Science.gov

Sample records for advanced aircraft concepts

  1. Outlook for advanced concepts in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air transportation demand trends, air transportation system goals, and air transportation system trends well into the 21st century were examined in detail. The outlook is for continued growth in both air passenger travel and air freight movements. The present system, with some improvements, is expected to continue to the turn of the century and to utilize technologically upgraded, derivative versions of today's aircraft, plus possibly some new aircraft for supersonic long haul, short haul, and high density commuter service. Severe constraints of the system, expected by early in the 21st century, should lead to innovations at the airport, away from the airport, and in the air. The innovations are illustrated by descriptions of three candidate systems involving advanced aircraft concepts. Advanced technologies and vehicles expected to impact the airport are illustrated by descriptions of laminar flow control aircraft, very large air freighters and cryogenically fueled transports.

  2. Aircraft concepts for advanced short haul systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The results of recent NASA-sponsored high-density and medium-density short-haul (less than 500 miles) air transportation systems studies are summarized. Trends in vehicle characteristics, in particular of RTOL and STOL concepts, are noted, and their economic suitability and impact on the community are examined.

  3. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  4. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  5. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  6. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  7. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  8. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  9. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  10. Applications of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts to civil utility missions. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The linear performance definition curves for the lift fan aircraft, tilt rotor aircraft, and advanced helicopter are given. The computer program written to perform the mission analysis for this study is also documented, and examples of its use are shown. Methods used to derive the performance coefficients for use in the mission analysis of the lift fan aircraft are described.

  11. An advanced concept secondary power systems study for an advanced transport technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to the design of an integrated secondary power system for future near-sonic long-range transports was investigated. The study showed that the highest payoff is achieved by utilizing secondary power equipment that contributes to minimum cruise drag. This is best accomplished by the use of the dedicated auxiliary power unit concept (inflight APU) as the prime power source for an airplane with a body-mounted engine or by the use of the internal engine generator concept (electrical power extraction from the propulsion engine) for an airplane with a wing-pod-mounted engine.

  12. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  13. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  14. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and potential fuel conservation for short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, H. S.; Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, noise level, and engine cycle characteristics on minimizing fuel consumption and minimizing operating cost at high fuel prices were evaluated for some advanced short-haul aircraft. The conceptual aircraft were designed for 148 passengers using the upper surface-internally blown jet flap, the augmentor wing, and the mechanical flap lift systems. Advanced conceptual STOL engines were evaluated as well as a near-term turbofan and turboprop engine. Emphasis was given to designs meeting noise levels equivalent to 95-100 EPNdB at 152 m (500 ft) sideline.

  15. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  16. Advanced supersonic cruise aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Driver, C.

    1977-01-01

    A multidiscipline approach is taken to the application of the latest technology to supersonic cruise aircraft concept definition, and current problem areas are identified. Particular attention is given to the performance of the AST-100 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle with emphasis on aerodynamic characteristics, noise and chemical emission, and mission analysis. A recently developed aircraft sizing and performance computer program was used to determine allowable wing loading and takeoff gross weight sensitivity to structural weight reduction.

  17. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  18. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  19. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  20. Compilation of Energy Efficient Concepts in Advanced Aircraft Design and Operations. Volume 2. Abstract Data Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-05

    B81iq NADC-79123 9-60 Af B-1 FUELS TECHNOLOGYI B.1.3 OTHER AVIATION FUELS U1.1.3.1 NAVY FUNDED ut- R ~Bl-82 J NADC-79239-6U B...determine aerodynamic performance. (Report) NM B.2.1.2.87 73A16634 Oct 1972 US Army, Air Mobility Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Eustis, VA...multi-role aircraft. (Article in Aircraft Engineering Vol. I B.2.1.2.138 R-A750356 Jul 74 AVSCOM Air Mobility R and D Lab Unknoun TitIL: Aircraft

  1. A review of advanced turboprop transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    The application of advanced technologies shows the potential for significant improvement in the fuel efficiency and operating costs of future transport aircraft envisioned for operation in the 1990s time period. One of the more promising advanced technologies is embodied in an advanced turboprop concept originated by Hamilton Standard and NASA and known as the propfan. The propfan concept features a highly loaded multibladed, variable pitch propeller geared to a high pressure ratio gas turbine engine. The blades have high sweepback and advanced airfoil sections to achieve 80 percent propulsive efficiency at M=0.80 cruise speed. Aircraft system studies have shown improvements in fuel efficiency of 15-20 percent for propfan advanced transport aircraft as compared to equivalent turbofan transports. Beginning with the Lockheed C-130 and Electra turboprop aircraft, this paper presents an overview of the evolution of propfan aircraft design concepts and system studies. These system studies include possible civil and military transport applications and data on the performance, community and far-field noise characteristics and operating costs of propfan aircraft design concepts. NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program propfan projects with industry are reviewed with respect to system studies of propfan aircraft and recommended flight development programs.

  2. Douglas Aircraft Company Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES II). Revision C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    single place aircraft, ) OGM "PLOYS "A 01, 0t7 0.7 the inertia reel may be initiated by the seat-mounted initiator. Q SoAAc ,INTs o., o., 0, ole Pressure...the switch is selected to -46-DEC PITCH. I160-DEC ROLLI 250 G00 467 "automatic," transmission will commence following seat-man ’FOR THIS CASE, IMPACT

  3. Lift Enhancing Surfaces on Several Advanced V/STOL Fighter/Attack Aircraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, Donald A.; Smith, Stephen C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of for-ward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate surface that larger LFX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  4. Lift-enhancing surfaces on several advanced V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, D. A.; Smith, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the relative influences of forward lift-enhancing surfaces on the overall lift and drag characteristics of three wind-tunnel models representative of V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft is presented. Two of the models are canard-wing configurations and one has a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) as the forward lifting surface. Data are taken from wind-tunnel tests of each model covering Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Overall lift and drag characteristics of these models and the generally favorable interactions of the forward surfaces with the wings are highlighted. Results indicate that larger LEX's and canards generally give greater lift and drag improvements than ones that are smaller relative to the wings.

  5. Wind-tunnel studies of advanced cargo aircraft concepts. [leading edge vortex flaps for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.; Goglia, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments in vortex flap research are summarized. A singular feature of the vortex flap is that, throughout the range of angle of attack range, the flow type remains qualitatively unchanged. Accordingly, no large or sudden change in the aerodynamic characteristics, as happens when forcibly maintained attached flow suddenly reverts to separation, will occur with the vortex flap. Typical wind tunnel test data are presented which show the drag reduction potential of the vortex flap concept applied to a supersonic cruise airplane configuration. The new technology offers a means of aerodynamically augmenting roll-control effectiveness on slender wings at higher angles of attack by manipulating the vortex flow generated from leading edge separation. The proposed manipulator takes the form of a flap hinged at or close to the leading edge, normally retracted flush with the wing upper surface to conform to the airfoil shape.

  6. Integrated digital/electric aircraft concepts study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.; Hays, A. P.; Green, F. B.; Radovcich, N. A.; Helsley, C. W.; Rutchik, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The integrated digital/electrical aircraft (IDEA) is an aircraft concept which employs all electric secondary power systems and advanced digital flight control systems. After trade analysis, preferred systems were applied to the baseline configuration. An additional configuration, the alternate IDEA, was also considered. For this concept the design ground rules were relaxed in order to quantify additional synergistic benefits. It was proposed that an IDEA configuration and technical risks associated with the IDEA systems concepts be defined and the research and development required activities to reduce these risks be identified. The selected subsystems include: power generation, power distribution, actuators, environmental control system and flight controls systems. When the aircraft was resized, block fuel was predicted to decrease by 11.3 percent, with 7.9 percent decrease in direct operating cost. The alternate IDEA shows a further 3.4 percent reduction in block fuel and 3.1 percent reduction in direct operating cost.

  7. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  8. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  9. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  10. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  11. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  12. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  13. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  14. Silent Aircraft Initiative Concept Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2008-01-01

    A risk assessment of the Silent Aircraft Initiative's SAX-40 concept design for extremely low noise has been performed. A NASA team developed a list of 27 risk items, and evaluated the level of risk for each item in terms of the likelihood that the risk would occur and the consequences of the occurrence. The following risk items were identified as high risk, meaning that the combination of likelihood and consequence put them into the top one-fourth of the risk matrix: structures and weight prediction; boundary-layer ingestion (BLI) and inlet design; variable-area exhaust and thrust vectoring; displaced-threshold and continuous descent approach (CDA) operational concepts; cost; human factors; and overall noise performance. Several advanced-technology baseline concepts were created to serve as a basis for comparison to the SAX-40 concept. These comparisons indicate that the SAX-40 would have significantly greater research, development, test, and engineering (RDT&E) and production costs than a conventional aircraft with similar technology levels. Therefore, the cost of obtaining the extremely low noise capability that has been estimated for the SAX-40 is significant. The SAX-40 concept design proved successful in focusing attention toward low noise technologies and in raising public awareness of the issue.

  15. Advanced Concepts for Sea Control,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    technology sea control missions, 1,000 tonnes to advances occur, and the threat needs 25,000 tonnes would be representative change, a proper balance can be...sea loiter aircraft, conventional subcavitating fully-sub- utilizing the stopped rotor concept; merged foils, thus providing a very a small sea...augmentation engines have been platform characteristics at conventional moved from their overhung location to a displacement ship speeds but at a re- . place

  16. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  17. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  18. Impact of Advanced Propeller Technology on Aircraft/Mission Characteristics of Several General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of several General Aviation aircraft indicated that the application of advanced technologies to General Aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft by a significant amount. Propeller blade weight reductions achieved through the use of composites, propeller efficiency and noise improvements achieved through the use of advanced concepts and improved propeller analytical design methods result in aircraft with lower operating cost, acquisition cost and gross weight.

  19. Can advanced technology improve future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Snow, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The short-haul service abandoned by the trunk and local airlines is being picked up by the commuter airlines using small turboprop-powered aircraft. Most of the existing small transport aircraft currently available represent a relatively old technology level. However, several manufacturers have initiated the development of new or improved commuter transport aircraft. These aircraft are relatively conservative in terms of technology. An examination is conducted of advanced technology to identify those technologies that, if developed, would provide the largest improvements for future generations of these aircraft. Attention is given to commuter aircraft operating cost, aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion, aircraft systems, and technology integration. It is found that advanced technology can improve future commuter aircraft and that the largest of these improvements will come from the synergistic combination of technological advances in all of the aircraft disciplines. The most important goals are related to improved fuel efficiency and increased aircraft productivity.

  20. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  1. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures. Structural response and failure analysis: ISPAN modules users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Ten; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    The ISPAN Program (Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis) is an interactive design tool that is intended to provide a means of performing simple and self contained preliminary analysis of aircraft primary structures made of composite materials. The program combines a series of modules with the finite element code DIAL as its backbone. Four ISPAN Modules were developed and are documented. These include: (1) flat stiffened panel; (2) curved stiffened panel; (3) flat tubular panel; and (4) curved geodesic panel. Users are instructed to input geometric and material properties, load information and types of analysis (linear, bifurcation buckling, or post-buckling) interactively. The program utilizing this information will generate finite element mesh and perform analysis. The output in the form of summary tables of stress or margins of safety, contour plots of loads or stress, and deflected shape plots may be generalized and used to evaluate specific design.

  2. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview assessment of three separate programs at Langley Research Center that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of an span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. This concept has the potential for reduced structural weights. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The use of LFC can reduce the fuel requirements during long-range cruise. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. Coal-derived hydrogen as an aircraft fuel offers both the prospect for reduced dependence on petroleum fuels and improved performance for long-range aircraft.

  3. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  4. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Several concepts for possible future airplanes, including all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multibody airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear-powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long-range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short-range feeder airplanes are described. Performance and economic advantages of each concept are indicated. Further research is recommended in the following areas: all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  5. Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, Gerald W.; Premo, John W.; Hersh, Alan S.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program goal is to reduce aircraft noise by 10 EPNdB by the year 2000 relative, to 1992 technology. The improvement goal for nacelle attenuation is 25% relative to 1992 technology by 1997 and 50% by 2000. The Advanced Turbofan Duct Liner Concepts Task work by Boeing presented in this document was in support of these goals. The basis for the technical approach was a Boeing study conducted in 1993-94 under NASA/FAA contract NAS1-19349, Task 6, investigating broadband acoustic liner concepts. As a result of this work, it was recommended that linear double layer, linear and perforate triple layer, parallel element, and bulk absorber liners be further investigated to improve nacelle attenuations. NASA LaRC also suggested that "adaptive" liner concepts that would allow "in-situ" acoustic impedance control also be considered. As a result, bias flow and high-temperature liner concepts were also added to the investigation. The major conclusion from the above studies is that improvements in nacelle liner average acoustic impedance characteristics alone will not result in 25% increased nacelle noise reduction relative to 1992 technology. Nacelle design advancements currently being developed by Boeing are expected to add 20-40% more acoustic lining to hardwall regions in current inlets, which is predicted to result in and additional 40-80% attenuation improvement. Similar advancements are expected to allow 10-30% more acoustic lining in current fan ducts with 10-30% more attenuation expected. In addition, Boeing is currently developing a scarf inlet concept which is expected to give an additional 40-80% attenuation improvement for equivalent lining areas.

  6. Next Generation NASA GA Advanced Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    Not only is the common dream of frequent personal flight travel going unfulfilled, the current generation of General Aviation (GA) is facing tremendous challenges that threaten to relegate the Single Engine Piston (SEP) aircraft market to a footnote in the history of U.S. aviation. A case is made that this crisis stems from a generally low utility coupled to a high cost that makes the SEP aircraft of relatively low transportation value and beyond the means of many. The roots of this low value are examined in a broad sense, and a Next Generation NASA Advanced GA Concept is presented that attacks those elements addressable by synergistic aircraft design.

  7. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  8. Design and Evaluation of Nextgen Aircraft Separation Assurance Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut; Arutyunov, Vladimir; Laue, John-Luke; Wilmoth, Ian

    2012-01-01

    To support the development and evaluation of future function allocation concepts for separation assurance systems for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, this paper presents the design and human-in-the-loop evaluation of three feasible function allocation concepts that allocate primary aircraft separation assurance responsibilities and workload to: 1) pilots; 2) air traffic controllers (ATC); and 3) automation. The design of these concepts also included rules of the road, separation assurance burdens for aircraft of different equipage levels, and utilization of advanced weather displays paired with advanced conflict detection and resolution automation. Results of the human-in-the-loop simulation show that: a) all the concepts are robust with respect to weather perturbation; b) concept 1 (pilots) had highest throughput, closest to assigned spacing, and fewest violations of speed and altitude restrictions; c) the energy of the aircraft during the descent phase was better managed in concepts 1 and 2 (pilots and ATC) than in concept 3 (automation), in which the situation awareness of pilots and controllers was lowest, and workload of pilots was highest. The paper also discusses further development of these concepts and their augmentation and integration with future air traffic management tools and systems that are being considered for NextGen.

  9. Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    lead to the tips of the wing stalling before the inboard sections, making the aircraft pitch up and potentially stall. In order to combat this, an...the lift being produced by the wing and so reduce hull draft, albeit at the expense of induced drag from the wing . Naval Surface Warfare Center... delta wing design with some blended wing body characteristics was adopted. This approach gives excellent internal volume characteristics whilst

  10. A Low NO(x) Lean-Direct Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combuster Concept for Advanced Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Wey, Changlie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    A low NO(x) emissions combustor has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A multipoint, lean-direct injection concept was used. Configurations were tested that had 25- and 36- fuel injectors in the size of a conventional single fuel injector. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers and fuel manifold into a single element. Test conditions were inlet temperatures up to 810 K, inlet pressures up to 2760 kPa, and flame temperatures up to 2100 K. A correlation was developed relating the NO(x) emissions with the inlet temperature, inlet pressure, fuel-air ratio and pressure drop. Assuming that 10 percent of the combustion air would be used for liner cooling and using a hypothetical engine cycle, the NO(x) emissions using the correlation from flame-tube tests were estimated to be less than 20 percent of the 1996 ICAO standard.

  11. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  12. A route generator concept for aircraft onboard fault monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. T.; Abbott, K. H.

    1984-01-01

    Because of the increasingly complex environments in which the flight crews of commercial aviation aircraft must operate, a research effort is currently underway at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate the potential benefits of intelligent cockpit aids, and to establish guidelines for the application of artificial intelligence techniques to advanced flight management concepts. The segment of this research area that concentrates on automated fault monitoring and diagnosis requires that a reference frame exist, against which the current state of the aircraft may be compared to determine the existence of a fault. This paper describes a computer program which generates the position of that reference frame that specifies the horizontal flight route.

  13. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are presented for an advanced general aviation aircraft. Advanced guidance and display concepts, laminar flow, smart structures, fuselage and wing structural design and manufacturing, and preliminary configuration design are discussed. This project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in Aeronautics. The results obtained during the fall semester of 1990 (Phase 1) and the spring semester of 1991 (Phase 2) are presented.

  14. Piloted aircraft simulation concepts and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of piloted aircraft simulation is presented that reflects the viewpoint of an aeronautical technologist. The intent is to acquaint potential users with some of the basic concepts and issues that characterize piloted simulation. Application to the development of aircraft are highlighted, but some aspects of training simulators are covered. A historical review is given together with a description of some current simulators. Simulator usages, advantages, and limitations are discussed and human perception qualities important to simulation are related. An assessment of current simulation is presented that addresses validity, fidelity, and deficiencies. Future prospects are discussed and technology projections are made.

  15. Longitudinal dynamics of a perching aircraft concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a morphing aircraft concept whose purpose is to demonstrate a new bio-inspired flight capability: perching. Perching is a maneuver that utilizes primarily aerodynamics -- as opposed to thrust generation -- to achieve a vertical or short landing. The flight vehicle that will accomplish this is described herein with particular emphasis on its addition levels of actuation beyond the traditional aircraft control surfaces. A computer model of the aircraft is developed in order to predict the changes in applied aerodynamic loads as it morphs and transitions through different flight regimes. The analysis of this model is outlined, including a lifting-line-based analytical technique and a trim and stability analysis. These analytical methods -- compared to panel or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods -- are considered desirable for the analysis of a large number of vehicle configurations and flight conditions. The longitudinal dynamics of this aircraft are studied, and several interesting results are presented. Of special interest are the changes in vehicle dynamics as the aircraft morphs from a cruise configuration to initiate the perching maneuver. Changes in trim conditions and stability are examined as functions of vehicle geometry. The time response to changes in vehicle configuration is also presented.

  16. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  17. Maneuvering technology for advanced fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.; Harris, Scott H.; Byers, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    The need for increased maneuverability has its genesis from the first aerial combat engagement when two adversaries entangled themselves in a deadly aerial dance trying to gain the advantage over the other. It has only been in the past two decades that technologies have been investigated to increase aircraft control at maneuver attitudes that are typically dominated by highly separated flows. These separated flow regions are aggravated by advanced fighter aircraft shapes required to defeat an electronic enemy. This paper discusses passive and active devices that can be used to enhance the maneuverability of advanced fighter aircraft through vortex flow control, boundary layer control, and innovative flow manipulation.

  18. Advanced short haul aircraft for high density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The short haul (less than 500 miles) passenger enplanements represent about 50% of the total domestic enplanements. These can be distinguished by the annual passenger flow for a given city pair and classified into low, medium and high densiy markets. NASA studies have investigated various advanced short haul aircraft concepts that have potential application in these three market areas. Although advanced operational techniques impact all market densities, advanced vehicle design concepts such as RTOL, STOL and VTOL have the largest impact in the high density markets. This paper summarizes the results of NASA sponsored high density short haul air transportation systems studies and briefly reviews NASA sponsored advanced VTOL conceptual aircraft design studies. Trends in vehicle characteristics and operational requirements will be indicated in addition to economic suitability and impact on the community.

  19. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  20. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  1. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  2. Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and

  3. Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules G.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program were to achieve a 25 percent weight reduction, a 10 dB noise reduction, and a 5,000 hour mean time between removals (MTBR). A three engine Army Cargo Aircraft (ACA) of 85,000 pounds gross weight was used as the baseline. Preliminary designs were conducted of split path and split torque transmissions to evaluate weight, reliability, and noise. A split path gearbox was determined to be 23 percent lighter, greater than 10 dB quieter, and almost four times more reliable than the baseline two stage planetary design. Detail design studies were conducted of the chosen split path configuration, and drawings were produced of a 1/2 size gearbox consisting of a single engine path of the split path section. Fabrication and testing was then conducted on the 1/2 size gearbox. The 1/2 size gearbox testing proved that the concept of the split path gearbox with high reduction ratio double helical output gear was sound. The improvements were attributed to extensive use of composites, spring clutches, advanced high hot hardness gear steels, the split path configuration itself, high reduction ratio, double helical gearing on the output stage, elastomeric load sharing devices, and elimination of accessory drives.

  4. Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Jules G.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program were to achieve a 25 percent weight reduction, a 10 dB noise reduction, and a 5,000 hour mean time between removals (MTBR). A three engine Army Cargo Aircraft (ACA) of 85,000 pounds gross weight was used as the baseline. Preliminary designs were conducted of split path and split torque transmissions to evaluate weight, reliability, and noise. A split path gearbox was determined to be 23 percent lighter, greater than 10 dB quieter, and almost four times more reliable than the baseline two stage planetary design. Detail design studies were conducted of the chosen split path configuration, and drawings were produced of a 1/2 size gearbox consisting of a single engine path of the split path section. Fabrication and testing was then conducted on the 1/2 size gearbox. The 1/2 size gearbox testing proved that the concept of the split path gearbox with high reduction ratio double helical output gear was sound. The improvements were attributed to extensive use of composites, spring clutches, advanced high hot hardness gear steels, the split path configuration itself, high reduction ratio, double helical gearing on the output stage, elastomeric load sharing devices, and elimination of accessory drives.

  5. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts were evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy materials are now under development.

  6. Advanced textile applications for primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Anthony C.; Barrie, Ronald E.; Shah, Bharat M.; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced composite primary structural concepts have been evaluated for low cost, damage tolerant structures. Development of advanced textile preforms for fuselage structural applications with resin transfer molding and powder epoxy material is now under development.

  7. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  8. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  9. Potential for Landing Gear Noise Reduction on Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Nickol, Craig L.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The potential of significantly reducing aircraft landing gear noise is explored for aircraft configurations with engines installed above the wings or the fuselage. An innovative concept is studied that does not alter the main gear assembly itself but does shorten the main strut and integrates the gear in pods whose interior surfaces are treated with acoustic liner. The concept is meant to achieve maximum noise reduction so that main landing gears can be eliminated as a major source of airframe noise. By applying this concept to an aircraft configuration with 2025 entry-into-service technology levels, it is shown that compared to noise levels of current technology, the main gear noise can be reduced by 10 EPNL dB, bringing the main gear noise close to a floor established by other components such as the nose gear. The assessment of the noise reduction potential accounts for design features for the advanced aircraft configuration and includes the effects of local flow velocity in and around the pods, gear noise reflection from the airframe, and reflection and attenuation from acoustic liner treatment on pod surfaces and doors. A technical roadmap for maturing this concept is discussed, and the possible drag increase at cruise due to the addition of the pods is identified as a challenge, which needs to be quantified and minimized possibly with the combination of detailed design and application of drag reduction technologies.

  10. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  11. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  12. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  13. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.P.; Lopez-Ortiz, A.; White, J.D.; Groves, F.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is the direct production of elemental sulfur during the regeneration of high temperature desulfurization sorbents. Three possible regeneration concepts were identified as a result of a literature search. The potential for elemental sulfur production from a number of candidate metal oxide sorbents using each regeneration concept was evaluated on the basis of a thermodynamic analysis. Two candidate sorbents, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} were chosen for experimental testing. The experimental test program using both electrobalance and fixed-bed reactor sis now getting underway. The objective is to determine reaction conditions--temperature, pressure, space velocity, and regeneration feed gas composition--which will maximize the yield of elemental sulfur in the regeneration product gas. Experimental results are to be used to define a conceptual desulfurization-regeneration process and to provide a preliminary economic evaluation.

  14. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  15. An advanced maintenance free aircraft battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, J.; Green, J.; Kulin, T.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an advanced aircraft battery system designed to provide 20 years of maintenance free operation with the flexibility for use on all US Air Force aircraft. System, battery, and charger/analyzer requirements are identified. The final design approach and test results are also presented. There are two general approaches to reduce the maintenance cost of batteries. One approach is to develop a disposable battery system, such that after some time interval the battery is simply replaced. The other approach, the subject of this paper, is to develop a battery that does not require any scheduled maintenance for the design life of the aircraft. This approach is currently used in spacecraft applications where battery maintenance is not practical.

  16. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  17. Introduction to Advanced Engine Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjay, Garg

    2007-01-01

    With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet these challenges through the concept of Intelligent Propulsion Systems. The key enabling technologies for an Intelligent Propulsion System are the increased efficiencies of components through active control, advanced diagnostics and prognostics integrated with intelligent engine control to enhance operational reliability and component life, and distributed control with smart sensors and actuators in an adaptive fault tolerant architecture. This presentation describes the current activities of the Controls and Dynamics Branch in the areas of active component control and propulsion system intelligent control, and presents some recent analytical and experimental results in these areas.

  18. Status of Advanced Stitched Unitized Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise levels. The primary structural concept being developed under the ERA project in the Airframe Technology element is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. This paper describes how researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop fundamental PRSEUS technologies that could someday be implemented on a transport size aircraft with high aspect ratio wings or unconventional shapes such as a hybrid wing body airplane design.

  19. Advanced Terrain Displays for Transport Category Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Map Displays, Terrain Displays, DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC THROUGH Pilo t Performance, THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE , Cockp •t...DOT/FAA/RD-9214 Advanced Terran Wigays DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-4 frTaaotCta Research and Development Servic fo rasor atgr Washington, DC 20591 Aircraft...U.S. Department of Transportation Final Report Federal Aviation Administration January 1991-Sept. 1991 Research and Development Service Washington, DC

  20. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  1. Advanced sulfur control concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1995-11-01

    Regenerable metal oxide sorbents, such as zinc titanate, are being developed to efficiently remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gas in advanced power systems. Dilute air regeneration of the sorbents produces a tailgas containing a few percent sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur with a coal gas slipstream using the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) is a leading first-generation technology. Currently the DSRP is undergoing field testing at gasifier sites. The objective of this study is to develop second-generation processes that produce elemental sulfur without coal gas or with limited use. Novel approaches that were evaluated to produce elemental sulfur from sulfided sorbents include (1) sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) regeneration, (2) substoichiometric (partial) oxidation, (3) steam regeneration followed by H{sub 2}S oxidation, and (4) steam-air regeneration. Preliminary assessment of these approaches indicated that developing SO{sub 2} regeneration faced the fewest technical and economic problems among the four process options. Elemental sulfur is the only likely product of SO{sub 2} regeneration and the SO{sub 2} required for the regeneration can be obtained by burning a portion of the sulfur produced. Experimental efforts have thus been concentrated on SO{sub 2}-based regeneration processes. Results from laboratory investigations are presented and discussed.

