy tree. However, new leaves from either tree could be manipulated (by physical abrasion of epicuticular waxes) so that females would lay almost no eggs on them. Larval survival did not differ between groups reared on leaves from both trees (new and old). Over 70% of all larvae survived to pupation. However, larvae reared on leaves from the

  9. Sex-dependent nutritional programming: fish oil intake during early pregnancy in rats reduces age-dependent insulin resistance in male, but not female, offspring.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Fatima L C; Fernandes, Flavia S; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-02-15

    Prenatal and early postnatal nutritional status may predispose offspring to impaired glucose tolerance and changes in insulin sensitivity in adult life. The long-term consequences of changes in maternal dietary fatty acid composition were determined in rats. From day 1 until day 12 of pregnancy, rats were given isocaloric diets containing 9% nonvitamin fat based on soybean, olive, fish (FO), linseed, or palm oil. Thereafter, they were maintained on the standard diet; offspring were studied at different ages. Body weight at 4, 8, and 12 mo and lumbar adipose tissue and liver weights at 12 mo did not differ between females on the different diets, whereas in males the corresponding values were all lower in the offspring from the FO group compared with the other dietary groups. Plasma glucose concentrations (both basal and after an oral glucose load) did not change with sex or dietary group, but plasma insulin concentrations were lower in females than in males and, in males, were lowest in the FO group. Similar relations were found with both the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index. In conclusion, the intake of more n-3 fatty acids (FO diet) during early pregnancy reduced both fat accretion and age-related decline in insulin sensitivity in male offspring but not in females. It is proposed that the lower adiposity caused by the increased n-3 fatty acids during the intrauterine life was responsible of the lower insulin resistance in male offspring. PMID:23255588

  10. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  11. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  12. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  13. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives and social theories from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own theories or theoretical perspectives. We build on past work to further advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the…

  14. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  15. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla; Svingen, Terje; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Isling, Louise Krag; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben, as well as paracetamol. The compounds were tested together (Totalmix) or in subgroups with anti-androgenic (AAmix) or estrogenic (Emix) potentials. Paracetamol was tested separately. In pre-pubertal rats, a significant reduction in primordial follicle numbers was seen in AAmix and PM groups, and reduced plasma levels of prolactin was seen in AAmix. In one-year-old animals, the incidence of irregular estrous cycles was higher after Totalmix-exposure and reduced ovary weights were seen in Totalmix, AAmix, and PM groups. These findings resemble premature ovarian insufficiency in humans, and raises concern regarding potential effects of mixtures of EDCs on female reproductive function. PMID:27049580

  16. Diabetic kidney disease: a role for advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1)?

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Aowen; Forbes, Josephine M

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic patients are postulated to be in a perpetual state of oxidative stress and inflammation at sites where chronic complications occur. The accumulation of AGEs derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources (such as the diet) have been implicated in the development and progression of diabetic complications, particularly nephropathy. There has been some interest in investigating the potential for reducing the AGE burden in chronic disease, through the action of AGE "clearance" receptors, such as the advanced glycation end-product receptor 1 (AGE-R1). Reducing the burden of AGEs has been linked to attenuation of inflammation, slower progression of diabetic complications (in particular vascular and renal complications) and has been shown to extend lifespan. To date, however, there have been no direct investigations into whether AGE-R1 has any role in modulating normal kidney function, or specifically during the development and progression of diabetes. This mini-review will focus on the recent advances in knowledge around the mechanistic function of AGE-R1 and the implications of this for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:27270766

  17. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hideki; Saeki, Tomoko; Otani, Toru; Suzuki, Takaichiro; Shimozuma, Kojiro; Nishino, Hoyoku; Fukuda, Sanae; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2006-03-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has manifold biological activities including immunomodulative and antioxidative effects. It is used as a major component of nonprescription tonics and cold-prevention medicines or dietary supplements. Advanced-cancer patients decline in immune functions and quality of life (QOL). The study's subjects were patients with inoperable colorectal, liver, or pancreatic cancer. In a randomized double-blind trial, AGE was administered to one group and a placebo was administered to another for 6 mo. The primary endpoint was a QOL questionnaire based on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT). The subendpoints were changes in the natural-killer (NK) cell activity the salivary cortisol level from before and after administering AGE. Out of 55 patients invited to participate in the trial, 50 (91%) consented to enroll. They consisted of 42 patients with liver cancer (84%), 7 patients with pancreatic cancer (14%), and 1 patient with colon cancer (2%). Drug compliance was relatively good in both the AGE and placebo groups. Although no difference was observed in QOL, both the number of NK cells and the NK cell activity increased significantly in the AGE group. No adverse effect was observed in either group. The study showed that administering AGE to patients with advanced cancer of the digestive system improved NK cell activity, but caused no improvement in QOL. PMID:16484572

  18. Advancing Paternal Age Is Associated with Deficits in Social and Exploratory Behaviors in the Offspring: A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. Methods C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. Principal Findings The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. Conclusions Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors. PMID:20041141

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes UCP2 and UCP3 affect mitochondrial metabolism and healthy aging in female nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Myers, Leann; Ravussin, Eric; Cherry, Katie E; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-08-01

    Energy expenditure decreases with age, but in the oldest-old, energy demand for maintenance of body functions increases with declining health. Uncoupling proteins have profound impact on mitochondrial metabolic processes; therefore, we focused attention on mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes. Alongside resting metabolic rate (RMR), two SNPs in the promoter region of UCP2 were associated with healthy aging. These SNPs mark potential binding sites for several transcription factors; thus, they may affect expression of the gene. A third SNP in the 3'-UTR of UCP3 interacted with RMR. This UCP3 SNP is known to impact UCP3 expression in tissue culture cells, and it has been associated with body weight and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The significant main effects of the UCP2 SNPs and the interaction effect of the UCP3 SNP were also observed after controlling for fat-free mass (FFM) and physical-activity related energy consumption. The association of UCP2/3 with healthy aging was not found in males. Thus, our study provides evidence that the genetic risk factors for healthy aging differ in males and females, as expected from the differences in the phenotypes associated with healthy aging between the two sexes. It also has implications for how mitochondrial function changes during aging. PMID:26965008

  20. Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate alters androgen receptor expression in the developing cerebellum in a region and age specific manner in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Miquel, Marta; Saft, Paul; Brug, Brenda; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenicity activity that has been related to autism. In rodents, exposure to VPA in utero leads to brain abnormalities similar than those reported in the autistic brain. Particularly, VPA reduces the number of Purkinje neurons in the rat cerebellum parallel to cerebellar abnormalities found in autism. Thus, we injected pregnant females on embryonic day 12 either with VPA (600mg/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution and obtained the cerebellum from their offspring at different postnatal time points. Testosterone has been linked to autism and plays an important role during brain development. Therefore, we identified and analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry and densitometry, respectively. We found VPA decreases AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer only in cerebellar lobule 8 at PN7, but increased it at PN14 compared to control in males. In females, VPA decreased AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer in cerebellar lobule 6 at PN14, but increased it in lobule 9 at the same time point. No differences were found in the deep Purkinje layer of any cerebellar lobule in terms of AR density neither in males nor females. We additionally found a particular AR density decreasing in both superficial and deep regions across development in the majority of cerebellar lobules in males, but in all cerebellar lobules in females. Thus, our results indicate that VPA disrupts the AR ontogeny in the developing cerebellum in an age and region specific manner in male and female rats. Future epigenetic studies including the evaluation of histone deacetylases (HDAC's) might shed light these results as HDAC's are expressed by Purkinje neurons, interact with the AR and are VPA targets. This work contributes to the understanding of the cerebellar development and it might help to understand the role of the cerebellum in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID:27423376

