Science.gov

Sample records for advanced air toxics

  1. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  2. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  3. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  4. Advanced combustor design concepts to control NOx and air toxics. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pershing, D.W.; Lighty, J.; Spinti, J.

    1995-10-31

    The University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Reaction Engineering International (REI) and ABB/Combustion Engineering have joined together in this research proposal to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on ignition stability and flame characteristics because these critically affect: NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and emissions of air toxics. Existing laboratory and bench scale facilities are being used to generate critical missing data which will be used to improve the NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels in comprehensive combustion simulation tools currently being used by industrial boiler manufacturers. ABB/Combustion Engineering is providing needed fundamental data on the extent of volatile evolution from commercial coals as well as background information on current design needs in industrial practice. Since they will ultimately be a recipient of the enhanced design methodology, they are also providing ongoing review of the practical applicability of the tools being developed. MIT is responsible for the development of an improved char nitrogen oxidation model which will ultimately be incorporated into an enhanced NO{sub x} submodel. Reaction Engineering International is providing the lead engineering staff for the experimental studies and an overall industrial focus for the work based on their use of the combustion simulation tools for a wide variety of industries. The University of Utah is conducting bench scale experimentation to (1) investigate alternative methods for enhancing flame stability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and (2) characterize air toxic emissions under ultra-low NO{sub x} conditions because it is possible that such conditions will alter the fate of volatile and semivolatile metal species and the emission of heavy hydrocarbons. Finally the University of Utah is responsible for the development of the improved NO{sub x} and carbon burnout submodels.

  5. DETROIT AIR TOXICS INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will include both a risk assessment and a risk reduction component. The assessment component will capitalize on the strong air toxics database that currently exists for the Detroit area. Data from several monitoring studies/projects will be utilized to characterize ...

  6. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  7. Control of air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-03-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE`s Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne`s pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry.

  8. AIR TOXICS CHEMISTRY: LIFETIME AND FATE OF AIR TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full assessment of the impact of the release of air toxic compounds into the atmosphere requires a detailed understanding of their atmospheres lifetimes and fates. The objective of this task is to begin to develop such data for the 33 classes of air toxic compounds identified ...

  9. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  10. AIR TOXICS HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to improve the scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of human exposures to air toxics by developing improved human exposure models. The research integrates the major components of the exposure paradigm, i.e., sources, tr...

  11. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  12. HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's air toxics program is moving toward a risk-based focus. The framework for such a focus was laid out in the National Air Toxics Program: Integrated Urban Strategy which included the requirement for EPA to conduct a National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) of human expos...

  13. AIR TOXICS MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Toxics research program is designed to answer critical scientific questions that will result in more certain risk assessments and more effective risk management practices for stationary point, area, mobile, or indoor sources of air toxics. Research on air toxics is presen...

  14. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  15. COMMUNITY SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration and movement for an urban air toxics control strategy is toward a community, exposure and risk-based modeling approach, with emphasis on assessments of areas that experience high air toxic concentration levels, the so-called "hot spots". This strategy will requir...

  16. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  17. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  18. AIR TOXICS DEVELOPMENT AT EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of research activities in EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, including the identification, assessment, and control of sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (NAPs), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). VOCs...

  19. AIR TOXICS MODELING RESEARCH PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a Microsoft Powerpoint slide presentation which was given at the joint EPA Region 3 - Mid-Atlantic Regional Air Management Association (MARAMA) Air Toxic Summit in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania held from October 18, 2005 through October 20, 2005. The slide presentat...

  20. Implementing Title III -- Air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) is taking three basic approaches to implementing the new National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) from the Title III program: accept and implement, as written, the NESHAPs where few sources are located in the South Coast Air Basin; incorporate with simplification of the NESHAP requirements into AQMD rules when many sources are involved; then seek equivalency by the US EPA; and incorporate with a market-based rule (VOC RECLAIM), part of many NESHAPs which control volatile organic compound as HAPs. Whatever the approach, emphasis will be placed on: streamlining and simplification; helping sources understand requirements and comply; and common sense.

  1. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Air Toxics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) is a multimedia, multipathway population-based exposure and dose model for air toxics developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). SHEDS-AirToxics uses a probabili...

  2. Advanced Air Bag Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phen, R. L.; Dowdy, M. W.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Kim. E.-H.; Moore, N. R.; VanZandt, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the concern for the growing number of air-bag-induced injuries and fatalities, the administrators of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to a cooperative effort that "leverages NHTSA's expertise in motor vehicle safety restraint systems and biomechanics with NASAs position as one of the leaders in advanced technology development... to enable the state of air bag safety technology to advance at a faster pace..." They signed a NASA/NHTSA memorandum of understanding for NASA to "evaluate air bag to assess advanced air bag performance, establish the technological potential for improved technology (smart) air bag systems, and identify key expertise and technology within the agency (i.e., NASA) that can potentially contribute significantly to the improved effectiveness of air bags." NASA is committed to contributing to NHTSAs effort to: (1) understand and define critical parameters affecting air bag performance; (2) systematically assess air bag technology state of the art and its future potential; and (3) identify new concepts for air bag systems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) was selected by NASA to respond to the memorandum of understanding by conducting an advanced air bag technology assessment. JPL analyzed the nature of the need for occupant restraint, how air bags operate alone and with safety belts to provide restraint, and the potential hazards introduced by the technology. This analysis yielded a set of critical parameters for restraint systems. The researchers examined data on the performance of current air bag technology, and searched for and assessed how new technologies could reduce the hazards introduced by air bags while providing the restraint protection that is their primary purpose. The critical parameters which were derived are: (1) the crash severity; (2) the use of seat belts; (3) the physical characteristics of the occupants; (4) the

  3. LAKE MICHIGAN URBAN AIR TOXICS STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1991, an air toxics monitoring program wa conducted in the lower Lake Michigan area. his study was designed to take advantage of the intensive meteorological and oxidant data base being generated concurrently by the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS stations). ...

  4. SEATTLE AIR TOXICS MONITORING PILOT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since January, 2000, the Washington Department of Ecology has been monitoring for air toxics at two sites in Seattle, Beacon Hill and Georgetown. The Beacon Hill site is in an area of high population density that reflects conditions in a "typical" urban residential neighborhood a...

  5. CONTROLLING AIR TOXICS: AN ADVISORY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development and use of a computerized advisory system for the control of air toxics. The program, is written for the IBM PC using Microsoft C V3.0 compiler and Windows for Data Library V1.0 for screen and keyboard interaction. The permit reviewer inputs in...

  6. AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents uncontrolled air toxic emission factors for different process operations in a gray iron foundry. he emission factors are based on the results of on-site test measurements available in the literature. he emission factors are presented for organic and inorganic c...

  7. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings.

    PubMed Central

    Olden, K; Guthrie, J

    1996-01-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of dose/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early waming signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies, both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. PMID:8933026

  8. Laser photoacoustic sensor for air toxicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Coorg R.; Lei, Jie; Shi, Wenhui; Li, Guangkun; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2012-06-01

    US EPA's Clean Air Act lists 187 hazardous air pollutants (HAP) or airborne toxics that are considered especially harmful to health, and hence the measurement of their concentration is of great importance. Numerous sensor systems have been reported for measuring these toxic gases and vapors. However, most of these sensors are specific to a single gas or able to measure only a few of them. Thus a sensor capable of measuring many of the toxic gases simultaneously is desirable. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) sensors have the potential for true broadband measurement when used in conjunction with one or more widely tunable laser sources. An LPAS gas analyzer equipped with a continuous wave, room temperature IR Quantum Cascade Laser tunable over the wavelength range of 9.4 μm to 9.7 μm was used for continuous real-time measurements of multiple gases/chemical components. An external cavity grating tuner was used to generate several (75) narrow line output wavelengths to conduct photoacoustic absorption measurements of gas mixtures. We have measured various HAPs such as Benzene, Formaldehyde, and Acetaldehyde in the presence of atmospheric interferents water vapor, and carbon dioxide. Using the preliminary spectral pattern recognition algorithm, we have shown our ability to measure all these chemical compounds simultaneously in under 3 minutes. Sensitivity levels of a few part-per-billion (ppb) were achieved with several of the measured compounds with the preliminary laboratory system.

  9. Chemical air pollutants and otorhinolaryngeal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bisesi, M.S.; Rubin, A.M. . Occupational Health and Otolaryngology)

    1994-03-01

    Air pollution and the specific issue regarding the impact of airborne chemical agents to human health are familiar topics to most members of the environmental health science and environmental medicine communities. Some aspects, however, have received relatively less attention. Much has been published regarding the impact of air pollutants on the human upper and lower respiratory system, including interaction with the rhinologic (nasal) system. Relatively fewer data have been published, however, regarding the potential impact of air pollutants in reference specifically to the otologic (auditory and vestibular) and the laryngeal (larynx) system. Adverse impact to the ears, nose and throat, referred to as the otorhinolaryngeal system'', warrants attention as an important environmental health issue. Toxic interactions from exposure to many chemical air pollutants not only causes potential respiratory irritation and lung disease, but can also result in impaired hearing, balance, sense of smell, taste, and speech due to interaction with related target systems. This may be significant to environmental health risk assessment of chemical air pollutants if multi-target site models are considered.

  10. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, George M. Smith, Roy L.

    2008-11-15

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented.

  11. SERDP AIR TOXICS - "TEMPORAL AND MODAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DOD SOURCE AIR TOXIC EMISSION FACTORS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This awarded program will develop an integrated methodology for measurement of trace organic and metallic air toxics using modified conventional measurements, state of the art laser-based technologies, and optical path monitoring in order to develop and test a sensitive, time-res...

  12. Reproducibility and imputation of air toxics data.

    PubMed

    Le, Hien Q; Batterman, Stuart A; Wahl, Robert L

    2007-12-01

    Ambient air quality datasets include missing data, values below method detection limits and outliers, and the precision and accuracy of the measurements themselves are often unknown. At the same time, many analyses require continuous data sequences and assume that measurements are error-free. While a variety of data imputation and cleaning techniques are available, the evaluation of such techniques remains limited. This study evaluates the performance of these techniques for ambient air toxics measurements, a particularly challenging application, and includes the analysis of intra- and inter-laboratory precision. The analysis uses an unusually complete-dataset, consisting of daily measurements of over 70 species of carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected over a one year period in Dearborn, Michigan, including 122 pairs of replicates. Analysis was restricted to compounds found above detection limits in > or =20% of the samples. Outliers were detected using the Gumbell extreme value distribution. Error models for inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility were derived from replicate samples. Imputation variables were selected using a generalized additive model, and the performance of two techniques, multiple imputation and optimal linear estimation, was evaluated for three missingness patterns. Many species were rarely detected or had very poor reproducibility. Error models developed for seven carbonyls showed median intra- and inter-laboratory errors of 22% and 25%, respectively. Better reproducibility was seen for the 16 VOCs meeting detection and reproducibility criteria. Imputation performance depended on the compound and missingness pattern. Data missing at random could be adequately imputed, but imputations for row-wise deletions, the most common type of missingness pattern encountered, were not informative. The analysis shows that air toxics data require significant efforts to identify and mitigate errors, outliers and missing observations

  13. Air bags: lifesaving with toxic potential?

    PubMed

    Swanson-Biearman, B; Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1993-01-01

    Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 208, "Occupant Crash Protection", requires that all passenger cars manufactured after September 1, 1989 be equipped with automatic crash protection. Car manufacturers met this requirement by installing automatic safety belts or air bags. No chemical injuries have been reported as a result of air bag deployment in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). A 6-month retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of the white powdery residue from air bags, a combination of talc and sodium hydroxide, found in the driver compartment after an MVA. The study reviewed time to onset of symptoms, symptomatology, and treatment. The study included seven patients exposed to deployed air bags after an MVA. Four cases resulted in dermal burns and three patients were diagnosed with unrelated injuries. Three patients presented to an emergency department within 48 hours of the exposure complaining of burns to the skin. Two patients attempted home therapy but became concerned when the symptoms did not subside. One patient was discharged with the diagnosis of first degree burns of the chin and left hand. Another patient experienced bilateral hand erythema and blisters. Standard burn therapy was instituted in both instances. A third patient arrived 1 hour post-exposure to the emergency department complaining of a burning sensation to the hands, but the skin appeared normal. Thorough irrigation was initiated and Silvadene (Marion, Kansas City, MO) applied. One patient notified the poison center 1 hour post-exposure complaining of erythema and burning to his hands after an MVA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8447868

  14. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of toxic organic substances into the air from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic c...

  15. Multiple Air-Toxics Exposure Study Working Paper Number 3. Urban air-toxics exposure model: development and application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District of California completed a Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES) that examines the additive risk from a number of air toxics on an urban area. The project, though partially funded by EPA, is an example of how a State or local agency may approach assessing their local air-toxics risks as is encouraged by EPA's Urban Air Toxics Program which results from EPA's Air Toxic Strategy. The report is a summary of the methods used by the California agency. Though not intended as an endorsement of the entire contents of the report, EPA is reproducing their report (Working Paper Number 3) to benefit and encourage other agencies that may be contemplating such an assessment.

  16. Assessing exposure to air toxics relative to asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Clifford P

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is a respiratory disease whose prevalence has been increasing since the mid 1970s and that affects more than 14.6 million residents of the United States. Environmental triggers of asthma include air pollutants that are respiratory irritants. Air toxics emitted into the ambient air are listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) if they can adversely affect human health, including the respiratory tract. HAPs include particulate and gaseous-phase pollutants, individual organic compounds and metals, and mixtures. Associations between asthma exacerbation and both particles and indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs), often referred to as indoor air quality, have been reported. Studies conducted in the United States, Canada, and Europe over the past two decades have shown that most people living in the developed countries spend the majority of their time indoors and that the air concentrations of many air toxics or HAPs are higher indoors than in the ambient air in urban, suburban, and rural settings. Elevated indoor air concentrations result from emissions of air toxics from consumer products, household furnishings, and personal activities. The Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was designed to oversample homes in close proximity to ambient sources, excluding residences where smokers lived, to determine the contribution of ambient emissions to air toxics exposure. The ratios of indoor to outdoor air concentrations of some VOCs in homes measured during RIOPA were much greater than one, and for most other VOCs that had indoor-to-outdoor ratios close to unity in the majority of homes, elevated ratios were found in the paired samples with the highest concentration. Thus, although ambient emissions contribute to exposure of some air toxics indoors as well as outdoors, this was not true for all of the air toxics and especially for the higher end of exposures to most volatile organic air toxics examined

  17. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  18. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  19. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  20. Developing a Great Lakes air toxic emission inventory for Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.; Wong, S.; Bobet, E.; Wong, S.; Doan, C.

    1997-12-31

    In meeting the increasing needs for an emission inventory of toxic air pollutants around the Ontario portion of the Great Lakes Region, this pilot study was the first phase of the development of a comprehensive toxic air pollutant emission inventory system which will meet the demand from the Ontario domestic and international environmental management programs. In the ongoing development of a toxic air pollutant emission inventory for Ontario, source-release information gaps and emission estimation methodology deficiencies have been identified for future improvement. The state-of-the-art Regional Air Pollutant Inventory Development System (RAPIDS), being developed by the eight Great Lakes states and under the project management of the Great Lakes Commission, was used in this study to compile the emission inventories of selected toxic air pollutants from point, area and mobile sources for 1990. Other emission inventory related models/tools used in this study included the MOBILE 5C (modified version of US MOBILE 5a by Environment Canada), PART5 and other Environment Canada or Ontario specific emission profiles. An emission inventory of toxic air pollutants from the Great Lakes Commission`s 49 targeted compounds and the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA) was developed in this study. This study identified major point source and area source categories that contributed significant emissions of the specified toxic air pollutants. This study demonstrated that RAPIDS can be used as a framework for the development of an Ontario toxic air pollutant emission inventory. However, further refinement of the RAPIDS system, the emission factors, and source specific toxic air speciation profiles would be required.

  1. IMPROVEMENT IN AIR TOXICS METHODS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative and customized monitoring methods for air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being developed for applications in exposure and trends monitoring. This task addresses the following applications of specific interest:

    o Contributions to EPA Regional Monit...

  2. Air toxics and asthma: Impacts and end points

    SciTech Connect

    Eschenbacher, W.L.; Holian, A.; Campion, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    The National Urban Air Toxics Research Center (NUATRC) hosted a medical/scientific workshop (February 1994) focused on possible asthma/air toxics relationships, with the results of the NUATRC`s first research contract with the University of Cincinnati as the point of discussion. The workshop explored the impact of various environmental factors, including air toxics, on asthma incidence and exacerbation; and emphasis was placed on future research directions. The information presented at the workshop suggested a possible association of asthma exacerbations with ozone and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}); however, direct relationships between worsening asthma and air toxic ambient levels were not established. Possible respiratory health effects associated with air toxics will require considerably more investigation, especially in the area of human exposure assessment. Two major recommendations for future research resulted form this workshop and an accompanying NUATRC Scientific Advisory Panel meeting: a need for more complete individual personal exposure assessments so that accurate determinations of actual personal exposures to various pollutants can be made; and a need for field experiments utilizing biomarkers of exposure and effect to more accurately assess the extent and variability of the biological effects, if any, of individual air toxics. 8 refs.

  3. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS: A CITIZEN'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants are poisonous substances in the air that come from natural sources (for example, radon gas coming up from the ground) or from manmade sources (for example, chemical compounds given off by factory smokestacks) and can harm the environment or your health. Inhal...

  4. The National Near-Road Mobile Source Air Toxics Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, much attention has been directed at understanding the impact of mobile sources on near-road air quality, especially PM and its components, NOx and CO, but little information exists for mobile source air toxics (MSATs). MSATs of interest to this project are 1,3-butadiene...

  5. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  6. CONTROLLING AIR TOXICS (CAT), VERSION 1.0. TUTORIAL MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual gives instructions for using Controlling Air Toxics (CAT). The primary objective of this interactive and user-friendly software package is to assist in the review of air emission permit applications. The engineering software is based on the EPA document, Control Techno...

  7. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air. PMID:24926965

  8. SNRB{trademark} air toxics monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is currently conducting a project under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT II) Program to demonstrate its SO{sub x}NO{sub x}-Rox Box{trademark} (SNRB{trademark}) process in a 5 MWe Field Demonstration Unit at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio. The objective of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project was to provide data on SNRB{trademark} air toxics emissions control performance to B&W and to add to the DOE/EPRI/EPA data base by quantifying the flow rates of selected hazardous substances (or air toxics) in all of the major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} process as well as the power plant. Work under the project included the collection and analysis of representative samples of all major input and output streams of the SNRB{trademark} demonstration unit and the power plant, and the subsequent laboratory analysis of these samples to determine the partitioning of the hazardous substances between the various process streams. Material balances for selected air toxics were subsequently calculated around the SNRB{trademark} and host boiler systems, including the removal efficiencies across each of the major air pollution control devices. This report presents results of the SNRB{trademark} Air Toxics Monitoring Project. In addition to the Introduction, a brief description of the test site, including the Boiler No. 8 and the SNRB{trademark} process, is included in Section H. The concentrations of air toxic emissions are presented in Section II according to compound class. Material balances are included in Section IV for three major systems: boiler, electrostatic precipitator, and SNRB{trademark}. Emission factors and removal efficiencies are also presented according to compound class in Sections V and VI, respectively. A data evaluation is provided in Section VII.

  9. WEST LOUISVILLE AIR TOXICS STUDY (WLATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    WLATS was a cooperative effort among the Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the West Jefferson County Community Task Force, the University of Louisville, and EPA Region 4 whose purpose was to determine whether residents of the Rubbertow...

  10. Assessment of hazardous air pollutants for advanced power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brekke, D.W.; Erickson, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) identified 189 substances as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Under the CAAA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate emissions of these HAPs at their sources, including advanced power systems used for the production of electricity. This project focused on evaluating and manipulating the advanced power systems HAP data currently available for presentation to the US Department of Energy (DOE). The data were analyzed for trends associated with emission control systems and operating conditions. This project was an addition to an existing DOE program entitled Trace Element Emissions (TEE), which is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The purpose of this addition is to evaluate the current results of HAP emissions sampling from full-scale and demonstration units employing advanced power or hot-gas cleanup systems. The specific objectives of this program are to (1) perform a technical review and assessment of the data accumulated on the fate of trace metals in advanced coal power systems and compare them to emissions from conventional coal-fired power plants, and (2) assess the effectiveness of conventional and innovative control technologies relative to potential regulation requirements.

  11. AIR QUALITY MODELING OF PM AND AIR TOXICS AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current interest in fine particles and toxics pollutants provide an impetus for extending air quality modeling capability towards improving exposure modeling and assessments. Human exposure models require information on concentration derived from interpolation of observati...

  12. LAKE MICHIGAN URBAN AIR TOXICS STUDY DESIGN AND OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1991, an air toxics monitoring program was conducted in the lower Lake Michigan area. his study was designed to take advantage of the extensive meteorological and oxidant database being generated concurrently by the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS). ntegrated...

  13. Integrating the federal and California air toxics programs

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses California`s existing air toxic program and presents an approach for integrating the program with the federal program. Competitiveness can be enhanced by a strong federal program, but a smooth integration is essential to maintain an effective state program. Flexibility and good communication are essential to ensure a smooth integration and successful implementation.

  14. AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS FROM A VINYL SHOWER CURTAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of both static and dynamic chamber tests conducted to evaluate emission characteristics of air toxics from a vinyl shower Curtain. (NOTE: Due to the relatively low price and ease of installation, vinyl shower curtains have been widely used in bathrooms i...

  15. HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes literature on hazardous/toxic air pollutant (HAP) sources and control techniques employed in their reduction and/or destruction. The information was abstracted from an extensive computerized and manual literature search and data base development study. The p...

  16. CITY OF MILWAUKEE VOLUNTARY AIR TOXICS REDUCTION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and coordination of a broad-based stakeholder workgroup that will meet to discuss, review and recommend strategies to USEPA on practical, cost-effective and voluntary methods for achieving air toxics reductions within a specified neighborhood, locale or region within ...

  17. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    PubMed Central

    James, Wesley; Jia, Chunrong; Kedia, Satish

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:23208297

  18. Sampling frequency guidance for ambient air toxics monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bortnick, Steven M; Stetzer, Shannon L

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of designing a national network to monitor hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), also known as air toxics. The purposes of the expanded monitoring are to (1) characterize ambient concentrations in representative areas; (2) provide data to support and evaluate dispersion and receptor models; and (3) establish trends and evaluate the effectiveness of HAP emission reduction strategies. Existing air toxics data, in the form of an archive compiled by EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS), are used in this paper to examine the relationship between estimated annual average (AA) HAP concentrations and their associated variability. The goal is to assess the accuracy, or bias and precision, with which the AA can be estimated as a function of ambient concentration levels and sampling frequency. The results suggest that, for several air toxics, a sampling schedule of 1 in 3 days (1:3) or 1:6 days maybe appropriate for meeting some of the general objectives of the national network, with the more intense sampling rate being recommended for areas expected to exhibit relatively high ambient levels. PMID:12139351

  19. POPULATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE MODEL FOR AIR TOXICS: A BENZENE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is developing a human exposure and dose model called the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) to characterize population exposure to air toxics in support of the National Air ...

  20. APPLICATION OF JET REMPI AND LIBS TO AIR TOXIC MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses three advanced, laser-based monitoring techniques that the EPA is assisting in developing for real time measurement of toxic aerosol compounds. One of the three techniques is jet resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (Jet REMPI) coupled with a time-of-flig...

  1. Classification Studies in an Advanced Air Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routray, Sunita; Bhima Rao, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, experiments are carried out using VSK separator which is an advanced air classifier to recover heavy minerals from beach sand. In classification experiments the cage wheel speed and the feed rate are set and the material is fed to the air cyclone and split into fine and coarse particles which are collected in separate bags. The size distribution of each fraction was measured by sieve analysis. A model is developed to predict the performance of the air classifier. The objective of the present model is to predict the grade efficiency curve for a given set of operating parameters such as cage wheel speed and feed rate. The overall experimental data with all variables studied in this investigation is fitted to several models. It is found that the present model is fitting good to the logistic model.

  2. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  3. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  4. Air toxics risk standards: are we addressing the real problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Laurie Miller; Richard Becker; Ted Cromwell

    2005-06-01

    Cost-effective risk reductions from major stationary emission sources have seen significant progress. EPA and state data demonstrate that their programs have dramatically reduced emissions and risk from these sources. Analyses indicate that the next generation of risk reductions for stationary sources will be provide little risk reduction, but will be much more costly and more challenging from a policy perspective. Facing these tough choices, EPA and state regulators should, with stakeholder input, be developing scientifically driven and cost-effective approaches to provide the public with honest answers and results. Air toxics risk policies and programs must prioritize and address significant remaining air toxics risks, educate and communicate to the public about the decision alternatives, build support for a holistic approach and openly communicate results. 6 refs.

  5. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  6. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2 μg cm−2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μg ml−1) and to 0.7 μg cm−2 silver or 2.1 μg cm−2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

  7. Ambient and Emission Trends of Toxic Air Contaminants in California.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ralph; Wong, Patrick; Bui, Son; Austin, Jeff; Vance, William; Alvarado, Álvaro; Croes, Bart; Luo, Dongmin

    2015-10-01

    After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue. PMID:26340590

  8. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Gaytán, Brandon D; Vulpe, Chris D

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds-information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  9. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    PubMed Central

    Gaytán, Brandon D.; Vulpe, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds—information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1) novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2) pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3) candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes. PMID:24847352

  10. Characterizing Air Toxics from Oil Field Operations in Los Angeles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M. C.; Brown, S. G.; DeWinter, J. L.; Bai, S.; O'Brien, T.; Vaughn, D.; Peltier, R.; Soltis, J.; Field, R. A.; Murphy, S. M.; Roberts, P. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Inglewood Oil Field in urban Los Angeles has been in operation for more than 70 years. Neighborhoods surrounding the oil field are concerned with the potential emissions of air toxics from oil field operations. The Baldwin Hills Air Quality Study focused on (1) quantifying air toxics concentrations originating from the Inglewood Oil Field operations, including drilling and well workovers, and (2) assessing the health risk of both acute and chronic exposure to air toxics emitted from oil field operations. Key pollutants identified for characterization included diesel particulate matter (DPM), cadmium, benzene, nickel, formaldehyde, mercury, manganese, acrolein, arsenic, and lead. The field study began in November 2012 and ended in November 2013. Four types of instruments were used to characterize oil field operations: (1) Aethalometers to measure black carbon (BC; as a proxy for DPM); (2) X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) for metals; (3) Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) for volatile organic compounds; and (4) meteorological sensors to help assess the wind patterns, temperature, and humidity that influence pollutant concentrations. Overall concentrations of most of the species measured in the study were quite low for an urban area. We determined that there were statistically significant increases in concentrations of DPM associated with oil field operations when winds were from the west-southwest. BC concentrations increased by 0.036 to 0.056 μg/m3, on average, when winds originated from the west-southwest, compared to annual mean BC concentrations of approximately 0.67 μg/m3. West-southwest winds occurred 53% of the time during the study. No other pollutants showed strong statistical evidence of chronic or acute risk from oil field operations.

  11. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  12. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    PubMed

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated. PMID:24152394

  13. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  14. Recent advances in investigations of toxicity of automotive exhaust

    PubMed Central

    Stupfel, Maurice

    1976-01-01

    The influence of auto exhaust on man's health is difficult to gauge considering the intricacy of human environmental urban stresses and particularly of other air polluting (industrial, domestic) emissions. Epidemiological surveys made in road tunnel employees and in traffic officers have not demonstrated specific effects and have often been complicated by cigarette smoking as a factor. Long-term animal experiments run mostly on small rodents give evidence of little effect of the pathological actions of dilutions such as those encountered in high polluted cities. However the acute toxicity of gasoline exhaust emission is well known and mostly due to carbon monoxide. Considering the different types of cycles and operating conditions of vehicles (gasoline and diesel), auto exhaust gases constitute no more a chemical entity than they show, a definite toxicity. A great number of substances that they contain (nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, antiknock additives, heavy metals, possible catalysts are highly toxic as shown by in vivo and in vitro (mutagenic) tests. Interactions of the components are for the moment ignored or poorly understood. Besides, the evolution of the physicochemical properties and natures of the auto exhaust emission in the gaseous biotope of man under determined conditions of ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and hygrometry provoke the formation of secondary products such as oxidants and ozone. Several experiments show clearly that irradiation increases the toxicity of auto exhaust significantly. For these reasons, geographical, meteorological, and chronological (circadian and seasonal) factors should be taken into consideration, especially with regard to emission standards. PMID:67944

  15. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  16. Validation of a novel air toxic risk model with air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Gregory C; Dymond, Mary; Ellickson, Kristie; Thé, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Three modeling systems were used to estimate human health risks from air pollution: two versions of MNRiskS (for Minnesota Risk Screening), and the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). MNRiskS is a unique cumulative risk modeling system used to assess risks from multiple air toxics, sources, and pathways on a local to a state-wide scale. In addition, ambient outdoor air monitoring data were available for estimation of risks and comparison with the modeled estimates of air concentrations. Highest air concentrations and estimated risks were generally found in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area and lowest risks in undeveloped rural areas. Emissions from mobile and area (nonpoint) sources created greater estimated risks than emissions from point sources. Highest cancer risks were via ingestion pathway exposures to dioxins and related compounds. Diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde created the highest estimated inhalation health impacts. Model-estimated air concentrations were generally highest for NATA and lowest for the AERMOD version of MNRiskS. This validation study showed reasonable agreement between available measurements and model predictions, although results varied among pollutants, and predictions were often lower than measurements. The results increased confidence in identifying pollutants, pathways, geographic areas, sources, and receptors of potential concern, and thus provide a basis for informing pollution reduction strategies and focusing efforts on specific pollutants (diesel particles, acrolein, and formaldehyde), geographic areas (urban centers), and source categories (nonpoint sources). The results heighten concerns about risks from food chain exposures to dioxins and PAHs. Risk estimates were sensitive to variations in methodologies for treating emissions, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and toxicity. PMID:21651597

  17. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions. PMID:25676622

  18. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  19. Evaluating the national air toxics assessment (NATA): Comparison of predicted and measured air toxics concentrations, risks, and sources in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Small, Mitchell J.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is an ongoing modeling effort by the Environmental Protection Agency to predict air toxics concentrations, sources, and risks at the census tract level throughout the continental United States. To evaluate NATA, archived data collected at seven sites in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania were compared to 2002 NATA predictions. The sites represent 3 different source regimes (mobile dominated, industrial point source dominated, and background). The evaluation considered 49 air toxics (37 gas-phase organics, 10 metals, coke oven emissions and diesel particulate matter); NATA's performance was judged based on model-measurement comparisons of concentrations, health risks, and source contributions. On a concentration basis, NATA performance varied widely ranging from excellent for carbon tetrachloride to differences of more than a factor of 100 for low concentration chlorinated compounds. However, predicted concentrations were generally within a factor of 2 of measured values for air toxics that were estimated to be the primary cancer risk drivers; therefore NATA provided reasonable estimates of the additive cancer risks and risk ranking of air toxics. NATA performs better on average in Pittsburgh than nationwide. Comparison of source apportionment results indicates that NATA consistently underestimated concentrations of compounds emitted by large point sources as well as concentrations of chlorinated compounds, but overestimated the risks from mobile sources in Pittsburgh. Therefore, in Pittsburgh, NATA sufficiently prioritizes air toxics that drive potential cancer risks, but does not identify the sources of these priority air toxics.

  20. Optimizing electric utility air toxics compliance with other titles of the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, A.P.; South, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of regulatory issues under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments that could affect electric utilities. Title III contains provisions relating to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and provides special treatment for electric utilities. Generally, this discussion documents that if utility toxic emissions are regulated, one of the chief difficulties confronting utilities will be the lack of coordination between Title III and other titles of the Act. The paper concludes that if the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determines that regulation of utility HAPs is warranted under Title III, savings can be realized from flexible compliance treatment.

  1. Toxicity of irradiated advanced heavy water reactor fuels.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D; Richardson, R B; Edwards, G W R

    2013-02-01

    The good neutron economy and online refueling capability of the CANDU® heavy water moderated reactor (HWR) enable it to use many different fuels such as low enriched uranium (LEU), plutonium, or thorium, in addition to its traditional natural uranium (NU) fuel. The toxicity and radiological protection methods for these proposed fuels, unlike those for NU, are not well established. This study uses software to compare the fuel composition and toxicity of irradiated NU fuel against those of two irradiated advanced HWR fuel bundles as a function of post-irradiation time. The first bundle investigated is a CANFLEX® low void reactor fuel (LVRF), of which only the dysprosium-poisoned central element, and not the outer 42 LEU elements, is specifically analyzed. The second bundle investigated is a heterogeneous high-burnup (LEU,Th)O(2) fuelled bundle, whose two components (LEU in the outer 35 elements and thorium in the central eight elements) are analyzed separately. The LVRF central element was estimated to have a much lower toxicity than that of NU at all times after shutdown. Both the high burnup LEU and the thorium fuel had similar toxicity to NU at shutdown, but due to the creation of such inhalation hazards as (238)Pu, (240)Pu, (242)Am, (242)Cm, and (244)Cm (in high burnup LEU), and (232)U and (228)Th (in irradiated thorium), the toxicity of these fuels was almost double that of irradiated NU after 2,700 d of cooling. New urine bioassay methods for higher actinoids and the analysis of thorium in fecal samples are recommended to assess the internal dose from these two fuels. PMID:23274823

  2. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  3. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  4. Release of air toxics during coating operations -- Understanding the process

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, P.A.; Fultz, B.S.

    1997-12-31

    Air toxics emissions, specifically volatile organic compounds (VOC), occur during the mixing, application, and drying of coatings. However, the means by which these emissions are quantified are generally a gross exaggeration. Many times this over-estimation results in the placement of permit emission limits on facilities that restrict operations unnecessarily. This paper will present and discuss the coating application process giving special attention to the points in the process and time periods over which VOCs may be released to the atmosphere. Finally, the highly conservative nature of emission estimation techniques and the methods by which permit limits are developed will be discussed and an alternative approach suggested that more closely represents VOC releases that occur during coating operations; thereby, allowing facilities to realize their operational potential without compromising the potential health impacts to offsite receptors.

  5. Air modeling: Air dispersion models; regulatory applications and technological advances

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.; Liles, R.

    1995-09-01

    Air dispersion models are a useful and practical tool for both industry and regulatory agencies. They serve as tools for engineering, permitting, and regulations development. Their cost effectiveness and ease of implementation compared to ambient monitoring is perhaps their most-appealing trait. Based on the current momentum within the U.S. EPA to develop better models and contain regulatory burdens on industry, it is likely that air dispersion modeling will be a major player in future air regulatory initiatives.

  6. A METHOD OF ASSESSING AIR TOXICS CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN AREAS USING MOBILE PLATFORM MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate an approach to characterize the spatial variability in ambient air concentrations using mobile platform measurements. This approach may be useful for air toxic assessments in Environmental Justice applications, epidemiological studies...

  7. Air quality modeling of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the Houston urban and industrial airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarfa, Violeta Florentina

    2007-12-01

    Air toxics, also called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Their study is important in the Houston area, where point sources, mostly located along the Ship Channel, mobile and area sources contribute to large emissions of such toxic pollutants. Previous studies carried out in this area found dangerous levels of different HAPs in the atmosphere. This thesis presents several studies that were performed for the aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the HGA. For these studies we developed several tools: (1) a refined chemical mechanism, which explicitly represents 18 aromatic air toxics that were lumped under two model species by the previous version, based on their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical; (2) an engineering version of an existing air toxics photochemical model that enables us to perform much faster long-term simulations compared to the original model, that leads to a 8--9 times improvement in the running time across different computing platforms; (3) a combined emission inventory based on the available emission databases. Using the developed tools, we quantified the mobile source impact on a few selected air toxics, and analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in a few regions within the Houston area; these regions were characterized by different emissions and environmental conditions.

  8. Unexpected toxicity to aquatic organisms of some aqueous bisphenol A samples treated by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Tišler, Tatjana; Erjavec, Boštjan; Kaplan, Renata; Şenilă, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, photocatalytic and catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) processes were used to examine removal efficiency of bisphenol A from aqueous samples over several titanate nanotube-based catalysts. Unexpected toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) samples treated by means of the CWAO process to some tested species was determined. In addition, the CWAO effluent was recycled five- or 10-fold in order to increase the number of interactions between the liquid phase and catalyst. Consequently, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated higher concentrations of some toxic metals like chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silver, and zinc in the recycled samples in comparison to both the single-pass sample and the photocatalytically treated solution. The highest toxicity of five- and 10-fold recycled solutions in the CWAO process was observed in water fleas, which could be correlated to high concentrations of chromium, nickel, and silver detected in tested samples. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that aqueous samples treated by means of advanced oxidation processes should always be analyzed using (i) chemical analyses to assess removal of BPA and total organic carbon from treated aqueous samples, as well as (ii) a battery of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic groups to determine possible toxicity. PMID:26114268

  9. Analysis of mobile source air toxics (MSATs)–Near-Road VOC and carbonyl concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures to mobile source air toxics (MSATs) have been associated with numerous adverse health effects. While thousands of air toxic compounds are emitted from mobile sources, a subset of compounds are considered high priority due to their significant contribution to cancer and...

  10. 77 FR 30274 - The Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    .../pkg/FR-2012-02-16/pdf/2012-806.pdf . I. Introduction 2. On December 21, 2011, the EPA released the... Mercury and Air Toxics Standards; Policy Statement on the Commission's Role Regarding the Environmental Protection Agency's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Before Commissioners: Jon Wellinghoff, Chairman;...

  11. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... 21, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-33337 Filed 12-23-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 6560-50-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule...

  12. EMISSIONS OF ORGANIC AIR TOXICS FROM OPEN BURNING: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed literature search was performed to collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic air toxics from open burning sources. Availability of data varied according to the source and the class of air toxics of interest, and there were several sources for wh...

  13. Analysis of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATS)–Near-Road VOC and CarbonylConcentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation examines data from a year-long study of measured near-road mobile source air toxic (MSAT) concentrations and compares these data with modeled 2005 National Air Toxic Assessment (NATA) results. Field study measurements were collected during a field campaign in ...

  14. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and air flow on toxicity of gases from a polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brick, V. E.; Brauer, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    A polycarbonate polymer was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases generated at various temperatures without forced air flow and with 1 L/min air flow, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Time to various animal responses decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature over the range from 500 C to 800 C. There appeared to be no significant toxic effects at 400 C and lower temperatures.