  2. Research Opportunities in Advanced Aerospace Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Bangert, Linda S.; Garber, Donald P.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McKinley, Robert E.; Sutton, Kenneth; Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Weinstein, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    This report is a review of a team effort that focuses on advanced aerospace concepts of the 21st Century. The paper emphasis advanced technologies, rather than cataloging every unusual aircraft that has ever been attempted. To dispel the myth that "aerodynamics is a mature science" an extensive list of "What we cannot do, or do not know" was enumerated. A zeit geist, a feeling for the spirit of the times, was developed, based on existing research goals. Technological drivers and the constraints that might influence these technological developments in a future society were also examined. The present status of aeronautics, space exploration, and non-aerospace applications, both military and commercial, including enabling technologies are discussed. A discussion of non-technological issues affecting advanced concepts research is presented. The benefit of using the study of advanced vehicles as a tool to uncover new directions for technology development is often necessary. An appendix is provided containing examples of advanced vehicle configurations currently of interest.

  3. Evaluation of an Aircraft Concept With Over-Wing, Hydrogen-Fueled Engines for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Olson, Erik D.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A strut-braced wing configuration with overwing, ultra-high bypass ratio, hydrogen fueled turbofan engines is considered. Estimated noise and emission characteristics are compared to a conventional configuration designed for the same mission and significant benefits are identified. The design challenges and technology issues which would have to be addressed to make the concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program seeks to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify enabling advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  4. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  5. Human-centered aircraft automation: A concept and guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft automation is examined and its effects on flight crews. Generic guidelines are proposed for the design and use of automation in transport aircraft, in the hope of stimulating increased and more effective dialogue among designers of automated cockpits, purchasers of automated aircraft, and the pilots who must fly those aircraft in line operations. The goal is to explore the means whereby automation may be a maximally effective tool or resource for pilots without compromising human authority and with an increase in system safety. After definition of the domain of the aircraft pilot and brief discussion of the history of aircraft automation, a concept of human centered automation is presented and discussed. Automated devices are categorized as a control automation, information automation, and management automation. The environment and context of aircraft automation are then considered, followed by thoughts on the likely future of automation of that category.

  6. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  7. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  8. Evaluation of laminar flow control systems concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings and reduced direct operating cost benefits would result from using LFC.

  9. Development of Stitched Composite Structure for Advanced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn; Przekop, Adam; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew; Velicki, Alex; Linton, Kim; Wu, Hsi-Yung; Baraja, Jaime; Thrash, Patrick; Hoffman, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop technologies which will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composites. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building blocks were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. These building blocks addressed tension, compression, and pressure loading conditions. The emphasis of the development work has been to assess the loading capability, damage arrestment features, repairability, post-buckling behavior, and response of PRSEUS flat panels to out-of plane pressure loading. The results of this building-block program from coupons through an 80%-scale pressure box have demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. This development program shows that the PRSEUS benefits are also applicable to traditional tube-andwing aircraft, those of advanced configurations, and other

  10. Advanced emergency openings for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Explosively actuated openings in composite panels are proposed to enhance passenger survivability within commercial aircraft by providing improvements in emergency openings, fuselage venting, and fuel dump. The concept is to embed a tiny, highly stable explosive cord in the periphery of a load-carrying composite panel; on initiation of the cord, the panel is fractured to create a well-defined opening. The panel would be installed in the sides of the fuselage for passenger egress, in the top of the fuselage for smoke venting, and in the bottoms of the fuel cells for fuel dump. Described are the concerns with the use of explosive systems, safety improvements, advantages, experimental results, and recommended approach to gain acceptance and develop this concept.

  11. Evaluation of advanced airship concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joner, B. A.; Schneider, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A historical overview of the airship, technical and operational characteristics of conventional and hybrid concepts, and the results of a parametric design analysis and evaluation are presented. The lift capabilities of certain buoyant fluids for a hypothetical 16 million cu.ft. volume airship are compared. The potential advanced airship concepts are surveyed, followed by a discussion of the six configurations: conventional nonrigid, conventional rigid, Deltoid (Dynairship), Guppoid (Megalifter), Helipsoid, and Heli-Stat. It is suggested that a partially buoyant Helipsoid concept of the optimum buoyancy ratio has the potential to solve the problems facing future airship development, such as Ballast and Ballast Recovery System, Full Low-Speed Controllability, Susceptibility to Wind/Gusting, Weather/Icing Constraints, Ground Handling/Hangaring, and Direct/Indirect Operating Costs.

  12. Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

  13. Advanced composite combustor structural concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sattar, M. A.; Lohmann, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to assess the feasibility of and benefits derived from the use of high temperature composite materials in aircraft turbine engine combustor liners. The study included a survey and screening of the properties of three candidate composite materials including tungsten reinforced superalloys, carbon-carbon and silicon carbide (SiC) fibers reinforcing a ceramic matrix of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS). The SiC-LAS material was selected as offering the greatest near term potential primarily on the basis of high temperature capability. A limited experimental investigation was conducted to quantify some of the more critical mechanical properties of the SiC-LAS composite having a multidirection 0/45/-45/90 deg fiber orientation favored for the combustor linear application. Rigorous cyclic thermal tests demonstrated that SiC-LAS was extremely resistant to the thermal fatigue mechanisms that usually limit the life of metallic combustor liners. A thermal design study led to the definition of a composite liner concept that incorporated film cooled SiC-LAS shingles mounted on a Hastelloy X shell. With coolant fluxes consistent with the most advanced metallic liner technology, the calculated hot surface temperatures of the shingles were within the apparent near term capability of the material. Structural analyses indicated that the stresses in the composite panels were low, primarily because of the low coefficient of expansion of the material and it was concluded that the dominant failure mode of the liner would be an as yet unidentified deterioration of the composite from prolonged exposure to high temperature. An economic study, based on a medium thrust size commercial aircraft engine, indicated that the SiC-LAS combustor liner would weigh 22.8N (11.27 lb) less and cost less to manufacture than advanced metallic liner concepts intended for use in the late 1980's.

  14. The X-31 aircraft: Advances in aircraft agility and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, C. W.; Croom, M. A.; Francis, M. S.; Ross, H.

    1996-08-01

    The X-31 enhanced fighter maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator has pioneered agile flight in the post-stall flight regime and explored integrated multi-axis thrust vectoring across a broad flight envelope. Its maneuvering achievements include sustained flight up to 70 degrees angle of attack, velocity vector rolls in deep post-stall conditions, and post-stall turns from high entry to exit speeds with ultra low turning/transitional conditions. The concept of post-stall maneuverability was extensively studied in simulations preceding initiation of the X-31 program. These simulations provided a baseline for tactical utility demonstrations and vehicle design requirements. Post-stall maneuverability was not achieved without encountering and mitigating the effects of highly unsteady, asymmetric, vortex-dominated flow-fields associated with post-stall flight. Anomalies in vehicle response to control inputs were observed at high angles of attack, as were differences between simulator and actual flight parameters due to a misrepresentation of the effects of these complex flowfields. Some preliminary force and moment data for the X-31 configuration during dynamic maneuvers are provided to highlight the complex nature of the flowfield. The X-31 aircraft's enabling capabilities, including multi-axis thrust vectoring and integrated flight/propulsion control also provided performance enhancements across the entire flight envelope. In what were known as ‘quasi-tailless’ experiments, conventional aerodynamic control surfaces were used to reduce or eliminate the stabilizing influence of the vertical stabilizer, while the vehicle's multi-axis thrust vectoring capability was used for restabilization. Properly exploited, these technologies can lead to the reduction or elimination of traditional aerodynamic control surfaces, which provides profound improvements in vehicle range, weight, payload, and low observability. This review focuses on some of the principal aerodynamic issues

  15. Advanced concepts flight simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Chappell, S L; Sexton, G A

    1986-12-01

    The cockpit environment is changing rapidly. New technology allows airborne computerised information, flight automation and data transfer with the ground. By 1995, not only will the pilot's task have changed, but also the tools for doing that task. To provide knowledge and direction for these changes, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lockheed-Georgia Company have completed three identical Advanced Concepts Flight Simulation Facilities. Many advanced features have been incorporated into the simulators - e g, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays of flight and systems information operated via touch-screen or voice, print-outs of clearances, cockpit traffic displays, current databases containing navigational charts, weather and flight plan information, and fuel-efficient autopilot control from take-off to touchdown. More importantly, this cockpit is a versatile test bed for studying displays, controls, procedures and crew management in a full-mission context. The facility also has an air traffic control simulation, with radio and data communications, and an outside visual scene with variable weather conditions. These provide a veridical flight environment to evaluate accurately advanced concepts in flight stations.

  16. Advanced aircraft ignition CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Conventional commercial and military turbo-jet aircraft engines use capacitive discharge ignition systems to initiate fuel combustion. The fuel-rich conditions required to ensure engine re-ignition during flight yield less than optimal engine performance, which in turn reduces fuel economy and generates considerable pollution in the exhaust. Los Alamos investigated two approaches to advanced ignition: laser based and microwave based. The laser based approach is fuel ignition via laser-spark breakdown and via photo-dissociation of fuel hydrocarbons and oxygen. The microwave approach involves modeling, and if necessary redesigning, a combustor shape to form a low-Q microwave cavity, which will ensure microwave breakdown of the air/fuel mixture just ahead of the nozzle with or without a catalyst coating. This approach will also conduct radio-frequency (RF) heating of ceramic elements that have large loss tangents. Replacing conventional systems with either of these two new systems should yield combustion in leaner jet fuel/air mixtures. As a result, the aircraft would operate with (1) considerable less exhaust pollution, (2) lower engine maintenance, and (3) significantly higher fuel economy.

  17. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  18. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  19. NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassanova, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) is to provide an independent, open forum for the external analysis and definition of space and aeronautics advanced concepts to complement the advanced concepts activities conducted within the NASA Enterprises. The NIAC will issue Calls for Proposals during each year of operation and will select revolutionary advanced concepts for grant or contract awards through a peer review process. Final selection of awards will be with the concurrence of NASA's Chief Technologist. The operation of the NIAC is reviewed biannually by the NIAC Science, Exploration and Technology Council (NSETC) whose members are drawn from the senior levels of industry and universities. The process of defining the technical scope of the initial Call for Proposals was begun with the NIAC "Grand Challenges" workshop conducted on May 21-22, 1998 in Columbia, Maryland. These "Grand Challenges" resulting from this workshop became the essence of the technical scope for the first Phase I Call for Proposals which was released on June 19, 1998 with a due date of July 31, 1998. The first Phase I Call for Proposals attracted 119 proposals. After a thorough peer review, prioritization by NIAC and technical concurrence by NASA, sixteen subgrants were awarded. The second Phase I Call for Proposals was released on November 23, 1998 with a due date of January 31, 1999. Sixty-three (63) proposals were received in response to this Call. On December 2-3, 1998, the NSETC met to review the progress and future plans of the NIAC. The next NSETC meeting is scheduled for August 5-6, 1999. The first Phase II Call for Proposals was released to the current Phase I grantees on February 3,1999 with a due date of May 31, 1999. Plans for the second year of the contract include a continuation of the sequence of Phase I and Phase II Calls for Proposals and hosting the first NIAC Annual Meeting and USRA/NIAC Technical Symposium in NASA HQ.

  20. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is presented of three separate programs that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of a span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel.

  1. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  2. Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) Concept and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The AVOSS goal is to: (1) Support TAP goal of improving instrument operations capacity 12-15% while maintaining safety; (2) Provide dynamical aircraft wake vortex spacing criteria to ATC systems at capacity limited facilities with required lead time and stability for use in establishing aircraft arrival scheduling; and (3) System development and concept demonstration. The AVOSS system concept is to separate aircraft from encounters with wake vortices of an operationally unacceptable strength. In doing so, define protected corridor from outer marker to runway and predict time for vortex to clear ("Transport Time"), define operationally unacceptable wake strength and predict time to decay ("Decay Time"), combine and provide to ATC automation ("Residence Time"), and monitor safety and provide predictor feedback with wake vortex detection subsystem.

  3. Human factors of advanced technology (glass cockpit) transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year study of airline crews at two U.S. airlines who were flying an advanced technology aircraft, the Boeing 757 is discussed. The opinions and experiences of these pilots as they view the advanced, automated features of this aircraft, and contrast them with previous models they have flown are discussed. Training for advanced automation; (2) cockpit errors and error reduction; (3) management of cockpit workload; and (4) general attitudes toward cockpit automation are emphasized. The limitations of the air traffic control (ATC) system on the ability to utilize the advanced features of the new aircraft are discussed. In general the pilots are enthusiastic about flying an advanced technology aircraft, but they express mixed feelings about the impact of automation on workload, crew errors, and ability to manage the flight.

  4. CJ concept for advanced aircraft wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redslob, J.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques and hardware are described which were developed for facilitating the use of flexible flat conductor cable (FFCC) in commercial air transports. The system was designed as an evolutionary transition from the current round wire harnessing to the use of FFCC harnesses. The equipment discussed includes the pressure crimp barrel designed for terminating FFCC, reel-fed applicator, cable connectors and adaptors, and equipment racks.

  5. Preliminary Sizing of 120-Passenger Advanced Civil Rotorcraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanAken, Johannes M.; Sinsay, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a preliminary sizing study of advanced civil rotorcraft concepts that are capable of carrying 120 passengers over a range of 1,200 nautical miles are presented. The cruise altitude of these rotorcraft is 30,000 ft and the cruise velocity is 350 knots. The mission requires a hover capability, creating a runway independent solution, which might aid in reducing strain on the existing airport infrastructure. Concepts studied are a tiltrotor, a tandem rotor compound, and an advancing blade concept. The first objective of the study is to determine the relative merits of these designs in terms of mission gross weight, engine size, fuel weight, aircraft purchase price, and direct operating cost. The second objective is to identify the enabling technology for these advanced heavy lift civil rotorcraft.

  6. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  7. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  8. Concept for Space Technology Advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeremiah J.

    2005-02-01

    The space industry is based on an antiquated concept of disposable rockets, earth construction, and non-repairable satellites. Current space vehicle concepts hearken from a time of Cold War animosity and expeditiousness. Space systems are put together in small, single-purpose chunks that are launched with mighty, single-use rockets. Spacecraft need to change to a more versatile, capable, reusable, and mission efficient design. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that President Bush put forward in his space initiative on Jan. 14, 2004 is a small first step. But like all first steps, the risk of eventual failure is great without a complementary set of steps, a reliable handhold, and a goal, which are outlined in this paper. The system for space access and development needs to be overhauled to allow for the access to space to complement the building in space, which promotes the production of goods in space, which enhances the exploitation of space resources… and the list goes on. Without supplemental and complementary infrastructure, all political, scientific, and idealistic endeavors to explore and exploit the near solar system will result in quagmires of failures and indecision. Renewed focus on fundamentals, integration, total-system consideration, and solid engineering can avoid catastrophe. Mission success, simple solutions, mission efficiency, and proper testing all seem to have been lost in the chase for the nickels and dimes. These items will increase capabilities available from a system or combination of systems. New propulsion options and materials will enable vehicles previously unachievable. Future spacecraft should exploit modular designs for repeatability and reduced cost. Space construction should use these modular systems on major components built in orbit. All vehicles should apply smart designs and monitoring systems for increased reliability and system awareness. Crew safety systems must use this awareness in alerting the crew, aiding collision

  9. Display-based communications for advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    The next generation of civil transport aircraft will depend increasingly upon ground-air-ground and satellite data link for information critical to safe and efficient air transportation. Previous studies which examined the concept of display-based communications in addition to, or in lieu of, conventional voice transmissions are reviewed. A full-mission flight simulation comparing voice and display-based communication modes in an advanced transport aircraft is also described. The results indicate that a display-based mode of information transfer does not result in significantly increased aircrew workload, but does result in substantially increased message acknowledgment times when compared to conventional voice transmissions. User acceptance of the display-based communication system was generally high, replicating the findings of previous studies. However, most pilots tested expressed concern over the potential loss of information available from frequency monitoring which might result from the introduction of discrete address communications. Concern was expressed by some pilots for the reduced time available to search for conflicting traffic when using the communications display system. The implications of the findings for the design of display-based communications are discussed.

  10. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  11. Advances in aircraft design: Multiobjective optimization and a markup language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shubhangi

    Today's modern aerospace systems exhibit strong interdisciplinary coupling and require a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach. Analysis methods that were once considered feasible only for advanced and detailed design are now available and even practical at the conceptual design stage. This changing philosophy for conducting conceptual design poses additional challenges beyond those encountered in a low fidelity design of aircraft. This thesis takes some steps towards bridging the gaps in existing technologies and advancing the state-of-the-art in aircraft design. The first part of the thesis proposes a new Pareto front approximation method for multiobjective optimization problems. The method employs a hybrid optimization approach using two derivative free direct search techniques, and is intended for solving blackbox simulation based multiobjective optimization problems with possibly nonsmooth functions where the analytical formof the objectives is not known and/or the evaluation of the objective function(s) is very expensive (very common in multidisciplinary design optimization). A new adaptive weighting scheme is proposed to convert a multiobjective optimization problem to a single objective optimization problem. Results show that the method achieves an arbitrarily close approximation to the Pareto front with a good collection of well-distributed nondominated points. The second part deals with the interdisciplinary data communication issues involved in a collaborative mutidisciplinary aircraft design environment. Efficient transfer, sharing, and manipulation of design and analysis data in a collaborative environment demands a formal structured representation of data. XML, a W3C recommendation, is one such standard concomitant with a number of powerful capabilities that alleviate interoperability issues. A compact, generic, and comprehensive XML schema for an aircraft design markup language (ADML) is proposed here to provide a common language for data

  12. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  13. NASA advanced turboprop research and concept validation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, John B., Jr.; Sievers, G. Keith

    1988-01-01

    NASA has determined by experimental and analytical effort that use of advanced turboprop propulsion instead of the conventional turbofans in the older narrow-body airline fleet could reduce fuel consumption for this type of aircraft by up to 50 percent. In cooperation with industry, NASA has defined and implemented an Advanced Turboprop (ATP) program to develop and validate the technology required for these new high-speed, multibladed, thin, swept propeller concepts. This paper presents an overview of the analysis, model-scale test, and large-scale flight test elements of the program together with preliminary test results, as available.

  14. Evaluation of Laminar Flow Control System Concepts for Subsonic Commercial Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives in the design of laminar flow control (LFC) subsonic commerical transport aircraft for opeation in the 1980's period were studied. Analyses were conducted to select mission parameters and define optimum aircraft configurational parameters for the selected mission, defined by a passenger payload of 400 and a design range of 12, 038 km (6500 n mi). The baseline aircraft developed for this mission was used as a vehicle for the evaluation and development of alternative LFC system concepts. Alternatices in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials, LFC systems, leading-edge region cleaning, and integration of auxiliary systems were studied. Relative to a similarly-optimized advanced technology turbulent transport, the final LFC configuration is approximately equal in DOC but provides descreases of 8.2% in gross weight and 21.7% in fuel consumption.

  15. Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES). Phase 1. Concept. Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    63 6-3 Schematic Layout of the York Fiber- Optic DTS System... optic thermal detection system. XS Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations (ACES) Final Report II N ’(0) 1 ( .i...fiber optic (York) 2.1 (OBECTIVES OF STUDY S;ivo n Imoli.0it ,moke, fire emergency: The oh1cctivc tf the ACES study was to develop two system concepts

  16. Two blowing concepts for roll and lateral control of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavella, D. A.; Wood, N. J.; Lee, C. S.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    Two schemes to modulate aerodynamic forces for roll and lateral control of aircraft have been investigated. The first scheme, called the lateral blowing concept, consists of thin jets of air exiting spanwise, or at small angle with the spanwise direction, from slots at the tips of straight wings. For this scheme, in addition to experimental measurements, a theory was developed showing the analytical relationship between aerodynamic forces and jet and wing parameters. Experimental results confirmed the theoretically derived scaling laws. The second scheme, which was studied experimentally, is called the jet spoiler concept and consists of thin jets exiting normally to the wing surface from slots aligned with the spanwise direction.

  17. Advanced methods of structural and trajectory analysis for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the efforts in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of trajectory optimization. The majority of the effort was spent in the structural weight area. A draft of 'Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft', resulting from this research, is included as an appendix.

  18. Applications of advanced electric/electronic technology to conventional aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbold, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The desirability of seven advanced technologies as applied to three commercial aircraft of 1985 to 1995 was investigated. Digital fly by wire, multiplexing, ring laser gyro, integrated avionics, all electric airplane, electric load management, and fiber optics were considered for 500 passenger, 50 passenger, and 30 passenger aircraft. The major figure of merit used was Net Value of Technology based on procurement and operating cost over the life of the aircraft. An existing computer program, ASSET, was used to resize the aircraft and evalute fuel usage and maintenance costs for each candidate configuration. Conclusions were that, for the 500 passenger aircraft, all candidates had a worthwhile payoff with the all electric airplane having a large payoff.

  19. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  20. Advanced Low NOx Combustors for Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; White, D. J.; Shekleton, J. R.; Butze, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A test rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating and minimizing the exhaust emissions, in particular NOx, of two advanced aircraft combustor concepts at a simulated high-altitude cruise condition. The two pre-mixed, lean-reaction designs are known as the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) combustor and the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) combustor and were rig tested in the form of reverse flow can combustors in the 0.13 ni (5.0 in. ) size range. Various configuration modifications were applied to the JIC and VAB combustor designs in an effort to reduce the emissions levels. The VAB combustor demonstrated a NOx level of 1.11 gm NO2/kg fuel with essentially 100 percent combustion efficiency at the simulated cruise combustor condition of 507 kPa (5 atm), 833 K (1500 R), inlet pressure and temperature respectively, and 1778 K (3200 R) outlet temperature on Jet-Al fuel. These configuration screening tests were carried out on essentially reaction zones only, in order to simplify the construction and modification of the combustors and to uncouple any possible effects on the emissions produced by the dilution flow. Tests were also conducted however at typical engine idle conditions on both combustors equipped with dilution ports in order to better define the problem areas involved in the operation of such concepts over a complete engine operational envelope. Versions of variable-geometry, JIC and VAB annular combustors are proposed.

  1. Energy and Economic Trade Offs for Advanced Technology Subsonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Composite materials may raise aspect radio to about 11 to 12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  2. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Advanced technology program recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of the application of advanced technology to future transport aircraft were investigated. The noise reduction goals established by the CARD (Civil Aviation Research and Development) study for the 1981-1985 time period can be satisfied. Reduced terminal area and airway congestion can result from use of advanced on-board systems and operating procedures. The use of advanced structural design concepts can result in greatly reduced gross weight and improved operating economics. The full potential of these benefits can be realized in a 1985 airplane by implementing a research and development program that is funded to an average level of approximately $55 million per year over a ten year period.

  3. The development and evaluation of advanced technology laminar-flow-control subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of applying laminar flow control (LFC) to the wings and empennage of long-range subsonic transport aircraft for initial operation in 1985. For a design mission range of 5500 n mi, advanced technology LFC and turbulent-flow aircraft were developed for a 200-passenger payload, and compared on the basis of production costs, direct operating costs, and fuel efficiency. Parametric analyses were conducted to establish optimum geometry, advanced system concepts were evaluated, and configuration variations maximizing the effectiveness of LFC were developed. The final comparisons include consideation of maintenance costs and procedures, manufacturing costs and procedures, and operational considerations peculiar to LFC aircraft.

  4. Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate alternatives in the design of laminar flow control (LFC) subsonic commercial transport aircraft for operation in the 1980's period. Analyses were conducted to select mission parameters and define optimum aircraft configurational parameters for the selected mission, defined by a passenger payload of 400 and a design range of 12,038 km (6500 n mi). The baseline aircraft developed for this mission was used as a vehicle for the evaluation and development of alternative LFC system concepts. Alternatives were evaluated in the areas of aerodynamics structures, materials, LFC systems, leading-edge region cleaning and integration of auxiliary systems. Based on these evaluations, concept in each area were selected for further development and testing and ultimate incorporation in the final study aircraft. Relative to a similarly-optimized advanced technology turbulent transport, the final LFC configuration is approximately equal in direct operating cost but provides decreases of 8.2% in gross weight and 21.7% in fuel consumption.

  5. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  6. Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Jorgensen, J.; Jun, I.; Maki, J. N.; McEwen, A. S.; Riedel, E.; Walch, M.; Watkins, M. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Advanced Pointing Imaging Camera (APIC) concept is envisioned as an integrated system, with optical bench and flight-proven components, designed for deep-space planetary missions with 2-DOF control capability.

  7. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  8. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  9. Concept for a large multi-mission amphibian aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. C., III; Earl, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    A very large aircraft has been proposed for meeting both civil cargo and military transport needs for 1995 and beyond. The concept includes a wide noncircular fuselage cross section with a low wing, thick inner wing section, fuselage-mounted engines, and an air cushion landing gear. The civil freighter operates independently of congested passenger airports, using sheltered water as a runway and a waterfront land site for parking and ground operations. The military transport can operate from a wide variety of surfaces and temporary bases. The air cushion landing gear weighs substantially less than conventional gear and permits the use of extended takeoff distance resulting in improved payload/gross weight ratio.

  10. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Metallic Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked metallic structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  11. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  12. Technologies and Concepts for Reducing the Fuel Burn of Subsonic Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.

    2012-01-01

    There are many technologies under development that have the potential to enable large fuel burn reductions in the 2025 timeframe for subsonic transport aircraft relative to the current fleet. This paper identifies a potential technology suite and analyzes the fuel burn reduction potential of these technologies when integrated into advanced subsonic transport concepts. Advanced tube-and-wing concepts are developed in the single aisle and large twin aisle class, and a hybrid-wing-body concept is developed for the large twin aisle class. The resulting fuel burn reductions for the advanced tube-and-wing concepts range from a 42% reduction relative to the 777-200 to a 44% reduction relative to the 737-800. In addition, the hybrid-wingbody design resulted in a 47% fuel burn reduction relative to the 777-200. Of course, to achieve these fuel burn reduction levels, a significant amount of technology and concept maturation is required between now and 2025. A methodology for capturing and tracking concept maturity is also developed and presented in this paper.

  13. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovil, D. V.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Desper, O. E.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, analysis, and testing activities and results that were required to produce five and one-half shipsets of advanced composite elevators for Boeing 727 aircraft are summarized. During the preliminary design period, alternative concepts were developed. After selection of the best design, detail design and basic configuration improvements were evaluated. Five and one-half shipsets were manufactured. All program goals (except competitive cost demonstration) were accomplished when our design met or exceeded all requirements, criteria, and objectives.

  14. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  15. Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controls for Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter; Garg, Sanjay

    1995-01-01

    The research vision of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the area of integrated flight and propulsion controls technologies is described. In particular the Integrated Method for Propulsion and Airframe Controls developed at the Lewis Research Center is described including its application to an advanced aircraft configuration. Additionally, future research directions in integrated controls are described.