  1. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  2. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, H. Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P.; Deroche, Chelsea B.; Franke, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n = 2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center spanning 3 generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian-females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first and lifetime post-partum birth intervals. Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first post-partum birth intervals than females giving birth to live infants. Post-partum birth intervals decreased in females from 3 to 12 years of age but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 d, 6 mo and 1yr of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01 %) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91 %) had censored records for these traits. Low and high uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years of age for Chinese and 3 and 23 years of age for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin × generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations. PMID:22512021

  4. Glycative stress from advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and dicarbonyls: An emerging biological factor in cancer onset and progression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jer-An; Wu, Chi-Hao; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Hsia, Shih-Min; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, glycative stress from exogenous or endogenous advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and highly reactive dicarbonyls has gained great attention for its putative effects on cancer development. AGEs are a group of compounds formed from the complex chemical reaction of reducing sugars with compounds containing an amino group. AGEs bind to and activate the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), which is a predominant modulator of inflammation-associated cancer, and AGEs induce reactive oxygen species that are an important regulator of the hallmarks of cancer. Dicarbonyls, which are formed during glycolysis, lipid oxidation, or protein degradation, include glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone and are regarded as major precursors of AGEs. These dicarbonyls not only fuel the AGE pool in living organisms but also evoke carbonyl stress, which may contribute to the carbonylative damage of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, or DNA. Carbonylative damage then leads to many lesions, some of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, studies regarding the effects of AGEs and dicarbonyls on cancer onset or progression are systematically discussed, and the utilization of AGE inhibitors and dicarbonyl scavengers in cancer therapy are noted. PMID:26774083

  5. Telmisartan inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-elicited endothelial cell injury by suppressing AGE receptor (RAGE) expression via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gammaactivation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-their receptor (RAGE) axis plays a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. Since the pathophysiological crosstalk between the AGEs-RAGE system and angiotensin II has also been associated with diabetic microangiopathy, we examined here whether and how telmisartan, a unique angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma)-modulating activity, could inhibit the AGEs-elicited endothelial cell injury by suppressing RAGE expression in vitro. Telmisartan suppressed RAGE expression at both mRNA and protein levels in human cultured microvascular endothelial cells (ECs), which were prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of PPAR-gamma. Further, telmisartan was found to inhibit up-regulation of mRNA levels for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in AGEs-exposed ECs. These results suggest that telmisartan inhibits the AGEs-elicited EC injury by down-regulating RAGE expression via PPAR-gamma activation. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of telmisartan. Specifically, it could work as an anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs via PPAR-gamma activation and may play a protective role against diabetic microangiopathy. PMID:18855759

  6. Oral advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) promote insulin resistance and diabetes by depleting the antioxidant defenses AGE receptor-1 and sirtuin 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weijing; Ramdas, Maya; Zhu, Li; Chen, Xue; Striker, Gary E; Vlassara, Helen

    2012-09-25

    The epidemics of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect the first world as well as less-developed countries, and now affect children as well. Persistently elevated oxidative stress and inflammation (OS/Infl) precede these polygenic conditions. A hallmark of contemporary lifestyle is a preference for thermally processed nutrients, replete with pro-OS/Infl advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which enhance appetite and cause overnutrition. We propose that chronic ingestion of oral AGEs promotes IR and T2D. The mechanism(s) involved in these findings were assessed in four generations of C57BL6 mice fed isocaloric diets with or without AGEs [synthetic methyl-glyoxal-derivatives (MG(+))]. F3/MG(+) mice manifested increased adiposity and premature IR, marked by severe deficiency of anti-AGE advanced glycation receptor 1 (AGER1) and of survival factor sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and liver. Impaired 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was associated with marked changes in insulin receptor (InsR), IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt activation, and a macrophage and adipocyte shift to a pro-OS/inflammatory (M1) phenotype. These features were absent in F3/MG(-) mice. MG stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to suppressed AGER1 and SIRT1, and altered InsR, IRS-1, IRS-2 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (Nf-κB) p65 acetylation. Gene modulation revealed these effects to be coregulated by AGER1 and SIRT1. Thus, prolonged oral exposure to MG-AGEs can deplete host-defenses AGER1 and SIRT1, raise basal OS/Infl, and increase susceptibility to dysmetabolic IR. Because exposure to AGEs can be decreased, these insights provide an important framework for alleviating a major lifestyle-linked disease epidemic. PMID:22908267

  7. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  8. The Effect of Incobotulinumtoxin A and Dermal Filler Treatment on Perception of Age, Health, and Attractiveness of Female Faces

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Bernhard; Prager, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Facial age, health, and attractiveness assessments play a major role in human social interaction and affect the way we perceive and think about others. Modern cosmetic dermatology provides a bewildering array of facial treatment procedures with botulinum toxin type A and dermal filler application being the most requested. The authors sought to determine the effect of facial rejuvenation procedures, such as application of incobotulinumtoxin A and dermal filler injections, on people's perception of age, health, and attractiveness. Methods: Ten women underwent three consecutive facial rejuvenation procedures with incobotulinumtoxin A, calcium hydroxylapatite, and a hyaluronic acid. Digital facial images were taken before treatment and after each subsequent treatment and presented to a total of 150 third-party assessors who judged the images for age, health, and attractiveness. Results: Each procedure was associated with a significant reduction in perceived age and an increase in perceived health and attractiveness compared with pre-treatment images. The effects were cumulative such that faces perceived as the youngest, healthiest, and most attractive had received all three treatments, followed in descending order by incobotulinumtoxin A and calcium hydroxylapatite treatment, and incobotulinumtoxin A alone. Conclusion: The authors demonstrate that naive judges are readily able to perceive the effect of nonsurgical facial rejuvenation procedures with incobotulinumtoxin A, calcium hydroxylapatite, and hyaluronic acid in terms of age, health, and attractiveness judgments. These effects were greatest when incobotulinumtoxin A and dermal filler treatments were combined. PMID:24563695

  9. Biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous carcinogenesis in the wild type and HER-2 transgenic FVB/N female mice.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Andrey V; Popovich, Irina G; Trashkov, Alexandr P; Egormin, Peter A; Yurova, Maria N; Tyndyk, Margarita L; Gubareva, Ekaterina A; Artyukin, Ilia N; Vasiliev, Andrey G; Khaitsev, Nikolai V; Zabezhinski, Mark A; Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2016-04-01

    FVB/N wild type and transgenic HER-2/neu FVB/N female mice breed at N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology were under observation until natural death without any special treatment. Age-related dynamics of body weight, food consumption and parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, level of nitric oxide, malonic dialdehyde, catalase, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, vascular endothelial growth factor were studied in both mice strains. The parameters of life span and tumor pathology were studied as well. Cancer-prone transgenic HER-2/neu mice developed in 100 % multiple mammary adenocarcinomas and died before the age of 1 year. Forty tree percent of long-lived wild type mice survived the age of 2 years and 19 %-800 days. The total tumor incidence in wild type mice was 34 %. The age-associated changes in the level of serum IGF-1, glucose and insulin started much earlier in transgene HER-2/neu mice as compared with wild type FVB/N mice. It was suggested that transgenic HER-2/neu involves in initiation of malignization of mammary epithelial cells but also in acceleration of age-related hormonal and metabolic changes in turn promoting mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:26423570