  15. Concentrations of air toxics in motor vehicle-dominated environments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Arnott, William P; Chow, Judith C

    2011-02-01

    We at the Desert Research Institute (DRI*) measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including several mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), particulate matter with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) on highways in Los Angeles County during summer and fall 2004, to characterize the diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations related to volume and mix of traffic. Concentrations of on-road pollutants were then compared to corresponding measurements at fixed monitoring sites. The on-road concentrations of CO and MSATs were higher in the morning under stable atmospheric conditions and during periods of higher traffic volumes. In contrast, BC concentrations, measured as particulate light absorption, were higher on truck routes during the midday sampling periods despite more unstable atmospheric conditions. Compared to the measurements at the three near-road sites, the 1-hour averages of on-road BC concentrations were as much as an order of magnitude higher. The peak 1-minute average concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher for BC and were between two and six times higher for PM2.5 mass. The on-road concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during the summer were 3.5 +/- 0.7 and 1.2 +/- 0.6 times higher during morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively, compared to annual average 24-hour concentrations measured at air toxic monitoring network sites. These ratios were higher during the fall, with smaller diurnal differences (4.8 +/- 0.7 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 for morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively). Ratios similar to those for BTEX were obtained for 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene. On-road concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were up to two times higher than at air toxics monitoring sites, with fall ratios slightly higher than summer ratios. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor

  16. LARGE-SCALE PREDICTIONS OF MOBILE SOURCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation shows concentrations and deposition of toxic air pollutants predicted by a 3-D air quality model, the Community Multi Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Contributions from both on-road and non-road mobile sources are analyzed.

  17. CMAQ MODELING FOR AIR TOXICS AT FINE SCALES: A PROTOTYPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic air pollutants (TAPs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) exhibit considerable spatial and temporal variability across urban areas. Therefore, the ability of chemical transport models (CTMs), e.g. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ), to reproduce the spatial and tempor...

  18. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity. PMID:17980956

  19. Athena: Advanced air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Corey G.; Ziemer, John; Plonka, John; Henderson, Scott; Copioli, Paul; Reese, Charles; Ullman, Christopher; Frank, Jeremy; Breslauer, Alan; Patonis, Hristos

    1994-01-01

    The infrastructure for routine, reliable, and inexpensive access of space is a goal that has been actively pursued over the past 50 years, but has yet not been realized. Current launch systems utilize ground launching facilities which require the booster vehicle to plow up through the dense lower atmosphere before reaching space. An air launched system on the other hand has the advantage of being launched from a carrier aircraft above this dense portion of the atmosphere and hence can be smaller and lighter compared to its ground based counterpart. The goal of last year's Aerospace Engineering Course 483 (AE 483) was to design a 227,272 kg (500,000 lb.) air launched space booster which would beat the customer's launch cost on existing launch vehicles by at least 50 percent. While the cost analysis conducted by the class showed that this goal could be met, the cost and size of the carrier aircraft make it appear dubious that any private company would be willing to invest in such a project. To avoid this potential pitfall, this year's AE 483 class was to design as large an air launched space booster as possible which can be launched from an existing or modification to an existing aircraft. An initial estimate of the weight of the booster is 136,363 kg (300,000 lb.) to 159,091 kg (350,000 lb.).

  20. Old, the new, the states, the evolution of the regulation of air toxics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vecera, D.R.

    1993-02-14

    The activism associated with America in the 1960s spilled over into many areas, one of which was a new environmental movement. A product of that movement was the Clean Air Act passed in 1970. The new law included a selection aimed specifically at controlling emissions of hazardous or toxic air pollutants. However, over the next 20 years there was very little government regulation of air toxics, and this section of the Clean Air Act was considered to be a resounding failure. What went wrong. How did this lofty goal to protect human health and the environment end up on the back burner. The article will address the idealism that led to the Clean Air Act legislation, in particular the air toxics program, and explore the realities that scuttled those ideals when it came time to implement the law.

  1. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  2. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effect on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  3. Biodiesel and Cold Temperature Effects on Speciated Mobile Source Air Toxics from Modern Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with a particular focus on mobile source air toxics (MSATs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a temperature controlled chass...

  4. Advanced air revitalization system modeling and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Baumann, Liese; Jeng, Frank; Christian, Steve; Edeer, Marybeth; Lin, Chin

    1990-01-01

    To support manned lunar and Martian exploration, an extensive evaluation of air revitalization subsystems (ARS) is being conducted. The major operations under study include carbon dioxide removal and reduction; oxygen and nitrogen production, storage, and distribution; humidity and temperature control; and trace contaminant control. A comprehensive analysis program based on a generalized block flow model was developed to facilitate the evaluation of various processes and their interaction. ASPEN PLUS was used in modelling carbon dioxide removal and reduction. Several life support test stands were developed to test new and existing technologies for their potential applicability in space. The goal was to identify processes which use compact, lightweight equipment and maximize the recovery of oxygen and water. The carbon dioxide removal test stands include solid amine/vacuum desorption (SAVD), regenerative silver oxide chemisorption, and electrochemical carbon dioxide concentration (EDC). Membrane-based carbon dioxide removal and humidity control, catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide, and catalytic oxidation of trace contaminants were also investigated.

  5. AIR LAND WATER ANALYSIS SYSTEM (ALEAS): A MULTI-MEDIA MODEL FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Land Water Analysis System (ALWAS) is a multi-media environmental model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of toxicants, the surface runoff of deposited toxicants, and the subsequent fate of these materials in surface water bodies. ALWAS dipicts the spatial and tem...

  6. [Advances in non-carcinogenic toxicity of trichloroethylene].

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiwu; Li, Xuan; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-09-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widely used organic solvent and an important industrial material. Due to mass production and use, and improper waste disposal, TCE has become a common environmental contaminant, so there is a wide range of occupationally and environmentally exposed population. Occupational and environmental exposure to TCE can produce toxic effects on multiple organs and systems. This paper is a review of the immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, teratogenic effect and other non-carcinogenic toxic effects of TCE from the aspects of epidemiological study, experimental evidence on animals and toxic mechanisms. PMID:26733146

  7. A framework for assessing the impact of land use policy on community exposure to air toxics.

    PubMed

    Willis, Melvin R; Keller, Arturo A

    2007-04-01

    Our research focuses on the linkage between land use planning policy and the spatial pattern of exposure to air toxics emissions. Our objective is to develop a modeling framework for assessment of the community health risk implications of land use policy. The modeling framework is not intended to be a regulatory tool for small-scale land use decisions, but a long-range planning tool to assess the community health risk implications of alternative land use scenarios at a regional or subregional scale. This paper describes the development and application of an air toxic source model for generating aggregate emission factors for industrial and commercial zoning districts as a function of permitted uses. To address the uncertainty of estimating air toxics emission rates for planned general land use or zoning districts, the source model uses an emissions probability mass function that weights each incremental permitted land use activity by the likelihood of occurrence. We thus reduce the uncertainty involved in planning for development with no prior knowledge of the specific industries that may locate within the land use district. These air toxics emission factors can then be used to estimate pollutant atmospheric mass flux from land use zoning districts, which can then be input to air dispersion and human health risk assessment models to simulate the spatial pattern of air toxics exposure risk. The model database was constructed using the California Air Toxics Inventory, 1997 US Economic Census, and land assessment records from several California counties. The database contains information on more than 200 air toxics at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. We present a case study to illustrate application of the model. LUAIRTOX, the interactive spreadsheet model that applies our methodology to the California data, is available at http://www2.bren.ucsb.edu/~mwillis/LUAIRTOX.htm. PMID:16842900

  8. NOVEL MARKERS OF AIR POLLUTION-INDUCED VASCULAR TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this project should be a handful of biological markers that can be subsequently used to: 1) identify susceptible individuals, 2) identify causal components of the complex air pollution mixture, and 3) better understand the biological mechanisms involved in air p...

  9. Regulation of toxic and hazardous air pollutants: Regulatory strategies, technical bases and policy considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Symuleski, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Strategies for regulating toxic and hazardous air pollutants have technical bases ranging from threshold limit values for chemicals, to emissions ceilings based upon ambient concentrations. Each strategy has advantages, technical limitations, and policy implications. Major options being considered for amending the Clean Air Act are reviewed.

  10. VERSATILE PC-BASED DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM: AUTOMATION OF EPA'S AIR TOXICS CONTROL LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the decision making process which resulted in the selection and configuration of the hardware and software for the Air Toxics Control Laboratory (ATCL) designed and built at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, in response to the need for the ...

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1992 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1992 USEPA/AWMA International Symposium Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants was held in Durham, NC on May 4-9, 1992. his yearly symposium is sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory and the Air & Waste Management Association. he tec...

  12. APPLICATION OF FINE SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING WITH CMAQ TO HAPEM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For t...

  13. EPA'S CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO ASSISTING STATES AND REGIONS WITH AIR TOXICS PROBLEMS: FIVE CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a new U.S. strategy to reduce public exposure to toxic air pollutants in the ambient air. he strategy calls for state and local authorities to take on more of the lead regulatory role. he shift in emphasis and responsibility prompted EPA's Offices of Research ...

  14. Advanced Print Reading. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This is a workbook for students learning advanced blueprint reading for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. The workbook contains eight units covering the following material: architectural working drawings; architectural symbols and dimensions; basic architectural electrical symbols; wiring symbols; basic piping symbols;…

  15. 77 FR 65395 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program Correction In notice document 2012-26031 appearing on pages 65006-65009 in the issue of October 24, 2012 make...

  16. QUEST FOR AN ADVANCED REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organizations interested in advancing the science and technology of regional air quality modeling on the "grand challenge" scale have joined to form CAMRAQ. hey plan to leverage their research finds by collaborating on the development and evaluation of CMSs so ambitious in scope ...

  17. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  18. Mixture toxicity: Can toxicant body residues advance the state of the art?

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, L.S.

    1994-12-31

    Residue-based toxicity interpretation for organic chemicals in aquatic systems has recently been reviewed by McCarty and Mackay. Several conclusions can be drawn: (1) ranges of body residues are associated with different modes of toxic action, (2) ranges of body residues are associated with various acute and chronic bioassay endpoints, and (3) exposure-based estimates of dose are often much less reliable and subject to more confounding factors than organism-based dose estimates. These conclusions have substantial significance for mixture toxicity. The dominant paradigm for examining mixture toxicity is the toxic unit (TU) concept, which has been used in environmental toxicity for several decades. The TU approach basically categorizes the toxicity of a mixture as additive, synergistic, antagonistic, or noninteractive. It offers little in the way of a scientific explanation of why mixtures are placed in the defined categories and offers no predictive capability. There are advantages to using residue-based toxicity data in a TU unit approach if some of the limitations exposure-based toxicity bioassay data can be overcome. Solutions and their limitations are reviewed. Finally, an outline of a classification system employing a residue-based mode-of-action methodology, and having both descriptive and predictive capabilities, is proposed and reviewed.

  19. In silico assessment of the acute toxicity of chemicals: recent advances and new model for multitasking prediction of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of acute toxicity is one of the most important stages to ensure the safety of chemicals with potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences, biomedical research, or any other industrial branch. A huge and indiscriminate number of toxicity assays have been carried out on laboratory animals. In this sense, computational approaches involving models based on quantitative-structure activity/toxicity relationships (QSAR/QSTR) can help to rationalize time and financial costs. Here, we discuss the most significant advances in the last 6 years focused on the use of QSAR/QSTR models to predict acute toxicity of drugs/chemicals in laboratory animals, employing large and heterogeneous datasets. The advantages and drawbacks of the different QSAR/QSTR models are analyzed. As a contribution to the field, we introduce the first multitasking (mtk) QSTR model for simultaneous prediction of acute toxicity of compounds by considering different routes of administration, diverse breeds of laboratory animals, and the reliability of the experimental conditions. The mtk-QSTR model was based on artificial neural networks (ANN), allowing the classification of compounds as toxic or non-toxic. This model correctly classified more than 94% of the 1646 cases present in the whole dataset, and its applicability was demonstrated by performing predictions of different chemicals such as drugs, dietary supplements, and molecules which could serve as nanocarriers for drug delivery. The predictions given by the mtk-QSTR model are in very good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:25694074

  20. The promise of advanced technology for future air transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in all weather 4-D navigation and wake vortex attenuation research is discussed and the concept of time based metering of aircraft is recommended for increased emphasis. The far term advances in aircraft efficiency were shown to be skin friction reduction and advanced configuration types. The promise of very large aircraft, possibly all wing aircraft is discussed, as is an advanced concept for an aerial relay transportation system. Very significant technological developments were identified that can improve supersonic transport performance and reduce noise. The hypersonic transport was proposed as the ultimate step in air transportation in the atmosphere. Progress in the key technology areas of propulsion and structures was reviewed. Finally, the impact of alternate fuels on future air transports was considered and shown not to be a growth constraint.

  1. NATIONAL AIR TOXICS PILOT MONITORING AND DATA ANALYSIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten cities (Detroit, Providence, San Juan, Keeney Knob WV, Tampa, Grand Junction, Rio Rancho NM, Cedar Rapids, San Jacinto and Seattle) conducted 1/6 and 1/12 monitoring for 18 out of the 33 Urban HAP toxic pollutants through ten, EPA grants. Monitoring was completed in July 200...

  2. Public health implications of 1990 air toxics concentrations across the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, T J; Axelrad, D A; Caldwell, J; Morello-Frosch, R; Rosenbaum, A

    1998-01-01

    Occupational and toxicological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects from exposure to toxic air contaminants. Data on outdoor levels of toxic air contaminants have not been available for most communities in the United States, making it difficult to assess the potential for adverse human health effects from general population exposures. Emissions data from stationary and mobile sources are used in an atmospheric dispersion model to estimate outdoor concentrations of 148 toxic air contaminants for each of the 60,803 census tracts in the contiguous United States for 1990. Outdoor concentrations of air toxics were compared to previously defined benchmark concentrations for cancer and noncancer health effects. Benchmark concentrations are based on standard toxicological references and represent air toxic levels above which health risks may occur. The number of benchmark concentrations exceeded by modeled concentrations ranged from 8 to 32 per census tract, with a mean of 14. Estimated concentrations of benzene, formaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene were greater than cancer benchmark concentrations in over 90% of the census tracts. Approximately 10% of all census tracts had estimated concentrations of one or more carcinogenic HAPs greater than a 1-in-10,000 risk level. Twenty-two pollutants with chronic toxicity benchmark concentrations had modeled concentrations in excess of these benchmarks, and approximately 200 census tracts had a modeled concentration 100 times the benchmark for at least one of these pollutants. This comprehensive assessment of air toxics concentrations across the United States indicates hazardous air pollutants may pose a potential public health problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9518474

  3. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658

  4. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    PubMed

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it. PMID:16229288

  5. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  6. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  7. In Utero Exposure to Toxic Air Pollutants and Risk of Childhood Autism

    PubMed Central

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Aralis, Hilary; Cockburn, Myles; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism, but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Here we examine risks for autism in children related to in utero exposure to monitored ambient air toxics from urban emissions. Methods Among the cohort of children born in Los Angeles County, California 1995–2006, those whose mothers resided during pregnancy in a 5km buffer around air-toxics monitoring stations were included (n=148,722). To identify autism cases in this cohort, birth records were linked to records of children diagnosed with primary autistic disorder at the California Department of Developmental Services between 1998 and 2009 (n=768). We calculated monthly average exposures during pregnancy for 24 air toxics selected based on suspected or known neurotoxicity or neurodevelopmental toxicity. Factor analysis helped us identify the correlational structure among air toxics, and we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for autism from logistic regression analyses. Results Autism risks were increased per interquartile-range increase in average concentrations during pregnancy of several correlated toxics mostly loading on one factor, including 1,3-butadiene (OR=1.59 [95% confidence interval=1.18–2.15]), meta/para-xylene (1.51 [1.26–182]), other aromatic solvents, lead (1.49 [1.23–1.81]), perchloroethylene (1.40 [1.09–1.80]), and formaldehyde (1.34 [1.17–1.52]), adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, nativity, education, insurance type, maternal birth place, parity, child sex, and birth year. Conclusions Risks for autism in children may increase following in utero exposure to ambient air toxics from urban traffic and industry emissions, as measured by community-based air -monitoring stations. PMID:25051312

  8. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  9. INDOOR/AMBIENT RESIDENTIAL AIR TOXICS RESULTS IN RURAL WESTERN MONTANA

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tony J.; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Adams, Earle

    2009-01-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 Volatile Organic Compounds (including 14 Hazardous Air Pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the ‘Air Toxics Under the Big Sky’ program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by Thermal Desorption/Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student’s homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations. PMID:18548326

  10. Indoor/ambient residential air toxics results in rural western Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Underberg, Heidi; Jones, David; Hamilton, Raymond F; Adams, Earle

    2009-06-01

    Indoor and ambient concentrations of 21 volatile organic compounds (including 14 hazardous air pollutants) were measured in the homes of nearly 80 western Montana (Missoula) high school students as part of the 'Air Toxics Under the Big Sky' program during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 school years. Target analytes were measured using low flow air sampling pumps and sorbent tubes, with analysis of the exposed samples by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). The results reported here present the findings of the first indoor/ambient air toxics monitoring program conducted in a semi-rural valley location located in the Northern Rocky Mountain/Western Montana region. Of all of the air toxics quantified in this study, toluene was found to be the most abundant compound in both the indoor and ambient environments during each of the two school years. Indoor log-transformed mean concentrations were found to be higher when compared with ambient log-transformed mean concentrations at P < 0.001 for the majority of the compounds, supporting the results of previous studies conducted in urban areas. For the air toxics consistently measured throughout this program, concentrations were approximately six times higher inside the student's homes compared to those simultaneously measured directly outside their homes. For the majority of the compounds, there were no significant correlations between indoor and ambient concentrations. PMID:18548326

  11. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1996 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1996 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  12. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 1999 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a data set of estimates of 1999 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  13. EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR THE 2002 NATIONAL AIR TOXICS ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a data set of estimates of 2002 emissions of hazardous air pollutants for every county in the US, with sufficient detail on source characteristics to support dispersion modeling, projection to future years, etc. To support NSA/NATA the inventory must be delivered ...

  14. SIMULATING URBAN AIR TOXICS OVER CONTINENTAL AND URBAN SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is evaluating a version of the CMAQ model to support risk assessment for the exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). The model uses a variant of the CB4 chemical mechanism to simulate ambient concentrations of twenty HAPs that exist primarily as gaseous compounds...

  15. MEASUREMENT OF LOW LEVEL AIR TOXICS WITH MODIFIED UV DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understand near source impacts, EPA is working to develop open-path optical techniques for spatiotemporal-resolved measurement of air pollutants. Of particular interest is near real time quantification of mobile-source generated CO, Nox and hydrocarbons measured in cl...

  16. MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference cosponsored for the eighth year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 3-7, 1993. he four day technica...

  17. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In Addition, other pollu...

  18. Advances in monitoring and toxicity assessment of brevetoxins in molluscan shellfish.

    PubMed

    Plakas, Steven M; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-08-15

    Herein, we describe advancements in monitoring of brevetoxins in molluscan shellfish, with respect to exposure management and control of neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Current knowledge of the fate of brevetoxins in molluscan shellfish, and the toxic potency of brevetoxin metabolites, is presented. We review rapid assays for measuring composite brevetoxins, and methodology for measuring constituent brevetoxins, in contaminated shellfish. The applicability of in vitro methods for estimating brevetoxin burden and composite toxicity in shellfish is assessed. Specific and measurable biomarkers of brevetoxin exposure and toxicity in shellfish, and of human intoxication, are described. Their utility in regulatory monitoring of toxic shellfish and in clinical diagnosis of NSP is evaluated. PMID:19925816

  19. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Advanced Air Cargo Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The current air cargo environment and the relevance of advanced technology aircraft in enhancing the efficiency of the 1990 air cargo system are discussed. NASA preliminary design studies are shown to indicate significant potential gains in aircraft efficiency and operational economics for future freighter concepts. Required research and technology elements are outlined to develop a better base for evaluating advanced design concepts. Current studies of the market operation are reviewed which will develop design criteria for a future dedicated cargo transport. Design features desirable in an all-freighter design are reviewed. NASA-sponsored studies of large, distributed-load freighters are reviewed and these designs are compared to current wide-body aircraft. These concepts vary in gross takeoff weight from 0.5 Gg (one million lbs.) to 1.5 Gg (three million lbs.) and are found to exhibit economic advantages over conventional design concepts.

  20. Recent advancements in toxicity prediction following prostate cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ospina, J D; Fargeas, A; Dréan, G; Simon, A; Acosta, O; de Crevoisier, R

    2015-01-01

    In external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer limiting toxicities for dose escalation are bladder and rectum toxicities. Normal tissue complication probability models aim at quantifying the risk of developping adverse events following radiotherapy. These models, originally proposed in the context of uniform irradiation, have evolved to implementations based on the state-of-the-art classification methods which are trained using empirical data. Recently, the use of image processing techniques combined with population analysis methods has led to a new generation of models to understand the risk of normal tissue complications following radiotherapy. This paper overviews those methods in the case of prostate cancer radiation therapy and propose some lines of future research. PMID:26737471

  1. Recent Advances in Launch Vehicle Toxic Hazard and Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    A number of widely used rocket propellants produce toxic combustion byproducts or are themselves toxic in their un-reacted state. In this paper we focus on the methodology used to evaluate early flight catastrophic failures and nominal launch emissions that release large amounts of propellant or combustion products into the planetary boundary layer that pose a potential risk to launch area personnel, spectators, or the general public. The United States has traditionally used the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM) [1] to access the hazard zones associated with such releases. REEDM is a 1970's vintage Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model that is limited in its ability to accurately simulate certain aspects of the initial source geometry and dynamics of a vehicle breakup and propellant fragment dispersion. The Launch Area Toxic Risk Analysis 3-Dimensional (LATRA3D) [2] computer program has been developed that addresses many of REEDM's deficiencies. LATRA3D is a probabilistic risk analysis tool that simulates both nominal vehicle flight and in-flight failure emissions.

  2. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  3. Air toxics being measured more accurately, controlled more effectively

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    In response to the directives of the Clean Air Act Amendments, Argonne National Laboratory is developing new or improved pollutant control technologies for industries that burn fossil fuels. This research continues Argonne`s traditional support for the US DOE Flue Gas Cleanup Program. Research is underway to measure process emissions and identify new and improved control measures. Argonne`s emission control research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. Whenever appropriate, the work has emphasized integrated or combined control systems as the best approach to technologies that offer low cost and good operating characteristics.

  4. Water quality-based toxics evaluation of Reconquista River, Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    The water quality based toxics control is essential to evaluate the aggregate toxicity, bioavailability as well as for the detection and/or prediction of ecological impacts. Reconquista River valley is situated in the north area of Great Buenos Aires with a population of three million inhabitants. The river is loaded with industrial and municipal waste water. In the present preliminary study the authors report the toxicity found in surface water at a 6 sample stations (including a reference point and a stream) all of them downstream from mixing zone areas. The ecotoxicological study was performed with three native species (Bufo arenarum embryos, Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and a species of shrimp collected in an upstream reference site) during a 7 day renewal toxicity test conducted with 10 individuals (by duplicate) for each condition plus control. The results point out that the Bufo arenarum embryos test is the most sensitive to toxic substances as well as the better adapted species to the changing physico-chemical conditions of this river. The results obtained with embryos, expressed in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Units (according USEPA) range between <0.3--2 and <1--5 respectively (recommended magnitudes for industrial effluents according USEPA: 0.3 and 1 toxicity units respectively). Therefore, the toxicity found in Reconquista River ecosystem was up to 6 times higher than the maximal value recommended for industrial effluents. It is noteworthy that in the place where toxicity starts to rise, a large number of dead fishes were found and from that place downstream, no macroorganisms were found in the river. The results confirm the high sensitivity of Bufo arenarum embryos for continental waters ecotoxicological studies and the possibility of using this test as a short-term chronic toxicity method for water quality-based toxics control.

  5. Advances in understanding the renal transport and toxicity of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Lash, L.H. )

    1994-01-01

    As a result of industrialization and changes in the environment during the twentieth century, humans and animals are exposed to numerous chemical forms of mercury, including elemental mercury vapor (Hg[sup 0]), inorganic mercurous (Hg[sup +]) and mercuric (Hg[sup 2+]) compounds, and organic mercuric (R-Hg[sup +] or R-Hg-R; where R represents any organic ligand) compounds. The risk of exposure and subsequent intoxication is of increasing concern because of the steadily increasing deposition of mercury in the environment (Fitzgerald Clarkson, 1991). All forms of mercury have nephrotoxic effects, although disposition and toxicity of mercury in tissues can vary depending on the chemical form of mercury. For example, the initial toxic effects of both elemental mercury and organic forms of mercury are observed in the nervous system. This is due to their lipophilicity, which allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier. At later times, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity can develop. With inorganic mercurous or mercuric salts, the most prominent effect is nephrotoxicity. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms involved in the nephropathy induced by mercury. The purpose of this article is to review recent data on the intrarenal accumulation and disposition, nephrotoxicity, and target site specificity of mercury, and factors that modify or alter renal injury induced by mercury. 170 refs., 7 figs.

  6. ATMOSPHERIC ACIDITY MEASUREMENTS DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN URBAN AIR TOXICS STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1991, as part of the Lake Michigan Urban Air Toxics Study (LMUATS), measurements of reactive gases and fine fraction and size-fractionated acidic aerosols were taken at two sites (South Haven, MI and aboard the research vessel, R/V Laurentian). he fine fracti...

  7. APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT: TOXIC TREATMENTS, IN-SITU STEAM/HOT-AIR STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the Toxic Treatments (USA), Inc., (TTUSA) in situ steam/hot-air stripping technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment technique for hazardous waste site soil cleanup of volatile and semivolatile contaminants. Both ...

  8. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  9. LABORATORY AND COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATIONS OF THE GAS PHASE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY OF AIR TOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A full assessment of the impact of the release of air toxic compounds into the atmospheric requires a detailed understanding of their atmospheres lifetimes and fates. To address this issue a detailed review of the atmospheric chemistry of each of these classes was carried out t...

  10. EMISSIONS OF AIR TOXICS FROM A SIMULATED CHARCOAL KILN EQUIPPED WITH AN AFTERBURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln equipped with an afterburner. A laboratory-scale simulator was constructed and tested to determine if it could be used to produce charcoal that was similar to that produced in Missouri-type charcoal kilns...

  11. CORONA DESTRUCTION: AN INNOVATIVE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR VOCS AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  12. AIR TOXICS MODELING FROM LOCAL TO REGIONAL SCALES TO SUPPORT THE 2002 MULTIPOLLUTANT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research focuses on developing models that can describe the chemical and physical processes affecting concentrations of toxic air pollutants in the atmosphere, at spatial scales, ranging from local (< 1 km) to regional (36 km). One objective of this task is to extend the ca...

  13. Temporal and modal characterization of DoD source air toxic emission factors: final report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project tested three, real-/near real-time monitoring techniques to develop air toxic emission factors for Department of Defense (DoD) platform sources. These techniques included: resonance enhanced multi photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) for o...

  14. Health Status and Residential Exposure to Air Toxics: What Are the Effects on Children's Academic Achievement?

    PubMed

    Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the effects of children's subjective health status and exposure to residential environmental toxins on academic performance for the first time, while adjusting for school-level effects using generalized estimating equations. The analysis employs National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates and individual-level data collected through a mail survey. Results indicate that poorer subjective health status and higher levels of residential air toxins are statistically significantly associated with lower grade point averages, meaning that there is an independent effect of air pollution on children's academic achievement that cannot be explained by poor health alone. PMID:27214671

  15. STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY APPROACHES AND DATA EXPLORATION TOOLS FOR PRIORITIZING AND ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

    Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) refers to a set of structurally diverse environmental chemicals, many with limited toxicity data, that have...

  16. RESOLVING FINE SCALE IN AIR TOXICS MODELING AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ITS SUB-GRID VARIABILITY FOR EXPOSURE ESTIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation explains the importance of the fine-scale features for air toxics exposure modeling. The paper presents a new approach to combine local-scale and regional model results for the National Air Toxic Assessment. The technique has been evaluated with a chemical tra...

  17. Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: toxicity of whole abdominal irradiation after operation, combination chemotherapy, and reoperation

    SciTech Connect

    Schray, M.F.; Martinez, A.; Howes, A.E.; Ballon, S.C.; Podratz, K.C.; Sikic, B.I.; Malkasian, G.D.

    1986-05-01

    Thirty-five patients with advanced ovarian cancer have received, as salvage therapy, irradiation consisting of 30 Gy to the entire abdominal contents with partial liver/kidney shielding and boosts to 42 and 51 Gy for the paraaortic/diaphragmatic and pelvic regions, respectively. These patients had received 6 to 25 cycles (median, 11 cycles) of prior combination chemotherapy (included cisplatin in 30), with second-look laparotomy performed in 33; 24 (68%) had three or more laparotomies. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was generally mild. Significant hematologic toxicity (leukocytes less than 2000/mm3; or platelets less than 100,000/mm3) was seen in 19 (54%); platelet suppression occurred in 18 of these 19. Nine patients failed to complete the prescribed course of therapy; in seven, this was secondary to hematologic toxicity. Amount of prior chemotherapy and advanced age correlated with degree of hematologic toxicity. Five patients without evidence of disease (laparotomy confirmed) have developed treatment-related bowel obstruction. No other chronic toxicity of clinical significance has been observed. Seven patients have developed bowel obstruction associated with progressive neoplasm. Irradiation was well tolerated symptomatically, but hematologic toxicity associated with prior chemotherapy prevented its completion in 20% of patients. Clinical manifestations of radiation bowel toxicity have been moderate to date and should be interpreted in the context of the aggressive combined modality program.

  18. Air resonance of an advanced bearingless rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jinseok; Chopra, Inderjit

    1988-01-01

    The air resonance of an advanced bearingless rotor in forward flight is investigated using a finite element formulation in space and time. The flexbeam, the torque tube, and the outboard blade are modeled as individual elastic beams, and the formulation includes five rigid body degrees of motion. It is shown that a large increase in stability is achieved by increased negative pitch-lag coupling arising from the vertical offset of the cuff restraint pin. It is also shown that body inertia has a significant effect on stability.

  19. Advanced Crew Interface Designs for Safer Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA is developing advanced crew interface designs to improve performance for safe air travel. NASA's goal is to provide enabling technologies that will increase aviation safety by a factor of five within 10 years, and by a factor of ten within 25 years. This research is part of NASA's Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) Enterprise's strategy to sustain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space. The Enterprise has set bold goals that are grouped into Three Pillars: Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps and Access to Space.

  20. Traffic-Related Air Toxics and Term Low Birth Weight in Los Angeles County, California

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Jo Kay; Su, Jason; Cockburn, Myles; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked criteria air pollutants with adverse birth outcomes, but there is less information on the importance of specific emission sources, such as traffic, and air toxics. Objectives: We used three exposure data sources to examine odds of term low birth weight (LBW) in Los Angeles, California, women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants during pregnancy. Methods: We identified term births during 1 June 2004 to 30 March 2006 to women residing within 5 miles of a South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES III) monitoring station. Pregnancy period average exposures were estimated for air toxics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), source-specific particulate matter < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) based on a chemical mass balance model, criteria air pollutants from government monitoring data, and land use regression (LUR) model estimates of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Associations between these metrics and odds of term LBW (< 2,500 g) were examined using logistic regression. Results: Odds of term LBW increased approximately 5% per interquartile range increase in entire pregnancy exposures to several correlated traffic pollutants: LUR measures of NO, NO2, and NOx, elemental carbon, and PM2.5 from diesel and gasoline combustion and paved road dust (geological PM2.5). Conclusions: These analyses provide additional evidence of the potential impact of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth. Particles from traffic sources should be a focus of future studies. PMID:21835727

  1. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1990 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1990 EPA/AWMA Symposium was held May 1-4, 1990 in Raleigh, N.C. he technical program consisted of 178 presentations held in 2O separate sessions. he sessions focused on recent advances in the measurement and monitoring of toxic and related pollutants. ew sessions to the sympo...

  2. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  3. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  4. Identification of ambient air sampling and analysis methods for the 189 Title III air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Mukund, R.; Kelly, T.J.; Gordon, S.M.; Hays, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    The state of development of ambient air measurement methods for the 189 Hazardous Air Pollution (HAPs) in Title 3 of the Clean Air Act Amendments was surveyed. Measurement methods for the HAPs were identified by reviews of established methods, and by literature searches for pertinent research techniques. Methods were segregated by their degree of development into Applicable, Likely, and Potential methods. This survey identified a total of 183 methods, applicable at varying degrees to ambient air measurements of one or more HAPs. As a basis for classifying the HAPs and evaluating the applicability of measurement methods, a survey of a variety of chemical and physical properties of the HAPs was also conducted. The results of both the methods and properties surveys were tabulated for each of the 189 HAP. The current state of development of ambient measurement methods for the 189 HAPs was then assessed from the results of the survey, and recommendations for method development initiatives were developed.

  5. Prediction models for platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity in advanced NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ji-Ye; Li, Xi; Li, Xiang-Ping; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Juan; Mao, Chen-Xue; Fang, Chao; Cui, Jia-Jia; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Chun-Fang; Chen, Zi-Hua; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-07-10

    In this study, we aimed to establish a platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity prediction model in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. 416 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 185 genes were genotyped, and their association with drug response and toxicity were estimated using logistic regression. Nine data mining techniques were employed to establish the prediction model; the sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to assess the models' performance. Finally, selected models were validated in an independent cohort. The models established by naïve Bayesian algorithm had the best performance. The response prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.47 with the ROC area under curve (AUC) of 0.80. The overall toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.86 and a specificity of 0.46 with the ROC AUC of 0.73. The hematological toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.89 and a specificity of 0.39 with the ROC AUC of 0.76. The gastrointestinal toxicity prediction model achieved a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.35 with the ROC AUC of 0.80. In conclusion, we provided platinum-based chemotherapy response and toxicity prediction models for advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:27126360

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED AGE ON THE HEPATIC AND RENAL TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM (CHC13). A McDonald, Y M Sey and J E Simmons. NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC.
    Disinfection, by chlorination or by ozonation followed by treatment with either chlorine or chloramine, of water containi...

  7. Air toxics concentrations, source identification, and health risks: An air pollution hot spot in southwest Memphis, TN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chunrong; Foran, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Southwest Memphis is a residential region surrounded by fossil fuel burning, steel, refining, and food processing industries, and considerable mobile sources whose emissions may pose adverse health risks to local residents. This study characterizes cancer and non-cancer risks resulting from exposure to ambient air toxics in southwest Memphis. Air toxics samples were collected at a central location every 6 days from June 5, 2008 to January 8, 2010. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in evacuated stainless-steel canisters and aldehydes by DNPH cartridges, and samples were analyzed for 73 target compounds. A total of 60 compounds were detected and 39 were found in over 86% of the samples. Mean concentrations of many compounds were higher than those measured in many industrial communities throughout the U.S. The cumulative cancer risk associated with exposure to 13 carcinogens found in southwest Memphis air was 2.3 × 10-4, four times higher than the national average of 5.0 × 10-5. Three risk drivers were identified: benzene, formaldehyde, and acrylonitrile, which contributed 43%, 19%, and 14% to the cumulative risk, respectively. This is the first field study to confirm acrylonitrile as a potential risk driver. Mobile, secondary, industrial, and background sources contributed 57%, 24%, 14%, and 5% of the risk, respectively. The results of this study indicate that southwest Memphis, a region of significant income, racial, and social disparities, is also a region under significant environmental stress compared with surrounding areas and communities.

  8. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  9. [Characteristic of toxic risks of air pollution by chemical admixtures aboard the piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Mukhamedieva, L N; Bogomolov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the chemical composition of air revealed by the sanitary-chemical and toxicological investigations in multifactorial ground-based tests and long-term space flights aboard the Salyut- 6, 7, Mir and the International space station have been used to deduce the chemical characteristic and to substantiate methods to and criteria for evaluation of toxic risks to space crews from air chemical pollution. Of particular concern were the toxic risks and crew protection during the first ingress to modules on the stage of station assembly in orbit, in the course of long-term missions, and in the event of acute exposure in off-nominal and emergency conditions. PMID:19711857

  10. Air toxics in coal: Distribution and abundance of selected trace elements in the Powder River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, S.S.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments identified 12 potentially toxic elements, called ``air toxics,`` that may be released during the combustion of coal. The elements identified in the amendments are As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and U (radionuclides). In this study, the distribution and concentration of these elements were examined, on a whole-coal basis, in samples from two cores of the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed (Paleocene, Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation), in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The distribution of these elements in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed is also compared to the distribution of the same elements in a correlative coal bed, the Anderson-Dietz 1 coal bed in the Powder River Basin of Montana.

  11. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Leikauf, G D; Kline, S; Albert, R E; Baxter, C S; Bernstein, D I; Buncher, C R

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admissions or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. Inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SOx, NOx, O3, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM10)] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particulate and gaseous air toxics, has been associated with an increase in asthma among children. In addition, current associations of adverse health effects with existing pollution measurements are often noted at concentrations below those that produce effects in controlled animal and human exposures to each pollutant alone. These findings imply that adverse responses are augmented when persons are exposed to irritant mixtures of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. An evaluation of dose-response information for urban air toxics and biological

  12. MODELING AIR TOXICS AND PM 2.5 CONCENTRATION FIELDS AS A MEANS FOR FACILITATING HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of the US EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to provide gridded ambient air quality concentration fields at fine scales. These fields will drive human exposure to air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) models...

  13. Recent developments on Air Liquide advanced technologies turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcayre, Franck; Gondrand, Cecile; Drevard, Luc; Durand, Fabien; Marot, Gerard

    2012-06-01

    Air Liquide Advanced Technologies has developed for more than 40 years turboexpanders mainly for hydrogen and helium liquefiers and refrigerators and has in total more than 600 references of cryogenic turbo-expanders and cold compressors. The latest developments are presented in this paper. The key motivation of these developments is to improve the efficiency of the machines, and also to widen the range of operation. New impellers have been designed for low and high powers, the operation range is now between 200W and 200kW. The thrust bearings have been characterized in order to maximize the load which can be withstood and to increase the turbo-expander cold power. Considering low power machines, 3D open wheels have been designed and machined in order to increase the adiabatic efficiencies. A new type of machine, a turbobooster for methane liquefaction has been designed, manufactured and tested at AL-AT test facility.

  14. [Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)--indoor air pollution by PCB-containing durable elastic sealants].