  16. Terminal area considerations for an advanced CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Projected future conditions at large urban airports were used to identify design objectives for a long-haul, advanced transport airplane introduced for operation in the mid-1980s. Operating constraints associated with airport congestion and aircraft noise and emissions were of central interest. In addition, some of the interaction of these constraints with aircraft fuel usage were identified. The study allowed for advanced aircraft design features consistent with the future operating period. A baseline 200 passenger airplane design was modified to comply with design requirements imposed by terminal area constraints. Specific design changes included: (1) modification of engine arrangement; wing planform; (2) drag and spoiler surfaces; (3) secondary power systems; (4) brake and landing gear characteristics; and (5) the aircraft avionics. These changes, based on exploratory design estimates and allowing for technology advance, were judged to enable the airplane to: reduce wake turbulence; handle steeper descent paths with fewer limitation due to engine characteristics; reduce runway occupancy times; improve community noise contours; and reduce the total engine emittants deposited in the terminal area. The penalties to airplane performance and operating cost associated with improving the terminal area characteristics of the airplane were assessed. Finally, key research problems requiring solution in order to validate the assumed advanced airplane technology were identified.

  17. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  18. Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

  19. Advanced concepts in knee arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer H; Conway, Janet D

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to describe advanced strategies that can be used to diagnose and treat complications after knee arthrodesis and to describe temporary knee arthrodesis to treat infected knee arthroplasty. Potential difficult complications include nonunited knee arthrodesis, limb length discrepancy after knee arthrodesis, and united but infected knee arthrodesis. If a nonunited knee arthrodesis shows evidence of implant loosening or failure, then bone grafting the nonunion site as well as exchange intramedullary nailing and/or supplemental plate fixation are recommended. If symptomatic limb length discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily treated with a shoe lift, then the patient should undergo tibial lengthening over nail with a monolateral fixator or exchange nailing with a femoral internal lengthening device. If a united knee arthrodesis is infected, the nail must be removed. Then the surgeon has the option of replacing it with a long, antibiotic cement-coated nail. The authors also describe temporary knee arthrodesis for infected knee arthroplasty in patients who have the potential to undergo insertion of a new implant. The procedure has two goals: eradication of infection and stabilization of the knee. A temporary knee fusion can be accomplished by inserting both an antibiotic cement-coated knee fusion nail and a static antibiotic cement-coated spacer. These advanced techniques can be helpful when treating difficult complications after knee arthrodesis and treating cases of infected knee arthroplasty. PMID:25793160

  20. Simplified Aircraft-Based Paired Approach: Concept Definition and Initial Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Lohr, Gary W.; McKissick, Burnell T.; Abbott, Terence S.; Geurreiro, Nelson M.; Volk, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Simplified Aircraft-based Parallel Approach (SAPA) is an advanced concept proposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to support dependent parallel approach operations to runways with lateral spacing closer than 2500 ft. At the request of the FAA, NASA performed an initial assessment of the potential performance and feasibility of the SAPA concept, including developing and assessing an operational implementation of the concept and conducting a Monte Carlo wake simulation study to examine the longitudinal spacing requirements. The SAPA concept was shown to have significant operational advantages in supporting the pairing of aircraft with dissimilar final approach speeds. The wake simulation study showed that support for dissimilar final approach speeds could be significantly enhanced through the use of a two-phased altitudebased longitudinal positioning requirement, with larger longitudinal positioning allowed for higher altitudes out of ground effect and tighter longitudinal positioning defined for altitudes near and in ground effect. While this assessment is preliminary and there are a number of operational issues still to be examined, it has shown the basic SAPA concept to be technically and operationally feasible.

  1. Advanced fuel concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Despite their more stringent plasma heating and confinement requirements, advanced fuel (AF) fusion cycles potentially offer improved environmental compatibility and lower costs. This comes about by elimination of tritium breeding requirements and by a reduction in neutron flux (hence, activation and radiation damage). Also a larger energy fraction carried by charged particles makes direct energy conversion more suitable. As a first application, a symbiotic system of semi-catalyzed-deuterium fueled hybrid fuel factories, supplying both fissle fuel to light water reactors and /sup 3/He to D-/sup 3/He satellite fusion reactors, is proposed. Subsequently, an evolution into a system of synfuel factories with satellite D-/sup 3/He reactors is envisioned.

  2. Advanced LMMHD space power generation concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vincent; Wong, Albert; Kim, Kilyoo; Dhir, Vijay

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation concept has been proposed and studied worldwide as one of the future power generation sources. An advanced one fluid two phase liquid metal (LM) MHD power generation concept was developed for space nuclear power generation design. The concept employs a nozzle to accelerate the liquid metal coolant to an acceptable velocity with Mach number greater than unity. Such nozzle and the MHD power generator replace the turbogenerator of a high temperature Rankine turboelectric cycle concept. As a result, the power generation system contains no movable parts. This provides high reliability, which is a very important factor in space application.

  3. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  4. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  5. Technical and Economic Assessment of Span-Loaded Cargo Aircraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The benefits are assessed of span distributed loading concepts as applied to future commercial air cargo operations. A two phased program is used to perform this assessment. The first phase consists of selected parametric studies to define significant configuration, performance, and economic trends. The second phase consists of more detailed engineering design, analysis, and economic evaluations to define the technical and economic feasibility of a selected spanloader design. A conventional all-cargo aircraft of comparable technology and size is used as a comparator system. The technical feasibility is demonstrated of the spanloader concept with no new major technology efforts required to implement the system. However, certain high pay-off technologies such as winglets, airfoil design, and advanced structural materials and manufacturing techniques need refinement and definition prior to application. In addition, further structural design analysis could establish the techniques and criteria necessary to fully capitalize upon the high degree of structural commonality and simplicity inherent in the spanloader concept.

  6. Auralization of NASA N+2 Aircraft Concepts from System Noise Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russel H.

    2016-01-01

    Auralization of aircraft flyover noise provides an auditory experience that complements integrated metrics obtained from system noise predictions. Recent efforts have focused on auralization methods development, specifically the process by which source noise information obtained from semi-empirical models, computational aeroacoustic analyses, and wind tunnel and flight test data, are used for simulated flyover noise at a receiver on the ground. The primary focus of this work, however, is to develop full vehicle auralizations in order to explore the distinguishing features of NASA's N+2 aircraft vis-à-vis current fleet reference vehicles for single-aisle and large twin-aisle classes. Some features can be seen in metric time histories associated with aircraft noise certification, e.g., tone-corrected perceived noise level used in the calculation of effective perceived noise level. Other features can be observed in sound quality metrics, e.g., loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation strength and tone-to-noise ratio. A psychoacoustic annoyance model is employed to establish the relationship between sound quality metrics and noise certification metrics. Finally, the auralizations will serve as the basis for a separate psychoacoustic study aimed at assessing how well aircraft noise certification metrics predict human annoyance for these advanced vehicle concepts.

  7. Preliminary design studies of an advanced general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Ron; Demoss, Shane; Dirkzwager, AB; Evans, Darryl; Gomer, Charles; Keiter, Jerry; Knipp, Darren; Seier, Glen; Smith, Steve; Wenninger, ED

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary design results are presented of the advanced aircraft design project. The goal was to take a revolutionary look into the design of a general aviation aircraft. Phase 1 of the project included the preliminary design of two configurations, a pusher, and a tractor. Phase 2 included the selection of only one configuration for further study. The pusher configuration was selected on the basis of performance characteristics, cabin noise, natural laminar flow, and system layouts. The design was then iterated to achieve higher levels of performance.

  8. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  9. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  10. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  11. Advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Activities related to development of an advanced composites stabilizer for the Boeing 737 commercial transport are reported. Activities include discussion of criteria and objectives, design loads, the fatigue spectrum definition to be used for all spectrum fatigue testing, fatigue analysis, manufacturing producibility studies, the ancillary test program, quality assurance, and manufacturing development.

  12. Advanced Accelerator Concepts Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2014-05-13

    A major focus of research supported by this Grant has been on the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. We first trapped antihydrogen in 2010 and soon thereafter demonstrated trapping for 1000s. We now have observed resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen. These papers in Nature and Nature Physics report the major milestones in anti-atom trapping. The success was only achieved through careful work that advanced our understanding of collective dynamics in charged particle systems, the development of new cooling and diagnostics, and in- novation in understanding how to make physics measurements with small numbers of anti-atoms. This research included evaporative cooling, autoresonant excitation of longitudinal motion, and centrifugal separation. Antihydrogen trapping by ALPHA is progressing towards the point when a important theories believed by most to hold for all physical systems, such as CPT (Charge-Parity-Time) invariance and the Weak Equivalence Principle (matter and antimatter behaving the same way under the influence of gravity) can be directly tested in a new regime. One motivation for this test is that most accepted theories of the Big Bang predict that we should observe equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However astrophysicists have found very little antimatter in the universe. Our experiment will, if successful over the next seven years, provide a new test of these ideas. Many earlier detailed and beautiful tests have been made, but the trapping of neutral antimatter allows us to explore the possibility of direct, model-independent tests. Successful cooling of the anti atoms, careful limits on systematics and increased trapping rates, all planned for our follow-up experiment (ALPHA-II) will reach unrivaled precision. CPT invariance implies that the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen should be identical. Spectra can be measured in principle with great precision, and any di erences we might observe would revolutionize fundamental physics. This is the

  13. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  14. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  15. Development of Advanced Methods of Structural and Trajectory Analysis for Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the author describes: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of flight path optimization. A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT bas traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight.

  16. A contrarotative aircraft lifting concept for a future Titan mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duquesnay, P.; Coustenis, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Tavel, J.

    2008-09-01

    Titan has a thick and cold atmosphere (surface pressure 1.5 bar and surface temperature 94 K) and the surface gravity is about 1/7 of Earth's. Surface wind velocities are low. These unique characteristics make Titan's atmosphere an ideal place for an helicopter type of aircraft with vertical lift capability. Here we present a conceptual idea of a Titan helicopter designed as a student project. Two cases have been considered: a 100-kg helicopter and a 2-kg one. The concept is based on a contra-rotating double rotor. The device would be powered by a combination of rechargeable batteries and a low-power radioisotope source. The double rotor and the body of the helicopter would be protected by a mesh structure. It would carry a science payload at its base that would allow surface sampling and analysis each time it would land. During landing, it would also recharge its batteries to allow flying to the next stop. The concept has been inspired by studying modelaircraft- making devices. Various concepts developed for industrial and military applications have also been a source of inspiration. The following web sites were consulted: • www.onera.fr/conferences/drones • www.aurora.aero • www.sikorsky.com/sik/index.asp • www.microdrones.com The poster will present a preliminary design of the device. Its capability to contribute to the exploration of Titan's surface will be illustrated.

  17. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Launch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-09

    public release; distribution unlimited. PA Clearance Number XXXXX 22 Ideal Process LCA LMS Practical Process LTF None Net? Clear nCA nMS nTF...Advanced Propellants Concept Description Pros Eval. Cons Lithium-Fluorine-Hydrogen LCA LMS LTF nCA nMS nTF m TIsp ∝ •Low m usually low ρ...Air Breathing Concepts Concept Description Pros Eval. Cons X-51 WaveRider LCA LMS LTF nCA nMS nTF mox >> mpay •Multiple modes required

  18. Preliminary simulation of an advanced, hingless rotor XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcveigh, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of the tilt-rotor concept was verified through investigation of the performance, stability and handling qualities of the XV-15 tilt rotor. The rotors were replaced by advanced-technology fiberglass/composite hingless rotors of larger diameter, combined with an advanced integrated fly-by-wire control system. A parametric simulation model of the HRXV-15 was developed, model was used to define acceptable preliminary ranges of primary and secondary control schedules as functions of the flight parameters, to evaluate performance, flying qualities and structural loads, and to have a Boeing-Vertol pilot conduct a simulated flight test evaluation of the aircraft.

  19. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  20. Energy and economic trade offs for advanced technology subsonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.; Wagner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in future aircraft technology which conserve energy are studied, along with the effect of these changes on economic performance. Among the new technologies considered are laminar-flow control, composite materials with and without laminar-flow control, and advanced airfoils. Aircraft design features studied include high-aspect-ratio wings, thickness ratio, and range. Engine technology is held constant at the JT9D level. It is concluded that wing aspect ratios of future aircraft are likely to significantly increase as a result of new technology and the push of higher fuel prices. Whereas current airplanes have been designed for AR = 7, supercritical technology and much higher fuel prices will drive aspect ratio to the AR = 9-10 range. Composite materials may raise aspect ratio to about 11-12 and practical laminar flow-control systems may further increase aspect ratio to 14 or more. Advanced technology provides significant reductions in aircraft take-off gross weight, energy consumption, and direct operating cost.

  1. Advances in experimental mechanics for advanced aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Eddie W.

    1997-03-01

    The industrial requirement for higher efficiency, lean performance, airframe structures to form the basis of more cost effective Commercial Aircraft has encouraged developments in all aspects of aeronautical design and manufacture. Until recently the main emphasis has been in the area of computer and numerical analysis, however new developments in experimental mechanics are emerging as very powerful tools for use in the validation of numerical analyses and for primary stress analysis data. The developments described have been forced by economic drivers that address more efficient analysis techniques with respect to cost, specific weight and expended time for analysis.

  2. Advanced concepts and missions division publications, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This report is part of a series of annual papers on Advanced Concepts and Missions Division (ACMD) publications. It contains a bibliography and corresponding abstract of all papers presented or published by personnel of ACMD during the calendar year 1971. Also included are abstracts of final reports ACMD contracted studies perfomed during this time period.

  3. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coussens, T. G.; Tullis, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits available by incorporation of advanced technologies into the small, short haul air transport were assessed. Low cost structure and advanced composite material, advanced turboprop engines and new propellers, advanced high lift systems and active controls; and alternate aircraft configurations with aft mounted engines were investigated. Improvements in fuel consumed and aircraft economics (acquisition cost and direct operating cost) are available by incorporating selected advanced technologies into the small, short haul aircraft.

  4. Advanced Multispectral Scanner (AMS) study. [aircraft remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The status of aircraft multispectral scanner technology was accessed in order to develop preliminary design specifications for an advanced instrument to be used for remote sensing data collection by aircraft in the 1980 time frame. The system designed provides a no-moving parts multispectral scanning capability through the exploitation of linear array charge coupled device technology and advanced electronic signal processing techniques. Major advantages include: 10:1 V/H rate capability; 120 deg FOV at V/H = 0.25 rad/sec; 1 to 2 rad resolution; high sensitivity; large dynamic range capability; geometric fidelity; roll compensation; modularity; long life; and 24 channel data acquisition capability. The field flattening techniques of the optical design allow wide field view to be achieved at fast f/nos for both the long and short wavelength regions. The digital signal averaging technique permits maximization of signal to noise performance over the entire V/H rate range.

  5. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  6. Overview of liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    An overall status report on liquid lubricants for use in high-performance turbojet engines is presented. Emphasis is placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is iven of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some nine candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Also, alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of of continuing work on improving high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of fluid base stocks is discussed.

  7. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, W.R.; Fusaro, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  8. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  9. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO/x/ emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments have been and continue to be sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NO/x/) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NO/x/ emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  10. Proposed research on advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes technical progress and accomplishments during the proposed three-year research on advanced accelerator concepts supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-FG02-88ER40465. A vigorous theoretical program has been pursued in critical problem areas related to advanced accelerator concepts and the basic equilibrium, stability, and radiation properties of intense charged particle beams. Broadly speaking, our research has made significant contributions in the following three major areas: Investigations of physics issues related to particle acceleration including two-beam accelerators and cyclotron resonance laser (CRL) accelerators; Investigations of RF sources including the free- electron lasers, cyclotron resonance masers, and relativistic magnetrons; Studies of coherent structures in electron plasmas and beams ranging from a low-density, nonrelativistic, pure electron plasma column to high-density, relativistic, non-neutral electron flow in a high-voltage diode. The remainder of this report presents theoretical and computational advances in these areas.

  11. Computation of the tip vortex flowfield for advanced aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Tommy M.; Dejong, Frederick J.; Levy, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The tip vortex flowfield plays a significant role in the performance of advanced aircraft propellers. The flowfield in the tip region is complex, three-dimensional and viscous with large secondary velocities. An analysis is presented using an approximate set of equations which contains the physics required by the tip vortex flowfield, but which does not require the resources of the full Navier-Stokes equations. A computer code was developed to predict the tip vortex flowfield of advanced aircraft propellers. A grid generation package was developed to allow specification of a variety of advanced aircraft propeller shapes. Calculations of the tip vortex generation on an SR3 type blade at high Reynolds numbers were made using this code and a parametric study was performed to show the effect of tip thickness on tip vortex intensity. In addition, calculations of the tip vortex generation on a NACA 0012 type blade were made, including the flowfield downstream of the blade trailing edge. Comparison of flowfield calculations with experimental data from an F4 blade was made. A user's manual was also prepared for the computer code (NASA CR-182178).

  12. Initial Assessment of Open Rotor Propulsion Applied to an Advanced Single-Aisle Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or propfans, to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation s environmental impact have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Unfortunately, in the two decades that have passed since open rotor concepts were thoroughly investigated, NASA has lost experience and expertise in this technology area. This paper describes initial efforts to re-establish NASA s capability to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion. Specifically, methodologies for aircraft-level sizing, performance analysis, and system-level noise analysis are described. Propulsion modeling techniques have been described in a previous paper. Initial results from application of these methods to an advanced single-aisle aircraft using open rotor engines based on historical blade designs are presented. These results indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicates that current noise regulations can be met with old blade designs and modern, noiseoptimized blade designs are expected to result in even lower noise levels. Although an initial capability has been established and initial results obtained, additional development work is necessary to make NASA s open rotor system analysis capability on par with existing turbofan analysis capabilities.

  13. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  14. Advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. F.; Davis, J. G., Jr.; Shideler, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The development of weight-saving advanced design concepts for shuttle airframe structure is presented. Design concepts under investigation employ selective composite reinforcement and/or efficient geometric arrangements. An effort to develop metallic panel designs which exploit the relaxation of smooth external-surface requirements for skin structure is reviewed. Available highlights from research and development studies which investigate the application of composite reinforcement to the design of two types of fuselage panels, a shear web, a large fuselage frame, and a landing-gear-door assembly are presented. Preliminary results from these studies suggest weight savings of 25 percent can be obtained.

  15. Advanced composite vertical fin for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    The structural box of the L-1011 vertical fin was redesigned using advanced composite materials. The box was fabricated and ground tested to verify the structural integrity. This report summarizes the complete program starting with the design and analysis and proceeds through the process development ancillary test program production readiness verification testing, fabrication of the full-scale fin boxes and the full-scale ground testing. The program showed that advanced composites can economically and effectively be used in the design and fabrication of medium primary structures for commercial aircraft. Static-strength variability was demonstrated to be comparable to metal structures and the long term durability of advanced composite components was demonstrated.

  16. Design of the advanced regional aircraft, the DART-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, Steve; Gislason, Jason; Huffstetler, Mark; Mann, Jon; Withers, Ashley; Zimmerman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The need for regional aircraft stems from the problem of hub airport congestion. Regional travel will allow a passenger to commute from one spoke city to another spoke city without entering the congested hub airport. In addition, those people traveling longer routes may begin the flight at home instead of traveling to the hub airport. At this time, there is no American aerospace company that produces a regional transport for under 100 passengers. The intention of the Developmental Advanced Regional Transport (DART-75) is to fill this void with a modern, efficient regional aircraft. This design achieves the efficiency through a number of advanced features including three lifting surfaces, partial composite construction, and an advanced engine design. Efficiency is not the only consideration. Structural integrity, fatigue life, ease of maintenance, passenger comfort and convenience, and environmental aspects must all be considered. These factors force the design team to face many tradeoffs that are studied to find the best solution. The final consideration that cannot be overlooked is that of cost. The DART-75 is a 75-passenger medium-range regional transport intended for spoke-to-spoke, spoke-to-hub, and some hub-to-hub operations. Included are the general descriptions of the structures, weight and balance, stability and control, performance, and engine design.

  17. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  18. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  19. Advanced composite vertical stabilizer for DC-10 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Structural design, tooling, fabrication, and test activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composite vertical stabilizer (CVS) for the DC 10 Commercial Transport Aircraft. Structural design details are described and the status of structural and weight analyses are reported. A structural weight reduction of 21.7% is currently predicted. Test results are discussed for sine wave stiffened shear webs containing representative of the CVS spar webs and for lightning current transfer and tests on a panel representative of the CVS skins.

  20. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D. G.; Brubaker, P. W.; Bryant, S. L.; Clay, C. W.; Giridharadas, B.; Hamamoto, M.; Kelly, T. J.; Proctor, D. K.; Myron, C. E.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a preliminary design study which investigates the use of selected advanced technologies to achieve low cost design for small (50-passenger), short haul (50 to 1000 mile) transports are reported. The largest single item in the cost of manufacturing an airplane of this type is labor. A careful examination of advanced technology to airframe structure was performed since one of the most labor-intensive parts of the airplane is structures. Also, preliminary investigation of advanced aerodynamics flight controls, ride control and gust load alleviation systems, aircraft systems and turbo-prop propulsion systems was performed. The most beneficial advanced technology examined was bonded aluminum primary structure. The use of this structure in large wing panels and body sections resulted in a greatly reduced number of parts and fasteners and therefore, labor hours. The resultant cost of assembled airplane structure was reduced by 40% and the total airplane manufacturing cost by 16% - a major cost reduction. With further development, test verification and optimization appreciable weight saving is also achievable. Other advanced technology items which showed significant gains are as follows: (1) advanced turboprop-reduced block fuel by 15.30% depending on range; (2) configuration revisions (vee-tail)-empennage cost reduction of 25%; (3) leading-edge flap addition-weight reduction of 2500 pounds.

  1. Recent advances in active control of aircraft cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, Gopal; Fuller, Christopher

    2002-11-01

    Active noise control techniques can provide significant reductions in aircraft interior noise levels without the structural modifications or weight penalties usually associated with passive techniques, particularly for low frequency noise. Our main objective in this presentation is to give a review of active control methods and their applications to aircraft cabin noise reduction with an emphasis on recent advances and challenges facing the noise control engineer in the practical application of these techniques. The active noise control method using secondary acoustic sources, e.g., loudspeakers, as control sources for tonal noise reduction is first discussed with results from an active noise control flight test demonstration. An innovative approach of applying control forces directly to the fuselage structure using piezoelectric actuators, known as active structural acoustic control (ASAC), to control cabin noise is then presented. Experimental results from laboratory ASAC tests conducted on a full-scale fuselage and from flight tests on a helicopter will be discussed. Finally, a hybrid active/passive noise control approach for achieving significant broadband noise reduction will be discussed. Experimental results of control of broadband noise transmission through an aircraft structure will be presented.

  2. ADWICE - Advanced Diagnosis and Warning system for aircraft ICing Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, C.; Hauf, T.; Tafferner, A.; Leykauf, H.

    2003-04-01

    Inflight icing is a serious hazard, as attested by recent crashes of aircraft. The number of world-wide known accidents and serious incidents in which icing played a major role exceeds 800. Obviously current protection systems and icing forecasting, the latter relying mostly on reported icing by pilots and the evaluation of radiosonde ascents, are inadequate to control the threat. Aircraft inflight icing occurs when areas of supercooled liquid cloud droplets or precipitation are traversed. Ice accumulation on aerodynamic surfaces causes modification of the aerodynamics of the aircraft up to the point of uncontrolled flight. The safest way and the recommended practise would be to avoid the icing conditions. This however requires the forecast of supercooled liquid water (SLWC) in clouds and complete ice microphysics model scheme. Since the forecast quality of SLWC still is insufficient to completely rely on that quality for forecasting aircraft icing, other methods are under development. They rely on algorithms which deduce the potential icing threat from measured (mainly radiosonde ascents) or forecast (numerical models) distributions of temperature and humidity. ADWICE, the Advanced Diagnosis and Warning System for aircraft ICing Environments, has been developed since 1998 in a joint cooperation between the Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre at DLR, the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimatologie (IMUK) at the University of Hannover. To identify icing environments, ADWICE merges forecast model data of the Local Model of the DWD with SYNOP and radar data. Using a slightly modified version of the NCAR/RAP algorithm, which is based on temperature and humidity fields, a first guess icing volume is calculated. Under certain conditions radar and SYNOP data allow corrections of the icing volume. Other data e.g. from satellites may be used in future, too. Since January 2001 ADWICE is running in a testing phase at the DWD. Using PIREPs

  3. An advanced manned launch system concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, H. W.; Piland, W. M.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage fully reusable rocked powered concept is defined and analyzed in detail for the Advanced Manned Launch System missions. The concept elements include a Mach 3 staging unmanned glideback booster and a 149-ft long winged orbiter with an external payload canister with a 15-ft diameter and 30-ft long payload bay. The booster and orbiter main propulsion system is a lightweight derivative of the current Space Shuttle Main Engine. The primary mission is the Space Station Freedom logistics mission, 40,000-lb payload with two crew members and eight passengers. The structural design and material selection, the thermal protection system, the integral cryogenic tanks and insulation, the propulsion system, and the modular payload canister system are described. The ground and flight operations approach analysis, the manufacturing and certification plan, and the technology development requirements are also discussed.

  4. Advanced Accelerator Concepts: Seventh Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; McCullough, J.; Dahl, P.

    1997-09-01

    These proceedings are based on the Seventh Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts held in October, 1996 at Lake Tahoe, California. This workshop was sponsored by the US Department of Energy(High Energy Physics Division, Advanced Technology Branch) and by the center for Beam Physics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. A wide range of applications was covered at the workshop, from high energy colliders to synchrotron radiation sources. This scope included topics such as new methods of particle acceleration, production of ultrahigh gradient electromagnetic fields, diagnostics and control of particle/photon beams in ultrashort dimensions and ultrafast time scales, and various energy and beam sources. There were 87 papers presented at the workshop and out of these, 65 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  5. Technical and economic assessment of span-distributed loading cargo aircraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, D. H.; Whitner, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary design study of the performance and economics resulting from the application of the distributed load concept to large freighter aircraft was made. The study was limited to configurations having the payload entirely contained in unswept wings of constant chord with conventional tail surfaces supported from the wing by twin booms. A parametric study based on current technology showed that increases in chord had a similar effect on the economics as increases in span. Increases in both span and chord or airplane size had the largest and most favorable effect. At 600,000 lbs payload a configuration was selected and refined to incorporate advanced technology that could be in production by 1990 and compared with a reference conventional airplane having similar technology.