  10. The importance of reciprocity for female caregivers in a super-aged society: a qualitative journalistic approach.

    PubMed

    Paillard-Borg, Stéphanie; Strömberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    As Japan is facing a super-aged society, Japanese women find themselves on the front line as traditional family caregivers. Our aim was to describe the observations and thoughts of one Japanese woman's experience of living with her elderly parents in the suburbs of Tokyo. One open-ended interview was performed and analyzed using content analysis with a methodological departure in qualitative journalistic interviewing. The case was a single woman in her late 40s living with her aged parents. Reciprocity was identified as the glue holding the joy and burdens of the role of caregiving for elderly parents. Moreover, gender was identified as a motivator for reciprocity from a macro to a micro level in a super-aged society. PMID:25365632

  11. Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shults, Cody L.; Rao, Yathindar S.; Pak, Toni R.

    2016-01-01

    Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET) can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks). Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status. PMID:27487271

  12. Vaccine immune response and interference of colostral antibodies in calves vaccinated against rabies at 2, 4 and 6 months of age born from antirabies revaccinated females.

    PubMed

    Filho, O A; Megid, J; Geronutti, L; Ratti, J; Almeida, M F A; Kataoka, A P A G; Martorelli, L F A

    2012-06-01

    Considering the high prevalence of rabies in cattle, we aimed to evaluate the interference of colostral antibodies transferred to calves after birth and the benefit of administering an antirabies vaccination in two-month-old calves compared to vaccinating at 4 and 6 months of age. Calves born from females revaccinated against rabies during the third trimester of pregnancy were studied. Forty-eight hours after parturition, blood samples from dams and offspring were collected, and antirabies neutralizing antibody titers were analyzed using the Rapid Focus Fluorescent Inhibition Test. We found that all calves had similar titers of antibodies transferred through the colostrum. Furthermore, none of the calves presented a satisfactory serological response after the first vaccination, but all had an appropriate response after revaccination. This study demonstrates that antirabies vaccination should be recommended for calves at two months of age in endemic and epizootic situations. PMID:21543096

  13. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Machi, Jacqueline Freire; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Freitas, Sarah Cristina; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; da Silva, Maikon Barbosa; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Mostarda, Cristiano; Salemi, Vera M C; Morris, Mariana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX). Methods Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old) were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal). After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index) were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized groups when compared with young controls, indicating an increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between GSH/GSSG and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=−0.6, P<0.003). Correlations were found between interleukin-6 with adipose tissue (r=0.5, P<0.009) and vagal tonus (r=−0.7, P<0.0002); and among myocardial performance index with interleukin-6 (r=0.65, P<0.0002), sympathetic tonus (r=0.55, P<0.006), and physical capacity (r=−0.55, P<0.003). The findings in this trial showed that ovariectomy aggravated the impairment of cardiac and functional effects of aging in female rats, probably associated with exacerbated autonomic dysfunction

  14. Serum carboxymethyllysine, an advanced glycation end product, and age-related macular degeneration: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Cotch, Mary Frances; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Harris, Tamara B; Sun, Kai; Klein, Ronald; Jonasson, Fridbert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schaumberg, Debra A

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Advanced glycation end products have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between serum carboxymethyllysine (CML), a major circulating advanced glycation end product, and AMD in older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 4907 older adults (aged ≥66 years) in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study in Iceland. EXPOSURES Serum CML and risk factors for AMD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Early or late AMD, assessed through fundus images taken through dilated pupils using a 45° digital camera and grading for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. RESULTS Of the 4907 participants, 1025 (20.9%) had early AMD and 276 (5.6%) had late AMD. Mean (SD) serum CML concentrations among adults with no AMD, early AMD, and late AMD (exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy) were 618.8 (195.5), 634.2 (206.4), and 638.4 (192.0) ng/mL, respectively (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.00489; P = .07). Log serum CML (per 1-SD increase) was not associated with any AMD (early and late AMD) (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04; P = .44) or with late AMD (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08; P = .36) in respective multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and renal function. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher serum CML concentration had no significant cross-sectional association with prevalent AMD in this large population-based cohort of older adults in Iceland. PMID:24481410

  15. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  16. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  17. Serum Ceramide Kinase as a Biomarker of Cognitive Functions, and the Effect of Using Two Slimming Dietary Therapies in Obese Middle Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Mohamed, Magda S.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Arafa, Atiat M.; Hanna, Laila M.; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Highlighting the impact of obesity on mental and cognitive functions using serum ceramide kinase enzyme concentration as a biomarker for cognitive evaluation in the middle aged females, and also targeting to control the obesity and simultaneously postponing the deterioration of the cognitive functions, by implementing two slimming dietary therapies each incorporating different functional ingredients known to boost cognition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety six obese middle aged females, divided into two groups volunteered to follow a low caloric balanced diet combined with two bread supplements composed essentially of barley flour and wheat germ mixed with either 5% turmeric, group (A); or with 5% ginger, group (B) for 4 weeks, phase (1); to be followed by the hypocaloric diet alone for another 4 weeks, phase (2). RESULTS: By the end of phase (1), the biochemical analysis showed a positive response of the levels of C-peptide and modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; also increased levels of the serum ceramide kinase enzyme, coupled with improved cognitive functions tests. Improvement of the relevant metabolic profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and the anthropometric measurements was detected. CONCLUSION: Using dietary therapy supported by special formulas which contain active ingredients succeeded in reducing weight and improving both the metabolic profile and the cognitive functions. PMID:27275191

  18. Age-dependence of power spectral density and fractal dimension of bone mineralized matrix in atomic force microscope topography images: potential correlates of bone tissue age and bone fragility in female femoral neck trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Petar; Djuric, Marija; Rakocevic, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in bone nano-structure, the ultimate goal being to reveal the basis of age-related bone fragility. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) data and fractal dimensions of the mineralized bone matrix were extracted from atomic force microscope topography images of the femoral neck trabeculae. The aim was to evaluate age-dependent differences in the mineralized matrix of human bone and to consider whether these advanced nano-descriptors might be linked to decreased bone remodeling observed by some authors and age-related decline in bone mechanical competence. The investigated bone specimens belonged to a group of young adult women (n = 5, age: 20–40 years) and a group of elderly women (n = 5, age: 70–95 years) without bone diseases. PSD graphs showed the roughness density distribution in relation to spatial frequency. In all cases, there was a fairly linear decrease in magnitude of the power spectra with increasing spatial frequencies. The PSD slope was steeper in elderly individuals (−2.374 vs. −2.066), suggesting the dominance of larger surface morphological features. Fractal dimension of the mineralized bone matrix showed a significant negative trend with advanced age, declining from 2.467 in young individuals to 2.313 in the elderly (r = 0.65, P = 0.04). Higher fractal dimension in young women reflects domination of smaller mineral grains, which is compatible with the more freshly remodeled structure. In contrast, the surface patterns in elderly individuals were indicative of older tissue age. Lower roughness and reduced structural complexity (decreased fractal dimension) of the interfibrillar bone matrix in the elderly suggest a decline in bone toughness, which explains why aged bone is more brittle and prone to fractures. PMID:22946475