    PubMed

    Ludewig, S; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of the persistent and lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) e.g. in electrical engineering, hydraulics and chemistry of the polymers, caused their ubiquitous distribution and accumulation in food chains. Chronic toxicity in humans is known from several incidents of PCB contaminated food. Dose-response experiences, however, remain uncertain due to the technical grade of PCB as a complex mixture of about 150 congeners and many impurities, like polychlorinated dibenzodurans. Some information on the toxicity of a few PCB congeners is available from animal experiments. Large differences in enzyme-inductive efficacy between the PCB congeners rendered the use of toxicity equivalent factors (related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, "Seveso-Dioxin") necessary. For risk assessment, the use of "sum of PCB", calculated from questionable determinations of 6 minor toxic congeners, is insufficient. Serious problems arise from evaporation of PCB e.g. in technical rooms of telephone companies (in Germany: Telekom) and generally, from sealing materials in buildings. The German Federal Health Administration, BGA, recommends 300 ng total PCB/m3 indoor air as "precautionary value". Since neither the extreme differences in toxicity of the congeners nor bioaccumulation are taken into account, this recommendation of BGA can not be justified any longer. PMID:8219584

  15. Radio-toxicity of spent fuel of the advanced heavy water reactor.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Singh, K D S; Sharma, V K

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a new power reactor concept being developed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The reactor retains many desirable features of the existing Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), while incorporating new, advanced safety features. The reactor aims to utilise the vast thorium resources available in India. The reactor core will use plutonium as the make-up fuel, while breeding (233)U in situ. On account of this unique combination of fuel materials, the operational characteristics of the fuel as determined by its radioactivity, decay heat and radio-toxicity are being viewed with great interest. Radio-toxicity of the spent fuel is a measure of potential radiological hazard to the members of the public and also important from the ecological point of view. The radio-toxicity of the AHWR fuel is extremely high to start with, being approximately 10(4) times that of the fresh natural U fuel used in a PHWR, and continues to remain relatively high during operation and subsequent cooling. A unique feature of this fuel is the peak observed in its radio-toxicity at approximately 10(5) y of decay cooling. The delayed increase in fuel toxicity has been traced primarily to a build-up of (229)Th, (230)Th and (226)Ra. This phenomenon has been observed earlier for thorium-based fuels and is confirmed for the AHWR fuel. This paper presents radio-toxicity data for AHWR spent fuel up to a period of 10(6) y and the results are compared with the radio-toxicity of PHWR. PMID:19776247

  16. Spatial variations of particulate matter and air toxics in communities adjacent to the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Lau, Virginia; Martien, Philip T

    2013-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) sponsored the West Oakland Monitoring Study (WOMS) to provide supplemental air quality monitoring that will be used by the BAAQMD to evaluate local-scale dispersion modeling of diesel emissions and other toxic air contaminants for the area within and around the Port of Oakland. The WOMS was conducted during two seasonal periods of 4 weeks in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010. Monitoring data showed spatial patterns of pollutant concentrations that were generally consistent with proximity to vehicle traffic. Concentrations of directly emitted pollutants were highest on heavily traveled roads with consistently lower concentrations away from the roadways. Pollutants that have higher emission rates from diesel trucks (nitric oxide, black carbon) tended to exhibit sharper gradients than pollutants that are largely associated with gasoline vehicles, such as carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). BTEX concentrations in West Oakland were similar to those measured at the three air toxics monitoring network sites in the Bay Area (San Francisco, Fremont, and San Jose). Aldehyde levels were higher in Fremont and San Jose than in West Oakland, reflecting greater contributions from photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons downwind of the Bay Area. A 2005 modeling-based health risk assessment of diesel particulate matter concentrations is consistent with aerosol carbon concentrations measured during the WOMS after adjusting for recent mitigation measures and improved estimates of heavy-duty truck traffic volumes. PMID:24558703

  17. Canister-based method for monitoring toxic VOCS in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    McClenny, W.A.; Plell, J.D.; Oliver, K.D.; Holdren, M.W.; Winberry, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of reliable, accurate and precise monitoring methods for toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a primary need for state and local agencies addressing daily monitoring requirements related to odor complaints, fugitive emissions, and trend monitoring. The canister-based monitoring method for VOCs is a viable and widely used approach that is based on research and evaluation performed over the past several years. The activity has involved the testing of sample stability of VOCs in canisters and the design of time-integrative samplers. The development of procedures for analysis of samples in canisters, including the procedure for VOC preconcentration from whole air, the treatment of water vapor in the sample, and the selection of an appropriate analytical finish has been accomplished. The canister-based method was initially summarized in the EPA Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air as Method TO-14. Modifications and refinements are being added to Method TO-14 in order to obtain a Statement of Work for the Superfund Contract Laboratory Program for Air. The paper discusses the developments leading to the current status of the canister-based method and provides a critique of the method using results obtained in EPA monitoring networks. (Copyright (c) 1991 - Air and Waste Management Association.)

  18. Air toxics regulations and their potential impact on the natural gas industry. Topical report, June 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.P.; Harkov, R.; Koraido, S.M.; Olsakovsky, A.C.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this effort was to perform an assessment of the potential impacts of air toxics regulations on the natural gas industry. Natural gas industry operations were reviewed to identify potential sources of air toxics emissions and representative compounds that may be emitted, as one basis for the evaluation. Legislation that regulate air toxics exist at the federal and state levels. The federal review addressed primarily the Clean Air Act (CAA), specifically the air toxics provisions under Title III of the 1990 CAA Amendments. Other relevant federal regulations were reviewed, including OSHA, TSCA, CERCLA, SARA Title III, and RCRA. Regulations for three bellweather states (i.e., Texas, New Jersey, California) were reviewed to assess relevant state air toxics regulations. Natural gas operations have the potential to emit air toxics, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) emissions from glycol dehydration vents, products of incomplete combustion from compressor engines, fugitive emissions from facility equipment, and secondary emissions from storage and waste treatment facilities.

  19. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxics and asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Kline, S.; Albert, R.E.; Baxter, C.S.

    1995-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma, measured either as the frequency of hospital admission or number of deaths attributed to asthma, has increased over the last 15 to 20 years. Rapid increases in disease prevalence are more likely to be attributable to environmental than genetic factors. inferring from past associations between air pollution and asthma, it is feasible that changes in the ambient environment could contribute to this increase in morbidity and mortality. Scientific evaluation of the links between air pollution and the exacerbation of asthma is incomplete, however. Currently, criteria pollutants [SO{sub x}NO{sub x}, O{sub 3}, CO, Pb, particulate matter (PM{sub 10})] and other risk factors (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic compounds, etc.) are constantly being evaluated as to their possible contributions to this situation. Data from these studies suggest that increases in respiratory disease are associated with exposures to ambient concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Similarly, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, also a mixture of particles and gases and that current measurements of air pollution are, in part, indirect in that the concentrations of criteria pollutants are acting as surrogates of our exposure to a complex mixture. Other irritant air pollutants, including certain urban air toxics, are associated with asthma in occupational settings and may interact with criteria pollutants in ambient air to exacerbate asthma. 179 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Low acute hematological toxicity during chemotherapy predicts reduced disease control in advanced Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Brosteanu, O; Hasenclever, D; Loeffler, M; Diehl, V

    2004-03-01

    Chemotherapy-treated patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD) differ considerably in acute hematotoxicity. Hematotoxicity may be indicative of pharmacological and metabolic heterogeneity. We hypothesized that low hematotoxicity might correlate with reduced systemic dose and thus reduced disease control. A total of 266 patients with advanced HD treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (COPP-ABVD) were analyzed (HD6 trial of the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group). The reported WHO grade of leukocytopenia was averaged over chemotherapy cycles given and weighted with the reciprocal dose intensity of the corresponding cycle. The low and high toxicity groups were defined in retrospect as having had an averaged WHO grade of leukocytopenia 2.1, respectively. The independent impact of low hematological toxicity on freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) was assessed multivariately adjusting for the international prognostic score for advanced HD. The results were validated in two independent cohorts [181 patients treated with COPP-ABVD (HD9-trial) and 250 patients treated with COPP-ABV-ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisone (IMEP) (HD6 trial)]. The 5-year FFTF rates were 68% for patients with high toxicity vs 47% for patients with low toxicity [multivariate relative risk (RR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-3.0, p=0.0002]. Patients with low toxicity received significantly higher nominal dose ( p=0.02) and dose intensity ( p<0.0001). This finding was confirmed in both validation cohorts (multivariate RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.8, p=0.01 and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.01-2.26, p=0.04, respectively). Patients with low hematotoxicity have significantly higher failure rates despite higher doses and dose intensity. Hematotoxicity is an independent prognostic factor for treatment outcome. This observation suggests a strategy of individualized dosing adapted to hematotoxicity

  1. Stability of air toxic gases listed in Title III Clean Air Act Amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Jaffe, L.B.; Albritton, J.R.; Jackson, M.D.; Midgett, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A repository of 59 organic compounds has been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use as gas standards in performance audits during field validation of emission concentrations from stationary sources. These compounds are listed in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment. The compounds are prepared in compressed gas cylinders and recyclable aluminum containers. Three concentration ranges were selected: low (20 to 200 ppb), mid-level (0.5 to 5 ppm), and high (5 to 50 ppm). The recyclable aluminum containers were only prepared in the low range, and pressures were generally below 400 psig. The compressed gas cylinders contained pressures up to 2000 psig. In this program to ensure that the concentration of each gas standard had not changed, each standard was analyzed periodically for stability. The gas mixtures were analyzed by the manufacturer before shipment. They were then analyzed upon receipt, and reanalyzed periodically to determine any change in concentration. The stability data obtained to date indicates that many compounds are stable in the compressed gas cylinders; however, some of the compounds in the recyclable containers are not stable.

  2. Experimental and analytical studies of advanced air cushion landing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, E. G. S.; Boghani, A. B.; Captain, K. M.; Rutishauser, H. J.; Farley, H. L.; Fish, R. B.; Jeffcoat, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several concepts are developed for air cushion landing systems (ACLS) which have the potential for improving performance characteristics (roll stiffness, heave damping, and trunk flutter), and reducing fabrication cost and complexity. After an initial screening, the following five concepts were evaluated in detail: damped trunk, filled trunk, compartmented trunk, segmented trunk, and roll feedback control. The evaluation was based on tests performed on scale models. An ACLS dynamic simulation developed earlier is updated so that it can be used to predict the performance of full-scale ACLS incorporating these refinements. The simulation was validated through scale-model tests. A full-scale ACLS based on the segmented trunk concept was fabricated and installed on the NASA ACLS test vehicle, where it is used to support advanced system development. A geometrically-scaled model (one third full scale) of the NASA test vehicle was fabricated and tested. This model, evaluated by means of a series of static and dynamic tests, is used to investigate scaling relationships between reduced and full-scale models. The analytical model developed earlier is applied to simulate both the one third scale and the full scale response.

  3. Advanced over fire air retrofit for summer ozone compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, J.; Steitz, T.

    1998-07-01

    As part of a system wide Ozone Compliance Plan, Baltimore Gas and Electric (GBE) pursued a NOx reduction project at Brandon Shores Unit 1, a 680 MWg unit equipped with first generation low NOx burners. Strict current and proposed Ozone reduction regulations in the Northeastern United States required BGE to formulate a compliance plan. BGE reviewed many types of combustion and post-combustion NOx reduction techniques for the Station. An Over Fire Air (OFA) retrofit was evaluated as the least cost option to obtain compliance on a cost per ton of NOx removed. BGE selected an Advanced Over Fire (AOFA) System designed by Foster Wheeler (FW) to achieve their project goals for Brandon Shores Unit 1. The AOFA System demonstrated NOx reductions up to 44% at full load, with absolute NOx levels dropping to below 0.30 lb/MMBtu. All project goals for NOx, LOI (Loss on Ignition), CO, and boiler performance were met or exceeded. The Low NOx System proved to be a very cost effective method to reduce NOx for summertime Ozone compliance, while still allowing for optimum operating efficiency with the Low NOx System out of service during the non-Ozone season.

  4. 75 FR 57549 - Fisker Automotive; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... requirements submitted by a manufacturer of a plug-in hybrid electric car. The basis of the petition was..., especially in low- speed crashes. \\1\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The advanced air bag requirements were... developing advanced air bag systems. \\2\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22,...

  5. 78 FR 65426 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION Technical Report: Evaluation of the Certified-Advanced Air Bags AGENCY: National... reviewing and evaluating certified-advanced air bags. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Certified... Statistician, Evaluation Division, NVS-431, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National...

  6. OPTIMIZING SENSITIVITY OF SIM MODE OF GC/MS ANALYSIS FOR EPA'S TO-14 AIR TOXICS METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidelines for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at ambient levels in air are published in Method TO-14 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's "Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air." To achieve the sensi...

  7. FURTHER REFINEMENTS AND TESTING OF APEX3.0: EPA'S POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC INHALATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX(3.0)) is a PC-based model that was derived from the probabilistic NAAQS Exposure Model for carbon monoxide (pNEM/CO). APEX will be one of the tools used to estimate human population exposure for criteria and air toxic pollutants as part ...

  8. An Evaluation of EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA): Comparison with Benzene Measurements in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA periodically evaluates ambient concentrations, human exposures, and health risks for 180 hazardous air pollutants plus diesel particulate matter using modeled estimates from the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). NATA publishes estimates at the spatial reso...

  9. LINKING AIR TOXIC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CMAQ TO THE HAPEM5 EXPOSURE MODEL AT NEIGHORHOOD SCALES FOR THE PHILADELPHIA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a preliminary demonstration of the EPA neighborhood scale modeling paradigm for air toxics by linking concentration from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the fifth version of the Hazardous Pollutant Exposure Model (HAPEM5). For ...

  10. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the equatorial Indian Ocean: Occurrence, potential sources, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Zhong, Guangcai; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2016-06-15

    Monitoring of marine polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) is crucial, as they are considered persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention. Data on PCNs in marine environment are scarce. In this study, 19 air samples were collected during a cruise in the equatorial Indian Ocean on board the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011. PCN concentration of these air samples ranged from 0.033 to 2.56pgm(-3), with an average of 0.518pgm(-3), equal to or lower than the values reported for other oceans, seas, and lakes worldwide. Tri- and tetra-CNs were the main homologues in most samples. Reemission of Halowax mixtures and incineration processes were the major sources of atmospheric PCNs in the study area. The PCN-corresponding toxic equivalency values ranged from 0 to 0.190fgm(-3) (average: 0.038fgm(-3)), falling in the low end of global range. PMID:27084202

  11. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  12. Validation of an in vitro exposure system for toxicity assessment of air-delivered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sung; Peters, Thomas M; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S

    2013-02-01

    To overcome the limitations of in vitro exposure of submerged lung cells to nanoparticles (NPs), we validated an integrated low flow system capable of generating and depositing airborne NPs directly onto cells at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The in vitro exposure system was shown to provide uniform and controlled dosing of particles with 70.3% efficiency to epithelial cells grown on transwells. This system delivered a continuous airborne exposure of NPs to lung cells without loss of cell viability in repeated 4h exposure periods. We sequentially exposed cells to air-delivered copper (Cu) NPs in vitro to compare toxicity results to our prior in vivo inhalation studies. The evaluation of cellular dosimetry indicated that a large amount of Cu was taken up, dissolved and released into the basolateral medium (62% of total mass). Exposure to Cu NPs decreased cell viability to 73% (p<0.01) and significantly (p<0.05) elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 that mirrored our findings from subacute in vivo inhalation studies in mice. Our results show that this exposure system is useful for screening of NP toxicity in a manner that represents cellular responses of the pulmonary epithelium in vivo. PMID:22981796

  13. Sampling of air streams and incorporation of samples in the Microtox{trademark} toxicity testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinheinz, G.T.; St. John, W.P.

    1997-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a rapid and reliable method for the collection and incorporation of biofiltration air samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the Microtox toxicity testing system. To date, no method exists for this type of assay. A constant stream of VOCs was generated by air stripping compounds from a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Samples were collected on coconut charcoal ORBO tubes and the VOCs extracted with methylene chloride. The compounds extracted were then solvent exchanged into dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) under gaseous nitrogen. The resulting DMSO extract was directly incorporated into the Microtox toxicity testing system. In order to determine the efficiency of the solvent exchange, the VOCs in the DMSO extract were then extracted into hexane and subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID). It was determined that all but the most volatile VOCs could be effectively transferred from the ORBO tubes to DMSO for Microtox testing. Potential trace amounts of residual methylene chloride in the DMSO extracts showed no adverse effects in the Microtox system when compared to control samples.

  14. Toxicity assessment of air-delivered particle-bound polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S; Robertson, Larry W; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-03-20

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47 and 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particles-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  15. Uncertainty for data with non-detects: Air toxic emissions from combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.C.; Frey, H.C.

    2006-12-15

    Air toxic emission factor datasets often contain one or more points below a single or multiple detection limits and such datasets are referred to as 'censored.' Conventional methods used to deal with censored datasets include removing non-detects, replacing the censored points with zero, half of the detection limit, or the detection limit. However, the estimated means of the censored dataset by conventional methods are usually biased. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and bootstrap simulation have been demonstrated as a statistically robust method to quantify variability and uncertainty of censored datasets and can provide asymptotically unbiased mean estimates. The MLE/bootstrap method is applied to 16 cases of censored air toxic emission factors, including benzene, formaldehyde, benzo(a)pyrene, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, total chromium, chromium VI and lead from coal, fuel oil, and/or wood waste external combustion sources. The proportion of censored values in the emission factor data ranges from 4 to 80%. Key factors that influence the estimated uncertainty in the mean of censored data are sample size and inter-unit variability. The largest range of uncertainty in the mean was obtained for the external coal combustion benzene emission factor, with 95 confidence interval of the mean equal to minus 93 to plus 411%.

  16. Toxicity Assessment of Air-delivered Particle-bound Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Klösener, Johannes; Flor, Susanne; Peters, Thomas M.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.; Luthe, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) can occur via ingestion of indoor dust, inhalation of PBDE-contaminated air and dust-bound PBDEs. However, few studies have examined the pulmonary toxicity of particle-bound PBDEs, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate particle-cell exposure system. In this study we developed an in vitro exposure system capable of generating particle-bound PBDEs mimicking dusts containing PBDE congeners (BDEs 35, 47, 99) and delivering them directly onto lung cells grown at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The silica particles and particle-coated with PBDEs ranged in diameter from 4.3 to 4.5 μm and were delivered to cells with no apparent aggregation. This experimental set up demonstrated high reproducibility and sensitivity for dosing control and distribution of particles. ALI exposure of cells to PBDE-bound particles significantly decreased cell viability and induced reactive oxygen species generation in A549 and NCI-H358 cells. In male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed via intratracheal insufflation (0.6 mg/rat), particle-bound PBDE exposures induced inflammatory responses with increased recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs compared to sham-exposed rats. The present study clearly indicates the potential of our exposure system for studying the toxicity of particle-bound compounds. PMID:24451063

  17. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  18. Interdisciplinary approach to assessing the health risk of air toxic chemicals: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Selgrade, M.J.; Busnell, P.J.; Simmons, J.E.; Allen, J.; McGee, J.; Hauchman, F.; Graham, J.A. )

    1990-10-01

    To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology program to provide key health effects data missing from the current data base. A priority ranking of chemicals based on the potential for substantial human exposure and the need for health effects data was developed to identify candidate chemicals for toxicological research. The major goal of the program is to evaluate the concentration-response from acute, intermittent and subchronic inhalation exposures to developmental, genetic, hepatic, immunologic, neurologic, pulmonary and reproductive toxicity in a manner that provides data for the regulatory health assessment of air toxic chemicals. Extrapolation and dosimetry research is also conducted to improve the basis for human risk assessment. Determination of biological endpoints to be examined will be decided on a compound-by-compound basis, depending on the physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the chemical and evaluation of the existing health data base. Although the main emphasis is on inhalation as the primary route of exposure, some of the laboratories will compare inhalation to other routes, such as oral, to better understand the influence of route of exposure and hence the potential applicability of existing health data. Acute and intermittent exposures will be done for all compounds. Upon evaluation of the acute results, a decision will be made as to whether subchronic studies are needed. Endpoints that show unusual sensitivity may be investigated in greater detail. If adverse effects are observed at ambient levels, the time to recovery after exposure will be investigated. 36 refs.

  19. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Effect of air flow and effect of fabric dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    One sample each of commercial polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams were evaluated using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method. Air flow rates of 0, 0.16, 16, and 48 ml/sec were used to determine the effect of air flow on relative toxicity. Time to first sign of incapacitation and time to death were substantially reduced with both polyurethane and polychloroprene flexible foams by the introduction of 16 to 48 ml/sec air flow. The relative toxicity rankings of these materials were not altered by changes in air flow. Under these test conditions, the polyurethane foam consistently appeared more toxic than the polychloroprene foam. Samples of six different colors from the same fabric were evaluated separately, using the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method, to determine the effect of fabric dye, if any. The material was an upholstery fabric, consisting of 46 percent cotton, 33 percent wool, and 21 percent nylon. There appeared to be no significant effect of fabric dye on relative toxicity, for this material under these test conditions.

  20. Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Wu, Xiangmei; Zhu, Xianlei; Harrington, Jason; Tang, Xiaogang; Meng, Qingyu; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Jaymin; Hernandez, Marta; Bonnano, Linda; Held, Joann; Neal, John

    2011-08-01

    Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand

  1. MERCURY AND AIR TOXIC ELEMENT IMPACTS OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCT DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    2003-07-01

    On April 3, 2003, a project kickoff meeting was held at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory. As a result of this meeting and follow-up communications, a final work plan was developed, and a schedule of laboratory tasks was developed. Work for the remainder of the second quarter of this project focused on sample collection, initiating laboratory tests, and performing literature searchers. The final project partner, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, signed its contract for participation in the project. This effort will focus on the evaluation of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) for their potential to release mercury and other air toxic elements under different controlled laboratory conditions and will investigate the release of these same air toxic elements in select disposal and utilization field settings to understand the impact of various emission control technologies. The information collected will be evaluated and interpreted together with past Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data and similar data from other studies. Results will be used to determine if mercury release from CCBs, both as currently produced and produced with mercury and other emission controls in place, is a realistic environmental issue. The proposed work will evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxics on the disposal and/or utilization of CCBs. The project will provide data on the environmental acceptability of CCBs expected to be produced in systems with emission controls for typical disposal and utilization scenarios. The project will develop baseline information on release mechanisms of select elements in both conventional CCBs and modified or experimental CCBs. The modified or experimental CCBs will be selected to represent CCBs from systems that have improved emission controls. Controlling these emissions has high potential to change the chemical characteristics and environmental performance of CCBs. Development of reliable

  2. Advanced Strategy Guideline. Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-12-01

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings.

  3. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... December 5, 2003, CBP published a final rule in the Federal Register (68 FR 68140) to effectuate the... the air cargo is loaded and early enough so that CBP has sufficient time to identify, target, and... information other eligible filers may transmit to CBP. For non- consolidated shipments, the air carrier...

  4. Recent Advances in WRF Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA uses WRF in conjunction with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) for air quality regulation and research. Over the years we have added physics options and geophysical datasets to the WRF system to enhance model capabilities especially for extended retrospective...

  5. Treatment-related gastrointestinal toxicities and advanced colorectal or pancreatic cancer: A critical update

    PubMed Central

    Aprile, Giuseppe; Rihawi, Karim; De Carlo, Elisa; Sonis, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicities (GIT), including oral mucositis, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea, are common side effects of chemotherapy and targeted agents in patients with advanced colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. Being often underreported, it is still difficult to precisely establish their burden in terms of both patient’s quality of life and cancer care costs. Moreover, with the use of more intensive upfront combination regimens, the frequency of these toxicities is rapidly growing with a potential negative effect also on patient’s outcome, as a result of dose reductions, delays or even discontinuation of active treatments. Thus, identifying patients at higher risk of developing GIT as well as an optimal management are paramount in order to improve patient’s compliance and outcome. After the description of the main treatment-induced GIT, we discuss the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of these side effects and comment the scales commonly used to assess and grade them. We then provide a critical update on GIT incidence based on the results of key randomized trials conducted in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:26557003

  6. TOF-SIMS measurements for toxic air pollutants adsorbed on the surface of airborne particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Bunbunoshin; Hoshi, Takahiro; Owari, Masanori; Nihei, Yoshimasa

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of particulate matter were collected: diesel and gasoline exhaust particles emitted directly from exhaust nozzle, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) near the traffic route. Soxhlet extraction was performed on each sample. By gas-chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis of these extracts, di-ethyl phthalate and di- n-butyl phthalate were detected from the extract of SPM and diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). Because these phthalates were sometimes suspected as contamination, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) measurements were also performed on the samples collected at the same environment. By comparing obtained spectra, it is clear that these environmental endocrine disrupters (EEDs) were adsorbed on DEP surface. Thus, we concluded that the combination of conventional method and TOF-SIMS measurement is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing the toxic air pollutants adsorbed on SPM surface.

  7. Lifetimes and fates of toxic air contaminants in California's atmosphere, June 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    1993-06-01

    The report presents information concerning the nature and rate of removal of toxic air pollutants (TAPs) from the atmosphere and any products formed; it also addresses the formation of possible TAPs in the atmosphere. It contains a comprehensive review of the atmospheric chemistry of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, N-nitrosomorpholine, and dialkylnitrosamines. It also outlines the atmospheric lifetimes of 23 possible TAPs, including: hexachlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, dimethyl sulfate, propylene oxide, chlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, benxyl chloride, acrylonitrile, toluene diisocyanates, and 1,4-dioxane. It also reviews possible atmospheric formation of TAPs. Acrolein, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAHs are shown to be present in the atmosphere largely due to atmospheric reactions. Another section describes an investigation of the mutagenicity of products of simulated atmospheric reactions of gasoline and terpenes (emitted from vegetation). These may not be major sources of ambient mutagenicity in California.

  8. Survival outcomes and toxicity of intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Koo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Tae-Jin; Lim, Kyung-Taek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of single-dose cisplatin intraperitoneally administered during cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Data from patients who underwent surgical management followed by intravenous (IV) chemotherapy for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were divided into intraperitoneal (IP) and no-intraperitoneal (NIP) groups according to the administration of IP cisplatin 100 mg during the staging surgery. Clinical results such as survival outcomes and chemotherapeutic toxicity were compared between the two groups. Results Thirty-seven patients in the IP group and 26 in the NIP group were identified. There were no significant differences between the two groups in basic characteristics such as age, histology, and surgical procedures. After the surgery with or without IP chemotherapy, there was no difference in the rate of either hematologic or gastrointestinal toxicity or in the rate of incompletion of following IV chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence occurred in 67.6% (25 patients) of IP group and 57.7% (15 patients) of NIP group (P=0.423) during the mean follow-up period of 37 months. The 3-year disease free-survival rate was 39.9% in the IP group and 35.8% in the NIP group, and the relative risk of recurrence was 0.864 (95% confidence interval, 0.447-1.673; P=0.665) in the IP group as compared with the NIP group. Conclusion IP chemotherapy with single-dose cisplatin during cytoreductive surgery is safe and feasible with little chemotherapeutic toxicity in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but no distinct improvement in survival could be demonstrated in the present study. PMID:25469337

  9. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  10. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, Louis A.; Chase, Peter J.; Gross, Michael P.

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  11. Modeling of Personal Exposures to Ambient Air Toxics in Camden, New Jersey: An Evaluation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Wei; Tang, Xiaogang; Fan, Zhi-Hua (Tina); Wu, Xiangmei; Lioy, Paul J.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Individual Based Exposure Modeling (IBEM) application of MENTOR (Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk studies) in a hot spot area, where there are concentrated local sources on the scale of tens to hundreds of meters, and an urban reference area in Camden, NJ, to characterize the ambient concentrations and personal exposures to benzene and toluene from local ambient sources. The emission-based ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods were first estimated through atmospheric dispersion modeling. Subsequently, the calculated and measured ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were separately combined with the time-activity diaries completed by the subjects as inputs to MENTOR/IBEM for estimating personal exposures resulting from ambient sources. The modeling results were then compared with the actual personal measurements collected from over 100 individuals in the field study to identify the gaps in modeling personal exposures in a hot spot. The modeled ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were generally in agreement with the neighborhood measurements within a factor of 2, but were underestimated at the high-end percentiles. The major local contributors to the benzene ambient levels are from mobile sources, whereas mobile and stationary (point and area) sources contribute to the toluene ambient levels in the study area. This finding can be used as guidance for developing better air toxic emission inventories for characterizing, through modeling, the ambient concentrations of air toxics in the study area. The estimated percentage contributions of personal exposures from ambient sources were generally higher in the hot spot area than the urban reference area in Camden, NJ, for benzene and toluene. This finding demonstrates the hot spot characteristics of stronger local ambient source impacts on personal exposures. Non-ambient sources were also found as significant contributors to personal exposures to benzene and toluene

  12. Quantitative dose-response assessment of inhalation exposures to toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabek, A.M.; Foureman, G.L.; Gift, J.S.; Guth, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, including evaluation of residual risks. requires accurate human health risk estimates of both acute and chronic inhalation exposures to toxic air pollutants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s National Center for Environmental Assessment, Research Triangle Park, NC, has a research program that addresses several key issues for development of improved quantitative approaches for dose-response assessment. This paper describes three projects underway in the program. Project A describes a Bayesian approach that was developed to base dose-response estimates on combined data sets and that expresses these estimates as probability density functions. A categorical regression model has been developed that allows for the combination of all available acute data, with toxicity expressed as severity categories (e.g., mild, moderate, severe), and with both duration and concentration as governing factors. Project C encompasses two refinements to uncertainty factors (UFs) often applied to extrapolate dose-response estimates from laboratory animal data to human equivalent concentrations. Traditional UFs have been based on analyses of oral administration and may not be appropriate for extrapolation of inhalation exposures. Refinement of the UF applied to account for the use of subchronic rather than chronic data was based on an analysis of data from inhalation exposures (Project C-1). Mathematical modeling using the BMD approach was used to calculate the dose-response estimates for comparison between the subchronic and chronic data so that the estimates were not subject to dose-spacing or sample size variability. The second UF that was refined for extrapolation of inhalation data was the adjustment for the use of a LOAEL rather than a NOAEL (Project C-2).

  13. Organic toxicants in air and precipitation samples from the Lake Michigan area

    SciTech Connect

    Harlin, K.S.; Sweet, C.W.; Gatz, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    Measurements of PCBs, organochlorine insecticides, PAHs, and atrazine were made in air and precipitation samples collected at regionally-representative locations near Lake Michigan from 1992-1995. The purpose of these measurements was to provide information needed to estimate the atmospheric deposition of organic toxicants to Lake Michigan. Twenty-four hour samples of airborne particles and vapor were collected at 12-day intervals on quartz fiber filters and XAD-2 resin vapor traps using modified high volume sampleers. Twenty-eight day precipitation samples were collected using wet-only samplers with stainless steel sampling surfaces and heated enclosure containing an XAD-2 resin adsorption column. Samples were Soxhlet extracted for 24 hours with hexane:acetone (1:1), and concentrated by rotary evaporation. Interferences were removed and the samples separated into analyte groups by silica gel chromatography. Four fractions were collected for GC-ECD and GC-Ion Trap MS analyses. Ten pesticides, 101 PCB congeners, 18 PAHs, and atrazine were measured in all samples. Quality assurance was maintained by including field duplicate samples, field blanks, alboratory matrix spikes, laboratory matrix blanks, and laboratory surrogate spikes in the sampling/analytical protocols. Preliminary results from urban and remote sites show geographical variations in the concentrations of some toxicants due to contributions from local sources. For all sites the total PCB levels are higher in the vapor phase than the particulate phase and show strong seasonal variations. Seasonal variations were also observed for several pesticides.

  14. Validation of an in vitro exposure system for toxicity assessment of air-delivered nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Sung; Peters, Thomas M.; O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of in vitro exposure of submerged lung cells to nanoparticles (NPs), we validated an integrated low flow system capable of generating and depositing airborne NPs directly onto cells at an air–liquid interface (ALI). The in vitro exposure system was shown to provide uniform and controlled dosing of particles with 70.3% efficiency to epithelial cells grown on transwells. This system delivered a continuous airborne exposure of NPs to lung cells without loss of cell viability in repeated 4 h exposure periods. We sequentially exposed cells to air-delivered copper (Cu) NPs in vitro to compare toxicity results to our prior in vivo inhalation studies. The evaluation of cellular dosimetry indicated that a large amount of Cu was taken up, dissolved and released into the basolateral medium (62% of total mass). Exposure to Cu NPs decreased cell viability to 73% (p < 0.01) and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular reactive oxygen species and interleukin-8 that mirrored our findings from subacute in vivo inhalation studies in mice. Our results show that this exposure system is useful for screening of NP toxicity in a manner that represents cellular responses of the pulmonary epithelium in vivo. PMID:22981796

  15. Interdisciplinary approach to assessing the health risk of air toxic chemicals: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, E.C.; Selgrade, M.J.K.; Busnell, P.J.; Simmons, J.E.; Allen, J.

    1990-01-01

    To assist the regulatory branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in addressing the risk assessment of air toxics, the Health Effects Research Laboratory initiated a comprehensive inhalation toxicology program to provide key health effects data missing from the current data base. A priority ranking of chemicals based on the potential for substantial human exposure and the need for health effects data was developed to identify candidate chemicals for toxicological research. The major goal of the program is to evaluate the concentration-response from acute, intermittent and subchronic inhalation exposures to developmental, genetic, hepatic, immunologic, neurologic, pulmonary and reproductive toxicity. Although the main emphasis is on inhalation as the primary route of exposure, some of the laboratories will compare inhalation to other routes, such as oral, to better understand the influence of route of exposure and hence the potential applicability of existing health data. Acute and intermittent exposures will be done for all compounds. Upon evaluation of the acute results, a decision will be made as to whether subchronic studies are needed. Endpoints that show unusual sensitivity may be investigated in greater detail. The total length of exposure will vary from 1 to 21 days. The daily length of exposure will range from 1 to 8 hr. If adverse effects are observed at ambient levels, the time to recovery after exposure will be investigated.

  16. REFINED PHOTOLYSIS RATES FOR ADVANCED AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate modeling of photochemistry is critical and fundamental to reducing the uncertainty in air quality model predictions. lmost all chemical reactions in the atmosphere are initiated by the photodissociation of a number of trace gases. irect measure of this photodissociation ...

  17. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology have significantly changed the cockpit environment in current 'glass cockpit' aircraft. Recent developments in display technology, on-board processing, data storage, and datalinked communications are likely to further alter the environment in second and third generation 'glass cockpit' aircraft. The interaction of advanced cockpit technology with human cognitive performance has been a major area of activity within the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the MIT Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility. Several recent research projects are briefly reviewed and the most important results are summarized.

  18. Spatial variation in ambient air toxics concentrations and health risks between industrial-influenced, urban, and rural sites.

    PubMed

    Logue, Jennifer M; Small, Mitchell J; Stern, Darrell; Maranche, Jason; Robinson, Allen L

    2010-03-01

    Concentrations of 38 gas-phase organic air toxics were measured over a 2-yr period at four different sites in and around Pittsburgh, PA, to investigate spatial variations in health risks from chronic exposure. The sites were chosen to represent different exposure regimes: a downtown site with substantial mobile source emissions; two residential sites adjacent to one of the most heavily industrialized zones in Pittsburgh; and a regional background site. Lifetime cancer risks and non-cancer hazard quotients were estimated using a traditional and interactive risk models. Although study average concentrations of specific air toxics varied by as a much as a factor of 26 between the sites, the additive cancer risks of the gas-phase organic air toxics varied by less than a factor of 2, ranging from 6.1 x 10(-5) to 9.5 x 10(-5). The modest variation in risks reflects the fact that two regionally distributed toxics, formaldehyde and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), contributed more than half of the cancer risk at all four sites. Benzene contributed substantial cancer risks at all sites, whereas trichloroethene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene only contributed substantial cancer risks at the downtown site. Only acrolein posed a non-cancer risk. Diesel particulate matter is estimated to pose a much greater cancer risk in Pittsburgh than other classes of air toxics including gas-phase organic, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and coke oven emissions. Health risks of air toxics in Pittsburgh are comparable with those in other urban areas in the United States. PMID:20397557

  19. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. wo full scale air emissions control systems for trichloroethene (TCE) were constructed at Purus and tested at Lawrence...

  20. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival. 122.48a Section 122.48a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest...

  1. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicola; Davies, Stephen; Wevill, David

    2011-01-01

    As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt) level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples. PMID:22241966

  2. DIESEL TRUCK IDLING EMISSIONS - MOBILE SOURCE AIR TOXICS MEASURED AT A HOT SPOT

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Miller, Terry L.; Fu, Joshua S.; Hromis, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) are of growing concern due to recent studies linking health risk to residency near heavily traveled roadways. Few research studies on MSAT emissions have been performed due to several factors; those factors include: the difficulty of measuring MSATs due to their semi-volatile nature, lower relative concentration in comparison to NOx and other criteria emissions, and fewer regulations on MSATs. In this paper, measurements of MSATs at a "hot spot" of poor air quality created by a high population of idling heavy-duty trucks are presented. The study area was the Watt Road-Interstate-40/75 interchange just west of Knoxville, TN where approximately 20,000 heavy-duty trucks travel along the interstate each day and hundreds of heavy-duty trucks idle at three large truck stops near the interchange. The air quality in the local area surrounding the interchange is affected negatively by the high number of mobile sources as well as geographic and meteorological conditions; the interchange lies in a valley between two ridges which slows long range transport of pollutants especially in winter months when temperature inversion occurs frequently. Ambient air quality was measured during summer and winter months of two separate years at three sites: a site in one of the truckstops, a site near the interstate roadway, and a site on top of one of the surrounding ridges chosen as a background site for comparison. Results of criteria pollutants measured at these sites are reported in a companion paper by Miller et. al.; the results presented here include measurements of MSATs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and other species obtained via collection on di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) filters. Also, preliminary measurements of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are presented. The results indicate that emissions from idling heavy-duty trucks are a primary contributor of MSATs to local air quality near areas of high static truck traffic; furthermore

  3. Assessment of sociodemographic and geographic disparities in cancer risk from air toxics in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-07-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk (RR) estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson's chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  4. Assessment of Sociodemographic and Geographic Disparities in Cancer Risk from Air Toxics in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Jiang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Hongmei; Samantapudi, Ashok; Murray, Rianna; Dalemarre, Laura; Rice, LaShanta; Williams, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Populations of color and low-income communities are often disproportionately burdened by exposures to various environmental contaminants, including air pollution. Some air pollutants have carcinogenic properties that are particularly problematic in South Carolina (SC), a state that consistently has high rates of cancer mortality for all sites. The purpose of this study was to assess cancer risk disparities in SC by linking risk estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) with sociodemographic data from the 2000 US Census Bureau. Specifically, NATA risk data for varying risk categories were linked by tract ID and analyzed with sociodemographic variables from the 2000 census using R. The average change in cancer risk from all sources by sociodemographic variable was quantified using multiple linear regression models. Spatial methods were further employed using ArcGIS 10 to assess the distribution of all source risk and percent non-white at each census tract level. The relative risk estimates of the proportion of high cancer risk tracts (defined as the top 10% of cancer risk in SC) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated between the first and latter three quartiles defined by sociodemographic factors, while the variance in the percentage of high cancer risk between quartile groups was tested using Pearson’s chi-square. The average total cancer risk for SC was 26.8 people/million (ppl/million). The risk from on-road sources was approximately 5.8 ppl/million, higher than the risk from major, area, and non-road sources (1.8, 2.6, and 1.3 ppl/million), respectively. Based on our findings, addressing on-road sources may decrease the disproportionate cancer risk burden among low-income populations and communities of color in SC. PMID:26037107

  5. Recent advances in the development of Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Ferrari, Stefania; Quartarone, Eliana; Mustarelli, Piercarlo

    2012-12-01

    The global energy demand calls for more efficient storage systems. In this review, the state of the art of Li/air and Li/O2 batteries is discussed with particular attention on the more recent findings regarding all the battery compartments. Both aqueous and non-aqueous systems are considered, and the most critical issues for better battery design are addressed. Whereas the predicted charge/discharge values for these devices do justify the intense research efforts performed nowadays, great problems are still present which must be overcome in order to make Li/air and Li/O2 a reality for future large-scale applications.

  6. EVALUATION OF PHOTOVAC 10S50 PORTABLE PHOTOIONIZATION GAS CHROMATOGRAPH FOR ANALYSIS OF TOXIC ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the Photovac 10S50 portable photoionization gas chromatograph as a monitor for fourteen selected toxic organic vapors in ambient air. These included benzene, toluene, bromo- and chloro-benzene, o-xylene, and nine halo-methanes, ethanes, ...