  6. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Vertical attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, H. A.; Chen, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic technology for a vertical attitude VSTOL (VATOL) supersonic fighter/attack aircraft was studied. The selected configuration features a tailless clipped delta wing with leading-edge extension (LEX), maneuvering flaps, top-side inlet, twin dry engines and vectoring nozzles. A relaxed static stability is employed in conjunction with the maneuvering flaps to optimize transonic performance and minimize supersonic trim drag. Control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained by gimballing the nozzles in combination with wing tip jets. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel test program is proposed to resolve these uncertainties and ascertain the feasibility of the conceptual design. Ship interface, flight control integration, crew station concepts, advanced weapons, avionics, and materials are discussed.

  7. Development and testing of the Perseus proof-of-concept aircraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, J.S.

    1993-02-26

    Many areas of global climate change research could benefit from a flexible, affordable, and near-term platform that could provide in situ measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. To provide such a capability, the Perseus unmanned science research aircraft was proposed in 1989. As a first step toward the development of Perseus, a proof-of-concept (POC) demonstrator was constructed and tested during 1990 and 1991. The POC was a full scale Perseus airframe intended to validate the structural, aerodynamic, and flight control technologies for the Perseus within a total budget of about $1.5 million. Advanced propulsion systems needed for the operational Perseus were not covered in the POC program due to funding limitations. This report documents the design, development, and testing of the Perseus POC.

  8. The new low nitrogen steel LNS -- A material for advanced aircraft engine and aerospace bearing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, H.; Ebert, F.J.

    1998-12-31

    Development tendencies for future aircraft jet engines require new design concepts for rolling element bearings because of an overall increase of loads, temperatures, rotational speeds and the use of new high temperature lubricants. This paper reviews some of the key parameters which in the past led to the development and application of the known aircraft bearing steels such as M50, M50 NiL and recently Cronidur 30{reg_sign} (AMS 5898). The performance limits of the currently used aerospace bearing steels and the increasing demands on bearing performance for future aerospace applications gave the impact to the design of a new corrosion resistant steel grade of the nitrogen alloyed type, which is suitable for case hardening by nitrogen--the so called Low nitrogen steel (LNS). The development of the alloy (US pat. 5,503,797), the attainable properties and the corresponding heat treatment process are presented. Achievable hardness, case depth, residual stress pattern and corrosion resistance prove the new LNS to be a promising candidate for the next generation of aircraft engine bearings and for advanced, integrated bearing-gear-shaft design concepts.

  9. Status of noise technology for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in acoustic technology applicable to advanced supersonic cruise aircraft, particularly those which relate to jet noise and its suppression are reviewed. The noise reducing potential of high radius ratio, inverted velocity profile coannular jets is demonstrated by model scale results from a wide range of nozzle geometries, including some simulated flight cases. These results were verified statistically at large scale on a variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed. A preliminary assessment of potential VCE noise sources such as fan and core noise is made, based on the testbed data. Recent advances in the understanding of flight effects are reviewed. The status of component noise prediction methods is assessed on the basis of recent test data, and the remaining problem areas are outlined.

  10. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  11. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  12. A fuel conservation study for transport aircraft utilizing advanced technology and hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W.; Calleson, R.; Espil, J.; Quartero, C.; Swanson, E.

    1972-01-01

    The conservation of fossil fuels in commercial aviation was investigated. Four categories of aircraft were selected for investigation: (1) conventional, medium range, low take-off gross weight; (2) conventional, long range, high take-off gross weights; (3) large take-off gross weight aircraft that might find future applications using both conventional and advanced technology; and (4) advanced technology aircraft of the future powered with liquid hydrogen fuel. It is concluded that the hydrogen fueled aircraft can perform at reduced size and gross weight the same payload/range mission as conventionally fueled aircraft.

  13. ASME Material Challenges for Advanced Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Ali Siahpush

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the material Challenges associated with Advanced Reactor Concept (ARC) such as the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). ACR are the next generation concepts focusing on power production and providing thermal energy for industrial applications. The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The heat exchanger required for AHTR is subjected to a unique set of conditions that bring with them several design challenges not encountered in standard heat exchangers. The corrosive molten salts, especially at higher temperatures, require materials throughout the system to avoid corrosion, and adverse high-temperature effects such as creep. Given the very high steam generator pressure of the supercritical steam cycle, it is anticipated that water tube and molten salt shell steam generators heat exchanger will be used. In this paper, the ASME Section III and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section VIII requirements (acceptance criteria) are discussed. Also, the ASME material acceptance criteria (ASME Section II, Part D) for high temperature environment are presented. Finally, lack of ASME acceptance criteria for thermal design and analysis are discussed.

  14. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  15. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  16. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg.

  17. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  18. Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The

  19. Basic concepts of advanced MRI techniques.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Elisabetta; Bizzi, Alberto; Di Salle, Francesco; De Stefano, Nicola; Filippi, Massimo

    2008-10-01

    An overview is given of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques sensitized to diffusion, flow, magnetization transfer effect, and local field inhomogeneities induced by physiological changes, that can be viewed, in the clinical practice, as advanced because of their challenging implementation and interpretation. These techniques are known as diffusion-weighted, perfusion, magnetization transfer, functional MRI and MR spectroscopy. An important issue is that they can provide quantitative estimates of structural and functional characteristics that are below the voxel resolution. This review does not deal with the basic concepts of the MR physics and the description of the available acquisition and postprocessing methods, but hopefully provides an adequate background to readers and hence facilitate the understanding of the following clinical contributions.

  20. Advanced cockpit technology for future civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of advanced cockpit technology for future civil transport aircraft, covering the present state-of-the-art and major technologies, including flat-panel displays, graphics and pictorial displays. Pilot aiding/automation/human-centered design and imaging sensor/flight systems technology (for low-visibility operations) are also presented. NASA Langley Research Center's recent results in pictorial displays and on future developments in large-screen display technologies are discussed. Major characteristics foreseen for the future high-speed civil transport include fault-tolerant digital avionics and controls/displays with extensive human-centered automation, and unusually clean, uncluttered interface with natural crew interaction via touch, voice/tactile means.

  1. Computerized structural mechanics for 1990's: Advanced aircraft needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Backman, B. F.

    1989-01-01

    The needs for computerized structural mechanics (CSM) as seen from the standpoint of the aircraft industry are discussed. These needs are projected into the 1990's with special focus on the new advanced materials. Preliminary design/analysis, research, and detail design/analysis are identified as major areas. The role of local/global analyses in these different areas is discussed. The lessons learned in the past are used as a basis for the design of a CSM framework that could modify and consolidate existing technology and include future developments in a rational and useful way. A philosophy is stated, and a set of analyses needs driven by the emerging advanced composites is enumerated. The roles of NASA, the universities, and the industry are identified. Finally, a set of rational research targets is recommended based on both the new types of computers and the increased complexity the industry faces. Computerized structural mechanics should be more than new methods in structural mechanics and numerical analyses. It should be a set of engineering applications software products that combines innovations in structural mechanics, numerical analysis, data processing, search and display features, and recent hardware advances and is organized in a framework that directly supports the design process.

  2. Advanced Nacelle Acoustic Lining Concepts Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielak, G.; Gallman, J.; Kunze, R.; Murray, P.; Premo, J.; Kosanchick, M.; Hersh, A.; Celano, J.; Walker, B.; Yu, J.; Parrott, Tony L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The work reported in this document consisted of six distinct liner technology development subtasks: 1) Analysis of Model Scale ADP Fan Duct Lining Data (Boeing): An evaluation of an AST Milestone experiment to demonstrate 1995 liner technology superiority relative to that of 1992 was performed on 1:5.9 scale model fan rig (Advanced Ducted Propeller) test data acquired in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel. The goal of 50% improvement was deemed satisfied. 2) Bias Flow Liner Investigation (Boeing, VCES): The ability to control liner impedance by low velocity bias flow through liner was demonstrated. An impedance prediction model to include bias flow was developed. 3) Grazing Flow Impedance Testing (Boeing): Grazing flow impedance tests were conducted for comparison with results achieved at four different laboratories. 4) Micro-Perforate Acoustic Liner Technology (BFG, HAE, NG): Proof of concept testing of a "linear liner." 5) Extended Reaction Liners (Boeing, NG): Bandwidth improvements for non-locally reacting liner were investigated with porous honeycomb core test liners. 6) Development of a Hybrid Active/Passive Lining Concept (HAE): Synergism between active and passive attenuation of noise radiated by a model inlet was demonstrated.

  3. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziph, B.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts are presented. High performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature; (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application; and (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were provided to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crank-case. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 hours.

  4. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component is presented. The recommended concept for the covers is graphite-epoxy hats bonded to a graphite-epoxy skin. The hat flare-out has been eliminated, instead the hat is continuous into the joint. The recommended concept for the spars is graphite-epoxy caps and a hybrid of Kevlar-49 and graphite-epoxy in the spar web. The spar cap, spar web stiffeners for attaching the ribs, and intermediate stiffeners are planned to be fabricated as a unit. Access hole in the web will be reinforced with a donut type, zero degree graphite-epoxy wound reinforcement. The miniwich design concept in the upper three ribs originally proposed is changed to a graphite-epoxy stiffened solid laminate design concept. The recommended configuration for the lower seven ribs remains as graphite-epoxy caps with aluminum cruciform diagonals. The indicated weight saving for the current advanced composite vertical fin configuration is 20.2% including a 24 lb growth allowance. The project production cost saving is approximately 1% based on a cumulative average of 250 aircraft and including only material, production labor, and quality assurance costs.

  5. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) was established At Hampton University in June of 1996. In addition, the FM&AL jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a 2.5 year Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). The goals of the FM&AL programs are two fold: 1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AL team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and 2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. This project already benefits NASA and HU because: First, the innovation, testing, and further development of new techniques for advanced propulsion systems are necessary for the successful attainment of the NASA Long Term Goals in Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) including Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, Access to Space, R&D Services, and the economic competitiveness of the US Aircraft Industry in the 2 1 st century. Secondly, the joint

  6. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  7. Application of pneumatic lift and control surface technology to advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The application of pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic technology to both the lifting and the control surfaces of advanced transport aircraft can provide revolutionary changes in the performance and operation of these vehicles, ranging in speed regime from Advanced Subsonic Transports to the High Speed Civil Transport, and beyond. This technology, much of it based on the Circulation Control Wing blown concepts, can provide aerodynamic force augmentations of 80 to 100 (i.e., return of 80-100 pounds of force per pound of input momentum from the blowing jet). This can be achieved without use of external mechanical surfaces. Clever application of this technology can provide no-moving-part lifting surfaces (wings/tails) integrated into the control system to greatly simplify aircraft designs while improving their aerodynamic performance. Lift/drag ratio may be pneumatically tailored to fit the current phase of the flight, and takeoff/landing performance can be greatly improved by reducing ground roll distances and liftoff/touchdown speeds. Alternatively, great increases in liftoff weights and payloads are possible, as are great reductions in wing and tail planform size, resulting in optimized cruise wing designs. Furthermore, lift generation independent of angle of attack provides much promise for increased safety of flight in the severe updrafts/downdrafts of microbursts and windshears, which is further augmented by the ability to sustain flight at greatly reduced airspeeds. Load-tailored blown wings can also reduce tip vorticity during highlift operations and the resulting vortex wake hazards near terminal areas. Reduced noise may also be possible as these jets can be made to operate at low pressures. The planned presentation will support the above statements through discussions of recent experimental and numerical (CFD) research and development of these advanced blown aerodynamic surfaces, portions of which have been conducted for NASA. Also to be presented will be

  8. Evaluation of a Damage Accumulation Monitoring System as an Individual Aircraft Tracking Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Report MONITORING SYSTEM AS AN INDIVIDUAL 9 1 (1- -20, AIRCRAFT TRACKING CONCEPT •. PERFORMINS ODG. RLpoy "UMmeR NOR 82- 58 7. AUJTNH)R(’q) -S CONTRACT OR...LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) FIGURE PAGE 17 Major IAT and Force Management Data Item Classes 89 18 Comparison of Individual Aircraft Crack...months or years at which time the critical crack length will be reached. L The full fatigue life of the aircraft or component (either based on test or

  9. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; Mody, P.; Pertuze, J. A.; Sato, S.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Tan, C. S.; Hollman, J. S.; Duda, J. E.; Fitzgerald, N.; Houghton, J.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kiwada, G. F.; Kordonowy, D.; Parrish, J. C.; Tylko, J.; Wen, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  10. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  11. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm^-2) for shock generation.

  12. Advanced-Ignition-Concept Exploration on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W; Anderson, K S; Betti, R; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Gotchev, O V; Kelly, J H; Li, C K; Mackinnon, A J; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Myatt, J F; Norreys, P A; Nilson, P M; Patel, P K; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Ren, C; Sangster, T C; Seka, W; Smalyuk, V A; Solodov, A A; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Yaakobi, B

    2009-11-24

    Advanced ignition concepts, such as fast ignition and shock ignition, are being investigated at the Omega Laser Facility. Integrated fast-ignition experiments with room-temperature re-entrant cone targets have begun, using 18 kJ of 351 nm drive energy to implode empty 40μm thick CD shells, followed by 1.0 kJ of 1053 nm wavelength, short-pulse energy. Short pulses of 10 ps width have irradiated the inside of a hollow gold re-entrant cone at the time of peak compression. A threefold increase in the time-integrated, 2 to 7 keV x-ray emission was observed with x-ray pinhole cameras, indicating that energy is coupled from the short-pulse laser into the core by fast electrons. In shock-ignition experiments, spherical plastic-shell targets were compressed to high areal densities on a low adiabat, and a strong shock wave was sent into the converging, compressed capsule. In one experiment, 60 beams were used with an intensity spike at the end of the laser pulse, and the implosion performance was studied through neutron-yield and areal-density measurements. In a second experiment, the 60 OMEGA beams were split into a 40+20 configuration, with 40 low-intensity beams used for fuel assembly and 20 delayed beams with a short, high-intensity pulse shape (up to 1×1016 Wcm-2) for shock generation.

  13. Innovative Concept for a Heavy-Load Aircraft Utilizing a Two-Dimensional Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2007-01-01

    Heavy-load aircraft of conventional wing-body-tail design have become very large. Excessive size of such aircraft may present problems in the manufacturing process. In addition, large wing spans may cause some difficulties in ground handling. Increasing lift loads on large span cantilever wings will also increase the strength of the wing tip vortex. The concept presented herein proposes a means for substantially increasing the lift load capability of an aircraft without increasing the overall length and span of the configuration. The concept has a rectangular wing with a relatively low span and a large chord to provide the area required for high lift. Large fuselages are attached at each wing tip to provide the volume required for heavy loading. The fuselages serve as endplates for the wing and should preclude tip flow so that two-dimensional flow might be established on the wing. Elimination of the wing tip flow should prevent the formation of a tip vortex and eliminate the tip vortex hazard to trailing aircraft. Exploratory wind tunnel tests of such an aircraft concept have been conducted. Lessons learned from these tests are discussed herein in an effort to determine the validity of the concept.

  14. Magnetic levitation assisted aircraft take-off and landing (feasibility study - GABRIEL concept)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohacs, Daniel; Rohacs, Jozsef

    2016-08-01

    The Technology Roadmap 2013 developed by the International Air Transport Association envisions the option of flying without an undercarriage to be in operation by 2032. Preliminary investigations clearly indicate that magnetic levitation technology (MagLev) might be an appealing solution to assist the aircraft take-off and landing. The EU supported research project, abbreviated as GABRIEL, was dealing with (i) the concept development, (ii) the identification, evaluation and selection of the deployable magnetic levitation technology, (iii) the definition of the core system elements (including the required aircraft modifications, the ground-based system and airport elements, and the rendezvous control system), (iv) the analysis of the safety and security aspects, (v) the concept validation and (vi) the estimation of the proposed concept impact in terms of aircraft weight, noise, emission, cost-benefit). All results introduced here are compared to a medium size hypothetic passenger aircraft (identical with an Airbus A320). This paper gives a systematic overview of (i) the applied methods, (ii) the investigation of the possible use of magnetic levitation technology to assist the commercial aircraft take-off and landing processes and (iii) the demonstrations, validations showing the feasibility of the radically new concept. All major results are outlined.

  15. Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance - Comparison of different propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft flyover noise. It was found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved prediction ability.

  16. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  17. System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

  18. Advanced Propulsion Systems Study for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study defines a family of advanced technology Stratified Charge Rotary Engines (SCRE) appropriate for the enablement of the development of a new generation of general aviation aircraft. High commonality, affordability, and environmental compatibility are considerations influencing the family composition and ratings. The SCRE family is comprised of three engines in the 70 Series (40 cu in. displacement per rotor), i.e. one, two, and four rotor and two engines in the 170 Series (105 cu in. displacement per rotor), i.e., two and four rotor. The two rotor engines are considered the primary engines in each series. A wide power range is considered covering 125 to 2500 HP through growth and compounding/dual pac considerations. Mission requirements, TBO, FAA Certification, engine development cycles, and costs are examined. Comparisons to current and projected reciprocating and turbine engine configurations in the 125 to 1000 HP class are provided. Market impact, estimated sales, and U.S. job creation (R&D, manufacturing and infractures) are examined.

  19. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Elliott, Kathryn A.; Huebner, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, new technology engines were defined in two power classes: a 200 hp class, for a light, 4-place personal aircraft, and a 1500 pound thrust class for a twin-engined, 6 place business jet type aircraft. The engines were evaluated for retrofitting suitable current production aircraft for comparison to the existing engines. The engines were evaluated for performance using a typical mission for each aircraft, as well as a variant mission to further appraise performance.Issues of cost, safety, maintenance, and reliability were also addressed. Manufacturing plans were then constructed.

  20. Analysis of a pneumatic forebody flow control concept about a full aircraft geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.; Murman, Scott M.; Lanser, Wendy R.; Meyn, Larry A.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1992-01-01

    A full aircraft geometry is used to computationally analyze the effectiveness of a pneumatic forebody flow control concept. An overset grid technique is employed to model the aircraft and slot geometry. Steady-state solutions for both isolated forebody and full aircraft configurations are carried out using a thin-layer Navier-Stokes flow solver. A solution obtained using the full aircraft geometry and a flight sideslip condition investigates the effect of sideslip on the leading edge extention vortex burst point. A no-sideslip blowing solution using the isolated forebody at full-scale wind tunnel test conditions is compared with experimental data to determine the accuracy of the numerical method. A solution employing the full geometry and slot blowing at flight conditions is obtained.

  1. Characterizing a Wake-Free Safe Zone for the Simplified Aircraft-Based Paired Approach Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Johnson, Sally C.; Stough, H. Paul, III; McKissick, Burnell T.; Syed, Hazari I.

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has proposed a concept of operations geared towards achieving increased arrival throughput at U.S. Airports, known as the Simplified Aircraft-based Paired Approach (SAPA) concept. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a wake-free safe zone (WFSZ) for the SAPA concept has been performed. The experiment employed Monte-Carlo simulations of varying approach profiles by aircraft pairs to closely-spaced parallel runways. Three different runway lateral spacings were investigated (750 ft, 1000 ft and 1400 ft), along with no stagger and 1500 ft stagger between runway thresholds. The paired aircraft were flown in a leader/trailer configuration with potential wake encounters detected using a wake detection surface translating with the trailing aircraft. The WFSZ is characterized in terms of the smallest observed initial in-trail distance leading to a wake encounter anywhere along the approach path of the aircraft. The results suggest that the WFSZ can be characterized in terms of two primary altitude regions, in ground-effect (IGE) and out of ground-effect (OGE), with the IGE region being the limiting case with a significantly smaller WFSZ. Runway stagger was observed to only modestly reduce the WFSZ size, predominantly in the OGE region.

  2. An Active Flow Circulation Controlled Flap Concept for General Aviation Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Viken, Sally A.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Cagle, C. Mark

    2002-01-01

    A recent focus on revolutionary aerodynamic concepts has highlighted the technology needs of general aviation and personal aircraft. New and stringent restrictions on these types of aircraft have placed high demands on aerodynamic performance, noise, and environmental issues. Improved high lift performance of these aircraft can lead to slower takeoff and landing speeds that can be related to reduced noise and crash survivability issues. Circulation Control technologies have been around for 65 years, yet have been avoided due to trade offs of mass flow, pitching moment, perceived noise etc. The need to improve the circulation control technology for general aviation and personal air-vehicle applications is the focus of this paper. This report will describe the development of a 2-D General Aviation Circulation Control (GACC) wing concept that utilizes a pulsed pneumatic flap.

  3. Aeroelastic Optimization of Generalized Tube and Wing Aircraft Concepts Using HCDstruct Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2017-01-01

    Major enhancements were made to the Higher-fidelity Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) tool developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Whereas previous versions were limited to hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations, the current version of HCDstruct now supports the analysis of generalized tube and wing (TW) aircraft concepts. Along with significantly enhanced user input options for all air- craft configurations, these enhancements represent HCDstruct version 2.0. Validation was performed using a Boeing 737-200 aircraft model, for which primary structure weight estimates agreed well with available data. Additionally, preliminary analysis of the NASA D8 (ND8) aircraft concept was performed, highlighting several new features of the tool.

  4. Design, cost, and advanced technology applications for a military trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Harper, M.

    1975-01-01

    The potential impact is examined of advanced aerodynamic and propulsive technologies in terms of operating and acquisition costs on conceptual mission and performance requirements for a future undergraduate jet pilot trainer aircraft.

  5. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  6. Resin transfer molding for advanced composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) has been identified by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) and industry to be one of the promising processes being developed today which can break the cost barrier of implementing composite primary structures into a commercial aircraft production environment. The RTM process developments and scale-up plans Douglas Aircrart will be conducting under the NASA ACT contract are discussed.

  7. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  8. Mission and sensor concepts for coastal and ocean monitoring using spacecraft and aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A concept developed for a 1990 oceanic mission which places strong emphasis on coastal monitoring needs is described and analysed. The concept assumes that use of one active spacecraft in orbit and one on standby plus airplanes and data collection platforms which provide continuing complementary coverage and surface truth. The coastal measurement requirements and goals, the prospective oceanic and coastal sensors, the spacecraft and aircraft data platforms, and the prospective orbit designs are discussed.

  9. Advanced sunflower antenna concept development. [stowable reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of stowing large solid antenna reflectors in the shuttle was demonstrated for applications with 40 foot apertures at frequencies of 100 GHz. Concepts allowing extension of the basic concept to 80-foot apertures operable at 60 GHz were identified.

  10. A concept for adaptive performance optimization on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Michael R.; Enns, Dale F.

    1995-01-01

    An adaptive control method is presented for the minimization of drag during flight for transport aircraft. The minimization of drag is achieved by taking advantage of the redundant control capability available in the pitch axis, with the horizontal tail used as the primary surface and symmetric deflection of the ailerons and cruise flaps used as additional controls. The additional control surfaces are excited with sinusoidal signals, while the altitude and velocity loops are closed with guidance and control laws. A model of the throttle response as a function of the additional control surfaces is formulated and the parameters in the model are estimated from the sensor measurements using a least squares estimation method. The estimated model is used to determine the minimum drag positions of the control surfaces. The method is presented for the optimization of one and two additional control surfaces. The adaptive control method is extended to optimize rate of climb with the throttle fixed. Simulations that include realistic disturbances are presented, as well as the results of a Monte Carlo simulation analysis that shows the effects of changing the disturbance environment and the excitation signal parameters.

  11. Interior noise control ground test studies for advanced turboprop aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Myles A.; Cannon, Mark R.; Burge, Paul L.; Boyd, Robert P.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement and analysis procedures are documented, and the results of interior noise control ground tests conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are summarized. The objectives of these tests were to study the fuselage response characteristics of treated and untreated aircraft with aft-mount advanced turboprop engines and to analyze the effectiveness of selected noise control treatments in reducing passenger cabin noise on these aircraft. The results of fuselage structural mode surveys, cabin cavity surveys and sound intensity surveys are presented. The performance of various structural and cabin sidewall treatments is assessed, based on measurements of the resulting interior noise levels under simulated advanced turboprop excitation.

  12. SERI Advanced and Innovative Wind-Energy-Concepts Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Jacobs, E.W.

    1983-06-01

    In 1978 the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) was given the responsibility of managing the Advanced and Innovative Wind Energy Concepts (AIWEC) Task by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this program has been to determine the technical and economic potential of advanced wind energy concepts. Assessment and R and D efforts in the AIWEC program have included theoretical performance analyses, wind tunnel testing, and/or costing studies. Concepts demonstrating sufficient potential undergo prototype testing in a Proof-of-Concept research phase. Several concepts, such as the Dynamic Inducer, the Diffuser Augmented wind Turbine, the Electrofluid Dynamic Wind-Driven Generator, the Passive Cyclic Pitch concept, and higher performance airfoil configurations for vertical axis wind turbines, have recently made significant progress. The latter has currently reached the Proof-of-Concept phase. The present paper provides an overview of the technical progress and current status of these concepts.

  13. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  14. Advanced composite aileron for L-1011 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design and evaluation of alternate concepts for the major subcomponents of the advanced composite aileron (ACA) was completed. From this array of subcomponents, aileron assemblies were formulated and evaluated. Based on these analyses a multirib assembly with graphite tape/syntactic core covers, a graphite tape front spar, and a graphite fabric rib was selected for development. A weight savings of 29.1 percent (40.8 pounds per aileron) is predicted. Engineering cost analyses indicate that the production cost of the ACA will be 7.3 percent less than the current aluminum aileron. Fabrication, machining, and testing of the material evaluation specimens for the resin screening program was completed. The test results lead to the selection of Narmco 5208 resin for the ACA. Other activities completed include: the detailed design of the ACA, construction of a three dimensional finite element model for structural analysis, and formulation of detail plans for material verification and process development.

  15. Design & fabrication of two seated aircraft with an advanced rotating leading edge wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmari, Saeed Abdullah Saeed

    The title of this thesis is "Design & Fabrication of two Seated Aircraft with an Advanced Rotating Leading Edge Wing", this gives almost a good description of the work has been done. In this research, the moving surface boundary-layer control (MSBC) concept was investigated and implemented. An experimental model was constructed and tested in wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics using the leading edge moving surface of modified semi-symmetric airfoil NACA1214. The moving surface is provided by a high speed rotating cylinder, which replaces the leading edge of the airfoil. The angle of attack, the cylinder surfaces velocity ratio Uc/U, and the flap deflection angle effects on the lift and drag coefficients and the stall angle of attack were investigated. This new technology was applied to a 2-seat light-sport aircraft that is designed and built in the Aerospace Engineering Department at KFUPM. The project team is led by the aerospace department chairman Dr. Ahmed Z. AL-Garni and Dr. Wael G. Abdelrahman and includes graduate and under graduate student. The wing was modified to include a rotating cylinder along the leading edge of the flap portion. This produced very promising results such as the increase of the maximum lift coefficient at Uc/U=3 by 82% when flaps up and 111% when flaps down at 40° and stall was delayed by 8degrees in both cases. The laboratory results also showed that the effective range of the leading-edge rotating cylinder is at low angles of attack which reduce the need for higher angles of attack for STOL aircraft.