  19. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  20. Comprehensive analyses of how tubule occlusion and advanced glycation end-products diminish strength of aged dentin

    PubMed Central

    Shinno, Yuko; Ishimoto, Takuya; Saito, Mitsuru; Uemura, Reo; Arino, Masumi; Marumo, Keishi; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako

    2016-01-01

    In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ≥ 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age < 40). Aged dentin, in which the dentinal tubules were occluded with calcified material, recorded the highest mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen. PMID:26797297

  1. The Possible Mechanism of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Shun-Yao; Ko, Hshin-An; Chu, Kuo-Hsiung; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chi, Tzong-Cherng; Chen, Hong-I; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been modified by β and γ-secretase that cause amyloid deposits (plaques) in neuronal cells. Glyceraldhyde-derived AGEs has been identified as a major source of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In a previous study, we demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs increase APP and Aβ via ROS. Furthermore, the combination of AGEs and Aβ has been shown to enhance neurotoxicity. In mice, APP expression is increased by tail vein injection of AGEs. This evidence suggests a correlation between AGEs and the development of AD. However, the role played by AGEs in the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that AGEs up-regulate APP processing protein (BACE and PS1) and Sirt1 expression via ROS, but do not affect the expression of downstream antioxidant genes HO-1 and NQO-1. Moreover, we found that AGEs increase GRP78 expression and enhance the cell death-related pathway p53, bcl-2/bax ratio, caspase 3. These results indicate that AGEs impair the neuroprotective effects of Sirt1 and lead to neuronal cell death via ER stress. Our findings suggest that AGEs increase ROS production, which stimulates downstream pathways related to APP processing, Aβ production, Sirt1, and GRP78, resulting in the up-regulation of cell death related pathway. This in-turn enhances neuronal cell death, which leads to the development of AD. PMID:26587989

  2. Age- and Hormone-Regulation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Subunit NR2b in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus of the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Maffucci, J. A.; Noel, M. L.; Gillette, R.; Wu, D.; Gore, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate, acting through its N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in the hypothalamus, regulates reproductive neuroendocrine functions via direct and indirect actions upon gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. Previous studies indicate that the NMDA receptor subunit NR2b undergoes changes in protein and gene expression in the hypothalamus in general, and on GnRH neurones in particular, during reproductive ageing. In the present study, we examined whether the NR2b-expressing cell population, both alone and in association with the NR1 subunit (i.e. the latter subunit is necessary for a functional NMDA receptor), is altered as a function of age and/or steroid hormone treatment. Studies focused on the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus, a region critically involved in the control of reproduction. Young (3-5 months), middle-aged (9-12 months), and aged (approximately 22 months) female rats were ovariectomised and, 1 month later, they were treated sequentially with oestradiol plus progesterone, oestradiol plus vehicle, or vehicle plus vehicle, then perfused. Quantitative stereologic analysis of NR2b-immunoreactive cell numbers in the AVPV showed an age-associated decrease in the density of NR2b-immunoreactive cells, but no effect of hormone treatment. In a second study, immunofluorescent double labelling of NR2b and NR1 was analysed by confocal microscopy of fraction volume, a semi-quantitative measure of fluorescence intensity. No effect of ageing was detected for immunofluorescent NR1 or NR2b alone, whereas the NR2b fraction volume increased in the oestradiol plus vehicle group. With ageing, the fraction volume of the NR2b/NR1-colocalised subunits increased. Together with the stereology results, this suggests that, although fewer cells express the NR2b subunit in the ageing AVPV, a greater percentage of these subunits are co-expressed with NR1. Our results suggest that the subunit composition of NMDA receptors in

  3. Impact of Comorbidity and Age on Determinants Therapeutic Strategies in Advanced Pancreatic Head Cancer Patients With Obstructive Jaundices

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Pan, Hsueh-Hsing; Dai, Ming-Shen; Lin, Chin; Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Su, Sui-Lung; Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Chen, Jia-Hong; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between prognostic factors and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced pancreatic head cancers who initially presented with obstructive jaundice. Furthermore, the impact of age and comorbidities on therapeutic strategies in such patients was evaluated. A total of 79 advanced pancreatic head cancer patients who were treated at our institution between January 2006 and November 2013 were reviewed. We analyzed OS risk factors including sex, age, laboratory characteristics, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Charlson Comorbidity Index Scores (CCIS), and therapeutic strategies using Cox proportional hazards regression models. There was no difference in the OS of patients according to the type biliary drainage procedure they underwent. Other related factors, such as better performance status, lower CCIS, and receiving chemotherapy significantly correlated with survival in multivariate analyses. There was a significant survival benefit in systemic chemotherapy compared to best supportive care (BSC) or local radiotherapy. However, no survival benefit was found in elderly patients (age >70 years) undergoing systemic therapy compared to younger patients, except in those elderly patients with CCIS ≤ 1. In advanced pancreatic head cancer patients with obstructive jaundice, systemic therapy and adequate biliary drainage were still the most effective procedures for improving OS in the general population. However, in elderly patients with relatively higher CCIS, BSC with adequate biliary drainage was palliative and no less effective than systemic/local therapies. PMID:26252308

  4. Cosmogenic Be-10 Constraints of the "Little Ice Age" Glacial Advances in the Eastern Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Liu, G.; Chen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial advances, represented as a set of "fresh and bouldery" moraines a few hundred meters downstream from modern glaciers, have been widely recognized in Central Asian highlands. However, few studies have been conducted to constrain the formation ages of these moraines. Glaciers provide critical freshwater supply in Central Asia, so understanding the dynamics of glaciers, especially in the past a few hundreds of years, is of great importance. In a NSF funded project reported here, we aim to constrain the formation ages of these putative LIA moraines in the eastern Tian Shan, China, using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. Our initial results showed 10Be exposure ages ranging from 0.17±0.10 ka to 0.28±0.10 ka, from 0.38±0.03 ka to 0.86±0.08 ka, and from 0.36±0.04 ka to 0.41±0.10 ka for these moraines from the Bayinbuluke Valley in the Nalati Range, the Turgan Valley in the Karlik Range, and the Daxi Valley in the Tianger Range, respectively. We are currently processing 30 samples for the "LIA" moraines in six valleys located in the Heigou Valley of the Bogeda Range, the Haxilegen Pass in the Borohoro Range, and the Urumqi River headwaters in the Tianger Range. Except for one older age of 5.1±0.6 ka, which might be an outlier, our recently measured four ages range from 0.19±0.04 ka to 0.61±0.10 ka. These ages suggest that these fresh moraines were formed during the LIA, but glaciers might advance to their maximum extents slightly differently in different sites. This work demonstrates the importance of absolute dating in reconstructing past glacial fluctuations, and provides quantitative evidence in assessing the impact of glacier change on the ecosystem and society in recent centuries.