  7. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES. VOLUME 1. PREVENTION AND PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  8. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 2: POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  9. CHANGES IN HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND LUNG FUNCTION OBSERVED IN NC PATROL TROOPERS EXPOSED TO PM AND AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Lung Function in NC Patrol Troopers exposed to PM and Air Toxics

    Michael Riediker1, Wayne E Cascio1, Robert B Devlin2, Thomas Griggs1&4, Margaret Herbst1, Ronald W Williams3, Steve P McCorquodale4, Philip A Bromberg1
    1) University o...

  10. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 2. POST-RELEASE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR CONTROLLING ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume discusses prevention and protection measures for controlling accidental releases of air toxics. The probability of accidental releases depends on the extent to which deviations (in magnitude and duration) in the process can be tolerated before a loss of chemical contai...

  11. Air Toxics under the Big Sky: A Real-World Investigation to Engage High School Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Smith, Garon; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Striebel, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a problem-based chemistry education model in which students perform scientific research on a local environmentally relevant problem. The project is a collaboration among The University of Montana and local high schools centered around Missoula, Montana. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky" involves high school students in collecting…

  12. Reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BG activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-04-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960`s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the United States toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  13. Relationship of Racial Composition and Cancer Risks from Air Toxics Exposure in Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; James, Wesley; Kedia, Satish

    2014-01-01

    African Americans in the U.S. often live in poverty and segregated urban neighborhoods, many of which have dense industrial facilities resulting in high exposure to harmful air toxics. This study aims to explore the relationship between racial composition and cancer risks from air toxics exposure in Memphis/Shelby County, Tennessee, U.S.A. Air toxics data were obtained from 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), and the demographic data, including racial composition, were extracted from the 2000 United States Census. The association was examined using multivariable geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis. The risk difference between African American and White concentrated areas was defined as the absolute disparity, and the percent difference as the relative disparity. GWR analyses show that cancer risks increase with respect to increasing percent of African Americans at the census tract level. Individuals in African American concentrated tracts bear 6% more cancer risk burden than in White concentrated tracts. The distribution of major roads causes the largest absolute disparity and the distribution of industrial facilities causes the largest relative disparity. Effective strategies for reduction in environmental disparity should especially target sources of large absolute disparities. PMID:25089776

  14. RARE PROJECT: AIR TOXICS DATA ANALYSIS FOR SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT VOCS AT SELECTED CENSUS TRACTS IN HOUSTON-GALVESTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an ORD Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study with EPA Region 6 to conduct data analysis geared to spatial analysis for estimation of ambient VOCs at selected census tract areas in Houston-Galveston area. For a better understanding of air toxics impacts in the Hou...

  15. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC/HAP (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS-HAZARDOUS/TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS) DESTRUCTION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the use of a pilot-scale catalytic incineration unit/solvent generation system to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a way to destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous/toxic air pollutants (HAPs). Objectives of the study ...

  16. Geographic boundaries in breast, lung and colorectal cancers in relation to exposure to air toxics in Long Island, New York

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Greiling, Dunrie A

    2003-01-01

    Background This two-part study employs several statistical techniques to evaluate the geographic distribution of breast cancer in females and colorectal and lung cancers in males and females in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. In this second paper, we compare patterns in standardized morbidity ratios (SMR values), calculated from New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) data, to geographic patterns in overall predicted risk (OPR) from air toxics using exposures estimated in the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment database. Results We identified significant geographic boundaries in SMR and OPR. We found little or no association between the SMR of colorectal and breast cancers and the OPR for each cancer from exposure to the air toxics. We did find boundaries in male and female lung cancer SMR and boundaries in lung cancer OPR to be closer to one another than expected. Conclusion While consistent with a causal relationship between air toxics and lung cancer incidence, the boundary analysis does not demonstrate the existence of a causal relationship. However, now that the areas of overlap between boundaries in lung cancer incidence and potential airborne exposures have been identified, we can begin to evaluate local- as well as large-scale determinants of lung cancer. PMID:12633502

  17. Geographic boundaries in breast, lung and colorectal cancers in relation to exposure to air toxics in Long Island, New York.

    PubMed

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Greiling, Dunrie A

    2003-02-17

    BACKGROUND: This two-part study employs several statistical techniques to evaluate the geographic distribution of breast cancer in females and colorectal and lung cancers in males and females in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. In this second paper, we compare patterns in standardized morbidity ratios (SMR values), calculated from New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) data, to geographic patterns in overall predicted risk (OPR) from air toxics using exposures estimated in the USEPA National Air Toxics Assessment database. RESULTS: We identified significant geographic boundaries in SMR and OPR. We found little or no association between the SMR of colorectal and breast cancers and the OPR for each cancer from exposure to the air toxics. We did find boundaries in male and female lung cancer SMR and boundaries in lung cancer OPR to be closer to one another than expected. CONCLUSION: While consistent with a causal relationship between air toxics and lung cancer incidence, the boundary analysis does not demonstrate the existence of a causal relationship. However, now that the areas of overlap between boundaries in lung cancer incidence and potential airborne exposures have been identified, we can begin to evaluate local- as well as large-scale determinants of lung cancer. PMID:12633502

  18. ADVANCED SORBENTS FOR CONTROL OF MULTIPLE AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR)and Utility MACT rulemaking are focusing on future reductions of NOX, SO2, and mercury emissions from power plants. Multipollutant sorbents could provide a cost-effective approach to control these emissions. This research will develop, charac...

  19. Room Air Conditioners; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This Quinmester course includes installations, electrical and mechanical servicing, reverse cycle air conditioning, malfunctions, troubleshooting and repair, discharge, pump down, and recharging the system. The course may be taught as a two or three Quinmester credit course. In each instance the course consists of six instructional blocks:…

  20. Macrophage recognition of toxic advanced glycosylation end products through the macrophage surface-receptor nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuichi; Dambara, Hikaru; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Kazuya; Konishi, Mio; Beppu, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) are non-enzymatically glycosylated proteins that play an important role in several diseases and aging processes, including angiopathy, renal failure, diabetic complications, and some neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, glyceraldehyde (GCA)- and glycolaldehyde (GOA)-derived AGEs are deemed toxic AGEs, due to their cytotoxicity. Recently, the shuttling-protein nucleolin has been shown to possess scavenger receptor-activity. Here, we investigated whether or not macrophages recognize toxic AGEs through nucleolin receptors expressed on their surface. Free amino acid groups and arginine residues found in bovine serum albumin (BSA) were time-dependently modified by incubation with GCA and GOA. In addition, average molecular size was increased by incubation with GCA and GOA. While GCA-treated BSA (GCA-BSA) and GOA-treated BSA (GOA-BSA) were recognized by thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages in proportion to their respective aldehyde-modification ratios, aldehyde-untreated control-BSA was not. Surface plasmon-resonance analysis revealed that nucleolin strongly associated with GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA, but not with control-BSA. Further, pretreating macrophages with anti-nucleolin antibody, but not control-Immunoglobulin G, inhibited recognition of GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA by macrophages. Additionally, AGRO, a nucleolin-specific oligonucleotide aptamer, inhibited recognition of GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA. Moreover, nucleolin-transfected HEK293 cells recognized more GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA than control HEK cells did. Binding of nucleolin and GCA-BSA/GOA-BSA was also blocked by anti-nucleolin antibody at molecular level. These results indicate that nucleolin is a receptor that allows macrophages to recognize toxic AGEs. PMID:24818254

  1. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control. PMID:26427371

  2. Principled negotiation and distributed optimization for advanced air traffic management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangermann, John Paul

    Today's aircraft/airspace system faces complex challenges. Congestion and delays are widespread as air traffic continues to grow. Airlines want to better optimize their operations, and general aviation wants easier access to the system. Additionally, the accident rate must decline just to keep the number of accidents each year constant. New technology provides an opportunity to rethink the air traffic management process. Faster computers, new sensors, and high-bandwidth communications can be used to create new operating models. The choice is no longer between "inflexible" strategic separation assurance and "flexible" tactical conflict resolution. With suitable operating procedures, it is possible to have strategic, four-dimensional separation assurance that is flexible and allows system users maximum freedom to optimize operations. This thesis describes an operating model based on principled negotiation between agents. Many multi-agent systems have agents that have different, competing interests but have a shared interest in coordinating their actions. Principled negotiation is a method of finding agreement between agents with different interests. By focusing on fundamental interests and searching for options for mutual gain, agents with different interests reach agreements that provide benefits for both sides. Using principled negotiation, distributed optimization by each agent can be coordinated leading to iterative optimization of the system. Principled negotiation is well-suited to aircraft/airspace systems. It allows aircraft and operators to propose changes to air traffic control. Air traffic managers check the proposal maintains required aircraft separation. If it does, the proposal is either accepted or passed to agents whose trajectories change as part of the proposal for approval. Aircraft and operators can use all the data at hand to develop proposals that optimize their operations, while traffic managers can focus on their primary duty of ensuring

  3. Advances in Fast Response Acoustically Derived Air Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Jacobsen, Larry; Horst, Thomas; Conrad, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity. The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  4. The importance of toxicity in determining the impact of hazardous air pollutants on the respiratory health of children in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Moore, Roberta J H; Hotchkiss, Julie L

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory diseases, exacerbated through point source pollution, are currently among the leading causes of hospitalization of children in the United States. This paper investigates the relationship between the proximity of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities and the number of children diagnosed in hospitals with a respiratory disease in Tennessee. The importance of controlling for toxicity of those HAPs is of particular interest. Hospital discharge, socioeconomic, TRI emission, and HAP toxicity data are used to estimate, via Generalized Linear Methods, a logistic regression model describing the relationship between the percent of children living in a zip code area treated for respiratory illness and the average annual emissions over the previous 10 years of HAPs from TRI sites in that area. Controlling for area socioeconomic characteristics, we find that accounting for toxicity is important in uncovering the relationship between HAP emissions and respiratory health of children. A one standard deviation increase in toxicity-weighted emissions per 100 square miles is associated with an increase in the number of children diagnosed with asthma (chronic bronchitis) by about 1205 (260). The evidence suggests that, with a goal to improving children's respiratory health, monitoring the toxicity of chemicals being emitted is at least as important as simply monitoring total emission levels. This suggests that the EPA should consider making efforts toward establishing toxicity adjusted emission guidelines. PMID:27342000

  5. Auditing of sampling methods for air toxics at coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Clements, J.L.; Grunebach, M.G.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) with subcontract assistance from international Technology Corporation (IT) has provided external audit activities for Phase II of the Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center`s air emission test program. The objective of the audits is to help ensure that the data obtained from the emission tests are precise, accurate, representative, scientifically sound and legally defensible. This paper presents the criteria that were used to perform the external audits of the emission test program. It also describes the approach used by ATS and It in performing their audits. Examples of findings of the audits along with the actions take to correct problems and the subsequent effect of those actions on the test data are presented. The results of audit spikes performed at the Plant 1 test site are also discussed.

  6. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  7. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. J.; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is presented. Though detailed results depend on the specific application, graphical presentation of flight control and alert information has generally been found to be effective for situational awareness and subjectively selected by flight crews. Graphical display is most effective when it is consistent with the pilots cognitive map of the process being displayed or of the situation.

  8. 76 FR 60118 - Tesla Motors, Inc. Grant of Petition for Renewal of a Temporary Exemption From the Advanced Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... risks presented by air bag deployment. \\3\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The issuance of the advanced... advanced air bag system); Notice of Receipt of Petition of Lotus Cars Ltd., 76 FR 33406 (June 8, 2011... Manufacturers In general, frontal air bags for drivers and right front passengers have large net benefits....

  9. Paso del Norte pilot border study of ozone precursors and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; Sheetz, L.; Harshfield, G.

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive monitoring program for ozone precursors and air toxics in the Paso del Norte border area is planned by the U.S. EPA for the Summer of 1996. A pilot study was carried out in October 1995 in the Paso del Norte area (El Paso, Texas, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, and Sunland Park, New Mexico) to test the appropriateness of proposed sampling and analysis methods and to provide preliminary data to be used for planning the Summer 1996 study. Two monitoring sites were selected, one in Ciudad Juarez, and one in the El Paso area. Samples were collected every second day from October 21 to October 31, from 0300 to 0900 hr using stainless steel canisters (for VOC in the C{sub 2}-C{sub 12} range), Tenax-TA solid adsorbent cartridges (for C{sub 8}-C{sub 20} hydrocarbons). DNPH impregnated C{sub 18} Sep-Pack cartridges (for carbonyl compounds) and Teflon impregnated glass fiber filters followed by PUF/YAD/PUF {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes} cartridges (for SVOC). This paper discusses the data set obtained from the analyses of these samples. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Pellizzari, Edo D; Hu, Ye

    2003-01-01

    Although acute adverse effects on asthma have been frequently found for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's principal criteria air pollutants, there is little epidemiologic information on specific hydrocarbons from toxic emission sources. We conducted a panel study of 22 Hispanic children with asthma who were 10-16 years old and living in a Los Angeles community with high traffic density. Subjects filled out symptom diaries daily for up to 3 months (November 1999 through January 2000). Pollutants included ambient hourly values of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide and 24-hr values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 microm (PM10, and elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) PM10 fractions. Asthma symptom severity was regressed on pollutants using generalized estimating equations, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) was regressed on pollutants using mixed models. We found positive associations of symptoms with criteria air pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, PM10), EC-OC, and VOCs (benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 1,3-butadiene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Selected adjusted odds ratios for bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms from interquartile range increases in pollutants were, for 1.4 ppb 8-hr NO2, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.54]; 1.00 ppb benzene, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48); 3.16 ppb formaldehyde, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.04-1.80); 37 microg/m3 PM10, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.11-1.90); 2.91 microg/m3 EC, 1.85 (95% CI, 1.11-3.08); and 4.64 microg/m3 OC, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.12-3.17). Two-pollutant models of EC or OC with PM10 showed little change in odds ratios for EC (to 1.83) or OC (to 1.89), but PM10 decreased from 1.45 to 1.0. There were no significant associations with PEF. Findings support the view that air toxins in the pollutant mix from traffic and industrial sources may have adverse effects on asthma in children. PMID:12676630

  11. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  12. Development of mainshaft seals for advanced air breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A gas-film face seal design incorporating shrouded Rayleigh step lift pads at the primary sealing face was analyzed for performance over a wide range of gas turbine engine conditions. Acceptable leakage rates and operation without rubbing contact was predicted for engine conditions that included sealed pressures to 500 psi, sliding speeds to 600 ft/sec, and sealed gas temperatures to 1200 F. In the experimental evaluation, measured gas leakage rates were, in general, close to that predicted and sometimes lower. Satisfactory performance of the gas-film seal was demonstrated at the maximum seal seat axial runout expected in present positive contact face seal applications. Stable operation was shown when testing was performed with air-entrained dirt.

  13. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  14. Bioremediation and Biodegradation: Current Advances in Reducing Toxicity, Exposure and Environmental Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Kukor, J. J.; Young, L.

    2003-04-01

    Topics discussed at the conference included Approaches to Overcome Bioavailability Limitations in Bioremediation; New Discoveries in Microbial Degradation of Persistent Environmental Contaminants; Biological Activity and Potential Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation; New Methods to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Remediation Processes; and Strategies for Remediation of Mixed Contaminants. The United States has thousands of hazardous waste sites, most of which are a legacy of many decades of industrial development, mining, manufacturing and military activities. There is considerable uncertainty about the health risks of these sites, such as a lack of understanding about the spectrum of health effects that could result from exposure to hazardous substances and the unique toxicity of these substances to children or the developing fetus. In addition to these kinds of knowledge gaps, the fate and transport of hazardous wastes in soil, surface water and ground water are poorly understood, making it difficult to predict exposures. Moreover, cleaning up hazardous wastes has proven costly and difficult; thus, there is a need for advanced technologies to decrease or eliminate contamination from soil, surface water, and ground water. Since biodegradative processes and bioremediation solutions form a large part of the current science and technology directed at treatment of environmental contaminants at hazardous waste sites, and since there has been an explosion of cutting-edge basic research in these areas over the past several years, it was an opportune time for a meeting of this type. Representatives from the EPA as well as many of the other Federal agencies that helped fund the conference were also in attendance, providing an opportunity for discussions from the regulatory perspective of hazardous site remediation, as well as from the scientific discovery side.

  15. Comparison of different advanced oxidation process to reduce toxicity and mineralisation of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Schrank, S G; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M; Schröder, H Fr

    2004-01-01

    Many organic compounds contained in wastewater are resistant to conventional chemical and/or biological treatment. Because of this reason different degradation techniques are studied as an alternative to biological and classical physico-chemical processes. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) probably have developed to become the best options in the near future. AOP while making use of different reaction systems, are all characterised by the same chemical feature: production of OH radicals (*OH). The versatility of AOPs is also enhanced by the fact that they offer different possibilities for OH radical production, thus allowing them to conform to specific treatment requirements. The main problem with AOPs is their high cost. The application of solar technologies to these processes could help to diminish that problem by reducing the energy consumption required for generating UV radiation. In this work, different AOPs (O3, TiO2/UV, Fenton and H2O2/UV) were examined to treat tannery wastewater or as a pre-treatment step for improving the biodegradation of tannery wastewater, at different pH and dosage of the chemicals. Under certain circumstances retardation in biodegradation and/or an increase in toxicity may be observed within these treatment steps. Two different bioassays (Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri) have been used for testing the progress of toxicity during the treatment. In parallel other objectives were to analyse and identify organic compounds present in the untreated wastewater and arising degradation products in AOP treated wastewater samples. For this purpose substance specific techniques, e.g., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in positive electron impact (El(+)) mode and atmospheric pressure ionisation (API) in combination with flow injection analysis (FIA) or liquid chromatography-mass and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS or LC-MS-MS) were performed. PMID:15497865

  16. Hypopharyngeal Dose Is Associated With Severe Late Toxicity in Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer: An RTOG Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Machtay, Mitchell; Moughan, Jennifer; Farach, Andrew; Galvin, James; Garden, Adam S.; Weber, Randal S.; Cooper, Jay S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) increases local tumor control but at the expense of increased toxicity. We recently showed that several clinical/pretreatment factors were associated with the occurrence of severe late toxicity. This study evaluated the potential relationship between radiation dose delivered to the pharyngeal wall and toxicity. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of long-term survivors from 3 previously reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials of CCRT for locally advanced SCCHN (RTOG trials 91-11, 97-03, and 99-14). Severe late toxicity was defined in this secondary analysis as chronic grade 3-4 pharyngeal/laryngeal toxicity and/or requirement for a feeding tube {>=}2 years after registration and/or potential treatment-related death (eg, pneumonia) within 3 years. Radiation dosimetry (2-dimensional) analysis was performed centrally at RTOG headquarters to estimate doses to 4 regions of interest along the pharyngeal wall (superior oropharynx, inferior oropharynx, superior hypopharynx, and inferior hypopharynx). Case-control analysis was performed with a multivariate logistic regression model that included pretreatment and treatment potential factors. Results: A total of 154 patients were evaluable for this analysis, 71 cases (patients with severe late toxicities) and 83 controls; thus, 46% of evaluable patients had a severe late toxicity. On multivariate analysis, significant variables correlated with the development of severe late toxicity, including older age (odds ratio, 1.062 per year; P=.0021) and radiation dose received by the inferior hypopharynx (odds ratio, 1.023 per Gy; P=.016). The subgroup of patients receiving {<=}60 Gy to the inferior hypopharynx had a 40% rate of severe late toxicity compared with 56% for patients receiving >60 Gy. Oropharyngeal dose was not associated with this outcome. Conclusions: Severe late toxicity following CCRT is

  17. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF AIR QUALITY MODELS USING ADVANCED METHODS WITH SPECIALIZED OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED AMBIENT SPECIES -PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is Part 2 of "Diagnostic Evaluation of Air Quality Models Using Advanced Methods with Specialized Observations of Selected Ambient Species". A limited field campaign to make specialized observations of selected ambient species using advanced and innovative instrumentation f...

  18. Advanced Remote-Sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES) will measure a wide range of earth quantities fundamental to the study of global climate change. It will build upon the success of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instruments currently flying on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft. Both instruments are facility instruments for NASA providing data to thousands of scientists investigating land, ocean and atmospheric Earth System processes. ARIES will meet all the requirements of AIRS and MODIS in a single compact instrument, while providing the next-generation capability of improved spatial resolution for AIRS and improved spectral resolution for MODIS.

  19. The current practice of health risk assessment: Potential impact on standards for toxic air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J.; Jernigan, J.D.; Finley, B.L.; Ripple, S.R.; Keenan, R.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Since the Bhopal incident, the public has placed pressure on regulatory agencies to set community exposure limits for the dozens of chemicals that may be released by manufacturing facilities. More or less objective limits can be established for the vast majority of these chemicals through the use of risk assessment. However, each step of the risk assessment process (i.e., hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization) contains a number of pitfalls that scientists need to avoid to ensure that valid limits are established. For example, in the hazard identification step there has been little discrimination among animal carcinogens with respect to mechanism of action or the epidemiology experience. In the dose-response portion, rarely is the range of plausible estimated risks presented. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) models should be used to understand the difference between the tissue doses and the administered dose, as well as the difference in target tissue concentrations of the toxicant between rodents and humans. Biologically-based models like the Moolgavkar-Knudson-Venzon (MKV) should be developed and used, when appropriate. The exposure assessment step can be significantly improved by using more sensitive and specific sampling and analytical methods, more accurate exposure parameters, and computer models that can account for complex environmental factors. Whenever possible, model predictions of exposure and uptake should be validated by biological monitoring of exposed persons (urine, blood, adipose) or by field measurements of plants, soil, fish, air, or water. In each portion of an assessment, the weight of evidence approach should be used to identify the most defensible value. 129 refs.

  20. Significant Advances in the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena; Molnar, Gyula

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. The Goddard DISC has analyzed AIRS/AMSU observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, using the AIRS Science Team Version-S retrieval algorithm. These products have been used by many researchers to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval, which will become operation in mid-20l2, contains many significant theoretical and practical improvements compared to Version-5 which should further enhance the utility of AIRS products for both climate and weather applications. In particular, major changes have been made with regard to the algOrithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the retrieval procedure; 3) compute Outgoing Longwave Radiation; and 4) determine Quality Control. This paper will describe these advances found in the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm and demonstrate the improvement of AIRS Version-6 products compared to those obtained using Version-5,

  1. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  2. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal -- Task 2.4, Air toxic fine particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, G.E.; Heidt, M.K.; Miller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Emission from coal-fired boilers is an issue because of the current concern over atmospheric air toxics, which contain high concentrations of trace elements. The best method of minimizing the emission of these air toxic trace elements to the atmosphere is to install high-efficiency fine-particle control devices. After collection, the dust must be removed from the filter bags or electrostatic precipitator (ESP) plates and transferred to the hopper without significant redispersion. Since it is more difficult to collect fine particles, the extent to which the dust is redispersed into its original particle-size distribution will have a major impact on the overall fine-particle collection efficiency of the filter or ESP and, subsequently, the collection efficiency of air toxic metals. The goal of Task 2.4 was to evaluate redispersion of dust in particulate control devices so that the appropriate methods to minimize redispersion can be implemented. The primary objective was to determine the extent that fly ash is redispersed as individual particles upon cleaning of the filters or ESP plates. The current research was to determine if the level of redispersion of fly ash correlates with measurable cohesive dust properties. This will contribute to the long-term project goal of developing models to the point where they can be used to help design particulate control devices for the lowest level of fine-particle emissions at a reasonable cost.

  3. Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: Follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity.

    PubMed

    Brienza, M; Mahdi Ahmed, M; Escande, A; Plantard, G; Scrano, L; Chiron, S; Bufo, S A; Goetz, V

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater tertiary treatment by advanced oxidation processes is thought to produce a treated effluent with lower toxicity than the initial influent. Here we performed tertiary treatment of a secondary effluent collected from a Waste Water Treatment Plant via homogeneous (solar/HSO5(-)/Fe(2+)) and heterogeneous (solar/TiO2) solar advanced oxidation aiming at the assessment of their effectiveness in terms of contaminants' and toxicity abatement in a plain solar reactor. A total of 53 organic contaminants were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction. Solar advanced oxidation totally or partially removed the major part of contaminants detected within 4.5 h. Standard toxicity tests were performed using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Brachionus calyciflorus organisms to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity in the secondary or tertiary effluents, and the EC50% was calculated. Estrogenic and genotoxic tests were carried out in an attempt to obtain an even sharper evaluation of potential hazardous effects due to micropollutants or their degradation by-products in wastewater. Genotoxic effects were not detected in effluent before or after treatment. However, we observed relevant estrogenic activity due to the high sensitivity of the HELN ERα cell line. PMID:26841289

  4. Evaluation of flocculation and dissolved air flotation as an advanced wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinto Filho, A C; Brandão, C C

    2001-01-01

    A bench scale study was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of dissolved air flotation (DAF) as an advanced treatment for effluents from three different domestic wastewater treatment processes, namely: (i) a tertiary activated sludge plant; (ii) an upflow sludge blanket anaerobic reactor (UASB); and (iii) a high-rate stabilization pond. PMID:11394283

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: DESTRUCTION OF ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN AIR USING ADVANCED ULTRAVIOLET FLASHLAMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet source, a Purus xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200-250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and therefore ca...

  6. The Third Air Force/NASA Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The third Air Force/NASA Symposium on Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization was held on 24-26 Sept. 1990. Sessions were on the following topics: dynamics and controls; multilevel optimization; sensitivity analysis; aerodynamic design software systems; optimization theory; analysis and design; shape optimization; vehicle components; structural optimization; aeroelasticity; artificial intelligence; multidisciplinary optimization; and composites.

  7. Separate and Unequal: Residential Segregation and Estimated Cancer Risks Associated with Ambient Air Toxics in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Jesdale, Bill M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines links between racial residential segregation and estimated ambient air toxics exposures and their associated cancer risks using modeled concentration estimates from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Air Toxics Assessment. We combined pollutant concentration estimates with potencies to calculate cancer risks by census tract for 309 metropolitan areas in the United States. This information was combined with socioeconomic status (SES) measures from the 1990 Census. Estimated cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics were highest in tracts located in metropolitan areas that were highly segregated. Disparities between racial/ethnic groups were also wider in more segregated metropolitan areas. Multivariate modeling showed that, after controlling for tract-level SES measures, increasing segregation amplified the cancer risks associated with ambient air toxics for all racial groups combined [highly segregated areas: relative cancer risk (RCR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–107; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28–1.36]. This segregation effect was strongest for Hispanics (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01–1.17; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.61–1.88) and weaker among whites (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.08; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.24–1.33), African Americans (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98–1.21; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24–1.53), and Asians (highly segregated areas: RCR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97–1.24; extremely segregated areas: RCR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.16–1.51). Results suggest that disparities associated with ambient air toxics are affected by segregation and that these exposures may have health significance for populations across racial lines. PMID:16507462

  8. Further evaluations of the toxicity of irradiated advanced heavy water reactor fuels.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Geoffrey W R; Priest, Nicholas D

    2014-11-01

    The neutron economy and online refueling capability of heavy water moderated reactors enable them to use many different fuel types, such as low enriched uranium, plutonium mixed with uranium, or plutonium and/or U mixed with thorium, in addition to their traditional natural uranium fuel. However, the toxicity and radiological protection methods for fuels other than natural uranium are not well established. A previous paper by the current authors compared the composition and toxicity of irradiated natural uranium to that of three potential advanced heavy water fuels not containing plutonium, and this work uses the same method to compare irradiated natural uranium to three other fuels that do contain plutonium in their initial composition. All three of the new fuels are assumed to incorporate plutonium isotopes characteristic of those that would be recovered from light water reactor fuel via reprocessing. The first fuel investigated is a homogeneous thorium-plutonium fuel designed for a once-through fuel cycle without reprocessing. The second fuel is a heterogeneous thorium-plutonium-U bundle, with graded enrichments of U in different parts of a single fuel assembly. This fuel is assumed to be part of a recycling scenario in which U from previously irradiated fuel is recovered. The third fuel is one in which plutonium and Am are mixed with natural uranium. Each of these fuels, because of the presence of plutonium in the initial composition, is determined to be considerably more radiotoxic than is standard natural uranium. Canadian nuclear safety regulations require that techniques be available for the measurement of 1 mSv of committed effective dose after exposure to irradiated fuel. For natural uranium fuel, the isotope Pu is a significant contributor to the committed effective dose after exposure, and thermal ionization mass spectrometry is sensitive enough that the amount of Pu excreted in urine is sufficient to estimate internal doses, from all isotopes, as low

  9. 75 FR 51870 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Receipt of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... low- speed crashes. \\2\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The advanced air bag requirements were a... developing advanced air bag systems. \\3\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9, 2007). The agency has carefully...

  10. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    .... \\1\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The advanced air bag requirements were a culmination of a... developing advanced air bag systems. \\2\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9, 2007). The agency has carefully...

  11. 76 FR 33402 - Tesla Motors, Inc.; Receipt of Petition for Renewal of Temporary Exemption from the Advanced Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... crashes. \\2\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The issuance of the advanced air bag requirements was a... developing advanced air bag systems. \\3\\ See, e.g., grant of petition to Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007), or grant of petition to Koenigsegg, 72 FR 17608 (April 9, 2007). Notwithstanding those...

  12. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project: Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard; Green, Steve; Ballin, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of active Distributed Air Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) work and reported on its overall progress to date. It does not include details on the concept elements (CEs).The DAG-TM research project is defined as a concept development and definition project and no tools will be delivered. Of the 14 CEs, three are being explored actively: CE-5, CE-6, and CE-11. Overviews of CE-5 (Free Maneuvering for User-Preferred Separation Assurance and Local TFM Conformance), CE-6 (En Route and Transition Trajectory Negotiation for User-Preferred Separation and Local TFM Conformance) and CE-11 (Self-Spacing for Merging and In-Trail Separation) are presented.

  13. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  14. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  15. USING THE AIR QUALITY MODEL TO ANALYZE THE CONCENTRATIONS OF AIR TOXICS OVER THE CONTINENTAL U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is examining the concentrations and deposition of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), which include a large number of chemicals, ranging from non reactive (i.e. carbon tetrachloride) to reactive (i.e. formaldehyde), exist in gas, aqueous, and...

  16. An Air Plasma Off-Gas Emission Monitor (APO-GEM) For On-line Toxic Metal Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. P.; Zhu, Z.; Baldwin, D. P.

    1998-10-01

    Increasing regulatory demands requiring significant reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants have led to the need for techniques capable of providing real-time monitoring of toxic metals in combustion gas streams. These waste streams range from coal-fired boilers, municipal waste combustors to plasma vitrification systems used for the remediation of low level radioactive waste. Our solution to this problem is the development of APO-GEM. This instrument incorporates an atmospheric-pressure inductively-coupled air plasma powered by a 3.5 kW solid-state 27.12 MHz rf generator coupled with an isokinetic sampling system. The detection system includes both a 1-m monochromator and a novel solid-state AOTF high-resolution spectrometer. The air plasma readily tolerates the introduction of combustion gases as well as the significant particle loading that can be present in exhaust streams. Plasma properties and performance characteristics, including results obtained recently at the DOE/EPA-sponsored Demonstration of Toxic Metal Continuous Emission Monitors, will be discussed.

  17. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  18. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  19. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  20. F-18 SRA closeup of nose cap showing Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This L-shaped probe mounted on the forward fuselage of a modified F-18 Systems Research Aircraft was the focus of an air data collection experiment flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Advanced L-Probe Air Data Integration (ALADIN) experiment focused on providing pilots with angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip information as well as traditional airspeed and altitude data from a single system. For the experiment, the probes--one mounted on either side of the F-18's forward fuselage--were hooked to a series of four transducers, which relayed pressure measurements to an on-board research computer.

  1. 19 CFR 103.31a - Advance electronic information for air, truck, and rail cargo; Importer Security Filing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance electronic information for air, truck, and... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Other Information Subject to Restricted Access § 103.31a Advance electronic... following types of advance electronic information are per se exempt from disclosure under §...

  2. THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2005-11-09

    This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and

  3. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  4. COLLABORATIVE EDUCATIONAL EFFORT WITH CITIZENS IN THE GREATER HOUSTON / GALVESTON AREA ON AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HGCAMP: "Houston / Galveston Citizen Air Monitoring Project". This is a partnership effort with other agenices (Texas TCEQ, Harris County HCPC, and the City of Houston) to address concerns of local citizens about their air quality. Several educational efforts are being develope...

  5. RESOLVING NEIGHBORHOOD-SCALE AIR TOXICS MODELING: A CASE STUDY IN WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality modeling is useful for characterizing exposures to air pollutants. While models typically provide results on regional scales, there is a need for refined modeling approaches capable of resolving concentrations on the scale of tens of meters, across modeling domains 1...

  6. Chemoendocrine therapy with prolonged estrogen priming in advanced breast cancer: endocrine pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Benz, C; Gandara, D; Miller, B; Drakes, T; Monroe, S; Wilbur, B; DeGregorio, M

    1987-03-01

    Recent efforts to improve response rates in advanced breast cancer have used short, alternating courses of antiestrogen therapy followed by estrogen priming to cytokinetically enhance tumor cell sensitivity to antimetabolites. Based on recent in vitro and in vivo studies, we have introduced a chemoendocrine regimen that uses prolonged courses of estrogen priming. The present protocol consists of alternating monthly cycles of tamoxifen (TAM) and estradiol during which sequential (24-hr) methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin are administered at 2-week intervals. Twenty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer received greater than 80 endocrine cycles and greater than 300 courses of chemotherapy by this protocol; two-thirds of these patients had previously failed other endocrine or chemotherapy regimens. Most patients experienced grade 1 or 2 myelosuppression or gastrointestinal symptoms during at least one treatment cycle; however, overall toxicity was considered to be mild and therapy was very well tolerated. Serum levels of estradiol, estrone, TAM, and TAM metabolites were measured during all phases of the endocrine cycle in five patients on chronic therapy. Concentrations of TAM and its more abundant metabolite, N-desmethyltamoxifen (N-desTAM), rose twofold during antiestrogen therapy and fell during estrogen priming, with mean levels persisting greater than 100 ng/ml throughout the priming interval. Mean estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) levels rose during priming and were sustained fivefold and tenfold above the basal postmenopausal levels measured during antiestrogen treatment. Calculating the serum molar ratios of [TAM + N-desTAM]/[E2 + E1] during each phase of the treatment cycle confirmed that estrogen priming was achieved pharmacologically by this endocrine schedule. Clinical remissions were observed in this small patient sample with seven of 18 patients achieving either complete (28%) or partial (11%) responses, and an additional 39% obtaining

  7. Recent theoretical advances in analysis of AIRS/AMSU sounding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2007-04-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm will become operational at the Goddard DAAC in early 2007 in the near real-time analysis of AIRS/AMSU sounding data. This algorithm contains many significant theoretical advances over the AIRS Science Team Version 4.0 retrieval algorithm used previously. Three very significant developments are: 1) the development and implementation of a very accurate Radiative Transfer Algorithm (RTA) which allows for accurate treatment of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) effects on shortwave sounding channels; 2) the development of methodology to obtain very accurate case by case product error estimates which are in turn used for quality control; and 3) development of an accurate AIRS only cloud clearing and retrieval system. These theoretical improvements taken together enabled a new methodology to be developed which further improves soundings in partially cloudy conditions, without the need for microwave observations in the cloud clearing step as has been done previously. In this methodology, longwave CO II channel observations in the spectral region 700 cm -1 to 750 cm -1 are used exclusively for cloud clearing purposes, while shortwave CO II channels in the spectral region 2195 cm -1 to 2395 cm -1 are used for temperature sounding purposes. The new methodology is described briefly and results are shown, including comparison with those using AIRS Version 4, as well as a forecast impact experiment assimilating AIRS Version 5.0 retrieval products in the Goddard GEOS 5 Data Assimilation System.

  8. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  9. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RfD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabek, A.M.; Menache, M.G.; Overton, J.H. Jr.; Dourson, M.L.; Miller, F.J. )

    1990-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. This paper presents a brief background on the development of the inhalation reference dose (RfDi) methodology, including concepts and issues related to addressing the dynamics of the respiratory system as the portal of entry. Different dosimetric adjustments are described that were incorporated into the methodology to account for the nature of the inhaled agent (particle or gas) and the site of the observed toxic effects (respiratory or extra-respiratory). Impacts of these adjustments on the extrapolation of toxicity data of inhaled agents for human health risk assessment and future research directions are also discussed.

  10. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RFD methodology: Risk assessment for air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarabek, A.M.; Menache, M.G.; Overton, J.H.; Dourson, M.L.; Miller, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. The paper presents a brief background on the development of the inhalation reference dose (RFDi) methodology, including concepts and issues related to addressing the dynamics of the respiratory system as the portal of entry. Different dosimetric adjustments are described that were incorporated into the methodology to account for the nature of the inhaled agent (particle or gas) and the site of the observed toxic effects (respiratory or extrarespiratory). Impacts of these adjustments on the extrapolation of toxicity data of inhaled agents for human health risk assessment and future research directions are also discussed.

  11. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL CAR-RELATED OCCUPATIONAL PM AND AIR TOXIC EXPOSURE TO PATROL TROOPERS (COPP STUDY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-vehicle, roadside and community-based measurements of particulate matter (PM) and select air toxics were measured as part of a study involving patrol cars from the North Carolina Highway Patrol. One goal of this study was to characterize PM and related air pollutant concentra...

  12. "Air Toxics under the Big Sky": Examining the Effectiveness of Authentic Scientific Research on High School Students' Science Skills and Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-01-01

    "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1)…

  13. Aerosolized ZnO nanoparticles induce toxicity in alveolar type II epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yumei; Williams, Nolann G.; Tolic, Ana; Chrisler, William B.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Maddux, Bettye L.; Pounds, Joel G.; Laskin, Alexander; Orr, Galya

    2012-01-20

    The majority of in vitro studies characterizing the impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cells that line the respiratory tract were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in suspension. This approach introduces processes that are unlikely to occur during inhaled NP exposures in vivo, such as the shedding of toxic doses of dissolved ions. ZnO NPs are used extensively and pose significant sources for human exposure. Exposures to airborne ZnO NPs can induce adverse effects, but the relevance of the dissolved Zn2+ to the observed effects in vivo is still unclear. Our goal was to mimic in vivo exposures to airborne NPs and decipher the contribution of the intact NP from the contribution of the dissolved ions to airborne ZnO NP toxicity. We established the exposure of alveolar type II epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI), and compared the impact of aerosolized ZnO NPs and NPs in suspension at the same cellular doses, measured as the number of particles per cell. By evaluating membrane integrity and cell viability 6 and 24 hours post exposure we found that aerosolized NPs induced toxicity at the ALI at doses that were in the same order of magnitude as doses required to induce toxicity in submersed cultures. In addition, distinct patterns of oxidative stress were observed in the two exposure systems. These observations unravel the ability of airborne ZnO NPs to induce toxicity without the contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and suggest distinct mechanisms at the ALI and in submersed cultures.