  16. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  17. Preliminary weight and cost estimates for transport aircraft composite structural design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary weight and cost estimates have been prepared for design concepts utilized for a transonic long range transport airframe with extensive applications of advanced composite materials. The design concepts, manufacturing approach, and anticipated details of manufacturing cost reflected in the composite airframe are substantially different from those found in conventional metal structure and offer further evidence of the advantages of advanced composite materials.

  18. An ABC status report. [Advancing Blade Concept for XH-59A rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Ruddell, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) uses two rigid counterrotating rotors in a coaxial arrangement to provide advancing blades on both sides of the aircraft. This makes use of the high dynamic pressure on the advancing side of the rotors at high forward speed, virtually ignoring the low dynamic pressure on the retreating side, while still keeping the rotor system in roll trim. Theoretically such a rotor system will maintain its lift potential as speed increases. The XH-59A was designed to investigate this theory. A description is provided of the flight test program from May, 1980 to January, 1981. A summary is presented of the knowledge gained throughout the entire program, and current pitfalls are reviewed. It is concluded that the ABC has been verified, with the XH-59A envelope of blade lift coefficient as a function of advance ratio greatly exceeding that of conventional helicopter rotor systems.

  19. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  20. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  1. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    difficult to calculate mathematically the precise confidence levels associated with life - cycle cost estimates prepared for Major Defense Acquisition...Contractor Location South Oyster Bay Road 600 Grumman Road West Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 Contract Number, Type N00019-12-C-0063/5, FFP Award Date...and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1)* - 2 aircraft at Naval Strike Air Warfare Center (NSAWC)* Aircraft Flight Hours Life Limit: 9,600 Pipeline

  2. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Materials for the Structure f Aging Aircraft [les Nouveaux Materiaux metalliques pour les structures des aeronefs d’ancienne generation] To order the...corrosion through design, the selection of military and civil aircraft during the last thirty years. Research materials that are resistant to corrosion and...fluid resistance and greater flexibility. New methods of paint stripping and novel processes for the 2.1 Design repair of pre-treatments and metal

  3. Prospective markets and design concepts for civilian remotely piloted aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Gregory, T. J.; Aderhold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that examines the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) in the civil environment. A market survey was conducted in which 35 civil applications of RPVs were identified. For a number of these uses, vehicle and system concepts were defined, benefit and cost comparisons were made with present methods, and the influence of safety and environmental implications was assessed. The results suggest a sizable potential demand for the use of RPVs in the civil sector, and some of the applications show promising cost savings over established methods. A focussed technology effort could provide the safety assurances needed for routine civilian operation of RPVs.

  4. Advanced Concept in Aircraft Crash Firefighting Using Carbon Tetrafluoride.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    tetrafluoromethane (carbon tetrafluoride) CF4 (Halon 1400), hexafluoroethane C2F6 (Halon 2600), and octafluoropropane C3 F8 (Halon 3800). The agents are...above when measured within the fire-hardened section. Determination Of Smoke Density. Two methods were employed to assess the relative visual...collection solution could be accurately measured . The other sampling device (figure 12) consisted of two evacuated test tubes held in place by a wooden bracket

  5. Assessment of Advanced Logistics Delivery System (ALDS) Launch Systems Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    roller coasters . They have also been included in preliminary EMALS / EARS launch system designs; however, ALDS launcher system accelerations and path...is based on a permanent magnet linear motor design incorporating high temperature superconducting materials in the rotor, stator windings, and...linear induction motor concept similar to the Electro- Magnetic Aircraft Launcher System (EMALS) that is currently under development for use as a

  6. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  7. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 2: Sections 7 through 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The materials and advanced producibility methods that offer potential structural mass savings in the design of the primary structure for a supersonic cruise aircraft are identified and reported. A summary of the materials and fabrication techniques selected for this analytical effort is presented. Both metallic and composite material systems were selected for application to a near-term start-of-design technology aircraft. Selective reinforcement of the basic metallic structure was considered as the appropriate level of composite application for the near-term design.

  8. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  9. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  10. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  11. Study of the single body yawed-wing aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulfan, R. M.; Nisbet, J. W.; Neuman, F. D.; Hamilton, E. J.; Murakami, J. K.; Mcbarron, J. P.; Kumasaka, K.

    1974-01-01

    Areas relating to the development and improvement of the single-fuselage, yawed-wing transonic transport concept were investigated. These included: (1) developing an alternate configuration with a simplified engine installation;(2) determining a structural design speed placard that would allow the engine-airframe match for optimum airplane performance; and (3) conducting an aeroelastic stability and control analysis of the yawed-wing configuration with a flexible wing. A two-engine, single-fuselage, yawed-wing configuration was developed that achieved the Mach 1.2 design mission at 5560 km (3000 nmi) and payload of 18,140 kg (40,000 lb) with a gross weight of 217,700 kg (480,000 lb). This airplane was slightly heavier than the aft-integrated four-engine configuration that had been developed in a previous study. A modified structural design speed placard, which was determined, resulted in a 6% to 8% reduction in the gross weight of the yawed-wing configurations. The dynamic stability characteristics of the single-fuselage yawed-wing configuration were found to be very dependent on the magnitude of the pitch/roll coupling, the static longitudinal stability, and the dihedral effect.

  12. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  13. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, E. F.; Mall, O. D.; Awker, R. W.; Scholl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of selected advanced technologies for 19 and 30 passenger, short-haul aircraft were identified. Advanced technologies were investigated in four areas: aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and ride quality. Configuration sensitivity studies were conducted to show design tradeoffs associated with passenger capacity, cabin comfort level, and design field length.

  14. Assessment of the application of advanced technologies to subsonic CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graef, J. D.; Sallee, G. P.; Verges, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Design studies of the application of advanced technologies to future transport aircraft were conducted. These studies were reviewed from the perspective of an air carrier. A fundamental study of the elements of airplane operating cost was performed, and the advanced technologies were ranked in order of potential profit impact. Recommendations for future study areas are given.

  15. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Comparison of different propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the annoyance of flyover noise from advanced turboprop aircraft having different propeller configurations with the annoyance of conventional turboprop and turbofan aircraft flyover noise. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 40 realistic, time varying simulations of advanced turboprop takeoff noise. Of the 40 noises, single-rotating propeller configurations (8) and counter-rotating propeller configurations with an equal (12) and unequal (20) number of blades on each rotor were represented. Analyses found that advanced turboprops with single-rotating propellers were, on average, slightly less annoying than the other aircraft. Fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio affected annoyance response to advanced turboprops, but the effects varied with propeller configuration and noise metric. The addition of duration corrections and corrections for tones above 500 Hz to the noise measurement procedures improved annoyance prediction ability.

  16. The development of advanced automatic flare and decrab for powered lift short haul aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevaert, G.; Feinreich, B.

    1977-01-01

    Advanced automatic flare and decrab control laws were developed for future powered lift STOL aircraft using the NASA-C-8A augmentor wing vehicle as the aircraft model. The longitudinal control laws utilize the throttle for flight path control and use the direct lift augmentor flap chokes for flight path augmentation. The elevator is used to control airspeed during the approach phase and to enhance path control during the flare. The forward slip maneuver was selected over the flat decrab technique for runway alignment because it can effectively handle the large crab angles obtained at STOL approach speeds. Performance evaluation of selected system configurations were obtained over the total landing environment. Limitations were defined and critical failure modes assessed. Pilot display concepts are discussed.

  17. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  18. Advanced concepts for controlling energy surety microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Today, researchers, engineers, and policy makers are seeking ways to meet the world's growing demand for energy while addressing critical issues such as energy security, reliability, and sustainability. Many believe that distributed generators operating within a microgrid have the potential to address most of these issues. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a concept called energy surety in which five of these 'surety elements' are simultaneously considered: energy security, reliability, sustainability, safety, and cost-effectiveness. The surety methodology leads to a new microgrid design that we call an energy surety microgrid (ESM). This paper discusses the unique control requirement needed to produce a microgrid system that has high levels of surety, describes the control system from the most fundamental level through a real-world example, and discusses our ideas and concepts for a complete system.

  19. Workshop II: Nanotechnology and Advanced Cell Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Workshop focused on few emerging concepts(beyond tandem cells): 1. Engineering incident sun spectrum and transparency losses a) Nano emitters (dot concentrator); b) Surface plasmonics; c) Up converters; d) Down converter. 2. Intermediate band solar cells a) Efficiency projections (detail energy balance projections); b) Inserting 0,1 and 2D semiconductor structures in solar cells 3. Polymer and hybrid cells a) Nanotubes/dot polymers; b) Exciton dissociation.

  20. Advanced General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lays, E. J.; Murray, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    Concepts are discussed that project turbine engine cost savings through use of geometrically constrained components designed for low rotational speeds and low stress to permit manufacturing economies. Aerodynamic development of geometrically constrained components is recommended to maximize component efficiency. Conceptual engines, airplane applications, airplane performance, engine cost, and engine-related life cycle costs are presented. The powerplants proposed offer encouragement with respect to fuel efficiency and life cycle costs, and make possible remarkable airplane performance gains.

  1. Some inadequacies of the current human factors certification process of advanced aircraft technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paries, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Automation related accidents or serious incidents are not limited to advanced technology aircraft. There is a full history of such accidents with conventional technology aircraft. However, this type of occurrence is far from sparing the newest 'glass cockpit' generation, and it even seems to be a growing contributor to its accident rate. Nevertheless, all these aircraft have been properly certificated according to the relevant airworthiness regulations. Therefore, there is a growing concern that with the technological advancement of air transport aircraft cockpits, the current airworthiness regulations addressing cockpit design and human factors may have reached some level of inadequacy. This paper reviews some aspects of the current airworthiness regulations and certification process related to human factors of cockpit design and focuses on questioning their ability to guarantee the intended safety objectives.

  2. Investigating the Scope of an Advance Organizer for Compiler Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Lawrence H.; Loerinc, Beatrice M.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates effectiveness of advance organizers for teaching functioning and use of compilers to undergraduate students in computer science courses. Two experimental groups used the advance organizer while two control groups did not. Findings indicate that an explicitly concept-directed organizer is effective in providing a framework for…

  3. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  4. Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

  5. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  6. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Bennett, Gary L.; Frisbee, Robert H.; Sercel, Joel C.; Lapointe, Michael R.

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems.

  7. An overview of the NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts program

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, F.M.; Bennett, G.L.; Frisbee, R.H.; Sercel, J.C.; Lapointe, M.R. JPL, Pasadena, CA Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH )

    1992-07-01

    NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program for the development of long-term space propulsion system schemes is managed by both NASA-Lewis and the JPL and is tasked with the identification and conceptual development of high-risk/high-payoff configurations. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been undertaken in technology areas deemed essential to the implementation of candidate concepts. These APC candidates encompass very high energy density chemical propulsion systems, advanced electric propulsion systems, and an antiproton-catalyzed nuclear propulsion concept. A development status evaluation is presented for these systems. 45 refs.

  8. Advanced Nanostructured Hybrid Coatings for the Protection of Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    barrier function (Figure 2B). The SEM cross-section is clearly reminiscent of the structure of the seashells (Figure 2C). The strength and other...tough as nacre (lining material of the seashells ). This will ensure their durability on the aircrafts. 11 4. A new type of microscopy, i.e. confocal

  9. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  10. Navigation performance of the Triscan concept for shipboard VTOL aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Miyashiro, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the Triscan concept - a dual-antenna microwave landing guidance system, using triangulation for close-in accuracy - developed to facilitate the landing of VTOL aircraft on ships in all-weather conditions. Analysis of the navigation performance of an onboard system receiving data from Triscan and data-linked information regarding the motion of the ship showed that the approach navigation performance depends on the approach path profile flown, the magnitude of the measurement bias error, and the navigation system's knowledge of the shipboard landing pad motion, which was implemented through the concept of a landing pad deviation vector.

  11. Formal Modeling and Analysis of a Preliminary Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS)Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrreno, Victor A.; Gottliebsen, Hanne; Butler, Ricky; Kalvala, Sara

    2004-01-01

    New concepts for automating air traffic management functions at small non-towered airports raise serious safety issues associated with the software implementations and their underlying key algorithms. The criticality of such software systems necessitates that strong guarantees of the safety be developed for them. In this paper we present a formal method for modeling and verifying such systems using the PVS theorem proving system. The method is demonstrated on a preliminary concept of operation for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project at NASA Langley.

  12. Cascade Optimization Strategy for Aircraft and Air-Breathing Propulsion System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    1996-01-01

    Design optimization for subsonic and supersonic aircraft and for air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) and the NASA Engine Performance Program analyzer (NEPP), to the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Aircraft and engine design problems, with their associated constraints and design variables, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with aircraft weight and engine thrust as the respective merit functions. Because of the diversity of constraint types and the overall distortion of the design space, the most reliable single optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS could not produce a satisfactory feasible optimum solution. Some of COMETBOARDS' unique features, which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications, successfully optimized the performance of both aircraft and engines. The cascade method has two principal steps: In the first, the solution initiates from a user-specified design and optimizer, in the second, the optimum design obtained in the first step with some random perturbation is used to begin the next specified optimizer. The second step is repeated for a specified sequence of optimizers or until a successful solution of the problem is achieved. A successful solution should satisfy the specified convergence criteria and have several active constraints but no violated constraints. The cascade strategy available in the combined COMETBOARDS, FLOPS, and NEPP design tool converges to the same global optimum solution even when it starts from different design points. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of aircraft and of air-breathing propulsion engines where it eases the cycle analysis procedures. The combined code is also much easier to use, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS

  13. Analysis of interior noise ground and flight test data for advanced turboprop aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M. A.; Tran, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    Interior noise ground tests conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are described. The objectives were to study ground test and analysis techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of interior noise control treatments for advanced turboprop aircraft, and to study the sensitivity of the ground test results to changes in various test conditions. Noise and vibration measurements were conducted under simulated advanced turboprop excitation, for two interior noise control treatment configurations. These ground measurement results were compared with results of earlier UHB (Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator flight tests with comparable interior treatment configurations. The Demonstrator is an MD-80 test aircraft with the left JT8D engine replaced with a prototype UHB advanced turboprop engine.

  14. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  15. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  16. Handling Quality Requirements for Advanced Aircraft Design: Longitudinal Mode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    regarded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission...analog hardware specifications and seleccion on the DFCS performance. * Consideration of the potential degradation of DFCS performance and handling...systems research or even for the engineering design of an aircraft or FCS, matters of style and personal taste can dictate how one chooses to

  17. The NASA Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS): Concept Demonstration Results and Future Direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutishauser, David K.; OConnor, Cornelius J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the late 1990s the national airspace system has been recognized as approaching a capacity crisis. In the light of this condition, industry, government, user organizations, and educational institutions have been working on procedural and technological solutions to the problem. One aspect of system operations that holds potential for improvement is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria, applied when operations are conducted under instrument flight rules (IFR), were designed to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards. It is well understood that wake behavior is dependent on meteorological conditions as well as the physical parameters of the generating aircraft. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully demonstrated in a realtime field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW), AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. AVOSS provides dynamic wake separation criteria that are a function of the ambient weather conditions for a particular airport, and the predicted wake behavior under those conditions. Wake sensing subsystems provide safety checks and validation for the predictions. The AVOSS was demonstrated in shadow mode; no actual spacing changes were applied to aircraft. This paper briefly reviews the system architecture and operation, reports the latest performance results from the DFW deployment, and describes the future direction of the project.

  18. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  19. Advanced Concepts for Underwater Acoustic Channel Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etter, P. C.; Haas, C. H.; Ramani, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines nearshore underwater-acoustic channel modeling concepts and compares channel-state information requirements against existing modeling capabilities. This process defines a subset of candidate acoustic models suitable for simulating signal propagation in underwater communications. Underwater-acoustic communications find many practical applications in coastal oceanography, and networking is the enabling technology for these applications. Such networks can be formed by establishing two-way acoustic links between autonomous underwater vehicles and moored oceanographic sensors. These networks can be connected to a surface unit for further data transfer to ships, satellites, or shore stations via a radio-frequency link. This configuration establishes an interactive environment in which researchers can extract real-time data from multiple, but distant, underwater instruments. After evaluating the obtained data, control messages can be sent back to individual instruments to adapt the networks to changing situations. Underwater networks can also be used to increase the operating ranges of autonomous underwater vehicles by hopping the control and data messages through networks that cover large areas. A model of the ocean medium between acoustic sources and receivers is called a channel model. In an oceanic channel, characteristics of the acoustic signals change as they travel from transmitters to receivers. These characteristics depend upon the acoustic frequency, the distances between sources and receivers, the paths followed by the signals, and the prevailing ocean environment in the vicinity of the paths. Properties of the received signals can be derived from those of the transmitted signals using these channel models. This study concludes that ray-theory models are best suited to the simulation of acoustic signal propagation in oceanic channels and identifies 33 such models that are eligible candidates.

  20. Advanced turboprop aircraft noise annoyance - A review of recent NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    Passenger and community response to advanced turboprop aircraft noise are studied. Four experiments were conducted utilizing an aircraft noise synthesis system, an exterior effects room, an anechoic listening room, and a Space Station/aircraft acoustic apparatus; the experimental conditions and procedures for the psychoacoustic studies are described. The community noise studies involved evaluating the effects of various tonal characteristics on annoyance. It was observed that the frequency envelope shape did not effect annoyance; however, the interaction of the fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large effect on annoyance. The effects of low frequency tones, turbulent boundary layer noise, and tonal beats on passenger annoyance are investigated. The data reveal that passenger annoyance is greater for a given level of boundary layer noise when tones are at levels sufficient to increase the overall sound pressure level within the cabin. The annoyance response of an advanced turboprop and a conventional aircraft are compared. It is determined that the flyover noise level for the turboprop aircraft is not more annoying than that of a conventional aircraft.

  1. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  2. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  3. Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.

  4. Simulation evaluation of the control system command monitoring concept for the NASA V/STOL research aircraft (VSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Moralez, E.; Merrick, V. K.

    1987-01-01

    A control-system monitoring concept is described that has the potential of rapidly detecting computer command failures (hardware or software) in fly-by-wire control systems. The concept has been successfully tested on the NASA Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing Research Aircraft (VSRA) in the Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. The test was particularly stringent, since the VSRA is required to operate in a hazardous environment. The fidelity of the aircraft model used in the simulation was verified by flying both the simulated and actual aircraft in a precision hover task using specially designed targets.

  5. Advanced beamed-energy and field propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific phenomena which might lead to major advances in payload, range and terminal velocity of very advanced vehicle propulsion are studied. The effort focuses heavily on advanced propulsion spinoffs enabled by current government-funded investigations in directed-energy technology: i.e., laser, microwave, and relativistic charged particle beams. Futuristic (post-year 2000) beamed-energy propulsion concepts which indicate exceptional promise are identified and analytically investigated. The concepts must be sufficiently developed to permit technical understanding of the physical processes involved, assessment of the enabling technologies, and evaluation of their merits over conventional systems. Propulsion concepts that can be used for manned and/or unmanned missions for purposes of solar system exploration, planetary landing, suborbital flight, transport to orbit, and escape are presented. Speculations are made on the chronology of milestones in beamed-energy propulsion development, such as in systems applications of defense, satellite orbit-raising, global aerospace transportation, and manned interplanetary carriers.

  6. Advanced Optical Burst Switched Network Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejabati, Reza; Aracil, Javier; Castoldi, Piero; de Leenheer, Marc; Simeonidou, Dimitra; Valcarenghi, Luca; Zervas, Georgios; Wu, Jian

    In recent years, as the bandwidth and the speed of networks have increased significantly, a new generation of network-based applications using the concept of distributed computing and collaborative services is emerging (e.g., Grid computing applications). The use of the available fiber and DWDM infrastructure for these applications is a logical choice offering huge amounts of cheap bandwidth and ensuring global reach of computing resources [230]. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in deploying optical circuit (wavelength) switched network infrastructure for distributed computing applications that require long-lived wavelength paths and address the specific needs of a small number of well-known users. Typical users are particle physicists who, due to their international collaborations and experiments, generate enormous amounts of data (Petabytes per year). These users require a network infrastructures that can support processing and analysis of large datasets through globally distributed computing resources [230]. However, providing wavelength granularity bandwidth services is not an efficient and scalable solution for applications and services that address a wider base of user communities with different traffic profiles and connectivity requirements. Examples of such applications may be: scientific collaboration in smaller scale (e.g., bioinformatics, environmental research), distributed virtual laboratories (e.g., remote instrumentation), e-health, national security and defense, personalized learning environments and digital libraries, evolving broadband user services (i.e., high resolution home video editing, real-time rendering, high definition interactive TV). As a specific example, in e-health services and in particular mammography applications due to the size and quantity of images produced by remote mammography, stringent network requirements are necessary. Initial calculations have shown that for 100 patients to be screened remotely, the network

  7. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  8. Aircraft concept optimization using the global sensitivity approach and parametric multiobjective figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Brett; Mason, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extension of our parametric multidisciplinary optimization method to include design results connecting multiple objective functions is presented. New insight into the effect of the figure of merit (objective function) on aircraft configuration size and shape is demonstrated using this technique. An aircraft concept, subject to performance and aerodynamic constraints, is optimized using the global sensitivity equation method for a wide range of objective functions. These figures of merit are described parametrically such that a series of multiobjective optimal solutions can be obtained. Computational speed is facilitated by use of algebraic representations of the system technologies. Using this method, the evolution of an optimum design from one objective function to another is demonstrated. Specifically, combinations of minimum takeoff gross weight, fuel weight, and maximum cruise performance and productivity parameters are used as objective functions.

  9. Perspective on the span-distributed-load concept for application to large cargo aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a simplified analysis of the span-distributed-load concept (in which payload is placed within the wing structure) are presented. It is shown that a design based on these principles has a high potential for application to future large air cargo transport. Significant improvements are foreseen in increased payload fraction and productivity and in reduced fuel consumption and operating costs. A review of the efforts in the 1940's to develop all-wing aircraft shows the potential of transferring those early technological developments to current design of distributed-load aircraft. Current market analyses are projected to 1990 to show the future commercial demand for large capacity freighters. Several configuration designs which would serve different market requirements for these large freighters are discussed as are some of the pacing-technology requirements.

  10. Evaluation of bio-inspired morphing concepts with regard to aircraft dynamics and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam M.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2004-07-01

    This paper will discuss the application of various bio-inspired morphing concepts to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designs. Several analysis tools will be introduced to calculate the aerodynamic benefits, dynamic response, and mission-level benefits of morphing shape changes. Empirical relations are employed to calculate the effects of various geometry changes on the aerodynamics of the vehicle. A six-degree-of-freedom simulation will evaluate the stability and dynamic response of each vehicle configuration as well as "snapshots" of the morphing change. Subsequently, an aircraft performance analysis will be conducted for various shape configurations. Specifically, the performance of a bio-inspired wing is compared to conventional designs. The aircraft dynamic improvements that morphing technologies introduce will be discussed.

  11. Overview of an Advanced Hypersonic Structural Concept Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Craig A.; Hudson, Larry D.; Piazza, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of hypersonics M&S advanced structural concepts development and experimental methods. The discussion on concepts development includes the background, task objectives, test plan, and current status of the C/SiC Ruddervator Subcomponent Test Article (RSTA). The discussion of experimental methods examines instrumentation needs, sensors of interest, and examples of ongoing efforts in the development of extreme environment sensors.

  12. Heuristics Applied in the Development of Advanced Space Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsen, Erik N.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced mission studies are the first step in determining the feasibility of a given space exploration concept. A space scientist develops a science goal in the exploration of space. This may be a new observation method, a new instrument or a mission concept to explore a solar system body. In order to determine the feasibility of a deep space mission, a concept study is convened to determine the technology needs and estimated cost of performing that mission. Heuristics are one method of defining viable mission and systems architectures that can be assessed for technology readiness and cost. Developing a viable architecture depends to a large extent upon extending the existing body of knowledge, and applying it in new and novel ways. These heuristics have evolved over time to include methods for estimating technical complexity, technology development, cost modeling and mission risk in the unique context of deep space missions. This paper examines the processes involved in performing these advanced concepts studies, and analyzes the application of heuristics in the development of an advanced in-situ planetary mission. The Venus Surface Sample Return mission study provides a context for the examination of the heuristics applied in the development of the mission and systems architecture. This study is illustrative of the effort involved in the initial assessment of an advance mission concept, and the knowledge and tools that are applied.

  13. Investigation of trailing-edge-flap, spanwise-blowing concepts on an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Quinto, P. F.; Banks, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of spanwise blowing on the trailing edge flap of an advanced fighter aircraft configuration were determined in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. A series of tests were conducted with variations in spanwise-blowing vector angle, nozzle exit area, nozzle location, thrust coefficient, and flap deflection in order to determine a superior configuration for both an underwing cascade concept and an overwing port concept. This screening phase of the testing was conducted at a nominal approach angle of attack from 12 deg to 16 deg; and then the superior configurations were tested over a more complete angle of attack range from 0 deg to 20 deg at tunnel free stream dynamic pressures from 20 to 40 lbf/sq ft at thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.

  14. Optimization of an Advanced Hybrid Wing Body Concept Using HCDstruct Version 1.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinlan, Jesse R.; Gern, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts continue to be promising candidates for achieving the simultaneous fuel consumption and noise reduction goals set forth by NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. In order to evaluate the projected benefits, improvements in structural analysis at the conceptual design level were necessary; thus, NASA researchers developed the Hybrid wing body Conceptual Design and structural optimization (HCDstruct) tool to perform aeroservoelastic structural optimizations of advanced HWB concepts. In this paper, the authors present substantial updates to the HCDstruct tool and related analysis, including: the addition of four inboard and eight outboard control surfaces and two all-movable tail/rudder assemblies, providing a full aeroservoelastic analysis capability; the implementation of asymmetric load cases for structural sizing applications; and a methodology for minimizing control surface actuation power using NASTRAN SOL 200 and HCDstruct's aeroservoelastic finite-element model (FEM).

  15. Advanced low NO/x/ combustors for supersonic high-altitude aircraft gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. B.; Shekleton, J. R.; White, D. J.; Butze, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    A test rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating and minimizing the exhaust emissions, in particular NO(x), of two advanced aircraft combustor concepts at a simulated, high-altitude cruise condition. The two combustor designs, both members of the lean-reaction, pre-mixed family, are known as the Jet Induced Circulation (JIC) combustor and the Vortex Air Blast (VAB) combustor and were rig tested in the form of reverse flow can combustors in the 0.127-m size range. Various configuration modifications were applied to each of the initial JIC and VAB combustor model designs in an effort to reduce the emissions levels. The VAB combustor demonstrated a NO(x) level of 1.1 gm NO2/kg fuel with essentially 100 percent combustion efficiency at the simulated cruise combustor condition of 507 kPa, 833 K inlet pressure and temperature, respectively and 1778 K outlet temperature on Jet-A1 fuel. In addition, emissions data were obtained at low combustor inlet pressure and temperatures that indicate the potential performance at engine off-design conditions.