  5. Heritability and Genome-wide Association Study To Assess Genetic Differences Between Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Sobrin, Lucia; Ripke, Stephan; Yu, Yi; Fagerness, Jesen; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Souied, Eric H.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H.S.; Merriam, Joanna E.; Richardson, Andrea J.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Reynolds, Robyn; Chin, Kimberly A.; Lee, Aaron Y.; Leveziel, Nicolas; Zack, Donald J.; Campochiaro, Peter; Smith, R. Theodore; Barile, Gaetano R.; Hogg, Ruth E.; Chakravarthy, Usha; Behrens, Timothy W.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Brantley, Milam A.; Baird, Paul N.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Allikmets, Rando; Katsanis, Nicholas; Graham, Robert R.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Daly, Mark J.; Seddon, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the two subtypes of advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and geographic atrophy (GA), segregate separately in families and to identify which genetic variants are associated with these two subtypes. Design Sibling correlation study and genome-wide association study (GWAS) Participants For the sibling correlation study, we included 209 sibling pairs with advanced AMD. For the GWAS, we included 2594 participants with advanced AMD subtypes and 4134 controls. Replication cohorts included 5383 advanced AMD participants and 15,240 controls. Methods Participants had AMD grade assigned based on fundus photography and/or examination. To determine heritability of advanced AMD subtypes, we performed a sibling correlation study. For the GWAS, we conducted genome-wide genotyping and imputed 6,036,699 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs). We then analyzed SNPs with a generalized linear model controlling for genotyping platform and genetic ancestry. The most significant associations were evaluated in independent cohorts. Main Outcome Measures Concordance of advanced AMD subtypes in sibling pairs and associations between SNPs with GA and CNV advanced AMD subtypes. Results The difference between the observed and expected proportion of siblings concordant for the same subtype of advanced AMD was different to a statistically significant degree (P=4.2 x 10−5) meaning that siblings of probands with CNV or GA are more likely to develop CNV or GA, respectively. In the analysis comparing participants with CNV to those with GA, we observed a statistically significant association at the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus [rs10490924, odds ratio (OR)=1.47, P=4.3 ×10−9] which was confirmed in the replication samples (OR=1.38, P=7.4 x 10−14 for combined discovery and replication analysis). Conclusions Whether a patient with AMD develops CNV vs. GA is determined in part by genetic variation. In this large GWAS meta-analysis and

  6. Effect of dietary calcium on bone metabolism in young and aged female rats using a short-term in vivo model

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Soares, J.H. Jr.

    1988-10-01

    The use of high dietary calcium supplementation in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis is controversial. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying the effects of calcium supplementation by investigating the influence of dietary calcium on bone dynamics in young and aged rats. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized with 0.2% (low) or 1.0% (high) calcium, 2- or 24-m-old female Long-Evans rats that were implanted subcutaneously with demineralized (DB) and mineralized (MB) bone powder. The four groups of rats were fed each of the respective diets for 11 wk and then implanted with one number5 gelatin capsule containing 30 mg of DB and another containing 100 mg of MB powder. The animals were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 microCi/g body weight with 45Ca 14 h before the end of experiment. The ectopic bone as well as the right femurs were harvested 14 d after the rats were implanted. Marker enzyme activities (alkaline-formation and acid-resorption phosphatase), 45Ca uptake and calcium content were measured in the implants and the distal epiphyses of the right femurs. Bone turnover was higher in the young rats than in the old animals, and high dietary calcium in the young animals increased bone formation, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity. Dietary calcium level did not affect ectopic bone formation or resorption in the aged rats. The results indicate that high dietary intake of calcium does not affect bone dynamics in aged female rats but does increase bone formation in young rats.

  7. NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO SOCIAL REGULATION OF PUBERTY IN THE FEMALE HOUSE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    First estrus is advanced in female house mice exposed to an adult male and delayed in those housed in groups. Experiments were conducted to explore possible mechanisms by which the hypothalamus integrates these puberty regulating social signals. Female ice weaned at 21 d of age w...

  8. Advanced age protects microvascular endothelium from aberrant Ca2+ influx and cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Matthew J; Boerman, Erika M; Behringer, Erik J; Shaw, Rebecca L; Domeier, Timothy L; Segal, Steven S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial cell Ca2+ signalling is integral to blood flow control in the resistance vasculature yet little is known of how its regulation may be affected by advancing age. We tested the hypothesis that advanced age protects microvascular endothelium by attenuating aberrant Ca2+ signalling during oxidative stress. Intact endothelial tubes (width, ∼60 μm; length, ∼1000 μm) were isolated from superior epigastric arteries of Young (3–4 months) and Old (24–26 months) male C57BL/6 mice and loaded with Fura-2 dye to monitor [Ca2+]i. At rest there was no difference in [Ca2+]i between age groups. Compared to Young, the [Ca2+]i response to maximal stimulation with acetylcholine (3 μm, 2 min) was ∼25% greater in Old, confirming signalling integrity with advanced age. Basal H2O2 availability was ∼33% greater in Old while vascular catalase activity was reduced by half. Transient exposure to elevated H2O2 (200 μm, 20 min) progressively increased [Ca2+]i to ∼4-fold greater levels in endothelium of Young versus Old. With no difference between age groups at rest, Mn2+ quench of Fura-2 fluorescence revealed 2-fold greater Ca2+ influx in Young during elevated H2O2; this effect was attenuated by ∼75% using ruthenium red (5 μm) as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of transient receptor potential channels. Prolonged exposure to H2O2 (200 μm, 60 min) induced ∼7-fold greater cell death in endothelium of Young versus Old. Thus, microvascular endothelium can adapt to advanced age by reducing Ca2+ influx during elevated oxidative stress. Protection from cell death during oxidative stress will sustain endothelial integrity during ageing. Key points Calcium signalling in endothelial cells of resistance arteries is integral to blood flow regulation. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction can prevail during advanced age and we questioned how calcium signalling may be affected. Intact endothelium was freshly isolated from superior epigastric arteries of

  9. Effects of boric acid supplementation on bone histomorphometry, metabolism, and biomechanical properties in aged female F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Williams, Maria T; Maronpot, Robert R; Turner, Charles H; Johnson, Christopher S; Harris, Martha W; Jayo, Manuel J; Chapin, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Postmenopausal women may benefit from dietary interventions in order to increase bone strength and prevent fractures. Dietary boron (B) may be beneficial for optimal calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, optimal bone metabolism. The present study evaluated the effects of boron, in the form of boric acid, with or without 17beta-estradiol (E2) supplementation (via subcutaneous implant), in ovariectomized (OVX) aged 13- mo-old F-344 rats. Boric acid was administered by gavage at a subtoxic dose (8.7 mg B/kg/d) for 40 d. Results indicate that serum level of minerals as well as osteocalcin (a marker of bone resorption) are dependent to a greater extent on the hormonal status of the animals than on boron supplementation. Boron treatment increased the E2-induced elevation of urinary calcium and magnesium. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the L5 vertebra and proximal femur was highest in the E2-treated groups; no increase in BMD was conferred by boron treatment. By histomorphometry of the proximal tibial metaphysis, osteoblastic, osteoid, and eroded surfaces were significantly suppressed by E2 treatment, but not by boron treatment. In biomechanical testing of femur and vertebra, neither E2 nor boron treatment significantly increased bone strength. At the levels given, boron alone provided no protection against OVX-induced osteopenia. In addition, combination therapy (B + E2) provided no additional benefits over those of 17beta-estradiol treatment alone in this aged rat model. PMID:12835499