  14. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  15. Future research needs associated with the assessment of potential human health risks from exposure to toxic ambient air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Möller, L; Schuetzle, D; Autrup, H

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents key conclusions and future research needs from a Workshop on the Risk Assessment of Urban Air, Emissions, Exposure, Risk Identification, and Quantification, which was held in Stockholm during June 1992 by 41 participants from 13 countries. Research is recommended in the areas of identification and quantification of toxics in source emissions and ambient air, atmospheric transport and chemistry, exposure level assessment, the development of improved in vitro bioassays, biomarker development, the development of more accurate epidemiological methodologies, and risk quantification techniques. Studies are described that will be necessary to assess and reduce the level of uncertainties associated with each step of the risk assessment process. International collaborative research efforts between industry and government organizations are recommended as the most effective way to carry out this research. PMID:7529703

  16. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  17. Developments in EPA`s air dispersion modeling for hazardous/toxic releases

    SciTech Connect

    Touma, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) lists many chemicals as hazardous air pollutants and requires establishing regulations to prevent their accidental release, and to minimize the consequence, if any such releases occur. With the large number of potential release scenarios that are associated with these chemicals, there is a need for a systematic approach for applying air dispersion models to estimate impact. Because some chemicals may form dense gas clouds upon release, and dispersion models that can simulate these releases are complex, EPA has paid attention to the development of modeling tools and guidance on the use of models that can address these types of releases.

  18. Emissions test report: air-toxics sampling at Reichhold Chemical, Tacoma, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    From July 22 to August 2, 1985, ES sampled five sources at two plants in the Seattle, Washington area to collect data on emission of toxic compounds. The report discusses the results of sampling the discharge from an afterburner on a coating line.

  19. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF TOXIC METAL AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF COAL AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is concerned with the partitioning of toxic metals (e.g., arsenic, selenium, mercury, chromium, lead, and cadmium) during combustion, and with the mitigation of their effect on the environment using high-temperature sorbents. The paper is divided into three parts: (1) t...

  1. Removal of coloured compounds from textile industry effluents by UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nagel-Hassemer, Maria Eliza; Carvalho-Pinto, Catia Regina S; Matias, William Gerson; Lapolli, Flávio Rubens

    2011-12-01

    This study has investigated the reduction in coloured substances and toxic compounds present in textile industry effluent by the use of an advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant, activated by ultraviolet radiation. The investigation was carried out on industrial effluents, both raw and after biological treatment, using different concentrations of H2O2 in a photochemical reactor equipped with a 250 W high-pressure mercury vapour lamp. The results showed that after 60 minutes of ultraviolet irradiation a H2O2 concentration of 500 mg L(-1) was able to remove approximately 73% of the coloured compounds present in raw effluent and 96% of those present in biologically treated effluent. Additionally, post-treatment toxicity tests performed using the microcrustacean Daphnia magna showed a significant effective reduction in the acute toxicity of the raw effluent. In tests carried out with treatment at a concentration of 750 and 1000 mg L(-1) H2O2, analysis of the frequency ofmicronuclei in erythrocytes of Tilapia cf rendalli exposed to treated effluent samples confirmed that there were no mutagenic effects on the fish. Together, these results indicate that the oxidation process offers a good alternative for the removal of colour and toxicity from textile industry effluent. PMID:22439575

  2. AIR PARTICULATE POLLUTION CARDIOVASCULAR TOXICITY: HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory


    The overall weight of evidence from epidemiological studies has shown statistical associations between air particulate pollution exposure and mortality\\morbidity particularly within individuals with cardiovascular disease (1-4). Identification of causal particle properties ...

  3. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone (03) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying 03-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRN...

  4. Design and evaluation of an advanced air-ground data-link system for air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denbraven, Wim

    1992-01-01

    The design and evaluation of the ground-based portion of an air-ground data-link system for air traffic control (ATC) are described. The system was developed to support the 4D Aircraft/ATC Integration Study, a joint simulation experiment conducted at NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The experiment focused on airborne and ground-based procedures for handling aircraft equipped with a 4D-Flight Management System (FMS) and the system requirements needed to ensure conflict-free traffic flow. The Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) at Ames was used for the ATC part of the experiment, and the 4D-FMS-equipped aircraft was simulated by the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator at Langley. The data-link system supported not only conventional ATC communications, but also the communications needed to accommodate the 4D-FMS capabilities of advanced aircraft. Of great significance was the synergism gained from integrating the data link with CTAS. Information transmitted via the data link was used to improve the monitoring and analysis capability of CTAS without increasing controller input workload. Conversely, CTAS was used to anticipate and create prototype messages, thus reducing the workload associated with the manual creation of data-link messages.

  5. Development of fireside performance indices, Task 7.33, Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in FBCS, Task 7.36, Enhanced air toxics control, Task 7.45

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; Mann, M.D.; Laudal, D.L.; Miller, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been developing advanced indices that rank coals according to their fouling and slagging propensity in utility boilers. The indices are based on sophisticated analytical techniques for identifying and quantifying coal inorganics and are useful in predicting the effects of proposed operational changes on ash deposition in coal-fired boilers. These indices are intended to provide an economical way to reduce the amount of full-scale testing needed to determine the best means of minimizing ash-related problems. The successful design and operation of the fluidized-bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems in FBC are agglomeration of bed material, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, ash deposition on refractory and uncooled surfaces, corrosion, and erosion. The focus of the Development of Methods to Predict Agglomeration and Deposition in FBCs is on the agglomeration and deposition problems in atmospheric bubbling and circulating beds. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require study of air toxic emissions from coal combustion systems. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine-particle control appears to be the best approach to achieving a high level of air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and are not typically collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, the goal of this project is to develop methods that capture the vapor-phase metals while simultaneously achieving ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxics.

  6. ACAT inhibition reduces the progression of pre-existing, advanced atherosclerotic mouse lesions without plaque or systemic toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rong, James X.; Blachford, Courtney; Feig, Jonathan E.; Bander, Ilda; Mayne, Jeffrey; Kusunoki, Jun; Miller, Christine; Davis, Matthew; Wilson, Martha; Dehn, Shirley; Thorp, Edward; Tabas, Ira; Taubman, Mark B.; Rudel, Lawrence L.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) converts cholesterol to cholesteryl esters in plaque foam cells. Complete deficiency of macrophage ACAT has been shown to increase atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice due to cytotoxicity from free cholesterol accumulation, while we previously showed that partial ACAT inhibition by Fujirebio compound F1394 decreased early atherosclerosis development. In this report, we tested F1394 effects on pre-established, advanced lesions of apoE-/- mice. Methods & Results ApoE-/- mice on Western diet for 14 weeks developed advanced plaques, and were either sacrificed (“Baseline”), or continued on Western diet without or with F1394 and sacrificed after 14 more weeks. F1394 was not associated with systemic toxicity. Compared to the baseline group, lesion size progressed in both groups; however, F1394 significantly retarded plaque progression, and reduced plaque macrophage, free and esterified cholesterol, and tissue factor contents compared to the untreated group. Apoptosis of plaque cells was not increased, consistent with the decrease in lesional free cholesterol, plaque necrosis was not increased, and efferocytosis (phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells) was not impaired. The effects of F1394 were independent of changes in plasma cholesterol levels. Conclusions Partial ACAT inhibition by F1394 lowered plaque cholesterol content and had other antiatherogenic effects in advanced lesions in apoE-/- mice without overt systemic or plaque toxicity, suggesting the continued potential of ACAT inhibition for the clinical treatment of atherosclerosis in spite of recent trial data. PMID:23139293

  7. Luminescence dating of glacial advances at Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, R. K.; Glasser, N. F.; Duller, G. A. T.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the timing of past glacial advances in Patagonia is of global climatic importance because of the insight this can provide into the influence on glacier behaviour of changes in temperature and precipitation related to the Southern Westerlies. In this paper we present new luminescence ages determined using single grains of K-feldspar from proglacial outwash sediments that were deposited by the Patagonian Ice Sheet around Lago Buenos Aires (∼46 °S), east of the contemporary Northern Patagonian Icefield. The new luminescence ages indicate that major outwash accumulations formed around ∼110 ± 20 ka to 140 ± 20 ka and that these correspond to the Moreno I and II moraine ridges, which were previously dated using cosmogenic isotope dating to 150 ± 30 ka. Luminescence dating at Lago Buenos Aires has also identified outwash sediments that were deposited during glacial advances ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka and ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3) that are not recorded in the moraine record. Younger outwash accumulations were then deposited between ∼14.7 ± 2.1 and 26.2 ± 1.6 ka which correspond to the Fenix I - V moraine ridges. The combined chronology suggests that glacial advances occurred ∼110 ± 20 ka to 150 ± 30 ka (MIS 6), ∼30.8 ± 5.7 ka to ∼34.0 ± 6.1 ka (MIS 3), and ∼14.7 ± 2.1 to 26.2 ± 1.6 ka (MIS 2) at Lago Buenos Aires. Overall luminescence dating using single grains of K-feldspar has excellent potential to contribute towards the ever-increasing geochronological dataset constraining the timings of glacial advances in Patagonia.

  8. Toxicity to Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri of Kraft bleach plant effluents treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Albin; Besson, Michèle; Gallezot, Pierre; Gibert, Janine; Martin, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Two Kraft-pulp bleaching effluents from a sequence of treatments which include chlorine dioxide and caustic soda were treated by catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) at T=463 K in trickle-bed and batch-recycle reactors packed with either TiO2 extrudates or Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst. Chemical analyses (TOC removal, color, HPLC) and bioassays (48-h and 30-min acute toxicity tests using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, respectively) were used to get information about the toxicity impact of the starting effluents and of the treated solutions. Under the operating conditions, complex organic compounds are mostly oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, along with short-chain carboxylic acids. Bioassays were found as a complement to chemical analyses for ensuring the toxicological impact on the ecosystem. In spite of a large decrease of TOC, the solutions of end products were all more toxic to Daphnia magna than the starting effluents by factors ranging from 2 to 33. This observation is attributed to the synergistic effects of acetic acid and salts present in the solutions. On the other hand, toxicity reduction with respect to Vibrio fischeri was achieved: detoxification factors greater than unity were measured for end-product solutions treated in the presence of the Ru(3 wt%)/TiO2 catalyst, suggesting the absence of cumulative effect for this bacteria, or a lower sensitivity to the organic acids and salts. Bleach plant effluents treated by the CWAO process over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst were completely biodegradable. PMID:14675640

  9. Conference summary & recent advances: The 8th Conference on Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xixi; Burchiel, Scott W.; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by occupational and environmental exposure to metals are a public health concern. The underlying molecular mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenicity remain largely unknown. Over 130 scientists attended the 8th Conference on Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenesis, presenting their various research concerns and recent findings to stimulate interactions and collaborations among scientists in the field. Several major areas were emphasized, including human & population studies, molecular & cellular mechanisms, biological targets, epigenetic effects, metabolism, and metal mixtures. Here we summarize presentations at the conference sessions and highlight the attendees’ latest work published in this special issue of Biological Trace Element Research. PMID:25975949

  10. Constitutive gene expression profile segregates toxicity in locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto; Lara, Pedro Carlos; Pinar, Beatriz; Bordón, Elisa; Gallego, Carlos Rodríguez; Bilbao, Cristina; Pérez, Leandro Fernández; Morales, Amílcar Flores

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer patients show a wide variation in normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. The individual sensitivity to x-rays limits the efficiency of the therapy. Prediction of individual sensitivity to radiotherapy could help to select the radiation protocol and to improve treatment results. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between gene expression profiles of ex vivo un-irradiated and irradiated lymphocytes and the development of toxicity due to high-dose hyperfractionated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Raw data from microarray experiments were uploaded to the Gene Expression Omnibus Database (GEO accession GSE15341). We obtained a small group of 81 genes significantly regulated by radiotherapy, lumped in 50 relevant pathways. Using ANOVA and t-test statistical tools we found 20 and 26 constitutive genes (0 Gy) that segregate patients with and without acute and late toxicity, respectively. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering was used for the visualization of results. Six and 9 pathways were significantly regulated respectively. Concerning to irradiated lymphocytes (2 Gy), we founded 29 genes that separate patients with acute toxicity and without it. Those genes were gathered in 4 significant pathways. We could not identify a set of genes that segregates patients with and without late toxicity. In conclusion, we have found an association between the constitutive gene expression profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the development of acute and late toxicity in consecutive, unselected patients. These observations suggest the possibility of predicting normal tissue response to irradiation in high-dose non-conventional radiation therapy regimens. Prospective studies with higher number of patients are needed to validate these preliminary results. PMID:19497124

  11. Aerodynamic analysis of three advanced configurations using the TranAir full-potential code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, M. D.; Carmichael, R. L.; Mendoza, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Computational results are presented for three advanced configurations: the F-16A with wing tip missiles and under wing fuel tanks, the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and an Advanced Turboprop research model. These results were generated by the latest version of the TranAir full potential code, which solves for transonic flow over complex configurations. TranAir embeds a surface paneled geometry definition in a uniform rectangular flow field grid, thus avoiding the use of surface conforming grids, and decoupling the grid generation process from the definition of the configuration. The new version of the code locally refines the uniform grid near the surface of the geometry, based on local panel size and/or user input. This method distributes the flow field grid points much more efficiently than the previous version of the code, which solved for a grid that was uniform everywhere in the flow field. TranAir results are presented for the three configurations and are compared with wind tunnel data.

  12. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  13. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  14. Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Catherine; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Goyak, Katy O.; Minsavage, Gary; Westmoreland, Carl; Andersen, Melvin; Avigan, Mark; Duché, Daniel; Harris, Georgina; Hartung, Thomas; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kleensang, Andre; Landesmann, Brigitte; Martos, Suzanne; Matevia, Marilyn; Toole, Colleen; Rowan, Andrew; Schultz, Terry; Seed, Jennifer; Senior, John; Shah, Imran; Subramanian, Kalyanasundaram; Vinken, Mathieu; Watkins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Summary A workshop sponsored by the Human Toxicology Project Consortium (HTPC), “Building Shared Experience to Advance Practical Application of Pathway-Based Toxicology: Liver Toxicity Mode-of-Action” brought together experts from a wide range of perspectives to inform the process of pathway development and to advance two prototype pathways initially developed by the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC): liver-specific fibrosis and steatosis. The first half of the workshop focused on the theory and practice of pathway development; the second on liver disease and the two prototype pathways. Participants agreed pathway development is extremely useful for organizing information and found that focusing the theoretical discussion on a specific AOP is helpful. It is important to include several perspectives during pathway development, including information specialists, pathologists, human health and environmental risk assessors, and chemical and product manufacturers, to ensure the biology is well captured and end use is considered. PMID:24535319

  15. Enhanced, multi criteria based site selection to measure mobile source toxic air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research studies being conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in collaboration with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration are designed to establish relationships between concentrations of highway vehicle air pollutants and variations in these concentrations as a ...

  16. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF AIR POLLUTION PARTICLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is responsible for more than 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. PM pollution is a complex mixture containing dozens of different compounds; the composition of PM can vary dramatically among different locations depending on the sources of pa...

  17. CO-DEPENDENCIES OF REACTIVE AIR TOXIC AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS ON EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to understand the effect of emission controls on the concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and hazardous air pollutants simultaneously, in order to evaluate the full range of both health related and economic effects. Until recently, the capability of simultan...

  18. INTERCOMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR TOXIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    People spend a major fraction of their time indoors, and there is concern over exposure to volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. The study was initiated to compare several VOC sampling techniques in an indoor environment. The techniques which were compared include dis...

  19. SUMMARY OF THE 1993 EPA/AWMA SYMPOSIUM - MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference cosponsored for the eighth year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 3-7, 1993. he four day technica...

  20. SUMMARY OF THE 1991 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference for the sixth year co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 6-19, 1991. he technical progra...

  1. SUMMARY OF THE EPA/A&WMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC & RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory of the U.S Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held at Raleigh, North Carolina, May 1-4, 1990. he technical program consisted of 187 presentat...

  2. SUMMARY OF THE 1992 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference cosponsored for the seventh year by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air & Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 4-8, 1992. he technical progra...

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  4. Modeling and Impacts of Traffic Emissions on Air Toxics Concentrations near Roadways

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs – benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene – to ambient air concentrations at downwin...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  6. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS USING AIRBORNE LWIR HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous releases from petrochemical, refinery, and electrical production facilities can contribute to regional air quality problems. Fugitive emissions or leaks can be costly to industry in terms of lost materials and products. Ground-based sampling and monitoring for leaks are t...

  7. Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Endothelial Cells from the Toxicity of Air Pollutant Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEP on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were treated with an organic extract of DEP from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 hours. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and UPR gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or Tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but in a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMEC from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. PMID:25620054

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Akeem O; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. PMID:25620054

  9. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles. PMID:23651993

  10. Climate change air toxic co-reduction in the context of macroeconomic modelling.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Chen, Pi-Cheng; Shi, Hsiu-Ching; Chao, Chia-Wei

    2013-08-15

    This paper examines the health implications of global PM reduction accompanying greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the 180 national economies of the global macroeconomy. A human health effects module based on empirical data on GHG emissions, PM emissions, background PM concentrations, source apportionment and human health risk coefficients is used to estimate reductions in morbidity and mortality from PM exposures globally as co-reduction of GHG reductions. These results are compared against the "fuzzy bright line" that often underlies regulatory decisions for environmental toxics, and demonstrate that the risk reduction through PM reduction would usually be considered justified in traditional risk-based decisions for environmental toxics. It is shown that this risk reduction can be on the order of more than 4 × 10(-3) excess lifetime mortality risk, with global annual cost savings of slightly more than $10B, when uniform GHG reduction measures across all sectors of the economy form the basis for climate policy ($2.2B if only Annex I nations reduce). Consideration of co-reduction of PM-10 within a climate policy framework harmonized with other environmental policies can therefore be an effective driver of climate policy. An error analysis comparing results of the current model against those of significantly more spatially resolved models at city and national scales indicates errors caused by the low spatial resolution of the global model used here may be on the order of a factor of 2. PMID:23629011

  11. Emerging technology summary: Destruction of organic contaminants in air using advanced ultraviolet flashlamps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The summary describes a new process for photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using an advanced ultraviolet (UV) source, and a pulsed xenon flashlamp. The flashlamps have greater output at 200 to 250 nm than medium-pressure mercury lamps at the same power and, therefore, cause much more rapid direct photolysis of VOCs. The observation of quantum yields greater than unity indicate the involvement of chain reactions for trichloroethene (TCE), perchloroethene (PCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), CHCl3, and CH2Cl2. TCE was examined more closely because of its widespread occurrence and very high destruction rate.

  12. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  13. Comparative toxicity of various ozonized olefins to bacteria suspended in air

    PubMed Central

    Dark, F. A.; Nash, T.

    1970-01-01

    Air containing olefin vapour was treated with known amounts of ozone simulating natural concentrations. The bactericidal effect of the mixture was tested using microthreads sprayed with washed cultures of Escherichia coli var. communis or Micrococcus albus, aerosol strain. With 20 different olefins a wide range of activity was found, those in which the double bond formed part of a ring being the most bactericidal; petrol vapour was about as active as the average open-chain olefin. The two organisms behaved similarly at the experimental relative humidity of 80%. The estimated amount of bactericidal substance present was only about one hundredth of that required to give the same kill with a `conventional' air disinfectant; a simple physical explanation is proposed for this enhanced effect. PMID:4914088

  14. 76 FR 47641 - Pagani Automobili SpA; Denial of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... Ltd., 76 FR 33406 (June 8, 2011) (manufacturer has another model that fully complies with the advanced... risks presented by air bag deployment. \\6\\ See 65 FR 30680 (May 12, 2000). The issuance of the advanced... petition of Panoz, 72 FR 28759 (May 22, 2007); Grant of petition of Koenigsegg Automotive AB, 72 FR...

  15. Gas-fired boiler and turbine air toxics summary report. Final report, January-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi-Lane, C.; Stein, D.; Himes, R.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the report is to provide a summary of the criteria pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from a variety of gas-fired stationary sources including utility boilers, utility turbines, and turbines used for natural gas transmission. The report provides emission factors for each compound measured as a function of load to support general use during the preparation of Title V permit applications.

  16. Clinical outcomes and toxicity using Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for advanced cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To report single-institutional clinical outcomes and toxicity with SBRT for cholangiocarcinoma. Methods From March 2009 to July 2011, 10 patients with 12 unresectable primary (n = 6) or recurrent (n = 6) cholangiocarcinoma lesions underwent abdominal SBRT. Sites treated included liver (n = 10), abdominal lymph nodes (n = 1), and adrenal gland (n = 1). SBRT was delivered in three (n = 2) or five (n = 10) consecutive daily fractions over one week. The median prescription dose was 55 Gy (range, 45–60). Treatment response was graded by RECIST v.1.1, and toxicities were scored by CTCAE v.4.0. Data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method to determine rates of local control (LC), freedom from distant progression (FFDM) and overall survival (OS). Results The median follow-up was 14 months (range, 2–26 months). LC, defined as freedom from progression within the SBRT field, was 100%, but four patients treated to intrahepatic sites experienced progression elsewhere in the liver. Estimates for FFDM at 6 and 12 months were 73% and 31%, respectively. Sites of disease relapse included liver (n = 3), liver and lymph nodes (n = 1), liver and lungs (n = 1), lymph nodes (n = 1), and mesentery (n = 1). OS estimates for the cohort at 6 and 12 months were 83% and 73%, respectively. The most common Grade ≥2 early toxicities were Grade 2 nausea and vomiting (n = 5) and gastrointestinal pain (n = 2). Late ≥2 toxicities included Grade 2 gastrointestinal pain (n = 3), Grade 3 biliary stenosis (n = 1), and Grade 5 liver failure (n = 1). Conclusions SBRT shows promise as an effective local therapy for properly-selected patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Further follow-up is needed to better quantify the risk of late complications associated with SBRT. PMID:22553982

  17. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Methods Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Results Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc), mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia) but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR). Conclusion Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted. PMID:21466696

  18. Simplified preparation of TO14 and Title III air toxic standards using a Windows software package and dynamic dilution schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cardin, D.B.; Galoustian, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    The preparation of Air Toxic standards in the laboratory can be performed using several methods. These include injection of purge and trap standards, static dilution from pure compounds, and dynamic dilution from NIST traceable standards. A software package running under Windows has been developed that makes calculating dilution parameters for even complex mixtures fast and simple. Compound parameters such are name, molecular weight, boiling point, and density are saved in a data base for later access. Gas and liquid mixtures can be easily defined and saved as an inventory item, with preparation screens that calculate appropriate transfer volumes of each analyte. These mixtures can be utilized by both the static and dynamic dilution analysis windows to calculate proper flow rates and injection volumes for obtaining requested concentrations. A particularly useful approach for making accurate polar VOC standards will be presented.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 protects endothelial cells from the toxicity of air pollutant chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lawal, Akeem O.; Zhang, Min; Dittmar, Michael; Lulla, Aaron; Araujo, Jesus A.

    2015-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are a major component of diesel emissions, responsible for a large portion of their toxicity. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of DEPs on endothelial cells and the role of DEP-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) were treated with an organic extract of DEPs from an automobile engine (A-DEP) or a forklift engine (F-DEP) for 1 and 4 h. ROS generation, cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, expression of HO-1, inflammatory genes, cell adhesion molecules and unfolded protein respone (UPR) gene were assessed. HO-1 expression and/or activity were inhibited by siRNA or tin protoporphyrin (Sn PPIX) and enhanced by an expression plasmid or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPPIX). Exposure to 25 μg/ml of A-DEP and F-DEP significantly induced ROS production, cellular toxicity and greater levels of inflammatory and cellular adhesion molecules but to a different degree. Inhibition of HO-1 enzymatic activity with SnPPIX and silencing of the HO-1 gene by siRNA enhanced DEP-induced ROS production, further decreased cell viability and increased expression of inflammatory and cell adhesion molecules. On the other hand, overexpression of the HO-1 gene by a pcDNA 3.1D/V5-HO-1 plasmid significantly mitigated ROS production, increased cell survival and decreased the expression of inflammatory genes. HO-1 expression protected HMECs from DEP-induced prooxidative and proinflammatory effects. Modulation of HO-1 expression could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in an attempt to inhibit the cardiovascular effects of ambient PM. - Highlights: • We examined the role of HO-1 expression on diesel exhaust particle (DEP) in endothelial cells. • DEPs exert cytotoxic and inflammatory effects on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). • DEPs induce HO-1 expression in HMECs. • HO-1 protects against the oxidative stress induced by DEps. • HO-1 attenuates the proinflammatory effects

  20. Long-Term Outcomes and Toxicity of Concurrent Paclitaxel and Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin, Deborah Mansueti, John; Likhacheva, Anna; Sciuto, Linda; Albert, Paul S.; Rudy, Susan F.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Cotrim, Ana; Solomon, Beth; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Russo, Angelo; Morris, John C.; Herscher, Laurie; Smith, Sharon

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcomes and toxicity of a regimen of infusion paclitaxel delivered concurrently with radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, 35 patients with nonmetastatic, Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with three cycles of paclitaxel as a 120-h continuous infusion beginning on Days 1, 21, and 42, concurrent with radiotherapy. The initial 16 patients received 105 mg/m{sup 2}/cycle, and the subsequent 19 patients received 120 mg/m{sup 2}/cycle. External beam radiotherapy was delivered to a dose of 70.2-72 Gy at five fractions weekly. Patients were followed to evaluate the disease outcomes and late toxicity of this regimen. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 56.5 months. The median survival was 56.5 months, and the median time to local recurrence was not reached. Of the 35 patients, 15 (43%) developed hypothyroidism. Of the 33 patients who underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement, 11 were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependent until death or their last follow-up visit. Also, 5 patients (14%) required a tracheostomy until death, and 3 (9%) developed a severe esophageal stricture. All evaluated long-term survivors exhibited salivary hypofunction. Fibrosis in the radiation field occurred in 24 patients (69%). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a 120-h infusion of paclitaxel provides long-term local control and survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Xerostomia, hypothyroidism, esophageal and pharyngeal complications, and subcutaneous fibrosis were common long-term toxicities; however, the vast majority of toxicities were grade 1 or 2.

  1. Oxidation chemistry of chloric acid in NOx/SOx and air toxic metal removal from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczur, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Chloric acid, HClO{sub 3}, is a new oxidizer which has recently been shown to be an effective agent in the simultaneous removal of NOx and/or SOx from combustion flue gases and various chemical processes, including nitrations and metal pickling. Aqueous chloric acid readily reacts with NO and SO{sub 2} even in dilute solutions at ambient temperatures. Chlorine dioxide, ClO{sub 2}, is formed as a chemical intermediate in the solution phase oxidation reactions. The oxidation by-products of NO include NO{sub 2} and nitric acid. The ClO{sub 2} generated from the solution phase reactions also participates in gas phase oxidation reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}. The combined solution phase and fast gas phase reaction chemistries provide the means for creating a new type of high performance NOx/SOx removal process. Wet scrubber based pilot plant tests have demonstrated up to 99% removal of NO. Additional recent research work has shown that chloric acid is an effective reagent for the removal of air toxic metals, such as elemental mercury, which are present in the waste gas output streams from incinerators, hydrogen from mercury cell chlor-alkali plants, and flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Work in this area is being conducted by Argonne National Laboratories and Olin. This paper discusses the oxidation chemistry of chloric acid and its unique solution and gas phase reactions with NO, SO{sub 2}, and air toxics in wet scrubber type process equipment. 32 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuaron, John J.; Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry; Goenka, Anuj; DeBlois, David; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Hug, Eugen; Cahlon, Oren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results Median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n = 28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01–3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%–30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%–5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0–65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03–3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and cardiopulmonary

  3. Early Toxicity in Patients Treated With Postoperative Proton Therapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, John J.; Chon, Brian; Tsai, Henry; Goenka, Anuj; DeBlois, David; Ho, Alice; Powell, Simon; Hug, Eugen; Cahlon, Oren

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To report dosimetry and early toxicity data in breast cancer patients treated with postoperative proton radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: From March 2013 to April 2014, 30 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer and no history of prior radiation were treated with proton therapy at a single proton center. Patient characteristics and dosimetry were obtained through chart review. Patients were seen weekly while on treatment, at 1 month after radiation therapy completion, and at 3- to 6-month intervals thereafter. Toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Frequencies of toxicities were tabulated. Results: Median dose delivered was 50.4 Gy (relative biological equivalent [RBE]) in 5 weeks. Target volumes included the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes including the internal mammary lymph nodes (in 93%). No patients required a treatment break. Among patients with >3 months of follow-up (n=28), grade 2 dermatitis occurred in 20 patients (71.4%), with 8 (28.6%) experiencing moist desquamation. Grade 2 esophagitis occurred in 8 patients (28.6%). Grade 3 reconstructive complications occurred in 1 patient. The median planning target volume V95 was 96.43% (range, 79.39%-99.60%). The median mean heart dose was 0.88 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.01-3.20 Gy (RBE)] for all patients, and 1.00 Gy (RBE) among patients with left-sided tumors. The median V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 16.50% (range, 6.1%-30.3%). The median contralateral lung V5 was 0.34% (range, 0%-5.30%). The median maximal point dose to the esophagus was 45.65 Gy (RBE) [range, 0-65.4 Gy (RBE)]. The median contralateral breast mean dose was 0.29 Gy (RBE) [range, 0.03-3.50 Gy (RBE)]. Conclusions: Postoperative proton therapy is well tolerated, with acceptable rates of skin toxicity. Proton therapy favorably spares normal tissue without compromising target coverage. Further follow-up is necessary to assess for clinical outcomes and cardiopulmonary

  4. Resistance to insecticides and effect of synergists on permethrin toxicity in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Picollo, M I; Vassena, C V; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Vernetti, M; Zerba, E N

    2000-09-01

    Permethrin-resistant colonies of Pediculus capitis (De Geer) from Buenos Aires were used to establish a resistance profile and to examine resistance mechanisms. All permethrin-resistant head lice (resistance ratio from 52.8 to > 88.7) were also resistant to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio from 40.86 to > 48.39) and deltamethrin (resistance ratio from 16.24 to 38.06). No cross-resistance to carbaryl was found in any of the pyrethroid-resistant P. capitis tested. Otherwise, all resistant colonies showed low to high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin. This pyrethroid had never been applied as a pediculicide in Argentina; however, the high level of resistance found in these permethrin-resistant colonies (resistance ratio from 9.74 to 50.97) demonstrated that pyrethroid cross-resistance occurred to this novel insecticide. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triphenylphosphate (TPP) significantly decreased the toxicity of permethrin in the four colonies tested. The esterase inhibitor TPP produced lower enhancement of toxicity than the multifunction oxidase inhibitor PBO in the colonies having the highest resistance levels. Results presented here concerning the cross-resistance profile and synergism by enzyme inhibitors in permethrin-resistant head lice demonstrated that enhanced metabolism was involved in the pyrethroid resistance. However, the substantial degree of resistance that remained after synergism suggested the presence of another resistance mechanism. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and susceptibility to the carbamate carbaryl suggested a common action mechanism. PMID:11004784

  5. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  6. Air pollution emission profiles of toxic and trace elements from energy related sources: status and needs.

    PubMed

    Lioy, P J

    1983-01-01

    The preceding was by no means a comprehensive analysis on the present state of knowledge on trace elements in combustion sources, or the differences that would be expected. However, it does point to avenues and directions of some of the future research. Also, the needs 1) to resolve source in areas of great emissions complexity, or 2) to assign sources of specific hazardous materials. Current efforts are focussed on understanding the impact of particular sources of pollutants at a receptor site. This information will provide the means for assessment of any potential hazard of a source to the general community and the size and mass distribution of these materials at a receptor. Considering the types and volume of data necessary to catalog source types and eventually assess community impacts, the development of a national resource with far more sensitive and accurate multielement analysis of air pollutants is warranted. Interaction of air quality and nuclear analytical research groups in collaborative research projects should be fostered and commitments made to develop pools of large and small users. PMID:6686299

  7. Modeling the impacts of traffic emissions on air toxics concentrations near roadways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Seila, Robert; Baldauf, Richard

    The dispersion formulation incorporated in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's AERMOD regulatory dispersion model is used to estimate the contribution of traffic-generated emissions of select VOCs - benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene - to ambient air concentrations at downwind receptors ranging from 10-m to 100-m from the edge of a major highway in Raleigh, North Carolina. The contributions are computed using the following steps: 1) Evaluate dispersion model estimates with 10-min averaged NO data measured at 7 m and 17 m from the edge of the road during a field study conducted in August, 2006; this step determines the uncertainty in model estimates. 2) Use dispersion model estimates and their uncertainties, determined in step 1, to construct pseudo-observations. 3) Fit pseudo-observations to actual observations of VOC concentrations measured during five periods of the field study. This provides estimates of the contributions of traffic emissions to the VOC concentrations at the receptors located from 10 m to 100 m from the road. In addition, it provides estimates of emission factors and background concentrations of the VOCs, which are supported by independent estimates from motor vehicle emissions models and regional air quality measurements. The results presented in the paper demonstrate the suitability of the formulation in AERMOD for estimating concentrations associated with mobile source emissions near roadways. This paper also presents an evaluation of the key emissions and dispersion modeling inputs necessary for conducting assessments of local-scale impacts from traffic emissions.

  8. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  9. Review: advances in electrochemical genosensors-based methods for monitoring blooms of toxic algae.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which have expanded worldwide in their occurrence and frequency, are a serious menace to aquatic ecosystems and humans. The development of rapid, accurate and cost-effective detection systems for toxic algal monitoring in aquatic environments is urgently required. Although many efforts have been devoted to develop reliable tools to monitor the entire spectrum of existing toxic algae, a portable semi-automated system that enables HAB monitoring at a low cost is still not available for general purchase. This work reviews the challenges and opportunities in translating the remarkable progress of electrochemical genosensors-based methods towards practical in situ HAB monitoring applications. It is specifically focused on reviewing the optimised methods for a detection system based on a sandwich hybridisation assay (SHA) performed over transducer platforms of different materials, geometries and dimensions and presenting the diverse advantages and disadvantages among them. Probe design and specificity and optimisation of the genosensor in terms of hybridisation conditions and electrochemical signal are discussed as well as their long-term stability and storage and semi-automation attempts. With continuous innovation and attention to key challenges, we expect semi-automatic devices containing DNA-based electrochemical biosensors to have an important impact upon monitoring of serious HAB events. PMID:23097073

  10. Biofiltration control of VOC and air toxic emissions: n-Butane and benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    n-Butane and benzene vapors are routinely observed in urban atmospheres. Their presence in urban airsheds is of concern because of their ozone production potential as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and/or potential toxicity. Also, these saturated hydrocarbons are representative of airborne aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Separate laboratory studies have been conducted on the biological elimination of n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) from airstreams using treated compost biofilters. The removal efficiencies were found to exceed 90% for a conditioned biofilter medium and pollutant low concentrations (< 25 ppm) and zeroth order kinetics at higher concentrations (> 100 ppm), whereas benzene vapor elimination followed zeroth order kinetics at concentrations up to 200 ppm. The maximum n-butane and benzene elimination capacities observed for the compost biofilters and conditions employed were 25 and 70 g pollutant m{sup -3} h{sup -1}, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  12. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Topical report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-21

    Under contract with the US Department of Energy (DE-AC22-92PCO0367), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Radian Corporation has conducted a test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPS). Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical charactization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions.

  13. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  14. Emissions of air toxics from the production of charcoal in a simulated Missouri charcoal kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Kariher, P.H.; Fairless, B.J.; Tapp, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    The paper gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutant from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast burn--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted from all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions.

  15. Extended continuous infusion low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 in advanced cancer: prolonged immunomodulation without significant toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, M A; Murray, C; Soiffer, R J; Klumpp, T R; Seiden, M; Cochran, K; Cameron, C; Ish, C; Buchanan, L; Perillo, D

    1991-12-01

    In previous clinical trials, recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) has been infused at high doses over short periods of time to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells in vivo. These trials have been limited by severe toxicities, and the immunologic effects of rIL-2 have been transient. The present study was designed to assess the toxicity and immunologic effects of prolonged administration of low doses of rIL-2. In this phase I study, patients with advanced cancer were scheduled to receive intravenous (IV) infusion of rIL-2 without interruption for 3 months in an outpatient setting. Twenty-one patients received rIL-2 at doses ranging from 0.5 x 10(5) to 6.0 x 10(5) U/m2/d. Treatment was extremely well tolerated, and no patient experienced grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity. The lowest dose level (0.5 x 10(5) U/m2/d) did not have demonstrable immunologic activity. At doses of 1.5 x 10(5) and 4.5 x 10(5) U/m2/d, rIL-2 infusion resulted in the specific expansion of natural-killer (NK) cells (sixfold and ninefold increases, respectively, at these two dose levels) without any changes in B cells, T cells, neutrophils, or monocytes. Grade 2 toxicity was observed at the dose of 6.0 x 10(5) U/m2/d, as three patients required interruption of therapy and two patients who completed therapy developed transient hypothyroidism. In patients with increased NK cells, enhancement of non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity and increased generation of LAK cells in vitro were also demonstrated. Therapy with low-dose rIL-2 can be given safely in an uninterrupted fashion for prolonged periods of time in an outpatient setting. This results in selective expansion of NK cells in vivo with minimal toxicity. Further investigation of this schedule for immunomodulation in vivo should be pursued in phase II studies of both malignant and immunodeficient disease states. PMID:1960552

  16. Optimization of an air-liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L; Elihn, Karine

    2016-10-01

    The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm(-2) ) at cell-free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min(-1) ) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm(-2) ) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26935862

  17. Exposure and Toxicity Assessment of Ultrafine Particles from Nearby Traffic in Urban Air in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jin-Yong; Jang, Ji-Young; Lee, Gun-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hwan; Shin, Dong-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the particle mass size distribution and chemical properties of air pollution particulate matter (PM) in the urban area and its capacity to induce cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Methods To characterize the mass size distributions and chemical concentrations associated with urban PM, PM samples were collected by a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor close to nearby traffic in an urban area from December 2007 to December 2009. PM samples for in vitro cytotoxicity testing were collected by a mini-volume air sampler with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets. Results The PM size distributions were bi-modal, peaking at 0.18 to 0.32 and 1.8 to 3.2 µm. The mass concentrations of the metals in fine particles (0.1 to 1.8 µm) accounted for 45.6 to 80.4% of the mass concentrations of metals in PM10. The mass proportions of fine particles of the pollutants related to traffic emission, lead (80.4%), cadmium (69.0%), and chromium (63.8%) were higher than those of other metals. Iron was the dominant transition metal in the particles, accounting for 64.3% of the PM10 mass in all the samples. We observed PM concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions We found that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 from a nearby traffic area induced significant increases in protein expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). The cell death rate and release of cytokines in response to the PM2.5 treatment were higher than those with PM10. The combined results support the hypothesis that ultrafine particles from vehicular sources can induce inflammatory responses related to environmental respiratory injury. PMID:23882447

  18. A Phase II study of acute toxicity for Celebrex{sup TM} (celecoxib) and chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer: Primary endpoint analysis of RTOG 0128

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, David K. . E-mail: david.gaffney@hci.utah.edu; Winter, Kathryn M.S.; Dicker, Adam P.; Miller, Brigitte; Eifel, Patricia J.; Ryu, Janice; Avizonis, Vilija; Fromm, Mitch; Greven, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine treatment-related acute toxicity rates in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by oral celecoxib, i.v. cisplatin and 5-FU, and concurrent pelvic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients on this RTOG Phase I-II study for advanced cervix cancer included FIGO Stage IIB-IVA or patients with FIGO Stage IB through IIA with biopsy proven pelvic node metastases or tumor size {>=}5 cm. Patients were treated with pelvic radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Celecoxib was prescribed at 400 mg twice daily beginning on day 1 for 1 year. Cisplatin (75 mg/m2) and 5-FU (1g/m2 for 4 days) were administered every 3 weeks times 3. The primary end point of the study was treatment related toxicity. Results: Between August 2001 and March 2004, 84 patients were accrued to the study and 77 patients were evaluable for toxicity. Regarding the primary end point, toxicities were observed in the following areas: blood/bone marrow (16), gastrointestinal (14), pain (7), renal/genitourinary (6), cardiovascular (3), hemorrhage (1), and neurologic (1). For the first 75 evaluable patients, a toxicity failure was identified in 36 patients for a rate of 48%. Conclusions: Celecoxib at 400 mg twice daily together with concurrent cisplatin and 5-FU and pelvic radiotherapy has a high incidence of acute toxicities. The most frequent toxicities were hematologic. Albeit, the toxicity was deemed excessive in this trial, the rate of toxicities was not too different compared to other recent experiences with concurrent chemoradiation for advanced cervix cancer.