  16. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  17. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the flight dynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Turner, Steven G.; Owens, D. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed flight dynamic behavior of a representative advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft concept. Free-flight tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. In support of the free-flight tests, conventional static, dynamic, and free-to-roll oscillation tests were performed. Tests were intended to explore normal operating and post stall flight conditions, and conditions simulating the loss of power in one engine.

  18. V-22 Osprey Joint Services Advanced Vertical Lift Aircraft (V-22)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-212 V-22 Osprey Joint Services Advanced Vertical Lift Aircraft (V-22) As of FY 2017...POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To

  19. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  20. Comparison of advanced turboprop and conventional jet and propeller aircraft flyover noise annoyance: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the flyover noise annoyance of proposed advanced turboprop aircraft with that of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. The effects of fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio on advanced turboprop annoyance were also examined. A computer synthesis system is used to generate 18 realistic, time varying simulations of propeller aircraft takeoff noise in which the harmonic content is systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of six fundamental frequencies ranging from 67.5 Hz to 292.5 Hz and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios of 0, 15, and 30 dB. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs are presented at D-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB to 32 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three categories of aircraft and examine the effects of the differences in harmonic content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise measurement procedures and corrections is also examined.

  1. Comparison of advanced turboprop and conventional jet and propeller aircraft flyover noise annoyance - Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to compare the flyover noise annoyance of proposed advanced turboprop aircraft with that of conventional turboprop and jet aircraft. The effects of fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio on advanced turboprop annoyance were also examined. A computer synthesis system was used to generate 18 realistic, time varyring simulations of propeller aircraft takeoff noise in which the harmonic content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of six fundamental frequencies ranging from 67.5 Hz to 292.5 Hz and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios of 0, 15, and 30 dB. These advanced turboprop simulations along with recordings of five conventional turboprop takeoffs and five conventional jet takeoffs were presented at D-weighted sound pressure levels of 70, 80, and 90 dB to 32 subjects in an anechoic chamber. Analyses of the subjects' annoyance judgments compare the three categories of aircraft and examine the effects of the differences in harmonic content among the advanced turboprop noises. The annoyance prediction ability of various noise measurement procedures and corrections is also examined.

  2. Recent experience with multidisciplinary analysis and optimization in advanced aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1990-01-01

    The task of modern aircraft design has always been complicated due to the number of intertwined technical factors from the various engineering disciplines. Furthermore, this complexity has been rapidly increasing by the development of such technologies as aeroelasticity tailored materials and structures, active control systems, integrated propulsion/airframe controls, thrust vectoring, and so on. Successful designs that achieve maximum advantage from these new technologies require a thorough understanding of the physical phenomena and the interactions among these phenomena. A study commissioned by the Aeronautical Sciences and Evaluation Board of the National Research Council has gone so far as to identify technology integration as a new discipline from which many future aeronautical advancements will arise. Regardless of whether one considers integration as a new discipline or not, it is clear to all engineers involved in aircraft design and analysis that better methods are required. In the past, designers conducted parametric studies in which a relatively small number of principal characteristics were varied to determine the effect on design requirements which were themselves often diverse and contradictory. Once a design was chosen, it then passed through the various engineers' disciplines whose principal task was to make the chosen design workable. Working in a limited design space, the discipline expert sometimes improved the concept, but more often than not, the result was in the form of a penalty to make the original concept workable. If an insurmountable problem was encountered, the process began over. Most design systems that attempt to account for disciplinary interactions have large empirical elements and reliance on past experience is a poor guide in obtaining maximum utilizations of new technologies. Further compounding the difficulty of design is that as the aeronautical sciences have matured, the discipline specialist's area of research has generally

  3. NASA's advanced control law program for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the NASA F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Langley Research Center's role in investigating and promoting advanced control laws for possible flight experimentation and also provides a brief description of the Phase II DFBW F-8 aircraft and its control system. Some of the advanced control law study objectives and guidelines are discussed, and some mathematical models which are useful in the control analysis problem are provided.

  4. Aircraft developments that hold promise for increased compatability with an advanced ATC system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    In terms of an advanced air traffic control environment, consideration is given to a wake vortex advisory system and V/STOL aircraft. The terminal configured vehicle program is described. Procedures for all-weather operations are reviewed and the search and rescue satellite system is described. Predictions are made concerning an advanced national aviation system, digital communications, integrated control technology, and cockpit avionics. Human factors in both general and civil aviation are discussed.

  5. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  6. A rotor technology assessment of the advancing blade concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pleasants, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A rotor technology assessment of the Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) was conducted in support of a preliminary design study. The analytical methodology modifications and inputs, the correlation, and the results of the assessment are documented. The primary emphasis was on the high-speed forward flight performance of the rotor. The correlation data base included both the wind tunnel and the flight test results. An advanced ABC rotor design was examined; the suitability of the ABC for a particular mission was not considered. The objective of this technology assessment was to provide estimates of the performance potential of an advanced ABC rotor designed for high speed forward flight.

  7. The ASLOTS concept: An interactive, adaptive decision support concept for Final Approach Spacing of Aircraft (FASA). FAA-NASA Joint University Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation outlines a concept for an adaptive, interactive decision support system to assist controllers at a busy airport in achieving efficient use of multiple runways. The concept is being implemented as a computer code called FASA (Final Approach Spacing for Aircraft), and will be tested and demonstrated in ATCSIM, a high fidelity simulation of terminal area airspace and airport surface operations. Objectives are: (1) to provide automated cues to assist controllers in the sequencing and spacing of landing and takeoff aircraft; (2) to provide the controller with a limited ability to modify the sequence and spacings between aircraft, and to insert takeoffs and missed approach aircraft in the landing flows; (3) to increase spacing accuracy using more complex and precise separation criteria while reducing controller workload; and (4) achieve higher operational takeoff and landing rates on multiple runways in poor visibility.

  8. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  9. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    for enhancing aircrew performance at high sustained +GZ accelerations. Finally, increasing attention has been paid over the last two decades to the...comprehensive published review of the design and performance of Advanced Oxygen Systems. It has been written principally by present and past members... performance required of Advanced Oxygen Systems and with the design and assessment of the first and later generations of these systems. The monograph

  10. Advanced composite fiber/metal pressure vessels for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolopoulos, Aleck

    1993-06-01

    Structural Composites Industries has developed, qualified, and delivered a number of high performance carbon epoxy overwrapped/seamless aluminum liner pressure vessels for use in military aircraft where low weight, low cost, high operating pressure and short lead time are the primary considerations. This paper describes product design, development, and qualification for a typical program. The vessel requirements included a munitions insensitivity criterion as evidenced by no fragmentation following impact by a .50 cal tumbling bullet. This was met by the development of a carbon-Spectra hybrid composite overwrap on a thin-walled seamless aluminum liner. The same manufacturing, inspection, and test processes that are used to produce lightweight, thin walled seamless aluminum lined carbon/epoxy overwrapped pressure vessels for satellite and other space applications were used to fabricate this vessel. This report focuses on the results of performance in the qualification testing.

  11. Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

  12. Method for Estimating the Sonic-Boom Characteristics of Lifting Canard-Wing Aircraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    A method for estimating the sonic-boom overpressures from a conceptual aircraft where the lift is carried by both a canard and a wing during supersonic cruise is presented and discussed. Computer codes used for the prediction of the aerodynamic performance of the wing, the canard-wing interference, the nacelle-wing interference, and the sonic-boom overpressures are identified and discussed as the procedures in the method are discussed. A canard-wing supersonic-cruise concept was used as an example to demonstrate the application of the method.

  13. Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Rose

    This textbook, intended for registered nurses (RN's) returning to school, is designed to provide practicing RN's with professional concepts to advance their careers. The book contains 22 chapters organized in five sections. Each chapter includes chapter objectives, key terms, key points, chapter exercises, references, and a bibliography. Section I…

  14. Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or "propfans," to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing this technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation s environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion. Because of the renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, the lack of publicly available up-to-date studies assessing its benefits, and NASA s focus on reducing fuel consumption, a preliminary aircraft system level study on open rotor propulsion was initiated to inform decisions concerning research in this area. New analysis processes were established to assess the characteristics of open rotor aircraft. These processes were then used to assess the performance, noise, and emissions characteristics of an advanced, single-aisle aircraft using open rotor propulsion. The results of this initial study indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reductions in fuel consumption and landing-takeoff cycle NOX emissions. Noise analysis of the study configuration indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin.

  15. Advanced laser sensing receiver concepts based on FPA technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, P. L.; Petrin, R. R.; Jolin, J. L.; Foy, B. R.; Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate performance of any remote sensor is ideally governed by the hardware signal-to-noise capability and allowed signal-averaging time. In real-world scenarios, this may not be realizable and the limiting factors may suggest the need for more advanced capabilities. Moving from passive to active remote sensors offers the advantage of control over the illumination source, the laser. Added capabilities may include polarization discrimination, instantaneous imaging, range resolution, simultaneous multi-spectral measurement, or coherent detection. However, most advanced detection technology has been engineered heavily towards the straightforward passive sensor requirements, measuring an integrated photon flux. The need for focal plane array technology designed specifically for laser sensing has been recognized for some time, but advances have only recently made the engineering possible. This paper will present a few concepts for laser sensing receiver architectures, the driving specifications behind those concepts, and test/modeling results of such designs.

  16. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  17. Flight evaluation of advanced flight control systems and cockpit displays for powered-lift STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Smith, D. W.; Watson, D. M.; Warner, D. N., Jr.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the improvements, in longitudinal path control during a STOL approach and landing, that can be achieved with manual and automatic control system concepts and cockpit displays with various degrees of complexity. NASA-Ames powered-lift Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft was used in the research program. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrated for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. The ability of the pilot to perform precise landings at low touchdown sink rates with a gentle flare maneuver was also achieved. The path-control improvement is considered to be applicable to other powered-lift aircraft configurations.

  18. An investigation of automatic guidance concepts to steer a VTOL aircraft to a small aviation facility ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.; Phatak, A. V.; Schmidt, S. F.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed system model of a VTOL aircraft approaching a small aviation facility ship was developed and used to investigate several approach guidance concepts. A preliminary anaysis of the aircraft-vessel landing guidance requirements was conducted. The various subelements and constraints of the flight system are described including the landing scenario, lift fan aircraft, state rate feedback flight control, MLS-based navigation, sea state induced ship motion, and wake turbulence due to wind-over-deck effects. These elements are integrated into a systems model with various guidance concepts. Guidance is described in terms of lateral, vertical, and longitudinal axes steering modes and approach and landing phases divided by a nominal hover (or stationkeeping) point defined with respect to the landing pad. The approach guidance methods are evaluated, and the two better steering concepts are studied by both single pass and Monte Carlo statistical simulation runs. Four different guidance concepts are defined for further analysis for the landing phase of flight.

  19. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  20. Structural Health Management of Damaged Aircraft Structures Using the Digital Twin Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Banavara R.; Krishnamurthy, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    The development of multidisciplinary integrated Structural Health Management (SHM) tools will enable accurate detection, and prognosis of damaged aircraft under normal and adverse conditions during flight. As part of the digital twin concept, methodologies are developed by using integrated multiphysics models, sensor information and input data from an in-service vehicle to mirror and predict the life of its corresponding physical twin. SHM tools are necessary for both damage diagnostics and prognostics for continued safe operation of damaged aircraft structures. The adverse conditions include loss of control caused by environmental factors, actuator and sensor faults or failures, and structural damage conditions. A major concern in these structures is the growth of undetected damage/cracks due to fatigue and low velocity foreign object impact that can reach a critical size during flight, resulting in loss of control of the aircraft. To avoid unstable, catastrophic propagation of damage during a flight, load levels must be maintained that are below a reduced load-carrying capacity for continued safe operation of an aircraft. Hence, a capability is needed for accurate real-time predictions of damage size and safe load carrying capacity for structures with complex damage configurations. In the present work, a procedure is developed that uses guided wave responses to interrogate damage. As the guided wave interacts with damage, the signal attenuates in some directions and reflects in others. This results in a difference in signal magnitude as well as phase shifts between signal responses for damaged and undamaged structures. Accurate estimation of damage size, location, and orientation is made by evaluating the cumulative signal responses at various pre-selected sensor locations using a genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization procedure. The damage size, location, and orientation is obtained by minimizing the difference between the reference responses and the

  1. Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-09

    Defense F r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2015-090 ( Project No. D2014-DT0TAD-0002.000) │ i Results in Brief Evaluation of Aircraft Ejection Seat ...Aircraft Ejection Seat Safety When Using Advanced Helmet Sensors Management Comments and Our Response The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Air...the following page. DODIG-2015-090 ( Project No. D2014-DT0TAD-0002.000) │ iii Recommendations Table Management Recommendations Requiring Comment No

  2. Design developments for advanced general aviation aircraft. [using Fly By Light Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Gomer, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Design study results are presented for two advanced general-aviation aircraft incorporating fly-by-light/fly-by-wire controls and digital avionics and cockpit displays. The design exercise proceeded from a database of information derived from a market survey for the 4-10 passenger aircraft range. Pusher and tractor propeller configurations were treated, and attention was given to the maximization of passenger comfort. 'Outside-in' tooling methods were assumed for the primary structures of both configurations, in order to achieve surface tolerances which maximize the rearward extent of laminar flow.

  3. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  4. MSFC Advanced Concepts Office and the Iterative Launch Vehicle Concept Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) with particular emphasis on the method used to model launch vehicles using INTegrated ROcket Sizing (INTROS), a modeling system that assists in establishing the launch concept design, and stage sizing, and facilitates the integration of exterior analytic efforts, vehicle architecture studies, and technology and system trades and parameter sensitivities.

  5. Small Aircraft Transportation System Simulation Analysis of the HVO and ERO Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millsaps, Gary D.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    investment and policy decisions related to further development and potential deployment of a small aircraft transportation system. This report primarily serves two purposes. First, it presents results attained from an initial evaluation and analysis of the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) and EnRoute Operations (ERO) concepts - both designated operational capabilities within the SATS Program s Concept of Operations (CONOPS) document. It further outlines areas of the concepts that would benefit from follow-on analyses and system engineering efforts. It is intended that these processes will aid continued maturation of the concepts and promote additional studies of their effects and influences in combination with other designated CONOPS currently under development. In essence, it establishes a baseline of data upon which subsequent analyses and studies can be built and identifies performance characteristics the concept must exhibit in order to provide, at minimum, levels of safety and usage equal to or better than the current system.

  6. Heat shields for aircraft - A new concept to save lives in crash fires.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, C. B.; Parker, J. A.; Fish, R. H.; Henshaw, J.; Newland, J. H.; Tempesta, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    A passenger compartment surrounded by a fire-retardant shell, to protect the occupants long enough for the fire to burn out or for fire-fighting equipment to reach the aircraft and extinguish it, is proposed as a new concept for saving lives in crash fires. This concept is made possible by the recent development of two new fire-retardant materials: a very lightweight foam plastic, called polyisocyanurate foam, and an intumescent paint. Exposed to heat, the intumescent paint expands to many times its original thickness and insulates the surface underneath it. Demonstration tests are illustrated, described and discussed. However, some problems, such as preventing fuselage rupture and protecting windows, must be solved before such a system can be used.

  7. Evaluation of a large capacity heat pump concept for active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagel, L. L.; Herring, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses assessing the conceptual feasibility of a large capacity heat pump for enhancing active cooling of hypersonic aircraft structure are presented. A unique heat pump arrangement which permits cooling the structure of a Mach 6 transport to aluminum temperatures without the aid of thermal shielding is described. The selected concept is compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants, with Freon R-11 selected as the preferred refrigerant. Condenser temperatures were limited to levels compatible with the use of conventional refrigerants by incorporating a unique multipass condenser design, which extracts mechanical energy from the hydrogen fuel, prior to each subsequent pass through the condenser. Results show that it is technically feasible to use a large capacity heat pump in lieu of external shielding. Additional analyses are required to optimally apply this concept.

  8. Feasibility of Supersonic Aircraft Concepts for Low-Boom and Flight Trim Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents a process for analyzing whether a particular supersonic aircraft configuration layout and a given cruise condition are feasible to achieve a trimmed low-boom design. This process was motivated by the need to know whether a particular configuration at a given cruise condition could be reshaped to satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints. Without such a process, much effort could be wasted on shaping a configuration layout at a cruise condition that could never satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints simultaneously. The process helps to exclude infeasible configuration layouts with minimum effort and allows a designer to develop trimmed low-boom concepts more effectively. A notional low-boom supersonic demonstrator concept is used to illustrate the analysis/design process.

  9. Spiral approach navigation concepts for VTOL aircraft using a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Spiral approaches adjacent to the active runways of CTOL airports have been proposed as a means of effectively interfacing CTOL and VTOL landing operations. Assuming an airport equipped with a Microwave Landing System (MLS), a VTOL aircraft following a spiral approach path might, depending on the specific trajectory, pass alternatively in and out of the linear coverage of the MLS and thereby suffer degraded navigation performance. The objective of this study was to employ essentially state-of-the-art aided inertial navigation concepts to explore the expected navigation performance operating in the environment just described. Results show that aided inertial concepts utilizing simple body-mounted inertia systems may be adequate for an instrument landing if the MLS azimuth and Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) signal coverages extend to within a few feet of the ground.

  10. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  11. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  12. Tradespace Exploration of Distributed Propulsors for Advanced On-Demand Mobility Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Moore, Mark D.; Turnbull, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Combustion-based sources of shaft power tend to significantly penalize distributed propulsion concepts, but electric motors represent an opportunity to advance the use of integrated distributed propulsion on an aircraft. This enables use of propellers in nontraditional, non-thrust-centric applications, including wing lift augmentation, through propeller slipstream acceleration from distributed leading edge propellers, as well as wingtip cruise propulsors. Developing propellers for these applications challenges long-held constraints within propeller design, such as the notion of optimizing for maximum propulsive efficiency, or the use of constant-speed propellers for high-performance aircraft. This paper explores the design space of fixed-pitch propellers for use as (1) lift augmentation when distributed about a wing's leading edge, and (2) as fixed-pitch cruise propellers with significant thrust at reduced tip speeds for takeoff. A methodology is developed for evaluating the high-level trades for these types of propellers and is applied to the exploration of a NASA Distributed Electric Propulsion concept. The results show that the leading edge propellers have very high solidity and pitch well outside of the empirical database, and that the cruise propellers can be operated over a wide RPM range to ensure that thrust can still be produced at takeoff without the need for a pitch change mechanism. To minimize noise exposure to observers on the ground, both the leading edge and cruise propellers are designed for low tip-speed operation during takeoff, climb, and approach.

  13. Evaluation of Head-Worn Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft Taxi Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a Head-Up Display (HUD) can be used to enable more capacity and safer aircraft surface operations. This previous research also noted that the HUD exhibited two major limitations which hindered the full potential of the display concept: 1) the monochrome HUD format; and, 2) a limited, fixed field of regard. Full-color Head Worn Displays (HWDs) with very small sizes and weights are emerging to the extent that this technology may be practical for commercial and business aircraft operations. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, full-color, out-the-window display concepts with an unlimited field-of-regard may be realized to improve efficiency and safety in surface operations. A ground simulation experiment was conducted at NASA Langley to evaluate the efficacy of head-worn display applications which may directly address the limitations of the HUD while retaining all of its advantages in surface operations. The simulation experiment used airline crews to evaluate various displays (HUD, HWD) and display concepts in an operationally realistic environment by using a Chicago, O Hare airport database. The results pertaining to the implications of HWDs for commercial business and transport aviation applications are presented herein. Overall HWD system latency was measured and found to be acceptable, but not necessarily optimal. A few occurrences of simulator sickness were noted while wearing the HWD, but overall there appears to be commercial pilot acceptability and usability to the concept. Many issues were identified which need to be addressed in future research including continued reduction in user encumbrance due to the HWD, and improvement in image alignment, accuracy, and boresighting.

  14. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  15. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  16. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  17. Validation Database Based Thermal Analysis of an Advanced RPS Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Emis, Nickolas D.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced RPS concepts can be conceived, designed and assessed using high-end computational analysis tools. These predictions may provide an initial insight into the potential performance of these models, but verification and validation are necessary and required steps to gain confidence in the numerical analysis results. This paper discusses the findings from a numerical validation exercise for a small advanced RPS concept, based on a thermal analysis methodology developed at JPL and on a validation database obtained from experiments performed at Oregon State University. Both the numerical and experimental configurations utilized a single GPHS module enabled design, resembling a Mod-RTG concept. The analysis focused on operating and environmental conditions during the storage phase only. This validation exercise helped to refine key thermal analysis and modeling parameters, such as heat transfer coefficients, and conductivity and radiation heat transfer values. Improved understanding of the Mod-RTG concept through validation of the thermal model allows for future improvements to this power system concept.

  18. A Method for Aircraft Concept Selection Using Multicriteria Interactive Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buonanno, Michael; Mavris, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    The problem of aircraft concept selection has become increasingly difficult in recent years as a result of a change from performance as the primary evaluation criteria of aircraft concepts to the current situation in which environmental effects, economics, and aesthetics must also be evaluated and considered in the earliest stages of the decision-making process. This has prompted a shift from design using historical data regression techniques for metric prediction to the use of physics-based analysis tools that are capable of analyzing designs outside of the historical database. The use of optimization methods with these physics-based tools, however, has proven difficult because of the tendency of optimizers to exploit assumptions present in the models and drive the design towards a solution which, while promising to the computer, may be infeasible due to factors not considered by the computer codes. In addition to this difficulty, the number of discrete options available at this stage may be unmanageable due to the combinatorial nature of the concept selection problem, leading the analyst to arbitrarily choose a sub-optimum baseline vehicle. These concept decisions such as the type of control surface scheme to use, though extremely important, are frequently made without sufficient understanding of their impact on the important system metrics because of a lack of computational resources or analysis tools. This paper describes a hybrid subjective/quantitative optimization method and its application to the concept selection of a Small Supersonic Transport. The method uses Genetic Algorithms to operate on a population of designs and promote improvement by varying more than sixty parameters governing the vehicle geometry, mission, and requirements. In addition to using computer codes for evaluation of quantitative criteria such as gross weight, expert input is also considered to account for criteria such as aeroelasticity or manufacturability which may be impossible or

  19. Selected advanced aerodynamic and active control concepts development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A summary is presented of results obtained during analysis, design and test activities on six selected technical tasks directed at exploratory improvement of fuel efficiency for new and derivative transports. The work included investigations into the potential offered by natural laminar flow, improved surface coatings and advanced high lift concepts. Similar investigations covering optimum low-energy flight path control, integrated application of active controls and evaluation of primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance are also summarized. Recommendations are included for future work needed to exploit potential advancements.

  20. Propulsion system studies for an advanced high subsonic, long range jet commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Propulsion system characteristics for a long range, high subsonic (Mach 0.90 - 0.98), jet commercial transport aircraft are studied to identify the most desirable cycle and engine configuration and to assess the payoff of advanced engine technologies applicable to the time frame of the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. An engine parametric study phase examines major cycle trends on the basis of aircraft economics. This is followed by the preliminary design of two advanced mixed exhaust turbofan engines pointed at two different technology levels (1970 and 1985 commercial certification for engines No. 1 and No. 2, respectively). The economic penalties of environmental constraints - noise and exhaust emissions - are assessed. The highest specific thrust engine (lowest bypass ratio for a given core technology) achievable with a single-stage fan yields the best economics for a Mach 0.95 - 0.98 aircraft and can meet the noise objectives specified, but with significant economic penalties. Advanced technologies which would allow high temperature and cycle pressure ratios to be used effectively are shown to provide significant improvement in mission performance which can partially offset the economic penalties incurred to meet lower noise goals. Advanced technology needs are identified; and, in particular, the initiation of an integrated fan and inlet aero/acoustic program is recommended.

  1. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Counter-rotating-propeller configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to flyover noise of advanced turboprop aircraft with counter rotating propellers. The first experiment examined configurations having an equal number of blades on each rotor and the second experiment examined configurations having an unequal number of blades on each rotor. The objectives were to determine the effects on annoyance of various tonal characteristics, and to compare annoyance to advanced turboprops with annoyance to conventional turboprops and turbofans. A computer was used to synthesize realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop aircraft takeoff noise. The simulations represented different combinations fundamental frequency and tone-to-broadband noise ratio. Also included in each experiment were recordings of 10 conventional turboprop and turbofan takeoffs. Each noise was presented at three sound pressure levels in an anechoic chamber. In each experiment, 64 subjects judged the annoyance of each noise stimulus. Analyses indicated that annoyance was significantly affected by the interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio. No significant differences in annoyance between the advanced turboprop aircraft and the conventional turbofans were found. The use of a duration correction and a modified tone correction improved the annoyance prediction for the stimuli.

  2. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  3. Advanced fuel cell concepts for future NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1987-09-01

    Studies of primary fuel cells for advanced all electric shuttle type vehicles show an all fuel cell power system with peak power capability of 100's of kW to be potentially lighter and have lower life cycle costs than a hybrid system using advanced H2O2 APU's for peak power and fuel cells for low power on orbit. Fuel cell specific weights of 1 to 3 lb/kW, a factor of 10 improvement over the orbiter power plant, are projected for the early 1990's. For satellite applications, a study to identify high performance regenerative hydrogen oxygen fuel cell concepts for geosynchronous orbit was completed. Emphasis was placed on concepts with the potential for high energy density (Wh/lb) and passive means for water and heat management to maximize system reliability. Both alkaline electrolyte and polymer membrane fuel cells were considered.

  4. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  5. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  6. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  7. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovil, D. V.; Grant, W. D.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.; Desper, O. E.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary design activity consisted of developing and analyzing alternate design concepts and selecting the optimum elevator configuration. This included trade studies in which durability, inspectability, producibility, repairability, and customer acceptance were evaluated. Preliminary development efforts consisted of evaluating and selecting material, identifying ancillary structural development test requirements, and defining full scale ground and flight test requirements necessary to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification. After selection of the optimum elevator configuration, detail design was begun and included basic configuration design improvements resulting from manufacturing verification hardware, the ancillary test program, weight analysis, and structural analysis. Detail and assembly tools were designed and fabricated to support a full-scope production program, rather than a limited run. The producibility development programs were used to verify tooling approaches, fabrication processes, and inspection methods for the production mode. Quality parts were readily fabricated and assembled with a minimum rejection rate, using prior inspection methods.

  8. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is issuing this Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to describe information currently available and information being collected that will be used by the Administrator to issue a subsequent proposal regarding whether, in the Administrator's judgment, aircraft lead emissions from aircraft using leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) cause or contribute to air pollution which may......