  10. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage Among Females Aged 11 to 17 in Texas Counties: An Application of Multilevel, Small Area Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Eberth, Jan M.; Hossain, Md Monir; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Zhang, Xingyou; Holt, James B.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Local data are often used to plan and evaluate public health interventions and policy. With increasingly fewer public resources to collect sufficient data to support direct estimation of local outcomes, methods for deriving small area estimates are vital. The purpose of this study is to describe the county-level geographic distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among adolescent females in Texas using multilevel small area estimation. Methods Multilevel (individual, county, public health region) random-intercept logit models were fit to HPV vaccination data (≥1 dose Gardasil) from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using the parameter estimates from the final model, we simulated 10,000 data sets for each regression coefficient from the normal distribution and applied them to the logit model to estimate HPV vaccine coverage in each county. Results County-level coverage estimates ranged from 7% to 29%, compared with the state average of 18% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.59–21.88). Many Southwestern border and metropolitan counties exhibited high coverage estimates. Low coverage estimates were noted in the Panhandle, Southeastern border region, and Northeast. Significant correlations were observed between HPV vaccination and Hispanic ethnicity, county poverty, and public health region poverty. Conclusion Harnessing the flexibility of multilevel small area models to estimate HPV vaccine coverage at the county level, we have provided data that may inform the development of health education programs/policies, the provision of health services, and the planning of new research studies. Additionally, we have provided a framework for modeling other health outcomes at the county level using national survey data. PMID:23481692

  11. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  12. Chronic Ingestion of Advanced Glycation End Products Induces Degenerative Spinal Changes and Hypertrophy in Aging Pre-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Hecht, Andrew C.; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E.; Iatridis, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  13. The Social Structuring of Mental Health over the Adult Life Course: Advancing Theory in the Sociology of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa; Marshall, Victor; House, James; Lantz, Paula

    2011-01-01

    The sociology of aging draws on a broad array of theoretical perspectives from several disciplines, but rarely has it developed its own. We build on past work to advance and empirically test a model of mental health framed in terms of structural theorizing and situated within the life course perspective. Whereas most prior research has been based on cross-sectional data, we utilize four waves of data from a nationally representative sample of American adults (Americans' Changing Lives Study) collected prospectively over a 15-year period and find that education, employment and marital status, as well as their consequences for income and health, effectively explain the increase in depressive symptoms after age 65. We also found significant cohort differences in age trajectories of mental health that were partly explained by historical increases in education. We demonstrate that a purely structural theory can take us far in explaining later life mental health. PMID:22081728

  14. Age- and diabetes-related nonenzymatic crosslinks in collagen fibrils: candidate amino acids involved in Advanced Glycation End-products.

    PubMed

    Gautieri, Alfonso; Redaelli, Alberto; Buehler, Markus J; Vesentini, Simone

    2014-02-01

    Ageing and diabetes share a common deleterious phenomenon, the formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs), which accumulate predominantly in collagen due to its low turnover. Though the general picture of glycation has been identified, the detailed knowledge of which collagen amino acids are involved in AGEs is still missing. In this work we use an atomistic model of a collagen fibril to pinpoint, for the first time, the precise location of amino acids involved in the most relevant AGE, glucosepane. The results show that there are 14 specific lysine-arginine pairs that, due to their relative position and configuration, are likely to form glucosepane. We find that several residues involved in AGE crosslinks are within key collagen domains, such as binding sites for integrins, proteoglycans and collagenase, hence providing molecular-level explanations of previous experimental results showing decreased collagen affinity for key molecules. Altogether, these findings reveal the molecular mechanism by which glycation affects the biological properties of collagen tissues, which in turn contribute to age- and diabetes-related pathological states. PMID:24060753

  15. Diastolic Dysfunction of Aging Is Independent of Myocardial Structure but Associated with Plasma Advanced Glycation End-Product Levels

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Duncan J.; Somaratne, Jithendra B.; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Prior, David L.; Yii, Michael; Kenny, James F.; Newcomb, Andrew E.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Black, Mary Jane; Kelly, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure is associated with abnormalities of myocardial structure, and plasma levels of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE) Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) correlate with the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Aging is associated with diastolic dysfunction and increased risk of heart failure, and we investigated the hypothesis that diastolic dysfunction of aging humans is associated with altered myocardial structure and plasma AGE levels. Methods We performed histological analysis of non-ischemic left ventricular myocardial biopsies and measured plasma levels of the AGEs CML and low molecular weight fluorophores (LMWFs) in 26 men undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery who had transthoracic echocardiography before surgery. None had previous cardiac surgery, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure. Results The patients were aged 43–78 years and increasing age was associated with echocardiographic indices of diastolic dysfunction, with higher mitral Doppler flow velocity A wave (r = 0.50, P = 0.02), lower mitral E/A wave ratio (r = 0.64, P = 0.001), longer mitral valve deceleration time (r = 0.42, P = 0.03) and lower early diastolic peak velocity of the mitral septal annulus, e’ (r = 0.55, P = 0.008). However, neither mitral E/A ratio nor mitral septal e’ was correlated with myocardial total, interstitial or perivascular fibrosis (picrosirius red), immunostaining for collagens I and III, CML, and receptor for AGEs (RAGE), cardiomyocyte width, capillary length density, diffusion radius or arteriolar dimensions. Plasma AGE levels were not associated with age. However, plasma CML levels were associated with E/A ratio (r = 0.44, P = 0.04) and e’ (r = 0.51, P = 0.02) and LMWF levels were associated with E/A ratio (r = 0.49, P = 0.02). Moreover, the mitral E/A ratio remained correlated with plasma LMWF levels in all patients (P = 0.04) and the mitral

  16. Advanced Pubertal Status at Age 11 and Lower Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Birgitta L.; Birch, Leann L.; Trost, Stewart G.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pubertal timing and physical activity. Study design A longitudinal sample of 143 adolescent girls was assessed at ages 11 and 13 years. Girls' pubertal development was assessed at age 11 with blood estradiol levels, Tanner breast staging criteria, and parental report of pubertal development. Girls were classified as early maturers (n = 41) or later maturers (n = 102) on the basis of their scores on the 3 pubertal development measures. Dependent variables measured at age 13 were average minutes/day of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity as measured by the ActiGraph accelerometer. Results Early-maturing girls had significantly lower self-reported physical activity and accumulated fewer minutes of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity and accelerometer counts per day at age 13 than later maturing girls. These effects were independent of differences in percentage body fat and self-reported physical activity at age 11. Conclusion Girls experiencing early pubertal maturation at age 11 reported lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 than their later maturing peers. Pubertal maturation, in particular early maturation relative to peers, may lead to declines in physical activity among adolescent girls. PMID:17961691

  17. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  18. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Continuous administration of a P450 aromatase inhibitor induces polycystic ovary syndrome with a metabolic and endocrine phenotype in female rats at adult age.