  19. CHANGES IN LUNG FUNCTION OBSERVED IN A STUDY OF PM AND AIR TOXICS EXPOSURE TO NC HIGHWAY PATROL TROOPERS (COPP-STUDY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Car emissions have been identified as a major source of respirable particles. Individuals whose jobs involve being on the road, such as patrol troopers, may be exposed to high cencentrations of toxic air pollutants from vehicle emissions. This exposure might a...

  20. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-Mitsui-BF activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Tsuji, K.; Shiraishi, I.

    1998-07-01

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960's by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the US toward SOx/NOx pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on four coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MMC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. Of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF process for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC's AC used in the dry DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process and of the DeSOx/DeNOx/Air Toxics removal process itself.

  1. Real-time emission characterization of organic air toxic pollutants during steady state and transient operation of a medium duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullett, Brian K.; Touati, Abderrahmane; Oudejans, Lukas; Ryan, Shawn P.

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS), was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW) diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emissions of gas phase benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylenes (BTEX), styrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at levels in the 10-500 ppb range with a measurement frequency of 10 s -1; this enabled rapid emission characterization as a function of operating conditions: cold starts, hot starts and load changes. The sensitivity, selectivity and real-time monitoring capabilities of the jet REMPI-TOFMS system discerned transient concentrations of organic air toxics (e.g., benzene and naphthalene) during cold starts exceeding 15 times their steady state levels. Time-integrated concentrations obtained by jet REMPI-TOFMS compared well with standard EPA methods. The jet REMPI-TOFMS system provides a means to rapidly characterize air toxic emission factors that enables users to alter operational procedures to minimize air toxic formation. The relative concentrations between startup and steady state emissions, as well as the transition period between these levels, were specific for each type of compound found in the diesel exhaust.

  2. REAL-TIME EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC AIR TOXIC POLLUTANTS DURING STEADY STATE AND TRANSIENT OPERATION OF A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An on-line monitoring method, jet resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was used to measure emissions of organic air toxics from a medium-duty (60 kW)diesel generator during transient and steady state operations. Emission...

  3. REAL TIME, ON-LINE CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL GENERATOR AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS BY RESONANCE ENHANCED MULTI-PHOTON IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laser based resonance, enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) technique has been applied to the exhaust gas stream of a diesel generator to measure, in real time, concentration levels of aromatic air toxics. Volatile organic compounds ...

  4. Toxicity and Efficacy of Concurrent Gemcitabine and Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Crane, Christopher; Janjan, N; Evans, D; Wolff, R; Ballo, M; Milas, L; Mason, K; Charnsangavej, C; Pisters, P; Lee, J; Lenzi, R; Vauthey, J; Wong, A; Phan, T; Nguyen, Q; Abbruzzese, J

    2001-01-01

    Gemcitabine has been demonstrated to be a potentradiosensitizer in the laboratory and in the clinic (1-7)and has proven clinical systemic activity to pancreaticcancer. Responses to systemic gemcitabine inpatients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomahave been documented in phase I, phase II, and phaseIII clinical settings (8,9). Moreover, a recent randomizedtrial of gemcitabine vs 5-FU as first-linetherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomademonstrated a modest median survivalbenefit (4.41 vs 5.65 mo,p= 0.0025) for those patientswho received gemcitabine compared to those whoreceived 5-FU (10). In addition, gemcitabine wasshown to improve cancer-related symptoms and performancestatus as assessed by a quantitative clinicalbenefit scale in both untreated and previouslytreated patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma ofthe pancreas (10,11). Based on these data, the FDAapproved gemcitabine as a first-line agent for patientswith advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. PMID:12754400

  5. Treatment-related toxicities with Fluosol-DA 20% infusion during radiation in advanced head and neck malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.H.; Janjan, N.A.; Byhardt, R.W.; Toohill, R.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Fluosol-DA 20%, a synthetic perfluorocarbon emulsion first developed as a blood substitute, is currently being investigated as a radiation sensitizer. Theoretically, an oxygen-carrying perfluorocarbon emulsion combined with oxygen inhalation might be able to increase tumor response by decreasing the relative proportion of hypoxic tumor cells. Twenty-one patients with advanced head and neck malignancies receiving primary radiation therapy were evaluated for treatment-related toxicity. Mucosal reactions and weight loss during treatment in the group of patients who received the perfluorocarbon emulsion and the group who did not were comparable. Late sequelae appeared comparable. No patient in either group who completed radiation therapy required an interruption of the treatment course. We conclude that Fluosol-DA 20% is a tolerated adjunct to primary radiation therapy. Further study is needed to determine whether the agent will improve local/regional tumor control.

  6. Phenytoin toxicity in a patient receiving concomitant use of phenytoin and S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Mimatsu, Kenji; Oida, Takatsugu; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kida, Kazutoshi; Fukino, Nobutada; Kuboi, Youichi; Kano, Hisao; Amano, Sadao

    2011-06-01

    A 61-year-old man had been receiving phenytoin(225mg/day)and valproate(600mg/day)for several years as the treatment for seizures. He was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer,and S-1 plus cisplatin treatment was administered as neoadjuvant chemotherapy because bulky lymph node metastases were found at the time of the initial diagnosis. He complained of weakness of the lower extremities,light -headedness,and trembling of the upper extremities 2 months after the start of concomitant treatment with S-1 plus cisplatin. The serum phenytoin concentration increased to 21. 2mg/mL. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any intracranial lesion such as brain metastasis. Therefore, we diagnosed phenytoin toxicity due to concomitant use of S-1 and phenytoin,and the dose of phenytoin was then decreased to 150 mg. Although the weakness of the lower extremities improved,light -headedness remained. Phenytoin and valproate treatments were stopped,and he was able to walk 7 days after the termination of therapy. It is important to predict the timing of phenytoin toxicity due to S-1,and therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed in patients receiving S-1 plus cisplatin and phenytoin. PMID:21677496

  7. Efficacy and toxicity of salvage weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy in non-Asian patients with advanced oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tarazona, Noelia; Smyth, Elizabeth C.; Peckit, Clare; Chau, Ian; Watkins, David; Rao, Sheela; Starling, Naureen; Cunningham, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Survival for oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (OGA) patients varies globally and clinical trial results are seldom replicated in clinical practice. We sought to examine the efficacy and toxicity of salvage paclitaxel chemotherapy for patients with advanced OGA at our institution. Methods: Advanced OGA patients treated with paclitaxel between June 2011 and February 2014 were identified from the electronic record at the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH), London. Chart review was performed to obtain demographics, performance status (PS), laboratory parameters, radiological response and dates of progression, death and last follow up. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis examined the interaction between clinical and laboratory parameters and survival. Results: Fifty-seven patients were identified; OS and PFS were 5.8 and 2.6 months respectively. From first-line chemotherapy, median OS was 14.3 months. Two-year and three-year survival rates from diagnosis were 26% and 13%. More than or equivalent to Grade 3 neutropenia occurred in 13% of patients. In multivariate analysis, PS more than or equal to 2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) more than or equal to100 U/L, and previous rechallenge with platinum were independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: OGA cancer patients treated at RMH with salvage paclitaxel had an OS equivalent to patients in clinical trials with more (33%) PS = 2 patients treated and less haematological toxicity than Asian patients. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS more than or equal to 2, ALP more than or equal to 100 U/L, and prior platinum rechallenge were associated with poor survival. However, the proportion of patients surviving more than or equal to two years from diagnosis demonstrates a clinically relevant improvement from historical controls. PMID:26929786

  8. Toxic trace elements and organic compounds in the ambient air of Kabul, Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lella, Luigi Antonello; Loppi, Stefano; Protano, Giuseppe; Riccobono, Francesco

    To assess the ambient air quality in Kabul, we measured the contents in tree bark samples of 17 chemical elements by ICP-MS, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) by GC-MS, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by GC-ECD and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by HPLC. While there were rather high levels of sulfur (up to 2277 μg g -1), the heavy element contents were rather low (i.e. Pb was in the range 3.12-5.00 μg g -1), even though a slight peak value was recorded in the area of most intense traffic (Pb up to 13.91 μg g -1). Slight traces of organohalogen compounds, i.e. PCBs and PCDD/Fs, were detected (ΣPCBs=1.184-6.318 ng g -1; ΣPCDD/Fs=1.42-2.38 pg g -1). Highly chlorinated congeners, i.e. OCDD/Fs and penta-, hexa- and hepta-CBs, dominated the profiles of these compounds. Only three- and four-ringed PAH compounds were detected, but at very low levels comparable with the natural background. The slightly anomalous trace element values and the profiles of PCDD/Fs and PAHs determined in the bark samples suggest a close relationship with emissions from automotive traffic and the domestic burning of wood and fossil fuels. The presence of distinct but unimportant PCB emission sources can also be inferred.

  9. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  10. An innovative approach that was used to assess the air quality impacts of a large complex facility (Los Alamos National Laboratory) that has the potential to emit hundreds of toxic air pollutants in small quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.; Kogan, V.; Gorman-Bates, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Sitewide EIS for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of its evaluation of future use for the facility. An air quality analysis is required to estimate the potential impacts of the release of air pollutants from a facility that uses hundreds of toxic chemicals. These chemicals are currently used in 30 separately managed groups of operations or laboratory complexes--known as Technical Areas (TAs). Emission data and stack parameter information are currently not available. Undertaking an emission inventory, which would have been required for a conventional air quality impact analysis, would have been both costly and time consuming. An innovative and cost-effective methodology was therefore developed to assess the potential air quality impacts of the emissions of toxic air pollutants released from this facility. This methodology is based on the use of threshold emission values (TEVs), which are, for the purpose of this study, the maximum rates of each pollutant that could be emitted into the atmosphere from each TA that would not contravene health-related guideline values. TEVs unique to each TA were developed for each of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic toxic pollutants emitted from facility using EPA`s ISC3 dispersion model, and prototypical stack and building parameters. Once the TEVs were established for each TA, comparisons were made on a pollutant-specific basis between these values and conservatively estimated potential emissions rates that were based primarily on the purchase rates of these chemicals to identify those pollutants which may cause potentially significant adverse air quality impacts. This approach allowed over 95 percent of the toxic air pollutants to be eliminated from further consideration, and enabled the detailed analysis to focus on the remaining 5 percent.

  11. Advances in the Lightweight Air-Liquid Composite Heat Exchanger Development for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Johnston, J. Chris; Haas, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    An advanced, lightweight composite modular Air/Liquid (A/L) Heat Exchanger (HX) Prototype for potential space exploration thermal management applications was successfully designed, manufactured, and tested. This full-scale Prototype consisting of 19 modules, based on recommendations from its predecessor Engineering Development unit (EDU) but with improved thermal characteristics and manufacturability, was 11.2 % lighter than the EDU and achieves potentially a 42.7% weight reduction from the existing state-of-the-art metallic HX demonstrator. However, its higher pressure drop (0.58 psid vs. 0.16 psid of the metal HX) has to be mitigated by foam material optimizations and design modifications including a more systematic air channel design. Scalability of the Prototype design was validated experimentally by comparing manufacturability and performance between the 2-module coupon and the 19-module Prototype. The Prototype utilized the thermally conductive open-cell carbon foam material but with lower density and adopted a novel high-efficiency cooling system with significantly increased heat transfer contact surface areas, improved fabricability and manufacturability compared to the EDU. Even though the Prototype was required to meet both the thermal and the structural specifications, accomplishing the thermal requirement was a higher priority goal for this first version. Overall, the Prototype outperformed both the EDU and the corresponding metal HX, particularly in terms of specific heat transfer, but achieved 93.4% of the target. The next generation Prototype to achieve the specification target, 3,450W would need 24 core modules based on the simple scaling factor. The scale-up Prototype will weigh about 14.7 Kg vs. 21.6 Kg for the metal counterpart. The advancement of this lightweight composite HX development from the original feasibility test coupons to EDU to Prototype is discussed in this paper.

  12. Air toxics and epigenetic effects: ozone altered microRNAs in the sputum of human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Rebecca C.; Rager, Julia E.; Bauer, Rebecca; Sebastian, Elizabeth; Peden, David B.; Jaspers, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a criteria air pollutant that is associated with numerous adverse health effects, including altered respiratory immune responses. Despite its deleterious health effects, possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying O3-induced health effects remain understudied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of genomic response to environmental insults and unstudied in relationship to O3 inhalation exposure. Our objective was to test whether O3 inhalation exposure significantly alters miRNA expression profiles within the human bronchial airways. Twenty healthy adult human volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm O3 for 2 h. Induced sputum samples were collected from each subject 48 h preexposure and 6 h postexposure for evaluation of miRNA expression and markers of inflammation in the airways. Genomewide miRNA expression profiles were evaluated by microarray analysis, and in silico predicted mRNA targets of the O3-responsive miRNAs were identified and validated against previously measured O3-induced changes in mRNA targets. Biological network analysis was performed on the O3-associated miRNAs and mRNA targets to reveal potential associated response signaling and functional enrichment. Expression analysis of the sputum samples revealed that O3 exposure significantly increased the expression levels of 10 miRNAs, namely miR-132, miR-143, miR-145, miR-199a*, miR-199b-5p, miR-222, miR-223, miR-25, miR-424, and miR-582-5p. The miRNAs and their predicted targets were associated with a diverse range of biological functions and disease signatures, noted among them inflammation and immune-related disease. The present study shows that O3 inhalation exposure disrupts select miRNA expression profiles that are associated with inflammatory and immune response signaling. These findings provide novel insight into epigenetic regulation of responses to O3 exposure. PMID:24771714

  13. Real-Time Cell-Electronic Sensing of Coal Fly Ash Particulate Matter for Toxicity-Based Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Moe, Birget; Yuan, Chungang; Li, Jinhua; Du, Haiying; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2016-06-20

    The development of a unique bioassay for cytotoxicity analysis of coal fly ash (CFA) particulate matter (PM) and its potential application for air quality monitoring is described. Using human cell lines, A549 and SK-MES-1, as live probes on microelectrode-embedded 96-well sensors, impedance changes over time are measured as cells are treated with varying concentrations (1 μg/mL-20 mg/mL) of CFA samples. A dose-dependent impedance change is determined for each CFA sample, from which an IC50 histogram is obtained. The assay was successfully applied to examine CFA samples collected from three coal-fired power plants (CFPs) in China. The samples were separated into three size fractions: PM2.5 (<2.5 μm), PM10-2.5 (2.5 μm < x < 10 μm), and PM10 (>10 μm). Dynamic cell-response profiles and temporal IC50 histograms of all samples show that CFA cytotoxicity depends on concentration, exposure time (0-60 h), and cell-type (SK-MES-1 > A549). The IC50 values differentiate the cytotoxicity of CFA samples based on size fraction (PM2.5 ≈ PM10-2.5 ≫ PM10) and the sampling location (CFP2 > CFP1 ≈ CFP3). Differential cytotoxicity measurements of particulates in human cell lines using cell-electronic sensing provide a useful tool for toxicity-based air quality monitoring and risk assessment. PMID:27124590

  14. Evaluation of thermal energy storage materials for advanced compressed air energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Wheeler, K.R.; Marksberry, L.

    1983-03-01

    Advanced Compressed-Air Energy Storage (ACAS) plants have the near-term potential to reduce the fuel consumption of compressed-air plants from 33 to 100%, depending upon their design. Fuel is saved by storing some or all of the heat of compression as sensible heat which is subsequently used to reheat the compressed air prior to expansion in the turbine generator. The thermal storage media required for this application must be low cost and durable. The objective of this project was to screen thermal store materials based on their thermal cycle durability, particulate formation and corrosion resistant characteristics. The materials investigated were iron oxide pellets, Denstone pebbles, cast-iron balls, and Dresser basalt rock. The study specifically addressed the problems of particle formation and thermal ratcheting of the materials during thermal cycling and the chemical attack on the materials by the high temperature and moist environment in an ACAS heat storage bed. The results indicate that from the durability standpoint Denstone, cast iron containing 27% or more chromium, and crushed Dresser basalt would possibly stand up to ACAS conditions. If costs are considered in addition to durability and performance, the crushed Dresser basalt would probably be the most desirable heat storage material for adiabatic and hybrid ACAS plants, and more in-depth longer term thermal cycling and materials testing of Dresser basalt is recommended. Also recommended is the redesign and costing analysis of both the hybrid and adiabatic ACAS facilities based upon the use of Dresser basalt as the thermal store material.

  15. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  16. New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2011-01-01

    Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings. PMID:21707470

  17. Gauging intraurban variability of ambient particulate matter arsenic and other air toxic metals from a network of monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Varun; Turner, Jay

    2014-06-01

    A four site monitoring network was established in the Missouri portion of Metropolitan St. Louis during 2008 to characterize spatiotemporal patterns in PM10 arsenic. Arsenic measured at two urban sites in the City of St. Louis was typically higher than arsenic at two suburban sites. Spatiotemporal variability in arsenic is examined by plotting the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) against the coefficient of divergence (COD) for each site-pair to merge the temporal tracking ability of PCC with COD's ability to gauge spatial homogeneity. Arsenic measured across the network is apportioned into a network-wide baseline and site-specific excess concentrations to semi-quantitatively differentiate local-scale emission source contributions from sources exerting influence over larger spatial scales. Comparing measured concentrations at each site against the network-wide baseline concentration using a scattergram of PCC and COD emphasizes the impact of local sources on intraurban variability. Conditional probability function (CPF) plots constructed using site-specific measured arsenic and surface winds identify a broad emission source region towards the east, but mask the bearings of local sources in the urban core. CPF plots using site-specific arsenic in excess of the baseline concentrations provide better resolution of local emission source bearings and are triangulated to identify a likely arsenic emission source zone along the industrialized Mississippi Riverfront. Additional air toxic metals measured in this study (selenium, manganese and lead) are also investigated to examine the efficacy of this methodology to characterize intraurban variability.

  18. Between-airport heterogeneity in air toxics emissions associated with individual cancer risk thresholds and population risks

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Airports represent a complex source type of increasing importance contributing to air toxics risks. Comprehensive atmospheric dispersion models are beyond the scope of many applications, so it would be valuable to rapidly but accurately characterize the risk-relevant exposure implications of emissions at an airport. Methods In this study, we apply a high resolution atmospheric dispersion model (AERMOD) to 32 airports across the United States, focusing on benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo [a]pyrene. We estimate the emission rates required at these airports to exceed a 10-6 lifetime cancer risk for the maximally exposed individual (emission thresholds) and estimate the total population risk at these emission rates. Results The emission thresholds vary by two orders of magnitude across airports, with variability predicted by proximity of populations to the airport and mixing height (R2 = 0.74–0.75 across pollutants). At these emission thresholds, the population risk within 50 km of the airport varies by two orders of magnitude across airports, driven by substantial heterogeneity in total population exposure per unit emissions that is related to population density and uncorrelated with emission thresholds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that site characteristics can be used to accurately predict maximum individual risk and total population risk at a given level of emissions, but that optimizing on one endpoint will be non-optimal for the other. PMID:19426510

  19. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer and taxane-induced skin toxicity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Taxanes have demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer in women. The toxicity profile of taxanes (including skin toxicities) induces dose adjustment, delay, or discontinuation, which prevents a sufficient dose intensity to achieve a response. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, a solvent-free form of paclitaxel, prevents toxicities and reduces the pharmacokinetic interferences between paclitaxel and other drugs. Case presentation We describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian woman with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant therapy who developed secondary skin toxicity due to delayed hypersensitivity to taxanes. She received Adriamycin® (doxorubicin), cyclophosphamide and docetaxel and developed toxicity that promoted treatment delay and a switch to weekly paclitaxel. After the third and fourth weeks of treatment, paclitaxel toxicities also induced treatment delay and paclitaxel was switched to nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. She completed the five planned nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel cycles with acceptable tolerability (including persistent grade 2 neuropathy) and without dose delay or adjustments. Clinical response was achieved although pathological response was not good. Conclusions Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel treatment is a good option for patients with breast cancer with taxanes-related skin toxicity. This drug allows the treatment to be completed with acceptable tolerance in our case. PMID:24386978

  20. ADAPTATION OF THE ADVANCED STATISTICAL TRAJECTORY REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION (ASTRAP) MODEL TO THE EPA VAX COMPUTER - MODIFICATIONS AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model simulates long-term transport and deposition of oxides of and nitrogen. t is a potential screening tool for assessing long-term effects on regional visibility from sulfur emission sources. owever, a rigorou...

  1. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  2. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  3. Traffic-related air toxics and preterm birth: a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles county, California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have associated air pollutant exposures with adverse birth outcomes, but there is still relatively little information to attribute effects to specific emission sources or air toxics. We used three exposure data sources to examine risks of preterm birth in Los Angeles women when exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants - including specific toxics - during pregnancy. Methods We identified births during 6/1/04-3/31/06 to women residing within five miles of a Southern California Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Multiple Air Toxics Exposure Study (MATES III) monitoring station. We identified preterm cases and, using a risk set approach, matched cases to controls based on gestational age at birth. Pregnancy period exposure averages were estimated for a number of air toxics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), source-specific PM2.5 (fine particulates with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) based on a Chemical Mass Balance model, criteria air pollutants based on government monitoring data, and land use regression (LUR) estimates of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Associations between these metrics and odds of preterm birth were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Odds of preterm birth increased 6-21% per inter-quartile range increase in entire pregnancy exposures to organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), benzene, and diesel, biomass burning and ammonium nitrate PM2.5, and 30% per inter-quartile increase in PAHs; these pollutants were positively correlated and clustered together in a factor analysis. Associations with LUR exposure metrics were weaker (3-4% per inter-quartile range increase). Conclusions These latest analyses provide additional evidence of traffic-related air pollution's impact on preterm birth for women living in Southern California and indicate PAHs as a pollutant of concern that should be a focus of future studies. Other

  4. Component modeling in ecological risk assessment: Disturbance in interspecific interactions caused by air toxics introduced into terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swider, Jan Zenon

    Ecological Risk Assessment standpoint and examine the impact of air toxics emissions on an ecosystem, with particular emphasis on predator-prey interactions. Such analysis may help to identify the most likely conditions leading to the ecosystem instability and possibility of its recuperation.

  5. RANKING INDOOR AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basis of the ranking is 10 monitoring studies chosen to represent "typical" concentrations of the pollutants found indoors. The studies were conducted in the United States during the last 15 years, and mainly focused on concentrations of pollutants in homes, schools, and off...

  6. Advanced fuel hydrocarbon remediation national test location - in situ air sparging system (revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Health, J.; Lory, E.

    1997-03-01

    Air sparging is the process of injecting clean air directly into an aquifer for remediation of contaminated groundwater. For removing contaminants, air sparging relies on two basic mechanisms working either alone or in tandem: biodegradation and volatilization. The objective of air sparging is to force air through contaminated aquifer materials to provide oxygen for bioremediation and/or to strip contaminants out of the aquifer.

  7. Contribution of the toxic advanced glycation end-products-receptor axis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takino, Jun-ichi; Nagamine, Kentaro; Hori, Takamitsu; Sakasai-Sakai, Akiko; Takeuchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The main etiologies of HCC are hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and non-hepatitis B/non-hepatitis C HCC (NBNC-HCC) has also been identified as an etiological factor. Although the incidence of HCV-related HCC in Japan has decreased slightly in recent years, that of NBNC-HCC has increased. The onset mechanism of NBNC-HCC, which has various etiologies, remains unclear; however, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is known to be an important risk factor for NBNC-HCC. Among the different advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formed by the Maillard reaction, glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs, the predominant components of toxic AGEs (TAGE), have been associated with NASH and NBNC-HCC, including NASH-related HCC. Furthermore, the expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) has been correlated with the malignant progression of HCC. Therefore, TAGE induce oxidative stress by binding with RAGE may, in turn, lead to adverse effects, such as fibrosis and malignant transformation, in hepatic stellate cells and tumor cells during NASH or NASH-related HCC progression. The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of the TAGE-RAGE axis in NASH-related HCC. PMID:26483867

  8. Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells exposed at the air-liquid interface compared with in vivo assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xuefang; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of spark-generated copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) using an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system. Dose-response results were compared to in vivo inhalation and instillation studies of CuONP. Cells were exposed to particle-free clean air (controls) or spark-generated CuONPs. The number median diameter, geometric standard deviation and total number concentration of CuONPs were 9.2 nm, 1.48 and 2.27×107 particles/cm3, respectively. Outcome measures included cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and proinflammatory chemokine production. Exposure to clean air (2 or 4 hr) did not induce toxicity in HBEC or A549 cells. Compared with controls, CuONP exposures significantly reduced cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. A549 cells were significantly more susceptible to CuONP effects than HBEC. Antioxidant treatment reduced CuONP-induced cytotoxicity. When dose was expressed per area of exposed epithelium there was good agreement of toxicity measures with murine in vivo studies. This demonstrates that in vitro ALI studies can provide meaningful data on nanotoxicity of metal oxides. PMID:25575782

  9. The reduction of gas phase air toxics from combustion and incineration sources using the GE-MITSUI-BE activated coke process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The dry desulfurization, denitrification and air toxics removal process using activated coke (AC) was originally researched and developed during the 1960s by Bergbau Forschung (BF), now called Deutsche Montan Technologies. Mitsui Mining Company (MMC) signed a licensing agreement with BF in 1982 to investigate, test and adapt the system to the facilities in Japan. Japanese regulations are stricter than in the U.S. toward SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} pollutants, as well as flyash emissions from the utility industry, oil refineries and other industries. This process is installed on flour coal-fired boilers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) units. These plants were constructed by MCC in Japan and Uhde GmbH in Germany. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI) signed a license agreement in 1992 with MMC and Mitsui and Company, Ltd. of Tokyo. Under this agreement, GEESI will market, design, fabricate and install the Mitsui-BF press for flue gas cleaning applications in North America. MMC also developed a technology to produce AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process based on their own metallurgical coke manufacturing technology. This paper provides information on the details of MMC`s AC used in the dry DeSO{sub x}/DeNO{sub x}/Air Toxics removal process.

  10. Location and repair of air leaks in the ATF (Advanced Toroidal Facility) vacuum vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Gabbard, W.A.; Schaich, C.R.; Yarber, J.L. )

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of partial pressure rate-of-rise and base pressure measurements, it was determined that the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel had an air leak in the low 10{sup -4} mbar-{ell}/s range. Pinpointing this leak by conventional helium leak-checking procedures was not possible, because large portions of the outside of the vessel are covered by the helcial field coils and a structural shell. Various alternative leak-detection schemes that were considered are summarized and their advantages and disadvantages noted. In the method ultimately employed, gun-rubber patches of various sizes ranging from 12.7 by 12.7 cm to 20.3 by 30.5 cm were positioned on the inside surfaces of the vessel and evacuated by the leak detector (LD). After roughly 5% of the surface was inspected in this way, a leak of > 10{sup -5} mbar-{ell}/s was discovered and localized to an area of 5 by 5 cm. Dye penetrant applied to this area disclosed three pinholes. Two small slag pockets were discovered while these points were being ground out. After these were rewelded, no furthered leakage could be found in the repaired area. Global leak rates measured after the machine was reevacuated indicated that this leak was about 30% of the overall leak rate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig; Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Federspiel, C.C.

    2008-02-01

    The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.

  12. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    The Peace Bridge in Buffalo, New York, which spans the Niagara River at the east end of Lake Erie, is one of the busiest U.S. border crossings. The Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side is a complex of roads, customs inspection areas, passport control areas, and duty-free shops. On average 5000 heavy-duty diesel trucks and 20,000 passenger cars traverse the border daily, making the plaza area a potential "hot spot" for emissions from mobile sources. In a series of winter and summer field campaigns, we measured air pollutants, including many compounds considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA*) as mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), at three fixed sampling sites: on the shore of Lake Erie, approximately 500 m upwind (under predominant wind conditions) of the Peace Bridge plaza; immediately downwind of (adjacent to) the plaza; and 500 m farther downwind, into the community of west Buffalo. Pollutants sampled were particulate matter (PM) < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter, elemental carbon (EC), 28 elements, 25 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 3 carbonyls, 52 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 29 nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). Spatial patterns of counts of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles < 0.1 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and of particle-bound PAH (pPAH) concentrations were assessed by mobile monitoring in the neighborhood adjacent to the Peace Bridge plaza using portable instruments and Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking. The study was designed to assess differences in upwind and downwind concentrations of MSATs, in areas near the Peace Bridge plaza on the U.S. side of the border. The Buffalo Peace Bridge Study featured good access to monitoring locations proximate to the plaza and in the community, which are downwind with the dominant winds from the direction of Lake Erie and southern Ontario. Samples from the lakeside Great Lakes Center (GLC), which

  13. Dose-Volume Analysis of Predictors for Gastrointestinal Toxicity After Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine and Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Robertson, John M.; Ye Hong; Margolis, Jeffrey; Nadeau, Laura; Yan Di

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPC) treated with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine and radiotherapy (GemRT). Methods and Materials: From June 2002 to June 2009, 46 LAPC patients treated with definitive GemRT were retrospectively analyzed. The stomach and duodenum were retrospectively contoured separately to determine their dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. GI toxicity was defined as Grade 3 or higher GI toxicity. The follow-up time was calculated from the start of RT to the date of death or last contact. Univariate analysis (UVA) and multivariate analysis (MVA) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were performed to identify risk factors associated with GI toxicity. The receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to determine the best DVH parameter to predict for GI toxicity. Results: Of the patients, 28 (61%) received concurrent gemcitabine alone, and 18 (39%) had concurrent gemcitabine with daily erlotinib. On UVA, only the V{sub 20Gy} to V{sub 35Gy} of duodenum were significantly associated with GI toxicity (all p {<=} 0.05). On MVA, the V{sub 25Gy} of duodenum and the use of erlotinib were independent risk factors for GI toxicity (p = 0.006 and 0.02, respectively). For the entire cohort, the V{sub 25Gy} of duodenum is the best predictor for GI toxicity (AUC = 0.717), and the 12-month GI toxicity rate was 8% vs. 48% for V{sub 25Gy} {<=} 45% and V{sub 25Gy} > 45%, respectively (p = 0.03). However, excluding the erlotinib group, the V{sub 35Gy} is the best predictor (AUC = 0.725), and the 12-month GI toxicity rate was 0% vs. 41% for V{sub 35Gy} {<=} 20% and V{sub 35Gy} > 20%, respectively (p = 0.04). Conclusions: DVH parameters of duodenum may predict Grade 3 GI toxicity after GemRT for LAPC. Concurrent use of erlotinib during GemRT may increase GI

  14. A 26-Week Toxicity Assessment of AIR001 (Sodium Nitrite) by Inhalation Exposure in Rats and by Intravenous Administration in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Jeffrey; Ochoa, Ricardo; Rix, Peter; Elliott, Gary; Hoglen, Niel; Poulin, Dominic; Parsley, Ed; Masamune, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Historically, nitrogen oxides (NOx) in food, drinking water, as well as in the atmosphere have been believed to be associated with adverse health consequences. More recently, NOx have been implicated in normal homeostatic regulation, and exogenous administration has been associated with health benefits. One such potential health benefit is the prospect that inhaled nitrite will lower pulmonary blood pressure (BP) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a disease with poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatment. To characterize potential chronic toxicity associated with inhaled AIR001 (sodium nitrite) for use in the treatment of PAH, 26-week exposures to AIR001 were carried out by inhalation administration in rats and by intravenous infusion in dogs. The studies revealed that methemoglobinemia was the primary adverse effect in both species. Methemoglobin levels less than 40% were well tolerated in both species, while levels greater than 50% methemoglobin caused death in some rats. Additionally, a decrease in systemic BP was also observed with inhaled AIR001 exposure in dogs. These acute secondary and exaggerated pharmacological effects occurred daily throughout the 26-week treatment period. Chronic exposure did not alter the magnitude of either methemoglobinemia or hypotension or result in additional toxicity or compensatory responses. Based on the exposure levels that produced these pharmacodynamic responses in animals, relative to those measured in early clinical studies, it appears that an adequate margin of safety exists to support the continued clinical development of inhaled AIR001. PMID:24801488

  15. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  16. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  17. Advances in simulating radiance signatures for dynamic air/water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, Adam A.; Brown, Scott D.; Gerace, Aaron

    2015-05-01

    The air-water interface poses a number of problems for both collecting and simulating imagery. At the surface, the magnitude of observed radiance can change by multiple orders of magnitude at high spatiotemporal frequency due to glinting effects. In the volume, similarly high frequency focusing of photons by a dynamic wave surface significantly changes the reflected radiance of in-water objects and the scattered return of the volume itself. These phenomena are often manifest as saturated pixels and artifacts in collected imagery (often enhanced by time delays between neighboring pixels or interpolation between adjacent filters) and as noise and greater required computation times in simulated imagery. This paper describes recent advances made to the Digital Image and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model to address the simulation issues to better facilitate an understanding of a multi/hyper-spectral collection. Glint effects are simulated using a dynamic height field that can be driven by wave frequency models and generates a sea state at arbitrary time scales. The volume scattering problem is handled by coupling the geometry representing the surface (facetization by the height field) with the single scattering contribution at any point in the water. The problem is constrained somewhat by assuming that contributions come from a Snell's window above the scattering point and by assuming a direct source (sun). Diffuse single scattered and multiple scattered energy contributions are handled by Monte Carlo techniques employed previously. The model is compared to existing radiative transfer codes where possible, with the objective of providing a robust movel of time-dependent absolute radiance at many wavelengths.

  18. Limiting the risk of cardiac toxicity with esophageal-sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Ruben, Jeremy D.; Senthi, Sashendra

    2016-01-01

    Background Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is routinely utilized in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RTOG 0617 found that overall survival was impacted by increased low (5 Gy) and intermediate (30 Gy) cardiac doses. We evaluated the impact of esophageal-sparing IMRT on cardiac doses with and without the heart considered in the planning process and predicted toxicity compared to 3D-conventional radiotherapy (3DCRT). Methods Ten consecutive patients with N2 Stage III NSCLC treated to 60 Gy in 30 fractions, between February 2012 and September 2014, were evaluated. For each patient, 3DCRT and esophageal-sparing IMRT plans were generated. IMRT plans were then created with and without the heart considered in the optimization process. To compare plans, the dose delivered to 95% and 99% of the target (D95% and D99%), and doses to the esophagus, lung and heart were compared by determining the volume receiving X dose (VXGy) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculated. Results IMRT reduced maximum esophagus dose to below 60 Gy in all patients and produced significant reductions to V50Gy, V40Gy and esophageal NTCP. The cost of this reduction was a non-statistically, non-clinically significant increase in low dose (5 Gy) lung exposure that did not worsen lung NTCP. IMRT plans produced significant cardiac sparing, with the amount of improvement correlating to the amount of heart overlapping with the target. When included in plan optimization, for selected patients further sparing of the heart and improvement in heart NTCP was possible. Conclusions Esophageal-sparing IMRT can significantly spare the heart even if it is not considered in the optimization process. Further sparing can be achieved if plan optimization constrains low and intermediate heart doses, without compromising lung doses. PMID:27162670

  19. In Utero and Early-Life Exposure to Ambient Air Toxics and Childhood Brain Tumors: A Population-Based Case–Control Study in California, USA

    PubMed Central

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Heck, Julia E.; Park, Andrew S.; Cockburn, Myles; Escobedo, Loraine; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of environmental factors on the etiology of childhood brain tumors. Objectives: We examined risks for brain tumors in children after prenatal and infant exposure to monitored ambient air toxics. Methods: We ascertained all cases of medulloblastoma, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and astrocytoma before 6 years of age diagnosed in 1990–2007 from the California Cancer Registry and selected controls randomly from birth rolls matched by birth year. Exposures to air toxics during pregnancy/infancy for 43 PNET, 34 medulloblastoma, and 106 astrocytoma cases and 30,569 controls living within 5 mi of a monitor were determined. With factor analysis we assessed the correlational structures of 26 probable carcinogenic toxics, and estimated odds ratios by brain tumor type in logistic regression models. Results: PNETs (≤ 38 cases) were positively associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in prenatal exposure to acetaldehyde [odds ratio (OR) = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.67], 1,3-butadiene (OR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.88), benzene, and toluene; and with IQR increases in exposure during the first year of life to ortho-dichlorobenzene (OR = 3.27; 95% CI: 1.17, 9.14), 1,3-butadiene (OR = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.57, 6.32), and benzene. All exposures except ortho-dichlorobenzene loaded on the same factor. Medulloblastoma (≤ 30 cases) was associated with prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs combined: OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.80). Exposures to lead and some PAHs during the first year of life were positively associated with astrocytoma, but the confidence intervals included the null value (e.g., for lead, OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.03). Conclusions: Our data suggest that in utero and infancy exposures to air toxics generated by industrial and road traffic sources may increase the risk of PNET and medulloblastoma, with limited support for increased risks for astrocytoma in children up

  20. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  1. Degradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: the state of the art on transformation products and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karci, Akin

    2014-03-01

    Advanced oxidation processes based on the generation of reactive species including hydroxyl radicals are viable options in eliminating a wide array of refractory organic contaminants in industrial effluents. The assessment of transformation products and toxicity should be, however, the critical point that would allow the overall efficiency of advanced oxidation processes to be better understood and evaluated since some transformation products could have an inhibitory effect on certain organisms. This article reviews the most recent studies on transformation products and toxicity for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in eliminating classes of compounds described as "textile chemicals" from aqueous matrices and poses questions in need of further investigation. The scope of this paper is limited to the scientific studies with two classes of textile chemicals, namely chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, whose use in textile industry is a matter of debate due to health risks to humans and harm to the environment. The article also raises the critical question: What is the state of the art knowledge on relationships between transformation products and toxicity? PMID:24216260

  2. AIR QUALITY MODELING OF HAZARDOUS POLLUTANTS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a review of current air toxics modeling applications and discusses possible advanced approaches. Many applications require the ability to predict hot spots from industrial sources or large roadways that are needed for community health and Environmental Justice...