  9. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  10. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  11. Advanced composite aileron for L-1011 transport aircraft: Aileron manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, E. G.; Cobbs, W. L.; Legg, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication activities of the Advanced Composite Aileron (ACA) program are discussed. These activities included detail fabrication, manufacturing development, assembly, repair and quality assurance. Five ship sets of ailerons were manufactured. The detail fabrication effort of ribs, spar and covers was accomplished on male tools to a common cure cycle. Graphite epoxy tape and fabric and syntactic epoxy materials were utilized in the fabrication. The ribs and spar were net cured and required no post cure trim. Material inconsistencies resulted in manufacturing development of the front spar during the production effort. The assembly effort was accomplished in subassembly and assembly fixtures. The manual drilling system utilized a dagger type drill in a hydraulic feed control hand drill. Coupon testing for each detail was done.

  12. Applications of advanced aerodynamic technology to light aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, H. L.; Mcghee, R. J.; Kohlman, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses a project for adapting advanced technology, much of it borrowed from the jet transport, to general aviation design practice. The NASA funded portion of the work began in 1969 at the University of Kansas and resulted in a smaller, experimental wing with spoilers and powerful flap systems for a Cessna Cardinal airplane. Some flight data and research pilot comments are presented. The project was expanded in 1972 to include a light twin-engine airplane. For the twin there was the added incentive of a potential increase in single-engine climb performance. The use of a new high-lift Whitcomb airfoil is planned for both the wing and the propellers. Preliminary data on the characteristics of the new airfoil are discussed. The configuration of an experimental wing for a Piper Seneca PA-34 and estimated airplane performance with this wing are discussed.

  13. Annoyance caused by advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise: Single-rotating propeller configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the annoyance of people to advanced turboprop (propfan) aircraft flyover noise. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects on annoyance of various tonal characteristics; and (2) compare annoyance to advanced turboprops with annoyance to conventional turboprops and jets. A computer was used to produce realistic, time-varying simulations of advanced turboprop aircraft takeoff noise. In the first experiment, subjects judged the annoyance of 45 advanced turboprop noises in which the tonal content was systematically varied to represent the factorial combinations of five fundamental frequencies, three frequency envelope shapes, and three tone-to-broadband noise ratios. Each noise was presented at three sound levels. In the second experiment, 18 advanced turboprop takeoffs, 5 conventional turboprop takeoffs, and 5 conventional jet takeoffs were presented at three sound pressure levels to subjects. Analysis indicated that frequency envelope shape did not significantly affect annoyance. The interaction of fundamental frequency with tone-to-broadband noise ratio did have a large and complex effect on annoyance. The advanced turboprop stimuli were slightly less annoying than the conventional stimuli.

  14. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  15. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS) functional description. [Cessna 402B aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive set of general aviation avionics were defined for integration into an advanced hardware mechanization for demonstration in a Cessna 402B aircraft. Block diagrams are shown and system and computer architecture as well as significant hardware elements are described. The multifunction integrated data control center and electronic horizontal situation indicator are discussed. The functions that the DAAS will perform are examined. This function definition is the basis for the DAAS hardware and software design.

  16. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  17. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    ADVANCES ON PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH-SPEED AIRCRAFT March 12-15, 2007 SCRAMJETS M. Smart The University of Queensland , Australia Scramjets...Michael Smart Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland , Brisbane, Australia. 4072 Nomenclature A area (in2) T temperature (K) Cf skin friction...programmes will be reviewed here; (1) ajoint CIAM/NASA flight test conducted in 1998, (2) the HyShot 2 flight conducted by The University of Queensland

  18. Expanded envelope concepts for aircraft control-element failure detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Jerold L.; Hsu, John Y.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop and demonstrate concepts for expanding the envelope of failure detection and isolation (FDI) algorithms for aircraft-path failures. An algorithm which uses analytic-redundancy in the form of aerodynamic force and moment balance equations was used. Because aircraft-path FDI uses analytical models, there is a tradeoff between accuracy and the ability to detect and isolate failures. For single flight condition operation, design and analysis methods are developed to deal with this robustness problem. When the departure from the single flight condition is significant, algorithm adaptation is necessary. Adaptation requirements for the residual generation portion of the FDI algorithm are interpreted as the need for accurate, large-motion aero-models, over a broad range of velocity and altitude conditions. For the decision-making part of the algorithm, adaptation may require modifications to filtering operations, thresholds, and projection vectors that define the various hypothesis tests performed in the decision mechanism. Methods of obtaining and evaluating adequate residual generation and decision-making designs have been developed. The application of the residual generation ideas to a high-performance fighter is demonstrated by developing adaptive residuals for the AFTI-F-16 and simulating their behavior under a variety of maneuvers using the results of a NASA F-16 simulation.

  19. The next generation in aircraft protection against advanced MANPADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the advanced and novel technologies and underlying systems capabilities that Selex ES has applied during the development, test and evaluation of the twin head Miysis DIRCM System in order to ensure that it provides the requisite levels of protection against the latest, sophisticated all-aspect IR MANPADS. The importance of key performance parameters, including the fundamental need for "spherical" coverage, rapid time to energy-on-target, laser tracking performance and radiant intensity on seeker dome is covered. It also addresses the approach necessary to ensure that the equipment is suited to all air platforms from the smallest helicopters to large transports, while also ensuring that it achieves an inherent high reliability and an ease of manufacture and repair such that a step change in through-life cost in comparison to previous generation systems can be achieved. The benefits and issues associated with open architecture design are also considered. Finally, the need for extensive test and evaluation at every stage, including simulation, laboratory testing, platform and target dynamic testing in a System Integration Laboratory (SIL), flight trial, missile live-fire, environmental testing and reliability testing is also described.

  20. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parson, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development, testing, production activities, and associated costs that were required to produce five-and-one-half advanced-composite stabilizer shipsets for Boeing 737 aircraft are defined and discussed.

  1. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  2. Advanced Warheads Concepts: An Advanced Equation of State for Overdriven Detonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    The FY90 Advanced Warhead Concepts effort has produced an advanced thermodynamic equation of state (Jones-Wilkens-Lee-Baker (JWLB)) for high explosives detonation. JWLB is suitable for overdriven detonation and material acceleration applications. It has been implemented into the dynamic finite element programs SYNA2D and DYNA3D and parameterized for octol 75/25. Calculated and experimental results are compared.

  3. Concepts for improving the damage tolerance of composite compression panels. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The residual strength of specimens with damage and the sensitivity to damage while subjected to an applied inplane compression load were determined for flatplate specimens and blade-stiffened panels. The results suggest that matrix materials that fail by delamination have the lowest damage tolerance capability. Alternate matrix materials or laminates which are transversely reinforced suppress the delamination mode of failure and change the failure mode to transverse shear crippling which occurs at a higher strain value. Several damage-tolerant blade-stiffened panel design concepts are evaluated. Structural efficiency studies conducted show only small mass penalties may result from incorporating these damage-tolerant features in panel design. The implication of test results on the design of aircraft structures was examined with respect to FAR requirements.

  4. The NASA Ames integral aircraft passenger seat concept - A human engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubokawa, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A new NASA Ames concept for an aircraft passenger seat has been under research and development since 1968. It includes many human-factor features that will provide protection to the passenger from vibration, jostle, and high impact. It is comfortable and safer than any of the seats presently in use. An in-depth design, fabrication, and impact analysis was conducted in order to design a seat that will maximize passenger protection in high g impacts (20 g horizontal -Gx, 36 g vertical +Gz, 16 g lateral Gy). The method for absorbing impact energy was accomplished with a combination of stretching stainless steel cables, thread breaking of stitches, hydraulic mechanism and the special Temper Form cushions. The restraint system for the seat consisted of a lap belt and shoulder harness inertia reel combination.

  5. Cost benefit study of advanced materials technology for aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Johnston, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The cost/benefits of eight advanced materials technologies were evaluated for two aircraft missions. The overall study was based on a time frame of commercial engine use of the advanced material technologies by 1985. The material technologies evaluated were eutectic turbine blades, titanium aluminide components, ceramic vanes, shrouds and combustor liners, tungsten composite FeCrAly blades, gamma prime oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy blades, and no coat ODS alloy combustor liners. They were evaluated in two conventional takeoff and landing missions, one transcontinental and one intercontinental.

  6. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  7. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries. [Brazil and Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1979-01-01

    Air transportation concepts for movement of cargo in developing countries are reviewed using aicraft which may appear in the future. For certain industrial applications, including mining and forestry, the relative costs of doing the job using different types of aircraft are compared with surface transportation systems. Two developing countries, Brazil and Indonesia, were taken as examples to determine what impact they might have on the aircraft markets of the future. Economic and demographic data on developing countries in general, and Brazil and Indonesia in particular, are reviewed. The concept of an industrial city in a remote area developed around an airport is discussed. It is noted that developing areas generally lack extensive surface transportation systems and that an air transportation system can be implemented in a relatively short time. A developing nation interested in rapid expansion may thus find the role of air cargo far more important than has been true in developed nations. Technological developments which may dramatically increase the performance of agricultural aircraft are also reviewed.

  8. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  9. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Paul, Kevin; Mullowney, Paul J.; Messmer, Peter; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Esarey, Eric; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Leemans, Wim; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-22

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating >10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of {approx}2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  10. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2008-09-10

    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating>10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ~;;2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  11. Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a 2-year study are reported which were carried out to extend the development of laminar flow control (LFC) technology and evaluate LFC systems concepts. The overall objective of the LFC program is to provide a sound basis for industry decisions on the application of LFC to future commercial transports. The study was organized into major tasks to support the stated objectives through application of LFC systems concepts to a baseline LFC transport initially generated for the study. Based on competitive evaluation of these concepts, a final selection was made for incorporation into the final design of an LFC transport which also included other advanced technology elements appropriate to the 1990 time period.

  12. Advanced liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning concept testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, G. L. E.; Suter, J. D.; Turner, S. G.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced methods of liquid oxygen (LO2) propellant conditioning were studied as part of an effort for increasing reliability and operability while reducing cost of future heavy lift launch vehicles. The most promising conditioning concept evaluated was no-bleed (passive recirculation) followed by low-bleed, helium injection, and use of a recirculation line. Full-scale cryogenic testing was performed with a sloped feedline test article to validate models of behavior of LO2 in the feedline and to prove no-bleed feasibility. Test data are also intended to help generate design guidelines for the development of a main propulsion system feed duct. A design-of-experiments matrix of over 100 tests was developed to test all four propellant conditioning concepts and the impact of design parameters on the concepts. Liquid nitrogen was used as the test fluid. The work for this project was conducted from October 1992 through January 1994 at the hydrogen cold flow facility of the west test area of MSFC. Test data have shown that satisfactory temperatures are being obtained for the no-bleed conditioning concept.

  13. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. Post Landsat-D advanced concept evaluation /PLACE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, L. D.; Alvarado, U. R.; Flatow, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of the Post Landsat-D Advanced Concept Evaluation (PLACE) program was to identify the key technology requirements of earth resources satellite systems for the 1985-2000 period. The program involved four efforts: (1) examination of future needs in the earth resources area, (2) creation of a space systems technology model capable of satisfying these needs, (3) identification of key technology requirements posed by this model, and (4) development of a methodology (PRISM) to assist in the priority structuring of the resulting technologies.

  15. Energy absorption studied to reduce aircraft crash forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/FAA aircraft safety reseach programs for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Energy absorption of aircraft subflooring and redesign of interior flooring are being studied. The testing of energy absorbing configurations is described. The three NASA advanced concepts performed at neary the maximum possible amount of energy absorption, and one of two minimum modifications concepts performed well. Planned full scale tests are described. Airplane seat concepts are being considered.

  16. Head-Worn Display Concepts for Surface Operations for Commerical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Williams, Steven P.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and flight tests have shown that a Head-Up Display (HUD) and a head-down electronic moving map (EMM) can be enhanced with Synthetic Vision for airport surface operations. While great success in ground operations was demonstrated with a HUD, the research noted that two major HUD limitations during ground operations were its monochrome form and limited, fixed field-of-regard. A potential solution to these limitations found with HUDs may be emerging with Head Worn Displays (HWDs). HWDs are small display devices that may be worn without significant encumbrance to the user. By coupling the HWD with a head tracker, unlimited field-of-regard may be realized. The results of three ground simulation experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are summarized. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of head-worn display applications of Synthetic Vision and Enhanced Vision technology to improve transport aircraft surface operations. The results of the experiments showed that the fully integrated HWD provided greater pilot performance with respect to staying on the path compared to using paper charts alone. Further, when comparing the HWD with the HUD concept, there were no differences in path performance. In addition, the HWD and HUD concepts were rated via paired-comparisons the same in terms of situation awareness and workload.

  17. Application of the active camber morphing concept based on compliant structures to a regional aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gaspari, Alessandro; Ricci, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    The present work addresses the optimal design of a morphing mechanism based on compliant structures used to implement the active camber morphing concept. The subject of the work is part of the FP7-NOVEMOR project (Novel Air Vehicle Configurations: From Fluttering Wings to Morphing Flight) which is one of the many projects from the seventh European Framework Programme. The implementation of active camber concept is based on the use of conformable morphing control surfaces. Aiming at the optimal design of such as morphing devices, two dedicated tools called PHORMA and SPHERA, respectively, are introduced. The definition of the optimal shape taking into account both aerodynamic and structural constraints is done by PHORMA. Then SPHERA, based on the load path approach codified by coupling a non linear beam solver to a genetic multi- objective optimizer, is adopted to generate the optimal internal structure able to produce, when loaded, the target optimal shape. The paper is mainly focused on the optimal design of the compliant structures starting from the optimal shape already available for a Reference Aircraft (RA) developed inside NOVEMOR project and representative of a typical regional jet capable to carry 113 PAX in a single economic class.

  18. An Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques. The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for 1995 transport aircraft. The graphical and tabular results of this study will establish a performance section of the ACFS Operation's Manual.

  19. Parameter identification studies on the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckavitt, Thomas P., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The results of an aircraft parameters identification study conducted on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) in conjunction with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics are given. The ACFS is a commercial airline simulator with a design based on future technology. The simulator is used as a laboratory for human factors research and engineering as applied to the commercial airline industry. Parametric areas examined were engine pressure ratio (EPR), optimum long range cruise Mach number, flap reference speed, and critical take-off speeds. Results were compared with corresponding parameters of the Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft. This comparison identified two areas where improvements can be made: (1) low maximum lift coefficients (on the order of 20-25 percent less than those of a 757); and (2) low optimum cruise Mach numbers. Recommendations were made to those anticipated with the application of future technologies.

  20. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  1. Lateral noise attenuation of the advanced propeller of the propfan test assessment aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, F. W.; Reddy, N. N.; Bartel, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Lateral noise attenuation characteristics of the advanced propeller are determined using the flight test results of the testbed aircraft, Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), with a single, large-scale propfan. The acoustic data were obtained with an array of ground-mounted microphones positioned at distances up to 2.47 km (8100 feet) to the side of the flight path. The aircraft was flown at a Mach number of 0.31 for a variety of operating conditions. The lateral noise attenuation in a frequency range containing the blade passage frequency of the propeller was found to have positive magnitudes on the propfan side and negative magnitudes on the opposite side. The measured attenuation exhibits a strong dependence upon the elevation angle. The results also display a clear dependence upon the angle at which the propeller and nacelle are mounted on the wing (inflow angle).

  2. Fabrication and evaluation of advanced titanium structural panels for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, L.

    1977-01-01

    Flightworthy primary structural panels were designed, fabricated, and tested to investigate two advanced fabrication methods for titanium alloys. Skin-stringer panels fabricated using the weldbraze process, and honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated using a diffusion bonding process, were designed to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 research aircraft. The investigation included ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale panels, and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Test results obtained on full-scale panels and structural element specimens indicate that both of the fabrication methods investigated are suitable for primary structural applications on future civil and military supersonic cruise aircraft.

  3. Potential reduction of en route noise from an advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1990-01-01

    When the en route noise of a representative aircraft powered by an eight-blade SR-7 propeller was previously calculated, the noise level was cited as a possible concern associated with the acceptance of advanced turboprop aircraft. Some potential methods for reducing the en route noise were then investigated and are reported. Source noise reductions from increasing the blade number and from operating at higher rotative speed to reach a local minimum noise point were investigated. Greater atmospheric attenuations for higher blade passing frequencies were also indicated. Potential en route noise reductions from these methods were calculated as 9.5 dB (6.5 dB(A)) for a 10-blade redesigned propeller and 15.5 dB (11 dB(A)) for a 12-blade redesigned propeller.

  4. A method for aircraft concept exploration using multicriteria interactive genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, Michael Alexander

    2005-08-01

    The problem of aircraft concept selection has become increasingly difficult in recent years due to changes in the primary evaluation criteria of concepts. In the past, performance was often the primary discriminator, whereas modern programs have placed increased emphasis on factors such as environmental impact, economics, supportability, aesthetics, and other metrics. The revolutionary nature of the vehicles required to simultaneously meet these conflicting requirements has prompted a shift from design using historical data regression techniques for metric prediction to the use of sophisticated physics-based analysis tools that are capable of analyzing designs outside of the historical database. The use of optimization methods with these physics-based tools, however, has proven difficult because of the tendency of optimizers to exploit assumptions present in the models and drive the design towards a solution which, while promising to the computer, may be infeasible due to factors not considered by the computer codes. In addition to this difficulty, the number of discrete options available at this stage may be unmanageable due to the combinatorial nature of the concept selection problem, leading the analyst to select a sub-optimum baseline vehicle. Some extremely important concept decisions, such as the type of control surface arrangement to use, are frequently made without sufficient understanding of their impact on the important system metrics due to a lack of historical guidance, computational resources, or analysis tools. This thesis discusses the difficulties associated with revolutionary system design, and introduces several new techniques designed to remedy them. First, an interactive design method has been developed that allows the designer to provide feedback to a numerical optimization algorithm during runtime, thereby preventing the optimizer from exploiting weaknesses in the analytical model. This method can be used to account for subjective criteria, or

  5. Generic Repository Concepts and Thermal Analysis for Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Blink, James; Carter, Joe; Massimiliano, Fratoni; Greenberg, Harris; Howard, Rob L

    2011-01-01

    The current posture of the used nuclear fuel management program in the U.S. following termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, is to pursue research and development (R&D) of generic (i.e., non-site specific) technologies for storage, transportation and disposal. Disposal R&D is directed toward understanding and demonstrating the performance of reference geologic disposal concepts selected to represent the current state-of-the-art in geologic disposal. One of the principal constraints on waste packaging and emplacement in a geologic repository is management of the waste-generated heat. This paper describes the selection of reference disposal concepts, and thermal management strategies for waste from advanced fuel cycles. A geologic disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or high-level waste (HLW) consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. A set of reference geologic disposal concepts has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, for crystalline rock, clay/shale, bedded salt, and deep borehole (crystalline basement) geologic settings. We performed thermal analysis of these concepts using waste inventory cases representing a range of advanced fuel cycles. Concepts of operation consisting of emplacement mode, repository layout, and engineered barrier descriptions, were selected based on international progress and previous experience in the U.S. repository program. All of the disposal concepts selected for this study use enclosed emplacement modes, whereby waste packages are in direct contact with encapsulating engineered or natural materials. The encapsulating materials (typically clay-based or rock salt) have low intrinsic permeability and plastic rheology that closes voids so that low permeability is maintained. Uniformly low permeability also contributes to chemically reducing conditions common in soft clay, shale, and salt formations. Enclosed modes are associated

  6. Analysis of control concepts for gas and shaft-coupled V/STOL aircraft lift fan systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Hart, C. E.; Mihaloew, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    For lift-fan powered V/STOL aircraft, two unconventional propulsion system types were proposed. The first type uses fans connected by hot gas ducting, and the second type uses fans connected by cross shafting. An analytical study identified the basic steady-state and dynamic characteristics for each type of system. For the gas-coupled system, the control concepts analyzed were variable-area fan turbines and throttling valves in the ducting. For the shaft-coupled system, the control concepts analyzed were variable-pitch fans and variable fan inlet guide vanes. All of these concepts are capable of meeting V/STOL aircraft control moment and transient response requirements when appropriate propulsion controls are used.

  7. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Advanced cargo aircraft may offer a potential renaissance in freight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J.; Sawyer, Wallace C.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand for air freight transportation has prompted studies of large, aerodynamically efficient cargo-optimized aircraft capable of carrying intermodal containers, which are typically 8 x 8 x 20 ft. Studies have accordingly been conducted within NASA to ascertain the specifications and projected operating costs of such a vehicle, as well as to identify critical, development-pacing technologies. Attention is here given not only to the rather conventional, 10-turbofan engined configuration thus arrived at, but numerous innovative configurations featuring such concepts as spanloading, removable cargo pods, and ground effect.

  9. Lessons learned from pilot errors using automated systems in advanced technology aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Byers, J.C.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.; Reece, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate pilot errors that occur during interaction with automated systems in advanced technology ( glass cockpit'') aircraft. In particular, we investigated the causes and potential corrective measures for pilot errors that resulted in altitude deviation incidents (i.e. failure to capture or maintain the altitude assigned by air traffic control). To do this, we analyzed altitude deviation events that have been reported in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), NASA's data base of incidents self-reported by pilots and air traffic controllers. We developed models of the pilot tasks that are performed to capture and maintain altitude. Two types of models were developed to provide complementary perspectives of these tasks: sequential models and functional models. Both types of models show the errors that occur in actual altitude deviation events in advanced technology aircraft. Then, errors from the ASRS data base were categorized according to the models, to help understand the potential causes of the different error types. This paper summarizes the methodology used to analyze pilot errors, the lessons learned from the study of altitude deviation errors, and the application of these results for the introduction of advanced technology in nuclear power plants.

  10. Lessons learned from pilot errors using automated systems in advanced technology aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Byers, J.C.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.; Reece, W.J.

    1993-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate pilot errors that occur during interaction with automated systems in advanced technology (``glass cockpit``) aircraft. In particular, we investigated the causes and potential corrective measures for pilot errors that resulted in altitude deviation incidents (i.e. failure to capture or maintain the altitude assigned by air traffic control). To do this, we analyzed altitude deviation events that have been reported in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), NASA`s data base of incidents self-reported by pilots and air traffic controllers. We developed models of the pilot tasks that are performed to capture and maintain altitude. Two types of models were developed to provide complementary perspectives of these tasks: sequential models and functional models. Both types of models show the errors that occur in actual altitude deviation events in advanced technology aircraft. Then, errors from the ASRS data base were categorized according to the models, to help understand the potential causes of the different error types. This paper summarizes the methodology used to analyze pilot errors, the lessons learned from the study of altitude deviation errors, and the application of these results for the introduction of advanced technology in nuclear power plants.

  11. Development of longitudinal handling qualities criteria for large advanced supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudderth, R. W.; Mcneill, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted with the aim of advancing the development of longitudinal handling qualities criteria for large supersonic cruise aircraft. The areas of study investigated included high-speed cruise maneuvering, and stall-recovery control power. Comparisons were made with existing criteria and, for the cruise condition, a time response criterion was developed which correlated well with pilot ratings and comments. For low-speed stall recovery a new criterion was developed in terms of nose-down angular acceleration capability.

  12. A preliminary study of containment concepts for aircraft landing on elevated STOL-ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haviland, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary study of containment systems for aircraft landing on elevated STOL-ports was conducted as part of an overall study of human acceptance problems associated with STOL operations. The study included a survey and feasibility study of different concepts and a computer analysis of four arrestment systems. The principal conclusion was that a system referred to as the FAA system appears to offer the greatest promise. In this system, standard arresting gear cables are stretched across the roof-top, at roughly 100-foot intervals, but are shielded over the 100-foot-wide primary landing strip. Thus a pilot can land with an arresting hook down, but will not contact the cable unless he swerves off the landing strip, either because he has made a bad landing, or because his landing gear has failed. It was also noted that a suitable curb or guard rail should be developed. Presently available arresting gears and nylon net barriers were considered satisfactory for the overshoot problem.

  13. Applying Required Navigation Performance Concept for Traffic Management of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Jaewoo; D'Souza, Sarah N.; Johnson, Marcus A.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Modi, Hemil C.; Nikaido, Ben; Hasseeb, Hashmatullah

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of a rapid increase in the number of civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) operations, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that will investigate airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. One aspect a UTM system must consider is the correlation between UAS operations (such as vehicles, operation areas and durations), UAS performance requirements, and the risk to people and property in the operational area. This paper investigates the potential application of the International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept to relate operational risk with trajectory conformance requirements. The approach is to first define a method to quantify operational risk and then define the RNP level requirement as a function of the operational risk. Greater operational risk corresponds to more accurate RNP level, or smaller tolerable Total System Error (TSE). Data from 19 small UAS flights are used to develop and validate a formula that defines this relationship. An approach to assessing UAS-RNP conformance capability using vehicle modeling and wind field simulation is developed to investigate how this formula may be applied in a future UTM system. The results indicate the modeled vehicles flight path is robust to the simulated wind variation, and it can meet RNP level requirements calculated by the formula. The results also indicate how vehicle-modeling fidelity may be improved to adequately verify assessed RNP level.

  14. Cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 turbo-ramjet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. C.; Petley, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    A cooling system and insulation concept for a Mach 5 cruise aircraft, using non-cryogenic fuel is presented. Catalytic endothermic reaction of petroleum fuel is used as the heat sink for engine cooling. A secondary closed-loop coolant circuit removes heat from the engine and transfers this heat to the catalytic reactor. Insulation on the engine flow path surfaces reduces the cooling requirements. A high temperature insulation system, which is capable of a surface temperature of 4,000 F, is used for the combustor and nozzle. A complete closed-loop cooling system design is shown in detail. Main features of this system include a fuel preheater, a catalytic fuel reactor, and engine wall cooling panels. A silicone-based liquid polymer, designed for extended use at 750 F, is used as the coolant. The preheater and reactor design are based on the results of recent experimental work. The cooling panels are designed using a thermal fluid analysis computer program, which was originally developed for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP). Major components are analyzed structurally as well as thermally and weights are presented.

  15. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estellés, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Rosenberg, P.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Woolley, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9) discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer retrievals under

  16. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  17. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Freeway, Katy; Rogers, R.E.; DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D.

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  18. Candidate advanced energy storage concepts for multimegawatt burst power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, John E.; Sollo, Charles

    Three candidate advanced energy storage systems are reviewed and compared with the Thermionic Operating Reactor (THOR) concept. The three systems considered are the flywheel generator, the lithium-metal sulfide battery and the alkaline fuel cell. From a minimum mass viewpoint, only the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) can result in a lighter system than THOR. Because of its lower operating temperature, as compared to THOR, a considerable reduction in materials problems is to be expected when compared to the extremely high operating temperatures of the THOR system. Frozen heat pipes and their impact on response time as well as the complexity of the required retraction/extension mechanism of the THOR system would tend to place the RFC system in a much lower category of development risk. Finally, if spot shielding of sensitive electronic and power conditioning equipment becomes necessary for the reactor radiation environment of the THOR system, the weight advantage of the RFC system may become even greater.