    PubMed

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Sun, Miao; Johansson, Julia; Benrick, Anna; Labrie, Fernand; Svensson, Henrik; Lönn, Malin; Duleba, Antoni J; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Studying the mechanisms for the complex pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) requires animal models with endocrine, reproductive, and metabolic features of the syndrome. Hyperandrogenism seems to be a central factor in PCOS, leading to anovulation and insulin resistance. In female rats, continuous administration of letrozole, a nonsteroidal inhibitor of P450 aromatase, at 400 μg/d starting before puberty induces hyperandrogenemia and reproductive abnormalities similar to those in women with PCOS. However, despite high circulating testosterone levels, these rats do not develop metabolic abnormalities, perhaps because of their supraphysiological testosterone concentrations or because estrogen synthesis is completely blocked in insulin-sensitive tissues. To test the hypothesis that continuous administration of lower doses of letrozole starting before puberty would result in both metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of PCOS, we performed a 12-wk dose-response study. At 21 d of age, 46 female Wistar rats were divided into two letrozole groups (100 or 200 μg/d) and a control group (placebo). Both letrozole doses resulted in increased body weight, inguinal fat accumulation, anovulation, larger ovaries with follicular atresia and multiples cysts, endogenous hyperandrogemia, and lower estrogen levels. Moreover, rats that received 200 μg/d had insulin resistance and enlarged adipocytes in inguinal and mesenteric fat depots, increased circulating levels of LH, decreased levels of FSH, and increased ovarian expression of Cyp17a1 mRNA. Thus, continuous administration of letrozole, 200 μg/d, to female rats for 90 d starting before puberty results in a PCOS model with reproductive and metabolic features of the syndrome. PMID:23183180

  20. Nucleophilic compounds decrease advanced glycation end products (AGEs) from ascorbic acid in the hSVCT2 transgenic mouse model of lenticular aging

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xingjun; Monnier, Vincent M

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Senile cataracts are associated with oxidation, fragmentation, cross-linking, insolubilization, and yellow pigmentation of lens crystallins. This process is partially explained by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) from ascorbic acid (ASA), as unequivocally demonstrated in our hSVCT2 transgenic mouse(PNAS 103:16912, 2006). We now present the first pharmacological intervention study against ascorbylation in these mice. Methods Five groups of mice (10 mice/group) were fed from two to nine months a diet containing 0.1% (wt/wt) aminoguanidine (AG), pyridoxamine (PM), penicillamine (PA), and nucleophilic compounds NC-I and NC-II. AGEs were determined in crystallin digests using HPLC, LC-MS or GC-MS. In vitro incubations of lens protein extract with ASA or dehydroascorbic aicd (DHA) were also performed. Results ASA level increased ~10 fold in all groups and was unaffected by treatment. AGEs were several fold increased in transgenic compared to control lenses. Body weight, food intake, lenticular glutathione and glycated lysine level were unaltered. In vitro, all compounds inhibited AGE formation. In vivo, NC-I and NC-II significantly decreased protein fluorescence at λex335/em385 (p=0.045, 0.017, respectively) and λex370/em440 (p=0.029, 0.007, respectively). Other inhibitors had no effect. After 7 months, only NC-1 and NC-2 induced a 50 % reduction in pentosidine (n.s, p=0.035 respectively). NC-1 also decreased carboxymethyllysine (CML) (p=0.032) and carboxyethyllysine (CEL) (p= n.s). Fluorescent crosslink K2P was decreased by NC-1, NC-2, AG and PM (p= n.s). Conclusions Pharmacologically blocking protein ascorbylation with absorbable guanidino compounds is feasible and may represent a new strategy for the delay of age-related nuclear sclerosis of the lens. PMID:18421088

  1. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S.M.; Kwong, Patrick W.H.; Chau, Michael S.P.; Luk, Isaac C.Y.; Wan, Sam S.; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The five times-sit-to stand test (FTSTS) is a clinical test which is commonly used to assessed the functional muscle strength of the lower limbs of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different arm positions and foot placements on the FTSTS completion times of older female adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy female subjects, aged 63.1±5.3 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The times required to complete the FTSTS with 3 different arm positions (hands on thighs, arms crossed over chest, and an augmented arm position with the arms extended forward) and 2 foot placements (neutral and posterior) were recorded. The interaction effect and main effect of arm positions and foot placements were examined using a 3 (arm position) × 2 (foot placement) two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] There was no interaction effect among the 3 arm positions in the 2 foot placements. A significant main effect was identified for foot placement, but not arm position. Posterior foot placement led to a shorter FTSTS time compared to that of normal foot placement. [Conclusion] With the same arm position, FTSTS completion times with posterior foot placement tended to be shorter. Therefore, the standard foot placement should be used for FTSTS administration. PMID:26180314

  2. Foveal-Sparing Scotomas in Advanced Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunness, Janet S.; Rubin, Gary S.; Zuckerbrod, Abraham; Applegate, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Foveal-sparing scotomas are common in advanced dry macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). Foveal preservation may be present for a number of years. Despite good visual acuity, these patients have reduced reading rates. Magnification may not be effective if the text becomes too large to "fit" within the central spared area. (Contains 2 tables…

  3. Advanced Organizers, Age, and the Recall of Relevant Versus Irrelevant Thematic Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Schumacher, Gary M.

    The purpose of this study was to isolate factors responsible for the discrepant results reported in the advanced organizer literature, and to identify processes children employ when attempting to recall connected verbal materials. The subjects were 64 middle-class children randomly selected from a local school system. An equal number of male and…

  4. Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum [and CD-ROM]. CrossCurrents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamoon, Linda K., Ed.; Howard, Rebecca Moore, Ed.; Jamieson, Sandra, Ed.; Schwegler, Robert A., Ed.

    Part book, part CD-ROM, this publication offers new ideas for transforming advanced writing courses. The 33 essays in the publication describe and offer concrete examples of curriculum that incorporates discipline-based theory and history, that situates writers in public discourse, and that fully prepares students for careers as writers. The…

  5. An Investigation into the Gender and Age Differences in the Social Coping of Academically Advanced Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foust, Regan Clark; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2006-01-01

    In certain contexts, some academically advanced students employ coping strategies that manipulate the visibility of their ability. These strategies may include denying giftedness, hiding giftedness, gaining favor by helping others, denying the negative impact on peer acceptance, conforming to mask giftedness, and minimizing focus on popularity.…

  6. Oxidative Lipidomics Coming of Age: Advances in Analysis of Oxidized Phospholipids in Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidized phospholipids are now well recognized as markers of biological oxidative stress and bioactive molecules with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects. While analytical methods continue to be developed for studies of generic lipid oxidation, mass spectrometry (MS) has underpinned the advances in knowledge of specific oxidized phospholipids by allowing their identification and characterization, and it is responsible for the expansion of oxidative lipidomics. Recent Advances: Studies of oxidized phospholipids in biological samples, from both animal models and clinical samples, have been facilitated by the recent improvements in MS, especially targeted routines that depend on the fragmentation pattern of the parent molecular ion and improved resolution and mass accuracy. MS can be used to identify selectively individual compounds or groups of compounds with common features, which greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity of detection. Application of these methods has enabled important advances in understanding the mechanisms of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, steatohepatitis, leprosy, and cystic fibrosis, and it offers potential for developing biomarkers of molecular aspects of the diseases. Critical Issues and Future Directions: The future in this field will depend on development of improved MS technologies, such as ion mobility, novel enrichment methods and databases, and software for data analysis, owing to the very large amount of data generated in these experiments. Imaging of oxidized phospholipids in tissue MS is an additional exciting direction emerging that can be expected to advance understanding of physiology and disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1646–1666. PMID:25694038

  7. Prediction Model for Prevalence and Incidence of Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Based on Genetic, Demographic, and Environmental Variables

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Johanna M.; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Daly, Mark J.; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Methods Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin–mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. Results All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6 – 8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6 –75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1– 0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4 –9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently

  8. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  9. A model for antagonistic pleiotropic gene action for mortality and advanced age.