  3. Application Evaluation of Air-Sparging and Aerobic Bioremediation in PAM(Physical Aquifer Model) with Advanced and Integrated Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Ko, J.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Kwon, S.; Ha, J.; Lim, J.; Han, K.

    2010-12-01

    It is generally difficult for a single process to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated with various organic compounds such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) because those contaminants show different chemical properties in two phases (e.g. soil and groundwater). Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-situ remediation system which can remove various contaminants simultaneously. For the purpose, we constructed integrated well module which can apply several remediation process such as air sparging, soil vapor extraction, and bioventing. The advanced integrated module consisted of three main parts such as head, body, and end cap. First of all, head part has three 3.6-cm-diameter stainless lines and can simultaneously inject air or extract NAPL, respectively. Secondly, body part has two 10-cm-height screen intervals with 100-mesh stainless inserts for unsaturated and smear zone. Lastly, we constructed three different sizes of end caps for injection and extraction from a saturated zone. We assumed that the integrated module can play bioremediation, air sparging, cometabolic sparging, chemical oxidation. In this study, we examined application of air sparing and aerobic bioremediation of toluene in Physical Aquifer Model (PAM) with an integrated well module. During air sparging experiments, toluene concentration decreased by injection of air. In addition, we accomplished bioremediation experiment to evaluate removal of toluene by indigenous microbes in PAM with continuous air injection. From the two experiments result, we confirmed that air sparging and aerobic bioremediation processes can be simultaneously carried out by an intergrated well module.

  4. Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.; Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R.; Elia, G.G.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

  5. Hypothetical air ingress scenarios in advanced modular high temperature gas cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Considering an extremely hypothetical scenario of complete cross duct failure and unlimited air supply into the reactor vessel of a modular high temperature gas cooled ractor, it is found that the potential air inflow remains limited due to the high friction pressure drop through the active core. All incoming air will be oxidized to CO and some local external burning would be temporarily possible in such a scenario. The accident would have to continue with unlimited air supply for hundreds of hours before the core structural integrity would be jeopardized.

  6. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  7. Risk assessment of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Merrymon, T.L.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis assesses the risk of the health liabilities from exposure to toxic metals found in the composted material of Air Force municipal solid waste (MSW). The goal is to determine the probability that the composted MSW could be a health hazard if it were used as a soil amendment. The research limited the assessment of the exposure risk to heavy metals found in raw MSW and its resulting compost. The thesis uses reviews of present literature to examine the food and soil ingestion exposure pathways. These pathways are assessed using the heavy metal concentrations found in MSW compost and the soil-plant partition coefficients of vegetables grown in soil mixed with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge or soil irrigated with sewage sludge leachate. The recommendation resulting from this research is that the Air Force should not use MSW composting as part of its future solid waste management plan. This alternative to landfilling contains a chronic health risk that is greater than the Environmental Protection Agency's guideline. If the Air Force would use MSW composting in the future, it may endanger Air Force personnel and others who use the compost created from Air Force MSW. Risk assessment, Heavy metals, Recycling municipal solid waste, Pollution, Composting.

  8. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij

    2016-04-01

    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  9. System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ugweje, Okechukwu C.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the research on the System and Propagation Availability Analysis for NASA's project on Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT). The objectives of the project were to determine the communication systems requirements and architecture, and to investigate the effect of propagation on the transmission of space information. In this report, results from the first year investigation are presented and limitations are highlighted. To study the propagation links, an understanding of the total system architecture is necessary since the links form the major component of the overall architecture. This study was conducted by way of analysis, modeling and simulation on the system communication links. The overall goals was to develop an understanding of the space communication requirements relevant to the AATT project, and then analyze the links taking into consideration system availability under adverse atmospheric weather conditions. This project began with a preliminary study of the end-to-end system architecture by modeling a representative communication system in MATLAB SIMULINK. Based on the defining concepts, the possibility of computer modeling was determined. The investigations continue with the parametric studies of the communication system architecture. These studies were also carried out with SIMULINK modeling and simulation. After a series of modifications, two end-to-end communication links were identified as the most probable models for the communication architecture. Link budget calculations were then performed in MATHCAD and MATLAB for the identified communication scenarios. A remarkable outcome of this project is the development of a graphic user interface (GUI) program for the computation of the link budget parameters in real time. Using this program, one can interactively compute the link budget requirements after supplying a few necessary parameters. It provides a framework for the eventual automation of several computations

  10. Antennas Designed for Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is to enable a communications infrastructure that provides the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize a mature free-flight environment. The technical thrust of the AC/ATM Project is targeted at the design, development, integration, test, and demonstration of enabling technologies for global broadband aeronautical communications. Since Ku-band facilities and equipment are readily available, one of the near-term demonstrations involves a link through a Kuband communications satellite. Two conformally mounted antennas will support the initial AC/ATM communications links. Both of these are steered electronically through monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers and phase shifters. This link will be asymmetrical with the downlink to the aircraft (mobile vehicle) at a throughput rate of greater than 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps), whereas the throughput rate of the uplink from the aircraft will be greater than 100 kilobits per second (kbps). The data on the downlink can be narrow-band, wide-band, or a combination of both, depending on the requirements of the experiment. The AC/ATM project is purchasing a phased-array Ku-band transmitting antenna for the uplink from the test vehicle. Many Ku-band receiving antennas have been built, and one will be borrowed for a short time to perform the initial experiments at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The Ku-band transmitting antenna is a 254-element MMIC phased-array antenna being built by Boeing Phantom Works. Each element can radiate 100 mW. The antenna is approximately 43-cm high by 24-cm wide by 3.3-cm thick. It can be steered beyond 60 from broadside. The beamwidth varies from 6 at broadside to 12 degrees at 60 degrees, which is typical of phased-array antennas. When the antenna is steered to 60 degrees, the beamwidth will illuminate

  11. Automotive Air Conditioning and Heating; Automotive Mechanics (Advanced): 9047.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to provide the student with all the foundations necessary to become employable in the automotive air conditioning and heating trade. The course of study includes an orientation to the world of work, the elementary physics of air conditioning and heating, and laboratory experiments…

  12. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

    2010-07-05

    The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such

  13. NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE MODELING OF PM 2.5 AND AIR TOXICS CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTIONS TO DRIVE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality (AQ) simulation models provide a basis for implementing the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and are a tool for performing risk-based assessments and for developing environmental management strategies. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), its constituent...

  14. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's inhalation RfD methodology: risk assessment for air toxics.

    PubMed

    Jarabek, A M; Menache, M G; Overton, J H; Dourson, M L; Miller, F J

    1990-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has advocated the establishment of general and scientific guidelines for the evaluation of toxicological data and their use in deriving benchmark values to protect exposed populations from adverse health effects. The Agency's reference dose (RfD) methodology for deriving benchmark values for noncancer toxicity originally addressed risk assessment of oral exposures. This paper presents a brief background on the development of the inhalation reference dose (RfDi) methodology, including concepts and issues related to addressing the dynamics of the respiratory system as the portal of entry. Different dosimetric adjustments are described that were incorporated into the methodology to account for the nature of the inhaled agent (particle or gas) and the site of the observed toxic effects (respiratory or extrarespiratory). Impacts of these adjustments on the extrapolation of toxicity data of inhaled agents for human health risk assessment and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:1670284

  15. Air pollutants from hydrocarbons and derivatives in micropropagation laboratories: toxicity symptoms on tissue culture of the cherry rootstock Colt (Prunus avium x P. pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Righetti, B

    1990-11-01

    Several air pollutants in research and micropropagation laboratories originate from the combustion of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. The combustion products of some natural gases (propane-butane, propane, methane) and ethanol were analyzed, and the atmosphere composition was investigated inside the laminar flow box, inside the room where transplanting is performed and inside the culture vessels after transplanting. Large quantities of ethylene and other biologically active compounds are produced when hydrocarbons are partially oxidized or unevenly combusted and when ethanol is used for sterilization of dissecting instruments during transplanting operations. Air pollutants' effects have been tested on Prunus Colt shoot cultures; the toxicity symptoms observed suggest the elimination of gas combustion and alcohols during transplanting operations. PMID:24227058

  16. Development of stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells for assessing the toxicity of organic pollutants present in air.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Li, Xiaohai; Deng, Huaxin; Kuang, Dan; Dai, Xiayun; Huang, Suli; Wang, Feng; He, Meian; Currie, R William; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-09-01

    HSPA1A (HSP70-1) is a highly inducible heat shock gene up-regulated in response to environmental stresses and pollutants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the stable metabolically competent HepG2 cells containing a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter (HepG2-luciferase cells) for assessing the toxicity of organic pollutants present in air. The HepG2-luciferase cells were validated by heat shock treatment and testing three organic compounds (pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and formaldehyde) that are ubiquitous in the air. The maximal level of HSPA1A (HSP70-1) and relative luciferase activity induced by heat shock were over three and nine times the control level, respectively. Pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and formaldehyde all induced significantly elevated levels of relative luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Extractable organic matter (EOM) from urban traffic and coke oven emissions in ambient air were tested on the HepG2-luciferase cells. The traffic EOM induced significant increase in relative luciferase activity at concentrations of picogram per liter. The coke oven EOM produced a strong dose-dependent induction of relative luciferase activity up to six times the control value. Significant increases in relative luciferase activity were observed at concentrations that were as low, or lower than the concentrations that the tested organic pollutants decreased cell viability, and increased malondialdehyde concentration, Olive tail moment, and micronuclei frequency. Therefore, we conclude that the HepG2-luciferase cells are a valuable tool for rapid screening of the overall toxicity of organic pollutants present in air. PMID:22367790

  17. Evaluation of Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (GRID) and Definitive Chemoradiotherapy With Curative Intent for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Initial Response Rates and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Penagaricano, Jose A.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Yan Yulong; Corry, Peter

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To present results and acute toxicity in 14 patients with bulky (>=6 cm) tumors from locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who received spatially fractionated radiotherapy (GRID) therapy to the bulky mass followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy using simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Methods and Materials: GRID therapy to the GTV was delivered by creating one treatment field with a checkerboard pattern composed of open-closed areas using a multileaf collimator. The GRID prescription was 20 Gy in one fraction. Chemotherapy started the day of GRID therapy and continued throughout the course of SIB-IMRT. The SIB-IMRT prescription was 66, 60, and 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV), intermediate-risk PTV, and low-risk PTV, respectively, in 30 fractions. Results: With a median follow-up of 19.5 months (range, 2-38 months), the overall control rate of the GRID gross tumor volume was 79% (11 of 14). The most common acute skin and mucosal toxicities were Grade 3 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: For the treatment of locally advanced neck squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, GRID followed by chemotherapy and SIB-IMRT is well tolerated and yields encouraging clinical and pathologic responses, with similar acute toxicity profiles as in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy without GRID.

  18. High-Efficiency Rooftop Air Conditioners: Innovative Procurement to Achieve Advances in Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hollomon, Brad

    2003-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Defense Logistics Agency, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently conducted a technology procurement to increase the availability of energy-efficient, packaged unitary ''rooftop'' air conditioners. The procurement encouraged air conditioner manufacturers to produce equipment that exceeded US energy efficiency standards by at least 25% at a lower life-cycle cost. An outgrowth of the project, a web-based cost estimator tool is now available to help consumers determine the cost-effectiveness of purchasing energy-efficient air conditioners based on climate conditions and other factors at their own locations.

  19. Comparison of toxicity following different conditioning regimens (busulfan/melphalan and carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan) for advanced stage neuroblastoma: Experience of two transplant centers.

    PubMed

    Elborai, Yasser; Hafez, Hanafy; Moussa, Emad A; Hammad, Mahmoud; Hussein, Hany; Lehmann, Leslie; Elhaddad, Alaa

    2016-03-01

    The outcome for advanced neuroblastoma has improved with combined modality therapy: induction chemotherapy, surgery, and consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy/autologous HSCT, followed by local radiation, cisretinoic acid, and recently antibody therapy. In the United States, the most common conditioning regimen is CEM, while in Europe/Middle East, Bu/Mel has been widely used; it remains unclear which regimen has the best outcome. Assess renal, hepatic, and infectious toxicity through Day+100 in 2 different regimens. Retrospective comparison between CEM-DFCHCC Boston and Bu/Mel- CCHE-57357. Thirty-five patients, median age 4, in Boston (2007-2011) and 38 patients, median age 3, in Cairo (2009-2011). Renal toxicity; creatinine was significantly higher in CEM than Bu/Mel: 57% (median day+90) vs. 29% (median>day+100), p = 0.004. One CEM patient died from renal dialysis at day+19. Hepatic toxicity was significantly higher in CEM than Bu/Mel: 80% (median day+26) vs. 58% (median day+60), p = 0.04. In infectious complications with CEM 14%, bacteremia (n = 4) and fungemia (n = 1), 3 had culture-negative sepsis requiring vasopressors. With Bu/Mel 18%, bacteremia (n = 7), none required pressors, p = 0.4. Bu/Mel was associated with less acute hepatic and renal toxicity and thus may be preferable for preserving organ functions. PMID:26614402

  20. Toxicity of aggressive multimodality therapy including cisplatinum, bleomycin and methotrexate with radiation and/or surgery for advanced head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Posner, M.R.; Ervin, T.J.; Fabian, R.L.; Miller, D.

    1982-05-01

    A combined modality regimen employing induction chemotherapy with cisplatinum, bleomycin and methotrexate followed by surgery and/or radiation therapy was initiated in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In the first 23 patients treated with this program there was a 90% response rate to induction chemotherapy (9% CR and 81% PR). Toxicity associated with radiotherapy, but not surgery, was increased with 11 of 23 patients (48%) who experienced some toxicity during or immediately after radiotherapy. Mucositis was worse than expected and severe delayed mucositis was seen in 2 patients, one of whom required hospitalization. Late complications, possibly related to therapy included one myocardial infarction and one episode of hypoglycemia, both of which were fatal. One other patient voluntarily failed to take prescribed oral leucovorin, dying of unrescued methotrexate toxicity during adjuvant therapy, a questionable suicide. Further follow-up analysis of failure will be necessary to determine if the value of a combined modality regimen in producing an increased cure rate and long term survival will out weigh increased toxicity.

  1. Development of Gridded Fields of Urban Canopy Parameters for Advanced Urban Meteorological and Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban dispersion and air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different levels of fidelity for specifying the characteristics of the underlying surfaces. As the modeling scales approach the neighborhood level (~1 km horizontal grid spacing), the...

  2. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  3. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evalua...

  4. Advances in exposure and toxicity assessment of particulate matter: An overview of presentations at the 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekar, Palur G.; Stanek, Lindsay W.

    2011-07-15

    The 2009 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference (TRAC) session on 'Advances in Exposure and Toxicity Assessment of Particulate Matter' was held in April 2009 in West Chester, OH. The goal of this session was to bring together toxicology, geology and risk assessment experts from the Department of Defense and academia to examine issues in exposure assessment and report on recent epidemiological findings of health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. Important aspects of PM exposure research are to detect and monitor low levels of PM with various chemical compositions and to assess the health risks associated with these exposures. As part of the overall theme, some presenters discussed collection methods for sand and dust from Iraqi and Afghanistan regions, health issues among deployed personnel, and future directions for risk assessment research among these populations. The remaining speakers focused on the toxicity of ultrafine PM and the characterization of aerosols generated during ballistic impacts of tungsten heavy alloys.

  5. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rice, LaShanta J.; Jiang, Chengsheng; Wilson, Sacoby M.; Burwell-Naney, Kristen; Samantapudi, Ashok; Zhang, Hongmei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level. PMID:24852759

  6. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  7. Early Clinical Outcomes and Toxicity of Intensity Modulated Versus Conventional Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced Cervix Carcinoma: A Prospective Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar; Sharma, Daya Nand; Rath, Goura Kisor; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Subramani, Vellaiyan; Sharma, Seema; Manigandan, Durai; Laviraj, M.A.; Kumar, Sunesh; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with whole pelvic conventional radiation therapy (WP-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (WP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2010 and January 2012, 44 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO 2009) stage IIB-IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions delivered via either WP-CRT or WP-IMRT with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. The primary and secondary endpoints were acute gastrointestinal toxicity and disease-free survival, respectively. Results: Of 44 patients, 22 patients received WP-CRT and 22 received WP-IMRT. In the WP-CRT arm, 13 patients had stage IIB disease and 9 had stage IIIB disease; in the IMRT arm, 12 patients had stage IIB disease and 10 had stage IIIB disease. The median follow-up time in the WP-CRT arm was 21.7 months (range, 10.7-37.4 months), and in the WP-IMRT arm it was 21.6 months (range, 7.7-34.4 months). At 27 months, disease-free survival was 79.4% in the WP-CRT group versus 60% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.651), and overall survival was 76% in the WP-CRT group versus 85.7% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.645). Patients in the WP-IMRT arm experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 acute gastrointestinal toxicities (31.8% vs 63.6%, P=.034) and grade ≥3 gastrointestinal toxicities (4.5% vs 27.3%, P=.047) than did patients receiving WP-CRT and had less chronic gastrointestinal toxicity (13.6% vs 50%, P=.011). Conclusion: WP-IMRT is associated with significantly less toxicity compared with WP-CRT and has a comparable clinical outcome. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times are warranted to justify

  8. Recent Theoretical Advances in Analysis of AIRS/AMSU Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2007-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua on May 4,2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB, to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. This paper describes the AIRS Science Team Version 5.0 retrieval algorithm. Starting in early 2007, the Goddard DAAC will use this algorithm to analyze near real time AIRS/AMSU observations. These products are then made available to the scientific community for research purposes. The products include twice daily measurements of the Earth's three dimensional global temperature, water vapor, and ozone distribution as well as cloud cover. In addition, accurate twice daily measurements of the earth's land and ocean temperatures are derived and reported. Scientists use this important set of observations for two major applications. They provide important information for climate studies of global and regional variability and trends of different aspects of the earth's atmosphere. They also provide information for researchers to improve the skill of weather forecasting. A very important new product of the AIRS Version 5 algorithm is accurate case-by-case error estimates of the retrieved products. This heightens their utility for use in both weather and climate applications. These error estimates are also used directly for quality control of the retrieved products. Version 5 also allows for accurate quality controlled AIRS only retrievals, called "Version 5 AO retrievals" which can be used as a backup methodology if AMSU fails. Examples of the accuracy of error estimates and quality controlled retrieval products of the AIRS/AMSU Version 5 and Version 5 AO algorithms are given, and shown to be significantly better than the previously used Version 4 algorithm. Assimilation of Version 5 retrievals are also shown to significantly improve forecast skill, especially when the case-by-case error estimates are utilized in the data assimilation process.

  9. Advanced feedback control of indoor air quality using real-time computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnam, E.; Campbell, T.; Bradley, R.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the partial implementation of a novel method of controlling indoor air quality (IAQ) for critical applications. The proposed method uses a numerical modeling technique known as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for modeling the effect of variable ventilation rates for intelligent and rapid control of air contamination in space. This paper describes how a CFD model is made to run in real time linked to a feedback control loop. The technique was simulated in a graphical programming language. The simulation results indicate that a quasi-transient potential flow CFD model is a viable technique for feedback control of IAQ, and it is currently being implemented in an experimental validation.

  10. Evaluation of toxicity and estrogenicity of the landfill-concentrated leachate during advanced oxidation treatment: chemical analyses and bioanalytical tools.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifang; Lu, Gang; Zhao, Jiandi; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2016-08-01

    Landfill-concentrated leachate from membrane separation processes is a potential pollution source for the surroundings. In this study, the toxicity and estrogenicity potentials of concentrated leachate prior to and during UV-Fenton and Fenton treatments were assessed by a combination of chemical (di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were chosen as targets) and biological (Daphnia magna, Chlorella vulgaris, and E-screen assay) analyses. Removal efficiencies of measured di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were more than 97 % after treatment with the two methods. Biological tests showed acute toxicity effects on D. magna tests in untreated concentrated leachate samples, whereas acute toxicity on C. vulgaris tests was not observed. Both treatment methods were found to be efficient in reducing acute toxicity effects on D. magna tests. The E-screen test showed concentrated leachate had significant estrogenicity, UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for reducing estrogenicity of concentrated leachate. The EEQchem (estradiol equivalent concentration) of all samples could only explain 0.218-5.31 % range of the EEQbio. These results showed that UV-Fenton reagent could be considered as a suitable method for treatment of concentrated leachate, and the importance of the application of an integrated (biological + chemical) analytical approach for a comprehensive evaluation of treatment suitability. PMID:27146535

  11. Prediction of clinical toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients by radio-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Normal tissue toxicity due to x-ray exposure is a limiting factor for treatment success. Many efforts have been employed to develop predictive tests applied to clinical practice. Determination of lymphocyte radio-sensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method to predict tissue toxicity due to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients and to explore their role in predicting radiation induced toxicity. Seventy nine consecutive patients suffering from head and neck cancer, diagnosed and treated in our institution, were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and fitted to a semi logarithmic model defined by two constants: α and β. α, as the origin of the curve in the Y axis determining the percentage of spontaneous cell death, and β, as the slope of the curve determining the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose, were obtained. β value was statistically associated to normal tissue toxicity in terms of severe xerostomia, as higher levels of apoptosis were observed in patients with low toxicity (p = 0.035; Exp(B) 0.224, I.C.95% (0.060-0.904)). These data agree with our previous results and suggest that it is possible to estimate the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients determining the radiation induced apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide staining. β values observed define an individual radiosensitivity profile that could predict late toxicity due to radiotherapy

  12. Analysis of Dosimetric Parameters Associated With Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity and Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients Treated With Gemcitabine-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Akira; Shibuya, Keiko; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To identify the dosimetric parameters associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The data from 40 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of conventional fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy and weekly gemcitabine. Treatment-related acute GI toxicity and upper GI bleeding (UGB) were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events, version 4.0. The dosimetric parameters (mean dose, maximal absolute dose which covers 2 cm{sup 3} of the organ, and absolute volume receiving 10-50 Gy [V{sub 10-50}]) of the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and a composite structure of the stomach and duodenum (StoDuo) were obtained. The planning target volume was also obtained. Univariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive factors for the risk of grade 2 or greater acute GI toxicity and grade 3 or greater UGB, respectively. Results: The median follow-up period was 15.7 months (range, 4-37). The actual incidence of acute GI toxicity was 33%. The estimated incidence of UGB at 1 year was 20%. Regarding acute GI toxicity, a V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach was the best predictor, and the actual incidence in patients with V{sub 50} <16 cm{sup 3} of the stomach vs. those with V{sub 50} of {>=}16 cm{sup 3} was 9% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.001). Regarding UGB, V{sub 50} of {>=}33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo was the best predictor, and the estimated incidence at 1 year in patients with V{sub 50} <33 cm{sup 3} of the StoDuo vs. those with V{sub 50} {>=}33 cm{sup 3} was 0% vs. 44%, respectively (p = 0.002). The dosimetric parameters correlated highly with one another. Conclusion: The irradiated absolute volume of the stomach and duodenum are important for the risk of acute GI toxicity and UGB. These results could be helpful in escalating the radiation doses using novel

  13. Advanced Remote-sensing Imaging Emission Spectrometer (ARIES): AIRS Spectral Resolution with MODIS Spatial Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; OCallaghan, Fred G.; Broberg, Steve E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a space based instrument concept that will provide scientists with data needed to support key ongoing and future Earth System Science investigations. The measurement approach builds on the observations made by AIRS and MODIS and exceeds their capability with improved spatial and spectral resolution. This paper describes the expected products and the instrument concept that can meet those requirements.

  14. Advanced-technology laser-aided air pollution monitoring in Athens: the Greek differential absorption lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Efthimiopoulos, Tom; Ehret, Gerhard; Kotsopoulos, Stavros A.; Zevgolis, Dimitrios; Economou, G.; Kosmidis, Constantine E.; Adamopoulos, A. D.; Doukas, A.; Gogou, P.-M.; Karaboulas, D.; Katsenos, J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the needs for establishing a mobile laser laboratory (LIDAR) for air pollution monitoring in the Athens area. It also gives the specifications of the laser unit of the LIDAR system and the various studies to be performed in Athens area.

  15. "Advances in Coupled Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry to address bidirectional ammonia flux"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cropland farm management modeling system for regional air quality and field-scale applications of bi-directional ammonia exchange was presented at ITM XXI. The goal of this research is to improve estimates of nitrogen deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and ambien...

  16. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transportation from Hong Kong (HKG), and it transits through Narita, Japan (NRT), en route to the United States... its transportation from Hong Kong (HKG), and it transits through Narita, Japan (NRT), en route to the... air to the United States (for example, if a shipment began its transportation from Hong Kong...

  17. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transportation from Hong Kong (HKG), and it transits through Narita, Japan (NRT), en route to the United States... its transportation from Hong Kong (HKG), and it transits through Narita, Japan (NRT), en route to the... air to the United States (for example, if a shipment began its transportation from Hong Kong...

  18. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transportation from Hong Kong (HKG), and it transits through Narita, Japan (NRT), en route to the United States... its transportation from Hong Kong (HKG), and it transits through Narita, Japan (NRT), en route to the... air to the United States (for example, if a shipment began its transportation from Hong Kong...

  19. Czech Basic Course: Advanced Phase (Air Force), Lessons 1-23 and Supplementary Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this volume is to acquaint students of the Defense Language Institute's "Czech: Basic Course" with specialized Air Force terminology. Twenty-three lessons focusing on military procedures and terminology are included. The lessons include Czech and English texts of a dialogue, reading passages, and a word list. An appendix contains…

  20. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM A COMMUNITY-BASED AIR TOXICS MONITORING NETWORK IN DEER PARK, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This RARE Project with EPA Region 6 was a spatial analysis study of select volatile organic compounds (VOC) collected using passive air monitors at outdoor residential locations in the Deer Park, Texas area near the Houston Ship Channel. Correlation analysis of VOC species confi...

  1. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1991 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference of the sixth year co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air and Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 6-19, 1991. he technical progr...

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1991 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM: MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS - VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference of the sixth year co-sponsored by the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory (AREAL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Air and Waste Management Association was held in Durham, North Carolina, May 6-19, 1991. he technical progr...

  3. Exposure Information in Environmental Health Research: Current Opportunities and Future Directions for Particulate Matter, Ozone, and Toxic Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in ord...

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1989 EPA/AWMA INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON MEASUREMENT OF TOXIC AND RELATED AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint conference for the fourth straight year, cosponsored by the Air and Waste Management Association and the Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on May 1-5, 198...

  5. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Wignarajah, K.

    2002-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controlled pore size, high surface area, ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and their effectiveness also as catalyst support materials for toxic gas conversion. We present results and findings from a preliminary study on the effectiveness of metal impregnated single walled nanotubes as catalyst/catalyst support materials for toxic gas contaminate control. The study included the purification of single walled nanotubes, the catalyst impregnation of the purified nanotubes, the experimental characterization of the surface properties of purified single walled nanotubes and the characterization of physisorption and chemisorption of uptake molecules.

  6. Advances in Fast-response Acoustically Derived Air-temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, I.; Jacobsen, L.; Horst, T. W.; Conrad, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fast-response accurate air-temperature measurements are required when estimating turbulent fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide by open-path eddy-covariance technique. In comparison with contact thermometers like thermocouples, ultra-sonic thermometers do not suffer from solar radiation loading, water vapor condensation and evaporative cooling effects. Consequently they have the potential to provide more accurate true air temperature measurements. The absolute accuracy of the ultrasonic thermometer is limited by the following parameters: the distance between the transducer pairs, transducer delays associated with the electrical-acoustic signal conversion that vary with temperature, components of the wind vector that are normal to the ultrasonic paths, and humidity.The distance between the transducer pairs is commonly obtained by coordinate measuring machine. Improved accuracy demonstrated in this study results from increased stiffness in the anemometer head to better maintain the ultrasonic path-length distances. To further improve accuracy and account for changes in transducer delays and distance as a function of temperature, these parameters are characterized in a zero-wind chamber over the entire operating temperature range. When the sonic anemometer is combined with a co-located fast-response water vapor analyzer, like in the IRGASON instrument, speed of sound can be compensated for humidity effects on a point-by-point basis resulting in a true fast-response air temperature measurement. Laboratory test results show that when the above steps are implemented in the calibration of the ultrasonic thermometer air-temperature accuracy better than ±0.5 degrees Celsius can be achieved over the entire operating range. The approach is also validated in a field inter-comparison with an aspirated thermistor probe mounted in a radiation shield.

  7. Advanced air separation for coal gasification-combined-cycle power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kiersz, D.F.; Parysek, K.D.; Schulte, T.R.; Pavri, R.E.

    1987-08-01

    Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) and General Electric Company (GE) conducted a study to determine the benefits associated with extending the integration of integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) systems to include the air separation plant which supplies oxygen to the gasifiers. This is achieved by extracting air from the gas turbine air compressors to feed the oxygen plant and returning waste nitrogen to the gas turbine. The ''Radiant Plus Convective Design'' (59/sup 0/F ambient temperature case) defined in EPRI report AP-3486 was selected as a base case into which the oxygen plant-gas turbine integration was incorporated and against which it was compared. General Electric Company's participation in evaluating gas turbine and power block performance ensured consistency between EPRI report AP-3486 and this study. Extending the IGCC integration to include an integrated oxygen plant-gas turbine results in a rare combination of benefits - higher efficiency and lower capital costs. Oxygen plant capital costs are over 20% less and the power requirement is reduced significantly. For the IGCC system, the net power output is higher for the same coal feed rate; this results in an overall improvement in heat rate of about 2% coupled with a reduction in capital costs of 2 to 3%. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Toxicity profile and clinical outcomes in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with induction chemotherapy prior to concurrent chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eric C; Genden, Eric M; Misiukiewicz, Krzysztof; Som, Peter M; Kostakoglu, Lale; Chen, Chien-Ting; Packer, Stuart; Kao, Johnny

    2012-02-01

    The use of induction chemotherapy prior to chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC) remains controversial. We explored whether toxicity from induction chemotherapy influenced the delivery of concurrent chemoradiation. Among 171 consecutive previously unirradiated patients with HNSCC treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation, we identified 66 patients with stage III-IVB head and neck carcinoma who were treated with induction chemotherapy prior to planned chemoradiation. The most common induction regimen was docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-FU (TPF; 80%) for 2 to 3 cycles. Mean radiation dose was 72 Gy (range, 36-75 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy regimens included cisplatin (26%), cetuximab (5%) and 5-fluorouracil/hydroxyurea (65%)-based regimens. At a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 9-56 months), the 2-year locoregional control and distant control rates were 85 and 86%, respectively. The 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 74 and 80%, respectively. Although there were no grade 5 toxicities during induction chemotherapy, 26% of patients required hospitalization for adverse events, including 5% needing intensive care. The most common high grade adverse events were grade 4 neutropenia (21%) and neutropenic fever (17%). Six percent of patients were unable to tolerate concurrent chemotherapy. The 2-year disease-free survival was significantly higher in patients able to complete induction and concurrent chemoradiation as planned (83 vs. 27%, p<0.001). Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation results in promising survival rates in our cohort of advanced head and neck carcinoma patients. Due to severe toxicities in a subset of patients, this strategy is only recommended in selected high-risk patients who are carefully followed by an experienced multidisciplinary team. PMID:22020564

  9. GOAL: an inverse toxicity-related algorithm for daily clinical practice decision making in advanced kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Bracarda, Sergio; Sisani, Michele; Marrocolo, Francesca; Hamzaj, Alketa; del Buono, Sabrina; De Simone, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), considered almost an orphan disease only six years ago, appears today a very dynamic pathology. The recently switch to the actual overcrowded scenario defined by seven active drugs has driven physicians to an incertitude status, due to difficulties in defining the best possible treatment strategy. This situation is mainly related to the absence of predictive biomarkers for any available or new therapy. Such issue, associated with the nearly absence of published face-to-face studies, draws a complex picture frame. In order to solve this dilemma, decisional algorithms tailored on drug efficacy data and patient profile are recognized as very useful tools. These approaches try to select the best therapy suitable for every patient profile. On the contrary, the present review has the "goal" to suggest a reverse approach: basing on the pivotal studies, post-marketing surveillance reports and our experience, we defined the polarizing toxicity (the most frequent toxicity in the light of clinical experience) for every single therapy, creating a new algorithm able to identify the patient profile, mainly comorbidities, unquestionably unsuitable for each single agent presently available for either the first- or the second-line therapy. The GOAL inverse decision-making algorithm, proposed at the end of this review, allows to select the best therapy for mRCC by reducing the risk of limiting toxicities. PMID:24309065

  10. Toxicological evaluation of advanced glycation end product Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine: Acute and subacute oral toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Liangqing; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Shensheng; Qiao, Xiaoting; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) as a novel potential noxious compound in various food products has aroused extensive concern in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of CML in mice as per OECD 420 and 407 guidelines. Acute administration of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg CML did not induce any mortality within 14 days, nevertheless some toxicological symptoms and histopathological changes were observed. The estimated LD50 of CML was >5000 mg/kg. In subacute toxicity test, CML was dosed at 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in both genders for 28 days. The body weights reduced which was accompanied with the decrease of food consumptions. Hematology parameters viz. RBC, HGB and MCH showed minor alteration but these were still within normal range. Biochemical analysis of hepatic and renal function markers showed significant elevating in AST, ALT, Cr and BUN etc. Histopathological alterations were observed in lung, liver, kidney and spleen. Subacute toxicity of CML involved oxidative stress caused by reducing antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-Px) activities, and significantly increasing lipid peroxide (MDA) level. In conclusion, CML was unlikely to present an acute hazard, but repeated administration could produce deleterious effects on mice especially inducing liver and kidney damage through oxidative stress. PMID:26921796

  11. Cooking practices, air quality, and the acceptability of advanced cookstoves in Haryana, India: an exploratory study to inform large-scale interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Sambandam, Sankar; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Jack, Darby; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Vaswani, Mayur; Bates, Michael N.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Arora, Narendra; Smith, Kirk R.

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, approximately 66% of households rely on dung or woody biomass as fuels for cooking. These fuels are burned under inefficient conditions, leading to household air pollution (HAP) and exposure to smoke containing toxic substances. Large-scale intervention efforts need to be informed by careful piloting to address multiple methodological and sociocultural issues. This exploratory study provides preliminary data for such an exercise from Palwal District, Haryana, India. Methods Traditional cooking practices were assessed through semi-structured interviews in participating households. Philips and Oorja, two brands of commercially available advanced cookstoves with small blowers to improve combustion, were deployed in these households. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) related to traditional stove use were measured using real-time and integrated personal, microenvironmental samplers for optimizing protocols to evaluate exposure reduction. Qualitative data on acceptability of advanced stoves and objective measures of stove usage were also collected. Results Twenty-eight of the thirty-two participating households had outdoor primary cooking spaces. Twenty households had liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) but preferred traditional stoves as the cost of LPG was higher and because meals cooked on traditional stoves were perceived to taste better. Kitchen area concentrations and kitchen personal concentrations assessed during cooking events were very high, with respective mean PM2.5 concentrations of 468 and 718 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour outdoor concentrations averaged 400 µg/m3. Twenty-four hour personal CO concentrations ranged between 0.82 and 5.27 ppm. The Philips stove was used more often and for more hours than the Oorja. Conclusions The high PM and CO concentrations reinforce the need for interventions that reduce HAP exposure in the aforementioned community. Of the two stoves tested

  12. Unusual central nervous system toxicity in a phase I study of N1N11 diethylnorspermine in patients with advanced malignancy.

    PubMed

    Creaven, P J; Perez, R; Pendyala, L; Meropol, N J; Loewen, G; Levine, E; Berghorn, E; Raghavan, D

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and other major toxicities, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the human pharmacokinetics of N1N11 diethylnorspermine (DENSPM), a new polyamine analog which in experimental systems inhibits the biosynthesis of intracellular polyamines and promotes their degradation by inducing the enzyme spermine/spermidine N-acetyl transferase. These objectives were incompletely achieved because of the occurrence of an unusual syndrome of acute central nervous system toxicity which forms the basis of the present report. Fifteen patients with advanced solid tumors were entered into a phase I study of DENSPM given by a 1 h i.v. infusion every 12 h for 5 days (10 doses). The starting dose was 25 mg/m2/day (12.5 mg/m2/dose) with escalation by a modified Fibonacci search. Doses of 25 and 50 mg/m2/day were tolerated with only minor side effects of facial flushing, nausea, headache and dizziness (all grade I). At doses of 83 and 125 mg/m2/day, a symptom complex of headache, nausea and vomiting, unilateral weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, numbness, paresthesias, and ataxia, was seen in 3 patients, one after 2 courses of 83 and 2 after 1 course of 125 mg/m2/day. This syndrome occurred after drug administration was complete and the patients had returned home. Lesser CNS toxicity was seen in 2 other patients at lower daily doses. Preliminary pharmacokinetics of DESPM measured in plasma by HPLC in 8 patients showed linearity with dose and a rapid plasma decay with a t1/2 of 0.12 h. We conclude that great caution is warranted in administering DENSPM on this schedule at doses of > or = 83 mg/m2/day. PMID:9387045

  13. Development of an advanced ceramic turbine wheel for an air turbine starter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawsky, Carl J.; Lindberg, Laura; Robb, Scott; Roundy, James

    1992-10-01

    A ceramic turbine wheel has been designed as a retrofit for Waspaloy for a military cartridge mode air turbine starter. This results in reduced cost and weight while increasing resistance to temperature, erosion, and corrosion. Techniques used to perform ceramic turbine three-dimensional fast fracture reliability analysis were verified with spin testing of ceramic test rotors and correlated well with burst speed predictions. Reliability estimates have been made for design and proof conditions, providing guidance for selecting a ceramic supplier and for determining proof test yield. Room temperature whirlpit burst testing is planned to verify the mechanical design and reliability of the wheel.

  14. Development of an advanced ceramic turbine wheel for an air turbine starter

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawsky, C.J.; Lindberg, L.; Robb, S.; Roundy, J.

    1992-01-01

    A ceramic turbine wheel has been designed as a retrofit for Waspaloy for a military cartridge mode air turbine starter. This results in reduced cost and weight while increasing resistance to temperature, erosion, and corrosion. Techniques used to perform ceramic turbine three-dimensional fast fracture reliability analysis were verified with spin testing of ceramic test rotors and correlated well with burst speed predictions. Reliability estimates have been made for design and proof conditions, providing guidance for selecting a ceramic supplier and for determining proof test yield. Room temperature whirlpit burst testing is planned to verify the mechanical design and reliability of the wheel. 9 refs.

  15. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  16. Advanced bio-energy systems for Air Force installations. Final report Feb 80-Jan 81

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, W.J.; Bond, D.H.

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface with in-place energy generating hardware to sustain total annual facility energy requirements on a forested airbase. The investigation found that Eglin AFB, FL has high potential for such a system, but that certain components and subsystems require test, evaluation and demonstration in an Air Force base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a centralized biomass gasification/combined cycle system to produce 135,000 1b/hr 150 psig steam (saturated) and 27 Mwh/hr electrical power from 1480 green tons of wood chips daily. A phased implementation system is recommended, consisting of separate integrable test and evaluation modules for combined cycle wood gasification and for cogeneration, which would dovetail into an expanded basewide energy self-sufficient system. The investigation did not consider harvestation of base woodlands, which is the subject of a separate effort to define the wood resource aspects of a total biomass self-sufficient system.