    PubMed

    Toupance, B; Godelle, B; Gouyon, P H; Schächter, F

    1998-06-01

    Association or linkage studies involving control and long-lived populations provide information on genes that influence longevity. However, the relationship between allele-specific differences in survival and the genetic structure of aging cohorts remains unclear. We model a heterogeneous cohort comprising several genotypes differing in age-specific mortality. In its most general form, without any specific assumption regarding the shape of mortality curves, the model permits derivation of a fundamental property underlying abrupt age-related changes in the composition of a cohort. The model is applied to sex-specific survival curves taken from period life tables, and Gompertz-Makeham mortality coefficients are calculated for the French population. Then, adjustments are performed under Gompertz-Makeham mortality functions for three genotypes composing a heterogeneous cohort, under the constraint of fitting the resultant mortality to the real French population mortality obtained from life tables. Multimodal curves and divergence after the 8th decade appear as recurrent features of the frequency trajectories. Finally, a fit to data previously obtained at the angiotensin-converting-enzyme locus is realized, explaining what had seemed to be paradoxical results-namely, that the frequency of a genotype known as a cardiovascular risk factor was increased in centenarians. Our results help explain the well-documented departure from Gompertz-Makeham mortality kinetics at older ages. The implications of our model are discussed in the context of known genetic effects on human longevity and age-related pathologies. Since antagonistic pleiotropy between early and late survival emerges as a general rule, extrapolating the effects measured for a gene in a particular age class to other ages could be misleading. PMID:9585593

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy increases hippocampal neurogenesis, astrocyte branching and improves spatial memory in female aging rats.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Joaquín; Uriarte, Maia; Cónsole, Gloria M; Reggiani, Paula C; Outeiro, Tiago F; Morel, Gustavo R; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2016-08-01

    In rats, learning and memory performance decline during aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies of potential value for correcting age-related cognitive deficits. Some of these strategies involve neurotrophic factors like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a powerful neuroprotective molecule in the brain. Here, we implemented 18-day long intracerebroventricular (ICV) IGF-I gene therapy in 28 months old Sprague-Dawley female rats, and assessed spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze. We also studied hippocampal morphology using an unbiased stereological approach. Adenovectors expressing the gene for rat IGF-I or the reporter DsRed were used. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken and IGF-I levels determined by radioimmunoassay. At the end of the study, IGF-I levels in the CSF were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the DsRed controls. After treatment, the IGF-I group showed a significant improvement in spatial memory accuracy as compared with DsRed counterparts. In the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, the IGF-I group showed a higher number of immature neurons than the DsRed controls. The treatment increased hippocampal astrocyte branching and reduced their number in the hippocampal stratum radiatum. We conclude that the ependymal route is an effective approach to increase CSF levels of IGF-I and that this strategy improves the accuracy of spatial memory in aging rats. The favorable effect of the treatment on DG neurogenesis and astrocyte branching in the stratum radiatum may contribute to improving memory performance in aging rats. PMID:27188415

  11. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  12. The predictability of serum anti-Müllerian level in IVF/ICSI outcomes for patients of advanced reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of in-vitro fertilization outcomes has been much debated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the practicability of combining serum AMH level with biological age as a simple screening method for counseling IVF candidates of advanced reproductive age with potential poor outcomes prior to treatment initiation. Methods A total of 1,538 reference patients and 116 infertile patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years enrolled in IVF/ICSI cycles were recruited in this retrospective analysis. A reference chart of the age-related distribution of serum AMH level for Asian population was first created. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years were then divided into three groups according to the low, middle and high tertiles the serum AMH tertiles derived from the reference population of matching age. The cycle outcomes were analyzed and compared among each individual group. Results For reference subjects aged greater than or equal to 40 years, the serum AMH of the low, middle and high tertiles were equal or lesser than 0.48, 0.49-1.22 and equal or greater than 1.23 ng/mL respectively. IVF/ICSI patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with AMH levels in the low tertile had the highest cycle cancellation rate (47.6%) with zero clinical pregnancy. The nadir AMH level that has achieved live birth was 0.56 ng/mL, which was equivalent to the 36.4th percentile of AMH level from the age-matched reference group. The optimum cut-off levels of AMH for the prediction of nonpregnancy and cycle cancellation were 1.05 and 0.68 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions Two criteria: (1) age greater than or equal to 40 years and (2) serum AMH level in the lowest tertile (equal or lesser than 33.3rd percentile) of the matching age group, may be used as markers of futility for counseling IVF/ICSI candidates. PMID:21843363

  13. A phenomenological analysis of the essence of the science education experience as perceived by female high school physics and advanced chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential elements of the current science education experience as constructed by twelve female high school physics and advanced chemistry students. The expressed desired outcome was a description of the phenomenon from a participant point of view. Student recollections and interpretations of experiences were assessed for a twelve-week period. Data sources were student journals, autobiographies, interviews, focus group interviews and researcher observations. In addition, each participant completed the Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981) in order to create attitude profiles for triangulation with other data. While a wide range of aspects of the science education experience emerged, results showed that female students describe and interpret their science education experiences on the basis of actual interest in science, early science experiences, perception of ability, self-confidence, teacher attributes, parental and peer interaction, societal expectations, the nature of science, and gender. Of these factors, specifically, interest and curiosity, societal influence, the nature of science, lack of in-school experiences, the desire to help others, and general parent support were most impacting upon experience and the desire to continue science study. Moreover, the interaction of these factors is relevant. Very simply, early experiences are crucial to interest development. In general, parents can enhance this interest by providing science-related experiences. In the absence of early in-school experiences (i.e., which the participants reported), these out-of-school experiences become crucial. More importantly, quality instruction and parent and peer support are needed to foster science interest and to overcome the powerfully negative influence of society, the discriminatory nature of science, and the lack of experiences.

  14. A coming of age: advanced imaging technologies for characterising the developing mouse.

    PubMed

    Norris, Francesca C; Wong, Michael D; Greene, Nicholas D E; Scambler, Peter J; Weaver, Tom; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Mohun, Timothy J; Henkelman, R Mark; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2013-12-01

    The immense challenge of annotating the entire mouse genome has stimulated the development of cutting-edge imaging technologies in a drive for novel information. These techniques promise to improve understanding of the genes involved in embryo development, at least one third of which have been shown to be essential. Aligning advanced imaging technologies with biological needs will be fundamental to maximising the number of phenotypes discovered in the coming years. International efforts are underway to meet this challenge through an integrated and sophisticated approach to embryo phenotyping. We review rapid advances made in the imaging field over the past decade and provide a comprehensive examination of the relative merits of current and emerging techniques. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to state-of-the-art embryo imaging that will enable informed decisions as to which technology to use and fuel conversations between expert imaging laboratories, researchers, and core mouse production facilities. PMID:24035368

  15. The Emerging Role of IGF-1 Deficiency in Cardiovascular Aging: Recent Advances

    P