  17. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  18. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan

    Cost-effective and large-scale energy storage technologies are a key enabler of grid modernization. Among energy storage technologies currently being researched, developed and deployed, rechargeable batteries are unique and important that can offer a myriad of advantages over the conventional large scale siting- and geography- constrained pumped-hydro and compressed-air energy storage systems. However, current rechargeable batteries still need many breakthroughs in material optimization and system design to become commercially viable for stationary energy storage. This PhD research project investigates the energy storage characteristics of a new class of rechargeable solid oxide metal-air redox batteries (SOMARBs) that combines a regenerative solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) and hydrogen chemical-looping component. The RSOFC serves as the "electrical functioning unit", alternating between the fuel cell and electrolysis mode to realize discharge and charge cycles, respectively, while the hydrogen chemical-looping component functions as an energy storage unit (ESU), performing electrical-chemical energy conversion in situ via a H2/H2O-mediated metal/metal oxide redox reaction. One of the distinctive features of the new battery from conventional storage batteries is the ESU that is physically separated from the electrodes of RSOFC, allowing it to freely expand and contract without impacting the mechanical integrity of the entire battery structure. This feature also allows an easy switch in the chemistry of this battery. The materials selection for ESU is critical to energy capacity, round-trip efficiency and cost effectiveness of the new battery. Me-MeOx redox couples with favorable thermodynamics and kinetics are highly preferable. The preliminary theoretical analysis suggests that Fe-based redox couples can be a promising candidate for operating at both high and low temperatures. Therefore, the Fe-based redox-couple systems have been selected as the baseline for this

  19. Technology and Advanced Development for a Non-Toxic Orbital Maneuvering System and Reaction Control System for Orbiter Upgrade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, W. A.; Ferrante, Fred A.; Engelmann, G. L.; Gibson, V. A.; Phillipsen, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA intends to pursue technology applications to upgrade the Space Shuttle Orbiter OMS and RCS systems with non-toxic propellants. The primary objectives of an upgraded OMS/RCS are improved safety and reliability, reduced operations and maintenance costs while meeting basic OMS/RCS operational and performance requirements. The OMS/RCS has a high degree of direct interaction with the crew and requires subsystem and components that are compatible with integration into the orbiter vehicle with regard to external mold-line, power and thermal control The non-toxic propulsion technology is also applicable to future Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) missions. The HEDS missions have similar requirements for attitude control and lander descent/ascent propulsion and which will emphasize the use of In-Situ Resource for propellants. When used as a regenerative coolant as in the Shuttle Orbiter OMS combustion chamber, non-toxic fuels such as ethanol are limited in their cooling capacity by the bulk temperature rise permitted to prevent film boiling or possible coking. Typical regeneratively cooled chambers are constructed from highly conductive copper, which maximizes heat transfer, or from low conductivity materials like stainless steel that can also exacerbate cooling problems. For an ethanol cooled application the heat transfer into the fluid must be controlled to reduce the fuel coolant bulk temperature rise. An approach to provide this control is the subject of this report. This report is being issued to document work done by Aerojet on NASA contract NAS 8-98042. Specifically, this project investigates of the use of ethanol, a designated non-toxic fuel, as a coolant for the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System Engine combustion chamber. The project also addresses a cost reducing fabrication technique for construction of such a combustion chamber. The study contained three major sub-tasks: an analytical investigation and trade study which included

  20. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  1. Predictors of severe gastrointestinal toxicity after external beam radiotherapy and interstitial brachytherapy for advanced or recurrent gynecologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kasibhatla, Mohit . E-mail: Mohit.S.Kasibhatla@Hitchcock.org; Clough, Robert W. B.A.; Montana, Gustavo S.; Oleson, James R.; Light, Kim C.; Steffey, Beverley A.; Jones, Ellen L.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective review of patients with gynecologic malignancies treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and interstitial brachytherapy was to determine the rate of Grade {>=}2 rectovaginal fistula and Grade {>=}4 small bowel obstruction as defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers were treated with EBRT and interstitial brachytherapy. Median doses to tumor, bladder, and rectum were 75 Gy, 61 Gy, and 61 Gy, respectively. A univariate analysis was performed to identify variables that correlated with toxicity. Results: At median follow-up of 19 months, the 3-year risk of small bowel obstruction was 6%. Those patients with prior abdomino-pelvic surgery who received EBRT with antero-posterior fields had higher rates of obstruction than patients without prior abdomino-pelvic surgery or those who received EBRT with four fields (50% vs. 0%, p < 0.0001). The 3-year risk of rectovaginal fistula was 18% and was significantly higher in patients who received >76 Gy to the rectum compared with those who received {<=}76 Gy (100% vs. 7%, p = 0.009). Conclusions: Patients treated with EBRT and interstitial brachytherapy after abdomino-pelvic surgery should receive EBRT with four fields and the cumulative rectal dose should be {<=}76 Gy.

  2. Short-Term Oxidation Studies on Nicrofer- 6025HT in Air at Elevated Temperatures for Advanced Coal Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens T.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Bowden, Mark E.; Weil, K. Scott

    2013-04-01

    Several advanced air separation unit (ASU) designs being considered for use in coal gasification rely on the use of solid state mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Nicrofer-6025HT, a nickel-based alloy, has been identified as a potential manifold material to transport the hot gases into the ASUs. In the current study, isothermal oxidation tests were conducted on Nicrofer-6025HT in the temperature range of 700–900 °C for up to 24 h. The evolution of oxide scale was evaluated using SEM, XRD, and XPS. The composite surface oxide layer that formed consisted of an outer chromia-rich scale and an inner alumina scale. For the longer times at the higher temperatures evaluated, a NiCr2O4 spinel phase was located at the interface between the alumina and chromia. Based on the experimental results a four-step oxidation model was proposed.

  3. Thermal stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Aydin, Cenk

    2014-07-01

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at sub-thermoneutral temperatures of ~22∘C. When exposed to chemical toxicants under these relatively cool conditions, rodents typically undergo a regulated hypothermic response, characterized by preference for cooler ambient temperatures and controlled reduction in core temperature. Reducing core temperature delays the clearance of most toxicants from the body; however, a mild hypothermia also improves recovery and survival from the toxicant. Raising ambient temperature to thermoneutrality and above increases the rate of clearance of the toxicant but also exacerbates toxicity. Furthermore, heat stress combined with work or exercise is likely to worsen toxicity. Body temperature of large mammals, including humans, does not decrease as much in response to exposure to a toxicant. However, heat stress can nonetheless worsen toxic outcome in humans through a variety of mechanisms. For example, heat-induced sweating and elevation in skin blood flow accelerates uptake of some insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that thermal stress may exacerbate the toxicity of airborne pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Overall, translating results of studies in rodents to that of humans is a formidable task attributed in part to the interspecies differences in thermoregulatory response to the toxicants and to thermal stress. PMID:24944028

  4. Advanced air transport concepts. [review of design methods for very large aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concepts of laminar flow control, very large all-wing aircraft, an aerial relay transportation system and alternative fuels, which would enable large improvements in fuel conservation in air transportation in the 1990's are discussed. Laminar boundary layer control through suction would greatly reduce skin friction and has been reported to reduce fuel consumption by up to 29%. Distributed load aircraft, in which all fuel and payload are carried in the wing and the fuselage is absent, permit the use of lighter construction materials and the elimination of fuselage and tail drag. Spanloader aircraft with laminar flow control could be used in an aerial relay transportation system which would employ a network of continuously flying liners supplied with fuel, cargo and crews by smaller feeder aircraft. Liquid hydrogen and methane fuels derived from coal are shown to be more weight efficient and less costly than coal-derived synthetic jet fuels.

  5. The study of leachate treatment by using three advanced oxidation process based wet air oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Wet air oxidation is regarded as appropriate options for wastewater treatment with average organic compounds. The general purpose of this research is to determine the efficiency of three wet air oxidation methods, wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and absorption with activated carbon in removing organic matter and nitrogenous compounds from Isfahan's urban leachate. A leachate sample with the volume of 1.5 liters entered into a steel reactor with the volume of three liters and was put under a 10-bar pressure, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300° as well as three retention times of 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The sample was placed at 18 stages of leachate storage ponds in Isfahan Compost Plant with the volume of 20 liters, using three WPO, WAO methods and a combination of WAO/GAC for leachate pre-treatment. Thirty percent of pure oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were applied as oxidation agents. The COD removal efficiency in WAO method is 7.8-33.3%, in BOD is 14.7-50.6%, the maximum removal percentage (efficiency) for NH4-N is 53.3% and for NO3-N is 56.4-73.9%. The removal efficiency of COD and BOD5 is 4.6%-34 and 24%-50 respectively in WPO method. Adding GAC to the reactor, the removal efficiency of all parameters was improved. The maximum removal efficiency was increased 48% for COD, 31%-43.6 for BOD5 by a combinational method, and the ratio of BOD5/COD was also increased to 90%. In this paper, WAO and WPO process was used for Leachate pre-treatment and WAO/GAC combinational process was applied for improving the organic matter removal and leachate treatment; it was also determined that the recent process is much more efficient in removing resistant organic matter. PMID:23369258

  6. Final Results of Local-Regional Control and Late Toxicity of RTOG 9003: A Randomized Trial of Altered Fractionation Radiation for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J.; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Karen K.; Trotti, Andy; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher U.; Garden, Adam S.; Shenouda, George; Harris, Jonathan; Ang, Kian K.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To test whether altered radiation fractionation schemes (hyperfractionation [HFX], accelerated fractionation, continuous [AFX-C], and accelerated fractionation with split [AFX-S]) improved local-regional control (LRC) rates for patients with squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck when compared with standard fractionation (SFX) of 70 Gy. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage III or IV (or stage II base of tongue) SCC (n=1076) were randomized to 4 treatment arms: (1) SFX, 70 Gy/35 daily fractions/7 weeks; (2) HFX, 81.6 Gy/68 twice-daily fractions/7 weeks; (3) AFX-S, 67.2 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks with a 2-week rest after 38.4 Gy; and (4) AFX-C, 72 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks. The 3 experimental arms were to be compared with SFX. Results: With patients censored for LRC at 5 years, only the comparison of HFX with SFX was significantly different: HFX, hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), P=.05; AFX-C, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.05), P=.11. With patients censored at 5 years, HFX improved overall survival (HR 0.81, P=.05). Prevalence of any grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity at 5 years; any feeding tube use after 180 days; or feeding tube use at 1 year did not differ significantly when the experimental arms were compared with SFX. When 7-week treatments were compared with 6-week treatments, accelerated fractionation appeared to increase grade 3, 4 or 5 toxicity at 5 years (P=.06). When the worst toxicity per patient was considered by treatment only, the AFX-C arm seemed to trend worse than the SFX arm when grade 0-2 was compared with grade 3-5 toxicity (P=.09). Conclusions: At 5 years, only HFX improved LRC and overall survival for patients with locally advanced SCC without increasing late toxicity.

  7. A systematic approach to advanced cockpit warning systems for air transport operations: Line pilot preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. H.; Simpson, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Line pilots (fifty captains, first officers, and flight engineers) from 8 different airlines were administered a structured questionnaire relating to future warning system design and solutions to current warning system problems. This was followed by a semantic differential to obtain a factor analysis of 18 different cockpit warning signals on scales such as informative/distracting, annoying/soothing. Half the pilots received a demonstration of the experimental text and voice synthesizer warning systems before answering the questionnaire and the semantic differential. A control group answered the questionnaire and the semantic differential first, thus providing a check for the stability of pilot preferences with and without actual exposure to experimental systems. Generally, the preference data obtained revealed much consistency and strong agreement among line pilots concerning advance cockpit warning system design.

  8. SPIRE, the ``Spin Triangle'': Athens, Hamburg, Buenos Aires: Advancing Nanospintronics and Nanomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur R.

    2012-02-01

    Future technological advances at the frontier of `elec'tronics will increasingly rely on the use of the spin property of the electron at ever smaller length scales. As a result, it is critical to make substantial efforts towards understanding and ultimately controlling spin and magnetism at the nanoscale. In SPIRE, the goal is to achieve these important scientific advancements through a unique combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, as well as complementary expertise and coherent efforts across three continents. The key experimental tool of choice is spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy -- the premier method for accessing the spin structure of surfaces and nanostructures with resolution down to the atomic scale. At the same time, atom and molecule deposition and manipulation schemes are added in order to both atomically engineer, and precisely investigate, novel nanoscale spin structures. These efforts are being applied to an array of physical systems, including single magnetic atomic layers, self-assembled 2-D molecular arrays, single adatoms and molecules, and alloyed spintronic materials. Efforts are aimed at exploring complex spin structures and phenomena occurring in these systems. At the same time, the problems are approached, and in some cases guided, by the use of leading theoretical tools, including analytical approaches such as renormalization group theory, and computational approaches such as first principles density functional theory. The scientific goals of the project are achieved by a collaborative effort with the international partners, engaging students at all levels who, through their research experiences both at home and abroad, gain international research outlooks as well as understandings of cultural differences, by working on intriguing problems of mutual interest. A novel scientific journalism internship program based at Ohio University furthers the project's broader impacts.

  9. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cinke, Martin; Li, Jing; Chen, Bin; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance; Meyyappan, Meyya; Partridge, Harry; Clark, Kimberlee

    2003-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Highly purified metal-impregnated carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake gaseous species based both on the nanotube s controlled pore size, high surface area, and ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and on the nanotube s effectiveness as a catalyst support material for toxic contaminants removal. We present results on the purification of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and efforts at metal impregnation of the SWCNT's.

  10. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  11. REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN AIR TOXICS RISK ASSESSMENT: A MECHANISTIC EXPOSURE-DOSE-RESPONSE (EDR) MODEL FOR ASSESSING THE ACUTE NEUROTOXICITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) BASED UPON A RECEPTOR-MEDIATED MODE OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    SUMMARY: The major accomplishment of NTD’s air toxics program is the development of an exposure-dose- response model for acute exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), based on momentary brain concentration as the dose metric associated with acute neurological impairments...

  12. ZT-P: an advanced air core reversed field pinch prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, K.F.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.; Caudill, L.D.; Dike, R.S.; Dominguez, T.; Downing, J.N.; Forman, P.R.; Garcia, J.A.; Giger, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ZT-P experiment, with a major radius of 0.45 m and a minor radius of 0.07 m, was designed to prototype the next generation of reversed field pinch (RFP) machines at Los Alamos. ZT-P utilizes an air-core poloidal field system, with precisely wound and positioned rigid copper coils, to drive the plasma current and provide plasma equilibrium with intrinsically low magnetic field errors. ZT-P's compact configuration is adaptable to test various first wall and limiter designs at reactor-relevant current densities in the range of 5 to 20 MA/m/sup 2/. In addition, the load assembly design allows for the installation of toroidal field divertors. Design of ZT-P began in October 1983, and assembly was completed in October 1984. This report describes the magnetic, electrical, mechanical, vacuum, diagnostic, data acquisition, and control aspects of the machine design. In addition, preliminary data from initial ZT-P operation are presented. Because of ZT-P's prototypical function, many of its design aspects and experimental results are directly applicable to the design of a next generation RFP. 17 refs., 47 figs.

  13. Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B.; Teal, J.; Oates, L.

    2008-07-01

    The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off

  14. Testing an advanced satellite technique for dust detection as a decision support system for the air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconieri, Alfredo; Filizzola, Carolina; Femiano, Rossella; Marchese, Francesco; Sannazzaro, Filomena; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio; Di Muro, Ersilia; Divietri, Mariella; Crisci, Anna Maria; Lovallo, Michele; Mangiamele, Lucia; Vaccaro, Maria Pia; Palma, Achille

    2014-05-01

    In order to correctly apply the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE), local Authorities are often requested to discriminate the possible origin (natural/anthropic) of anomalous concentration of pollutants in the air (art.20 Directive 2008/50/CE). In this framework, it's been focused on PM10 and PM2,5 concentrations and sources. In fact, depending on their origin, appropriate counter-measures can be taken devoted to prevent their production (e.g. by traffic restriction) or simply to reduce their impact on citizen health (e.g. information campaigns). In this context suitable satellite techniques can be used in order to identify natural sources (particularly Saharan dust, but also volcanic ash or forest fire smoke) that can be responsible of over-threshold concentration of PM10/2,5 in populated areas. In the framework of the NIBS (Networking and Internationalization of Basilicata Space Technologies) project, funded by the Basilicata Region within the ERDF 2007-2013 program, the School of Engineering of University of Basilicata, the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis of National Research Council (IMAA-CNR) and the Regional Agency for the Protection of the Environment of Basilicata Region (ARPAB) have started a collaboration devoted to assess the potential of the use of advanced satellite techniques for Saharan dust events identification to support ARPAB activities related to the application of the European directive for air quality (2008/50/CE) in Basilicata region. In such a joint activity, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST) approach has been assessed and tested as a decision support system for monitoring and evaluating air quality at local and regional level. In particular, RST-DUST products, derived by processing high temporal resolution data provided by SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation platforms, have been analysed together with PM10 measurements performed by the ground

  15. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rager, Julia E; Strynar, Mark J; Liang, Shuang; McMahen, Rebecca L; Richard, Ann M; Grulke, Christopher M; Wambaugh, John F; Isaacs, Kristin K; Judson, Richard; Williams, Antony J; Sobus, Jon R

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and analysis platforms, based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), now exist to meet this need. Here we describe results of a study that links HRMS data with exposure predictions from the U.S. EPA's ExpoCast™ program and in vitro bioassay data from the U.S. interagency Tox21 consortium. Vacuum dust samples were collected from 56 households across the U.S. as part of the American Healthy Homes Survey (AHHS). Sample extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) with electrospray ionization. On average, approximately 2000 molecular features were identified per sample (based on accurate mass) in negative ion mode, and 3000 in positive ion mode. Exact mass, isotope distribution, and isotope spacing were used to match molecular features with a unique listing of chemical formulas extracted from EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) database. A total of 978 DSSTox formulas were consistent with the dust LC-TOF/molecular feature data (match score≥90); these formulas mapped to 3228 possible chemicals in the database. Correct assignment of a unique chemical to a given formula required additional validation steps. Each suspect chemical was prioritized for follow-up confirmation using abundance and detection frequency results, along with exposure and bioactivity estimates from ExpoCast and Tox21, respectively. Chemicals with elevated exposure and/or toxicity potential were further examined using a mixture of 100 chemical standards. A total of 33 chemicals were confirmed present in the dust samples by formula and retention time match; nearly half of these do not appear to have been associated with house dust in the published literature. Chemical matches found in at least 10 of the 56 dust samples include Piperine, N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET

  16. Pulmonary Toxicities of Gefitinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dongsheng; Zhang, Guobing; Zhang, Xingguo; Lian, Xingguang

    2016-03-01

    Gefitinib is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) used to treat adults with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical benefits of gefitinib administration in NSCLC patients have been observed in clinical practice, but the extent of the pulmonary toxicity of gefitinib in patients with advanced NSCLC remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the overall incidence and risk of gefitinib-related pulmonary toxicity in advanced NSCLC patients. Relevant trials were identified from the databases of Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the clinicaltrials.gov of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The outcomes included the overall incidence, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Fixed-effects models were used in the statistical analyses according to the heterogeneity of the included studies. According to the data from the included trials, the overall incidence of high-grade hemoptysis, pneumonia, pneumonitis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD) was 0.49% (95% CI: 0.24%-0.99%), 2.33% (95% CI: 1.47%-3.66%), 2.24% (95% CI: 1.34%-3.72%), and 1.43% (95% CI: 0.98%-2.09%), respectively. The pooled ORs of high-grade hemoptysis, pneumonia, pneumonitis, and ILD were 1.73 (95% CI: 0.46-6.52; P = 0.42), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.66-1.49; P = 0.95), 4.70 (95% CI: 1.48-14.95; P = 0.0087), and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.22-5.69; P = 0.01), respectively. Gefitinib was associated with a significantly increased risk of high-grade/fatal ILD and pneumonitis compared with the controls, whereas the risk of other high-grade pulmonary events (pneumonia and hemoptysis) was not significant. Careful surveillance of gefitinib-related pulmonary toxicity is critical for the safe use of this drug. PMID:26945426

  17. Intensified High-Dose Chemoradiotherapy With Induction Chemotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer-Safety and Toxicity Results Within a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Poettgen, Christoph; Eberhardt, Wilfried E.; Gauler, Thomas; Krbek, Thomas; Berkovic, Katharina; Abu Jawad, Jehad; Korfee, Soenke; Teschler, Helmut; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To analyze the toxicity profile of an intensified definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) schedule in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (Stage IIIA N2/selected IIIB) treated within a prospective multicenter trial. Patients and Methods: After mediastinoscopy and routine staging procedures, three cycles of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 1 and 8; paclitaxel 175 mg/m{sup 2} Day 1, every 21 days) were planned, followed by concurrent CRT (accelerated-hyperfractionated regimen, 45 Gy, 2 x 1.5 Gy/d, cisplatin 50 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 64 and 71, vinorelbine 20 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 64 and 71). At 45 Gy, a multidisciplinary panel decision was made regarding operability. Inoperable patients received definitive radiotherapy (total dose 65 or 71 Gy, depending on the mean lung dose) with additional concurrent chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}, Day 85; vinorelbine 15 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 85 and 92). Results: A total of 28 patients (23 men and 5 women; median age, 58 years; range 41-73; Stage IIIA in 3 and Stage IIIB in 25) were judged ineligible for surgery by the multidisciplinary panel and underwent definitive CRT (75% of the patients received 71 Gy). The maximum toxicity (Grade 3 or greater) during induction chemotherapy included leukopenia (11%) and anemia (4%). During concurrent CRT, leukopenia (Grade 3 or greater) was observed in 39% of the patients. The maximal nonhematologic toxicity during concurrent CRT included esophagitis (Grade 3 or greater) in 18% and pneumonitis (Grade 3 or greater) in 4% of the patients. At 3 years, the locoregional control rate was 52% (95% confidence interval, 29-75%) and the overall survival rate was 31% (95% confidence interval, 12-50%). Conclusion: This intensified treatment protocol with induction chemotherapy and concurrent CRT, including hyperfractionated-accelerated RT, showed only moderate toxicity and proved feasible. This treatment represents the definitive CRT arm of our ongoing

  18. Comparison of silver nanoparticles stored under air or argon with respect to the induction of intracellular free radicals and toxic effects toward keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, Sebastian; Meinke, Martina C; Werner, Luise; Epple, Matthias; Diendorf, Joerg; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lademann, Juergen; Vogt, Annika; Rancan, Fiorenza

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial infections decreased considerably after the discovery of antibiotics. Nevertheless, because of the rising rate of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains, the search for new bactericidal agents has again become a crucial topic in clinical medicine. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have a huge potential in dermatology and wound care management because of their ability to release silver ions (Ag(+) ions) in a prolonged and sustained way. However, negative effects of silver on the patient's cells should not be underestimated. Furthermore, it has been controversially discussed whether AgNP are responsible for nanoparticle-specific outcomes or not. In this study, we investigated the effects of AgNP on human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) in order to better understand the mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to improve the use of this highly reactive biocide in wound healing. We found that most of the cells with internalized AgNP displayed the typical morphological signs of apoptosis. The cell viability assay (XTT) showed concentration-dependent toxic effects of the AgNP toward HaCaT cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by AgNP was investigated in cell suspensions by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In order to distinguish between the effects of Ag(+) ions released during AgNP storage and those of Ag(+) ions released after nanoparticle application, we compared AgNP stored under air (O2) with AgNP stored under argon (Ar). Dispersions of AgNP stored under Ar have a low content of Ag(+) ions because of the absence of oxygen which is needed for oxidative dissolution. The results show that Ag(+) ions released during particle storage are responsible for most of the ROS produced during 1h incubation with the cells. AgNP (Ar) also induced intracellular ROS but to a much smaller extent compared to AgNP (O2). These findings highlight the complexity of experiments to assess the toxicity of AgNP and suggest the

  19. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  20. Mercury and air toxic element impacts of coal combustion by-product disposal and utilization. Final report (for the period January 23, 2003 - December 31, 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.

    2007-10-15

    The air toxic elements (ATEs) evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with activated carbon (AC) used for mercury emission control and, therefore present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls. Field experiments vapor-phase releases at a CCB disposal site. Results indicated low-level vapor-phase mercury releases, as was generally noted in laboratory experiments for lignite fly ash samples. Laboratory methods were developed to evaluate the potential for mercury releases under several release mechanicals. 48 refs., 21 figs., 76 tabs., 21 apps.

  1. Development of the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method in Three Dimensions for Particulate Matter: Enabling Advanced Sensitivity Analysis in Air Quality Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The high-order decoupled direct method in three dimensions for particular matter (HDDM-3D/PM) has been implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to enable advanced sensitivity analysis. The major effort of this work is to develop high-order DDM sensitivity...

  2. The eTOX Data-Sharing Project to Advance in Silico Drug-Induced Toxicity Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Cases, Montserrat; Briggs, Katharine; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Pognan, François; Marc, Philippe; Kleinöder, Thomas; Schwab, Christof H.; Pastor, Manuel; Wichard, Jörg; Sanz, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    The high-quality in vivo preclinical safety data produced by the pharmaceutical industry during drug development, which follows numerous strict guidelines, are mostly not available in the public domain. These safety data are sometimes published as a condensed summary for the few compounds that reach the market, but the majority of studies are never made public and are often difficult to access in an automated way, even sometimes within the owning company itself. It is evident from many academic and industrial examples, that useful data mining and model development requires large and representative data sets and careful curation of the collected data. In 2010, under the auspices of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, the eTOX project started with the objective of extracting and sharing preclinical study data from paper or pdf archives of toxicology departments of the 13 participating pharmaceutical companies and using such data for establishing a detailed, well-curated database, which could then serve as source for read-across approaches (early assessment of the potential toxicity of a drug candidate by comparison of similar structure and/or effects) and training of predictive models. The paper describes the efforts undertaken to allow effective data sharing intellectual property (IP) protection and set up of adequate controlled vocabularies) and to establish the database (currently with over 4000 studies contributed by the pharma companies corresponding to more than 1400 compounds). In addition, the status of predictive models building and some specific features of the eTOX predictive system (eTOXsys) are presented as decision support knowledge-based tools for drug development process at an early stage. PMID:25405742

  3. Recent advances in the use of graphene-family nanoadsorbents for removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-02-01

    Adsorption technology is widely considered as the most promising and robust method of purifying water at low cost and with high-efficiency. Carbon-based materials have been extensively explored for adsorption applications because of their good chemical stability, structural diversity, low density, and suitability for large scale production. Graphene--a single atomic layer of graphite--is the newest member in the family of carbon allotropes and has emerged as the "celeb" material of the 21st century. Since its discovery in 2004 by Novoselov, Geim and co-workers, graphene has attracted increased attention in a wide range of applications due to its unprecedented electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and transport properties. Graphene's infinitely high surface-to-volume ratio has resulted in a large number of investigations to study its application as a potential adsorbent for water purification. More recently, other graphene related materials such as graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and few-layered graphene oxide sheets, as well as nanocomposites of graphene materials have also emerged as a promising group of adsorbent for the removal of various environmental pollutants from waste effluents. In this review article, we present a synthesis of the current knowledge available on this broad and versatile family of graphene nanomaterials for removal of dyes, potentially toxic elements, phenolic compounds and other organic chemicals from aquatic systems. The challenges involved in the development of these novel nanoadsorbents for decontamination of wastewaters have also been examined to help identify future directions for this emerging field to continue to grow. PMID:24412086

  4. The eTOX data-sharing project to advance in silico drug-induced toxicity prediction.

    PubMed

    Cases, Montserrat; Briggs, Katharine; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Pognan, François; Marc, Philippe; Kleinöder, Thomas; Schwab, Christof H; Pastor, Manuel; Wichard, Jörg; Sanz, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    The high-quality in vivo preclinical safety data produced by the pharmaceutical industry during drug development, which follows numerous strict guidelines, are mostly not available in the public domain. These safety data are sometimes published as a condensed summary for the few compounds that reach the market, but the majority of studies are never made public and are often difficult to access in an automated way, even sometimes within the owning company itself. It is evident from many academic and industrial examples, that useful data mining and model development requires large and representative data sets and careful curation of the collected data. In 2010, under the auspices of the Innovative Medicines Initiative, the eTOX project started with the objective of extracting and sharing preclinical study data from paper or pdf archives of toxicology departments of the 13 participating pharmaceutical companies and using such data for establishing a detailed, well-curated database, which could then serve as source for read-across approaches (early assessment of the potential toxicity of a drug candidate by comparison of similar structure and/or effects) and training of predictive models. The paper describes the efforts undertaken to allow effective data sharing intellectual property (IP) protection and set up of adequate controlled vocabularies) and to establish the database (currently with over 4000 studies contributed by the pharma companies corresponding to more than 1400 compounds). In addition, the status of predictive models building and some specific features of the eTOX predictive system (eTOXsys) are presented as decision support knowledge-based tools for drug development process at an early stage. PMID:25405742

  5. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  6. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  7. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  8. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  9. Self-Driven Desalination and Advanced Treatment of Wastewater in a Modularized Filtration Air Cathode Microbial Desalination Cell.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kuichang; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zuo, Jiaolan; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) extract organic energy from wastewater for in situ desalination of saline water. However, to desalinate salt water, traditional MDCs often require an anolyte (wastewater) and a catholyte (other synthetic water) to produce electricity. Correspondingly, the traditional MDCs also produced anode effluent and cathode effluent, and may produce a concentrate solution, resulting in a low production of diluate. In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube membranes and Pt carbon cloths were utilized as filtration material and cathode to fabricate a modularized filtration air cathode MDC (F-MDC). With real wastewater flowing from anode to cathode, and finally to the middle membrane stack, the diluate volume production reached 82.4%, with the removal efficiency of salinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reached 93.6% and 97.3% respectively. The final diluate conductivity was 68 ± 12 μS/cm, and the turbidity was 0.41 NTU, which were sufficient for boiler supplementary or industrial cooling. The concentrate production was only 17.6%, and almost all the phosphorus and salt, and most of the nitrogen were recovered, potentially allowing the recovery of nutrients and other chemicals. These results show the potential utility of the modularized F-MDC in the application of municipal wastewater advanced treatment and self-driven desalination. PMID:27269411

  10. Evaluating the efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment: target analysis of organic contaminants and (geno-)toxicity assessment tell a different story.

    PubMed

    Magdeburg, Axel; Stalter, Daniel; Schlüsener, Michael; Ternes, Thomas; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    At a pilot scale wastewater treatment plant ozonation and powdered activated carbon filtration were assessed for their efficacy to remove trace organic contaminants from secondary treated effluents. A chemical analysis of 16 organic compounds was accompanied by a comprehensive suite of in vitro and in vivo bioassays with the focus on genotoxicity to account for the potential formation of reactive oxidation products. In vitro experiments were performed with solid phase extracted water samples, in vivo experiments with native wastewater in a flow through test system on site at the treatment plant. The chemical evaluation revealed an efficient oxidation of about half of the selected compounds by more than 90% at an ozone dose of 0.7 g/g DOC. A lower oxidizing efficiency was observed for the iodinated X-ray contrast media (49-55%). Activated carbon treatment (20 mg/L) was less effective for the removal of most pharmaceuticals monitored. The umuC assay on genotoxicity delivered results with about 90% decrease of the effects by ozonation and slightly lower efficiency for PAC treatment. However, the Ames test on mutagenicity with the strain YG7108 revealed a consistent and ozone-dose dependent increase of mutagenicity after wastewater ozonation compared to secondary treatment. Sand filtration as post treatment step reduced the ozone induced mutagenicity only partly. Also the fish early life stage toxicity test revealed an increase in mortality after ozonation and a reduced effect after sand filtration. Only activated carbon treatment reduced the fish mortality compared to conventional treatment on control level. Likewise the in vivo genotoxicity detected with the comet assay using fish erythrocytes confirmed an increased (geno-)toxicity after ozonation, an effect decrease after sand-filtration and no toxic effects after activated carbon treatment. This study demonstrates the need for a cautious selection of methods for the evaluation of advanced (oxidative

  11. Radiotherapy Does Not Influence the Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Observed With the Administration of Gemcitabine and Bleomycin in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With the BAGCOPP Regimen: A Report by the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Macann, Andrew; Bredenfeld, Henning; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on the severe pulmonary toxicity observed in the pilot study of BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine) for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV Hodgkin's lymphoma or Stage IIB with risk factors participated in this single-arm, multicenter pilot study. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled on the study before its premature closure as a result of the development of serious pulmonary toxicity in 8 patients. The pulmonary toxicity occurred either during or immediately after the BAGCOPP chemotherapy course. Pulmonary toxicity contributed to one early fatality but resolved in the other 7 patients after cessation of gemcitabine and bleomycin, allowing continuation of therapy. Fifteen patients received consolidative radiotherapy, including 4 who previously had pulmonary toxicity. There were no reported cases of radiation pneumonitis and no exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms in the 4 patients who had had previous pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions: The severe pulmonary toxicity observed in this study has been attributed to an interaction between gemcitabine and bleomycin. Gemcitabine (when administered without bleomycin) remains of interest in Hodgkin's lymphoma and is being incorporated into a new German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group protocol that also includes consolidative radiotherapy. This study supports the concept of the integration of radiotherapy in gemcitabine-containing regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma if there is an interval of at least 4 weeks between the two modalities and with a schedule whereby radiotherapy follows the chemotherapy.

  12. Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report {number_sign}8, July 1--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in Babcock and Wilcox`s state-of-the-art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. The specific objectives of the project are to: measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; and establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  13. Fractionated intravesical radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb is effective without toxic side-effects in a nude mouse model of advanced human bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Julia; Rötzer, Silvia; Seidl, Christof; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Autenrieth, Michael; Weirich, Gregor; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2015-01-01

    Gold standard in therapy of superficial, non-muscle invasive urothelial tumors is transurethral resection followed by intravesical instillation therapies. However, relapse is commonly observed and therefore new therapeutic approaches are needed. Application of 213Bi-immunoconjugates targeting EGFR had shown promising results in early tumor stages. The aim of this study was the evaluation of fractionated application of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb in advanced tumor stages in a nude mouse model. Luciferase-transfected EJ28 human bladder carcinoma cells were instilled intravesically into nude mice following electrocautery. Tumor development was monitored via bioluminescence imaging. One day after tumor detection mice were treated intravesically either 2 times with 0.93 MBq or 3 times with 0.46 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated via overall survival and toxicity toward normal urothelium by histopathological analysis. Mice without treatment and those treated with the native anti-EGFR-MAb showed mean survivals of 65.4 and 57.6 d, respectively. After fractionated treatment with 0.93 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb animals reached a mean survival of 141.5 d and 33% of the animals survived at least 268 d. Fractionated treatment with 0.46 MBq 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb resulted in a mean survival of 131.8 d and 30% of the animals survived longer than 300 d. Significant differences were only observed between the control groups and the group treated twice with 0.93 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb. No toxic side-effects on the normal urothelium were observed even after treatment with 3.7 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb. The study demonstrates that the fractionated intravesical radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb is a promising approach in advanced bladder carcinoma. PMID:26177233

  14. Early expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products in a toxic model produced by 6-hydroxydopamine in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Serratos, Iris N; Castellanos, Pilar; Pastor, Nina; Millán-Pacheco, César; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Rembao, Daniel; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; Cabrera, Nallely; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Gómez, Isabel; Rangel-López, Edgar; Santamaria, Abel

    2016-04-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is commonly involved in different neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. The cellular signaling associated to RAGE activation may occur upon binding to different ligands. In this study we investigated whether the toxic model produced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats comprises early noxious responses related to RAGE-mediated signaling cascades. In order to explore a possible interaction between 6-OHDA and RAGE, affinity parameters of RAGE with 6-OHDA were estimated by different means. The possible binding sites of 6-OHDA with the VC1 homodimer for both rat and human RAGE were also modeled. Our results show that the striatal infusion of 6-OHDA recruits RAGE upregulation, as evidenced by an early expression of the receptor. 6-OHDA was also found to bind the VC1 homodimer, although its affinity was moderate when compared to other ligands. This work contributes to the understanding of the role of RAGE activation for 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26902637

  15. Towards An Advanced Graphene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent: Sub-acute Toxicity and Efficacy Studies in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy; Hoang, Dung Minh; Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lee, Stephen; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical Gd3+-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) are suboptimal or unsuitable, especially at higher magnetic fields (>1.5 Tesla) for advanced MRI applications such as blood pool, cellular and molecular imaging. Herein, towards the goal of developing a safe and more efficacious high field T1 MRI CA for these applications, we report the sub-acute toxicity and contrast enhancing capabilities of a novel nanoparticle MRI CA comprising of manganese (Mn2+) intercalated graphene nanoparticles functionalized with dextran (hereafter, Mangradex) in rodents. Sub-acute toxicology performed on rats intravenously injected with Mangradex at 1, 50 or 100 mg/kg dosages 3 times per week for three weeks indicated that dosages ≤50 mg/kg could serve as potential diagnostic doses. Whole body 7 Tesla MRI performed on mice injected with Mangradex at a potential diagnostic dose (25 mg/kg or 455 nanomoles Mn2+/kg; ~2 orders of magnitude lower than the paramagnetic ion concentration in a typical clinical dose) showed persistent (up to at least 2 hours) contrast enhancement in the vascular branches (Mn2+ concentration in blood at steady state = 300 ppb, per voxel = 45 femtomoles). The results lay the foundations for further development of Mangradex as a vascular and cellular/ molecular MRI probe. PMID:26625867

  16. Patients' perceptions and experiences of using a mobile phone-based advanced symptom management system (ASyMS) to monitor and manage chemotherapy related toxicity.

    PubMed

    McCann, L; Maguire, R; Miller, M; Kearney, N

    2009-03-01

    Chemotherapy forms a core component of treatment for the majority patients with cancer. Recent changes in cancer services mean patients frequently receive such treatment as outpatients and are often required to manage side effects at home without direct support from oncology health professionals. Information technology continues to develop to support patients in the community; this study evaluated the impact of a mobile phone-based advanced symptom management system (ASyMS) on chemotherapy related toxicity in patients with lung, breast or colorectal cancer. One hundred and twelve patients were randomized from seven clinical sites across the UK; 56 patients used the mobile phone to record their symptoms, sending their reports directly to the nurses at their clinical site; 56 control group patients received standard care. Health professionals were alerted about any severe or life-threatening symptoms through the development of a chemotherapy symptom risk model. Patients' perceptions of ASyMS were evaluated pre and post participation. Patients reported many benefits of using ASyMS including improved communication with health professionals, improvements in the management of their symptoms, and feeling reassured their symptoms were being monitored while at home. ASyMS has the potential to positively impact on the management of symptoms in patients receiving chemotherapy treatment. PMID:19267731

  17. Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidirectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  18. "Advances in Linked Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry Models to Address Bidrectional Ammonia Flux in CMAQ"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen to air, land and water media pose a growing threat to human health and ecosystems. Modeling of air-surface N flux is one area in need of improvement. Implementation of a linked air quality and cropland management system is de...

  19. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  20. AIR TOXICS CONTROL "SITUATION ROOM"

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes one component of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) efforts to assist state and local environmental agencies and its own egional offices in response to their increased responsibilities for' planning, valuating, and approving control approaches for r...