  19. System concept for an advanced stand-off weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzan, Riccardo

    1992-11-01

    A typical conceptual design process is described as applicable to an advanced Stand Off Weapon (SOW). Different design requirement sets, which include system performance parameters, are established to satisfy different mission requirements. In order to cope with these sets and to reach the flexibility needed, some specific design criteria are suggested. The trade between modularity and commonality makes the difference among different SOW's and affects them in affordability and effectiveness. The Skyshark weapon system is given as example of an SOW system concept. The description allows the understanding of links between design requirements, design criteria, and technical characteristics. Extensive modularity is adopted for all components that enhance flexibility (Armament, Avionics, Propulsion), while a favorable configuration layout choice allows maximizing commonality. This paper presents an industrial point of view and is related to almost 10 years of Alenia activities on Stand Off Weapons.

  20. Application of the H-Mode, a Design and Interaction Concept for Highly Automated Vehicles, to Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Flemisch, Frank O.; Schutte, Paul C.; Williams, Ralph A.

    2006-01-01

    Driven by increased safety, efficiency, and airspace capacity, automation is playing an increasing role in aircraft operations. As aircraft become increasingly able to autonomously respond to a range of situations with performance surpassing human operators, we are compelled to look for new methods that help us understand their use and guide their design using new forms of automation and interaction. We propose a novel design metaphor to aid the conceptualization, design, and operation of highly-automated aircraft. Design metaphors transfer meaning from common experiences to less familiar applications or functions. A notable example is the "Desktop metaphor" for manipulating files on a computer. This paper describes a metaphor for highly automated vehicles known as the H-metaphor and a specific embodiment of the metaphor known as the H-mode as applied to aircraft. The fundamentals of the H-metaphor are reviewed followed by an overview of an exploratory usability study investigating human-automation interaction issues for a simple H-mode implementation. The envisioned application of the H-mode concept to aircraft is then described as are two planned evaluations.

  1. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  2. Development of advanced structural analysis methodologies for predicting widespread fatigue damage in aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    NASA is developing a 'tool box' that includes a number of advanced structural analysis computer codes which, taken together, represent the comprehensive fracture mechanics capability required to predict the onset of widespread fatigue damage. These structural analysis tools have complementary and specialized capabilities ranging from a finite-element-based stress-analysis code for two- and three-dimensional built-up structures with cracks to a fatigue and fracture analysis code that uses stress-intensity factors and material-property data found in 'look-up' tables or from equations. NASA is conducting critical experiments necessary to verify the predictive capabilities of the codes, and these tests represent a first step in the technology-validation and industry-acceptance processes. NASA has established cooperative programs with aircraft manufacturers to facilitate the comprehensive transfer of this technology by making these advanced structural analysis codes available to industry.

  3. Lessons learned from the introduction of cockpit automation in advanced technology aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Byers, J.C.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.; Reece, W.J.

    1995-10-01

    The commercial aviation industry has many years of experience in the application of computer based human support systems, for example the flight management systems installed in today`s advanced technology (``glass cockpit``) aircraft. This experience can be very helpful in the design and implementation of similar systems for nuclear power plants. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate pilot errors that occur during interaction with automated systems in advanced technology aircraft. In particular, we investigated the causes and potential corrective measures for pilot errors that resulted in altitude deviation incidents (i.e. failure to capture or maintain the altitude assigned by air traffic control). To do this, we analyzed altitude deviation events that have been reported in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), NASA`s data base of incidents self-reported by pilots and air traffic controllers. We developed models of the pilot tasks that are performed to capture and maintain altitude. Incidents from the ASRS data base were mapped onto the models, to highlight and categorize the potential causes of the errors. This paper reviews some of the problems that have resulted from the introduction of glass cockpit aircraft, the methodology used to analyze pilot errors, the lessons learned from the study of altitude deviation events, and the application of the results to the introduction of computer-based human support systems in nuclear power plants. In addition, a framework for using reliability engineering tools to incorporate lessons learned from operational experience into the design, construction, and operation of complex systems is briefly described.

  4. Continued Development and Application of Circulation Control Pneumatic Technology to Advanced Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Personnel of the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) Aerospace and Transportation Lab have completed a four-year grant program to develop and evaluate the pneumatic aerodynamic technology known as Circulation Control (CC) or Circulation Control Wing (CCW) for advanced transport aircraft. This pneumatic technology, which employs low-level blowing from tangential slots over round or near-round trailing edges of airfoils, greatly augments the circulation around a lifting or control surface and thus enhances the aerodynamic forces and moments generated by that surface. Two-dimensional force augmentations as high as 80 times the input blowing momentum coefficient have been recorded experimentally for these blown devices, thus providing returns of 8000% on the jet momentum expended. A further benefit is the absence of moving parts such as mechanical flaps, slats, spoilers, ailerons, elevators and rudders from these pneumatic surfaces, or the use of only very small, simple, blown aerodynamic surfaces on synergistic designs which integrate the lift, drag and control surfaces. The application of these devices to advanced aircraft can offer significant benefits in their performance, efficiency, simplicity, reliability, economic cost of operation, noise reduction, and safety of flight. To further develop and evaluate this potential, this research effort was conducted by GTRI under grant for the NASA Langley Research Center, Applied Aerodynamics Division, Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch, between June 14, 1993 and May 31, 1997.

  5. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  6. New lidar concept for measuring the slant range transmission in aircraft landing approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The single-scatter, single-wavelength, scalar-backscatter lidar equation is investigated to determine the transmission along a line from a point on the ground to what is known as the decision point on the 3 degree aircraft glide slope. It may be applied in aircraft landing approaches for measuring the slant range transmission.

  7. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  8. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2000-01-01

    In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines

  9. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  10. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  11. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  12. X-29 - views of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. In this 29-second film clip the camera pans along the aircraft from nose to tail and then air-to-air as the shot sweeps from beside the X-29 around to the front.

  13. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  14. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2004-01-01

    In this project on the first stage (2000-Ol), we continued to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). At the second stage (2001-03), FM&AL team concentrated its efforts on solving of problems of interest to Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), especially in the field of propulsion system enhancement. The NASA GRC R&D Directorate and LaRC Hyper-X Program specialists in a hypersonic technology jointly with the FM&AL staff conducted research on a wide region of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The last year the Hampton University School of Engineering & Technology was awarded the NASA grant, for creation of the Aeropropulsion Center, and the FM&AL is a key team of the project fulfillment responsible for research in Aeropropulsion and Acoustics (Pillar I). This work is supported by joint research between the NASA GRC/ FM&AL and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IMMSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The main areas of current scientific interest of the FM&AL include an investigation of the proposed and patented advanced methods for aircraft engine thrust and noise benefits. This is the main subject of our other projects, of which one is presented. The last year we concentrated our efforts to analyze three main problems: (a) new effective methods fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines; (b) new re-circulation method for mixing, heat transfer and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems and domestic industry application; (c) covexity flow The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines (see, for

  15. Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Avramidis, K. A.

    2015-12-15

    In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.

  16. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  17. The Advanced Patricle-astrophysics Telescope (APT) Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, James

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) is a concept for a probe-class gamma-ray mission aimed at two primary science objects: (1) providing sensitivity to thermal-WIMP dark matter over the entire natural range of annihilation cross-sections and masses and (2) identifying short GRBs or gravity wave sources by detecting and localizing MeV gamma-ray transients. The instrument combines a pair tracker and Compton telescope in one simple monolithic design. By using scintillating fibers for the tracker and wavelength-shifting fibers to readout CsI detectors, the instrument could achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity compared with Fermi at GeV energies, and several orders of magnitude improvement in MeV sensitivity compared to Comptel. The instrument would have roughly the same number of electronic channels as Fermi, but would provide an effective area of 12m2, and a geometry factor of 100 m2 str. The same CsI detectors used in the tracker/Compton telescope could be used for detection of high-energy transition radiation for measurements of light cosmic-ray abundances, making this a multi-purpose astro-particle physics observatory. The instantaneous all-sky sensitivity would provide a capability almost unique over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, providing a critical component of multi-messenger studies of the universe. We acknowledge support from the Washington University McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences.

  18. Advanced Low-Emissions Catalytic-Combustor Program, phase 1. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgess, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Six catalytic combustor concepts were defined, analyzed, and evaluated. Major design considerations included low emissions, performance, safety, durability, installations, operations and development. On the basis of these considerations the two most promising concepts were selected. Refined analysis and preliminary design work was conducted on these two concepts. The selected concepts were required to fit within the combustor chamber dimensions of the reference engine. This is achieved by using a dump diffuser discharging into a plenum chamber between the compressor discharge and the turbine inlet, with the combustors overlaying the prediffuser and the rear of the compressor. To enhance maintainability, the outer combustor case for each concept is designed to translate forward for accessibility to the catalytic reactor, liners and high pressure turbine area. The catalytic reactor is self-contained with air-cooled canning on a resilient mounting. Both selected concepts employed integrated engine-starting approaches to raise the catalytic reactor up to operating conditions. Advanced liner schemes are used to minimize required cooling air. The two selected concepts respectively employ fuel-rich initial thermal reaction followed by rapid quench and subsequent fuel-lean catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide, and, fuel-lean thermal reaction of some fuel in a continuously operating pilot combustor with fuel-lean catalytic reaction of remaining fuel in a radially-staged main combustor.

  19. Aircraft corrosion and crack inspection using advanced magneto-optic imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, David K.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Shih, William C.

    1996-11-01

    A next generation magneto-optic imaging system, the MOI 303, has recently been introduced with the ability to generate real-time, complete, 2D eddy current images of cracks and corrosion in aircraft. The new imaging system described features advanced, digital remote control operation and on- screen display of setup parameters for ease of use. This instrument gives the inspector the capability to more rapidly scan large surfaces areas. The magneto-optic/eddy current imaging technology has already been formally approved for inspection of surface cracking on an aircraft fuselage. The improved magneto-optic imager is now poised to aid rapid inspection for corrosion and subsurface cracking. Previous magneto-optic imaging systems required the inspector to scan the surface twice for complete inspection coverage: a second scan was necessary with the imager rotated about 90 degrees from the orientation of the first pass. However, by providing eddy current excitation simultaneously from two orthogonal directions, complete, filled-in magneto-optic images are now generated regardless of the orientation of the imager. THese images are considerably easier to interpret and evaluate. In addition, there is a synergism obtained in applying eddy current excitation simultaneously in multiple directions: better penetration is obtained and the resulting images have better signal to noise levels compared to those produced with eddy current excitation applied only in one direction. Examples of these improved images are presented.

  20. Cost/benefit analysis of advanced material technologies for small aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comey, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Cost/benefit studies were conducted on ten advanced material technologies applicable to small aircraft gas turbine engines to be produced in the 1985 time frame. The cost/benefit studies were applied to a two engine, business-type jet aircraft in the 6800- to 9100-Kg (15,000- to 20,000-lb) gross weight class. The new material technologies are intended to provide improvements in the areas of high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine rotor components, high-pressure turbine stator airfoils, and static structural components. The cost/benefit of each technology is presented in terms of relative value, which is defined as a change in life cycle cost times probability of success divided by development cost. Technologies showing the most promising cost/benefits based on relative value are uncooled single crystal MAR-M 247 turbine blades, cooled DS MAR-M 247 turbine blades, and cooled ODS 'M'CrAl laminate turbine stator vanes.

  1. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Concepts for Logistics to Living

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Howe, A. Scott; Flynn, Michael T.; Howard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    , Howard 2010]. Several of the L2L concepts that have shown the most potential in the past are based on NASA cargo transfer bags (CTBs) or their equivalents which are currently used to transfer cargo to and from the ISS. A high percentage of all logistics supplies are packaging mass and for a 6-month mission a crew of four might need over 100 CTBs. These CTBs are used for on-orbit transfer and storage but eventually becomes waste after use since down mass is very limited. The work being done in L2L also considering innovative interior habitat construction that integrate the CTBs into the walls of future habitats. The direct integration could provide multiple functions: launch packaging, stowage, radiation protection, water processing, life support augmentation, as well as structure. Reuse of these CTBs would reduce the amount of waste generated and also significantly reduce future up mass requirements for exploration missions. Also discussed here is the L2L water wall , an innovative reuse of an unfolded CTB as a passive water treatment system utilizing forward osmosis. The bags have been modified to have an inner membrane liner that allows them to purify wastewater. They may also provide a structural water-wall element that can be used to provide radiation protection and as a structural divider. Integration of the components into vehicle/habitat architecture and consideration of operations concepts and human factors will be discussed. In the future these bags could be designed to treat wastewater, concentrated brines, and solid wastes, and to dewater solid wastes and produce a bio-stabilized construction element. This paper will describe the follow-on work done in design, fabrication and demonstrations of various L2L concepts, including advanced CTBs for reuse/repurposing, internal outfitting studies and the CTB-based forward osmosis water wall.

  2. Study of an advanced transport airplane design concept known as Flatbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethers, R. G.; Caldwell, E. W.; Warnock, W. E.; Wilson, J. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design concept and configuration of the Flatbed transport aircraft are presented. The Flatbed configuration combines into one frame, the ability to haul cargo, virtually unrestrained by cross sectional dimensions of the fuselage. The feasibility and capability of the Flatbed is discussed in depth.

  3. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  4. Cruise noise of an advanced single-rotation propeller measured from an adjacent aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from flight measurements of the noise from a full-scale SR-7L advanced single-rotation turbofan model mounted on the wing of the NASA Lewis Propfan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft (a modified Gulfstream II). Data obtained on the PTA with an outboard microphone boom and by the NASA Lewis acoustically instrumented Learjet flying along several sidelines relative to the PTA are presented in tables and graphs and briefly discussed. It is found that the PTA-boom and Learjet sound levels are in good agreement at Mach 0.69 and altitude 20,000 ft, but the Learjet values are significantly lower than the boom levels at Mach 0.79 and altitude 36,000 ft.

  5. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estelles, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Trembath, J.; Woolley, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Fennec climate programme aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE (Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed for and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sizes of up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager) satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas Mountains, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area

  6. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  7. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  8. Elastomeric Structural Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Flap Noise Reduction - Challenges and Approaches to Hyperelastic Structural Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Su, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise of transport aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Airframe noise reduction is currently emphasized under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Fixed Wing (FW) Project goals of NASA. A promising concept for trailing-edge-flap noise reduction is a flexible structural element or link that connects the side edges of the deployable flap to the adjacent main-wing structure. The proposed solution is distinguished by minimization of the span-wise extent of the structural link, thereby minimizing the aerodynamic load on the link structure at the expense of increased deformation requirement. Development of such a flexible structural link necessitated application of hyperelastic materials, atypical structural configurations and novel interface hardware. The resulting highly-deformable structural concept was termed the FLEXible Side Edge Link (FLEXSEL) concept. Prediction of atypical elastomeric deformation responses from detailed structural analysis was essential for evaluating feasible concepts that met the design constraints. The focus of this paper is to describe the many challenges encountered with hyperelastic finite element modeling and the nonlinear structural analysis of evolving FLEXSEL concepts. Detailed herein is the nonlinear analysis of FLEXSEL concepts that emerged during the project which include solid-section, foamcore, hollow, extended-span and pre-stressed concepts. Coupon-level analysis performed on elastomeric interface joints, which form a part of the FLEXSEL topology development, are also presented.

  9. Advanced Concept Exploration for Fast Ignition Science Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; McLean, Harry M.; Theobald, Wolfgang; Akli, Kramer U.; Beg, Farhat N.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2013-09-04

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional “central hot spot” (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10’s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The physics of fast ignition process was the focus of our Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program. Ignition depends critically on two major issues involving Relativistic High Energy Density (RHED) physics: The laser-induced creation of fast electrons and their propagation in high-density plasmas. Our program has developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to advance understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our program had three thrust areas: • Understand the production and characteristics of fast electrons resulting from FI relevant laser-plasma interactions and their dependence on laser prepulse and laser pulse length. • Investigate the subsequent fast electron transport in solid and through hot (FI-relevant) plasmas. • Conduct and understand integrated core-heating experiments by comparison to simulations. Over the whole period of this project (three years for this contract), we have greatly advanced our fundamental understanding of the underlying properties in all three areas: • Comprehensive studies on fast electron source characteristics have shown that they are controlled by the laser intensity distribution and the topology and plasma density gradient. Laser pre-pulse induced pre-plasma in front of a solid surface results in increased stand-off distances from the electron origin to the high density

  10. Analysis of several glidepath and speed control autopilot concepts for a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal performance and control utilization data are compared for several different automatic approach autopilot implementations in a powered lift STOL aircraft. As few as two, to as many as four laws reflecting both backside and frontside control techniques. The data are developed from analysis and simulation, but represent configurations which were demonstrated in flight. Transient response characteristics from initial glidepath offsets are presented, along with system operation in turbulence. In furnishing quantitative data in controlled levels of simulated turbulence, these results provide a useful supplement to various flight investigations (including those employing manual control) that involved a comparison of control techniques in this type of aircraft.

  11. Development of an advanced pitch active control system for a wide body jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Wiley A.; Rising, Jerry J.; Davis, Walt J.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced PACS control law was developed for a commercial wide-body transport (Lockheed L-1011) by using modern control theory. Validity of the control law was demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley visual motion simulator. The PACS design objective was to develop a PACS that would provide good flying qualities to negative 10 percent static stability margins that were equivalent to those of the baseline aircraft at a 15 percent static stability margin which is normal for the L-1011. Also, the PACS was to compensate for high-Mach/high-g instabilities that degrade flying qualities during upset recoveries and maneuvers. The piloted flight simulation tests showed that the PACS met the design objectives. The simulation demonstrated good flying qualities to negative 20 percent static stability margins for hold, cruise and high-speed flight conditions. Analysis and wind tunnel tests performed on other Lockheed programs indicate that the PACS could be used on an advanced transport configuration to provide a 4 percent fuel savings which results from reduced trim drag by flying at negative static stability margins.

  12. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  13. Advanced-power-reactor design concepts and performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, H. W.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Springborn, R. H.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Five reactor cooling concepts which allow continued reactor operation following a single rupture of the coolant system are presented for application with the APR. These concepts incorporate convective cooling, double containment, or heat pipes to ensure operation after a coolant line rupture. Based on an evaluation of several control system concepts, a molybdenum clad, beryllium oxide sliding reflector located outside the pressure vessel is recommended.

  14. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  15. National General Aviation Roadmap Definition for a Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents trends and forces that shape 21 st century demand for higher-speed personal air transportation and outlines guidance developed by NASA in partnership with other federal and state government and industry partners, for Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) investment and partnership planning.

  16. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  17. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  18. Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

    1994-01-01

    The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  20. Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.

  1. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  2. Lacking a Formal Concept of Limit: Advanced Non-Mathematics Students' Personal Concept Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, Kenneth A.; Zollman, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the conceptual understanding of limit among 22 undergraduate engineering students from two different sections of the same introductory differential equations course. The participants' concepts of limit (concept images and personal concept definitions) were examined using written tasks followed by one-on-one…

  3. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  4. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  5. Fuel conservative guidance concept for shipboard landing of powered-life aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, D. N., Jr.; Mcghee, L. A.; Mclean, J. D.; Schmidt, G. K.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to investigate the application of energy conservative guidance (ECG) software, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, to improve the time and fuel efficiency of powered lift airplanes operating from aircraft carriers at sea. When a flightpath is indicated by a set of initial conditions for the aircraft and a set of positional waypoints with associated airspeeds, the ECG software synthesizes the necessary guidance commands to optimize fuel and time along the specified path. A major feature of the ECG system is the ability to synthesize a trajectory that will allow the aircraft to capture the specified path at any waypoint with the desired heading and airspeed from an arbitrary set of initial conditions. Five paths were identified and studied. These paths demonstrate the ECG system's ability to save flight time and fuel by more efficiently managing the aircraft's capabilities. Results of this simulation study show that when restrictions on the approach flightpath imposed for manual operation are removed completely, fuel consumption during the approach was reduced by as much as 49% (610 lb fuel) and the time required to fly the flightpath was reduced by as much as 41% (5 min). Savings due to ECG were produced by: (1) shortening the total flight time; (2) keeping the airspeed high as long as possible to minimize time spent flying in a regime in which more engine thrust is required for lift to aid the aerodynamic lift; (3) minimizing time spent flying at constant altitude at slow airspeeds; and (4) synthesizing a path from any location for a direct approach to landing without entering a holding pattern or other fixed approach path.

  6. Operational Test Plan Concept for Evaluation of Close Air Support Alternative Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    to prepare an operational test plan to conduct a competitive fly-off of alternative aircraft for the close air support (CAS) mission and to complete...the test pLanbys>_ M &vach49- The Act also directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct an independent assessment of ongoing studies and analyses...commitment of forces and equipment by the Services and the likelihood of conducting the test on an active Army installation, the Army will be

  7. Bomber Force 2000: Operational Concepts for Long-Range Combat Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-08

    ORGAIhiZATtON (if applicable ) OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT C 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City. State, and ZIP Code) NAVAL WAR COLLEGE NEWPORT...RI 02841 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING iSPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable ) 8c. ADDRESS...the indivisible application of air power. Strategic and tactical air operations became more associated with specific types of aircraft than with ways of

  8. Technical and Economic Assessment of Span-Distributed Loading Cargo Aircraft Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. M.; Muehlbauer, J. C.; Eudaily, R. R.; Farmer, B. T.; Monrath, J. F.; Thompson, S. G.

    1976-01-01

    A 700,000 kg (1,540,000-lb) aircraft with a cruise Mach number of 0.75 was found to be optimum for the specified mission parameters of a 272 155-kg (600,000-lb) payload, a 5560-km (3000-n.mi.) range, and an annual productivity of 113 billion revenue-ton km (67 billion revenue-ton n. mi.). The optimum 1990 technology level spanloader aircraft exhibited the minimum 15-year life-cycle costs, direct operating costs, and fuel consumption of all candidate versions. Parametric variations of wing sweep angle, thickness ratio, rows of cargo, and cargo density were investigated. The optimum aircraft had two parallel rows of 2.44 x 2.44-m (8 x 8-ft) containerized cargo with a density of 160 kg/cu m (10 lb/ft 3) carried throughout the entire 101-m (331-ft) span of the constant chord, 22-percent thick, supercritical wing. Additional containers or outsized equipment were carried in the 24.4-m (80-ft) long fuselage compartment preceding the wing. Six 284,000-N (64,000-lb) thrust engines were mounted beneath the 0.7-rad (40-deg) swept wing. Flight control was provided by a 36.6-m (120-ft) span canard surface mounted atop the forward fuselage, by rudders on the wingtip verticals and by outboard wing flaperons.

  9. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  10. Advanced Turbine Systems Program industrial system concept development

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, S.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Phase II of the Advanced Turbine Systems Program is to develop conceptual designs of gas fired advanced turbine systems that can be adapted for operation on coal and biomass fuels. The technical, economic, and environmental performance operating on natural gas and in a coal fueled mode is to be assessed. Detailed designs and test work relating to critical components are to be completed and a market study is to be conducted.

  11. Annoyance response to simulated advanced turboprop aircraft interior noise containing tonal beats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, Jack D.

    1987-01-01

    A study is done to investigate the effects on subjective annoyance of simulated advanced turboprop (ATP) interior noise environments containing tonal beats. The simulated environments consisted of low-frequency tones superimposed on a turbulent-boundary-layer noise spectrum. The variables used in the study included propeller tone frequency (100 to 250 Hz), propeller tone levels (84 to 105 dB), and tonal beat frequency (0 to 1.0 Hz). Results indicated that propeller tones within the simulated ATP environment resulted in increased annoyance response that was fully predictable in terms of the increase in overall sound pressure level due to the tones. Implications for ATP aircraft include the following: (1) the interior noise environment with propeller tones is more annoying than an environment without tones if the tone is present at a level sufficient to increase the overall sound pressure level; (2) the increased annoyance due to the fundamental propeller tone frequency without harmonics is predictable from the overall sound pressure level; and (3) no additional noise penalty due to the perception of single discrete-frequency tones and/or beats was observed.

  12. Ballistic impact study of some advanced aircraft materials at sub-ordnance velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, S.A.; Covino, J.; Robbs, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the results of ballistic impact tests on two advanced titanium-based aircraft materials to determine damage threshold levels for low-velocity (15-160 m/s) impacts of the kind experienced during take-off and landing operations. The two materials investigated included a super alpha-2 titanium aluminide alloy and a fiber-reinforced beta titanium alloy (i.e., metal-matrix composite). The first was tested in the form of curved truss-core panels and the second in the form of flat sheets. Two different panel configurations and two different fiber layups were examined. Projectiles consisted of aluminum spheres. Impacts were at normal incidence and in the velocity regime below the minimum for perforation (i.e., ballistic limit velocity). Materials were assessed in terms of threshold velocities for permanent deformation and fracture and also in terms of impact dynamics (e.g., projectile rebound velocities and projectile/target contact times). Target damage (e.g., fracture morphology) was also assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and ultrasound.

  13. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alva, T.; Henkel, J.; Johnson, R.; Carll, B.; Jackson, A.; Mosesian, B.; Brozovic, R.; Obrien, R.; Eudaily, R.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final report of technical work conducted during the fourth phase of a multiphase program having the objective of the design, development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component manufactured in a production environment at a cost competitive with those of its metal counterpart, and at a weight savings of at least 20 percent. The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes front and rear spars. During Phase 4 of the program, production quality tooling was designed and manufactured to produce three sets of covers, ribs, spars, miscellaneous parts, and subassemblies to assemble three complete ACVF units. Recurring and nonrecurring cost data were compiled and documented in the updated producibility/design to cost plan. Nondestruct inspections, quality control tests, and quality acceptance tests were performed in accordance with the quality assurance plan and the structural integrity control plan. Records were maintained to provide traceability of material and parts throughout the manufacturing development phase. It was also determined that additional tooling would not be required to support the current and projected L-1011 production rate.

  14. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2003-01-01

    The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Results obtained are based on analytical methods, numerical simulations and experimental tests at the NASA LaRC and Hampton University computer complexes and experimental facilities. The main objective of this research is injection, mixing and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems. The sub-projects in the reporting period are: (A) Aero-performance and acoustics of Telescope-shaped designs. The work included a pylon set application for SCRAMJET. (B) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round and diamond-round nozzles. (C) Measurement technique improvements for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel (HU LSWT) including an automatic data acquisition system and a two component (drag-lift) balance system. In addition, a course in the field of aerodynamics was developed for the teaching and training of HU students.

  15. Study of flutter related computational procedures for minimum weight structural sizing of advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oconnell, R. F.; Hassig, H. J.; Radovcich, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of a study of the development of flutter modules applicable to automated structural design of advanced aircraft configurations, such as a supersonic transport, are presented. Automated structural design is restricted to automated sizing of the elements of a given structural model. It includes a flutter optimization procedure; i.e., a procedure for arriving at a structure with minimum mass for satisfying flutter constraints. Methods of solving the flutter equation and computing the generalized aerodynamic force coefficients in the repetitive analysis environment of a flutter optimization procedure are studied, and recommended approaches are presented. Five approaches to flutter optimization are explained in detail and compared. An approach to flutter optimization incorporating some of the methods discussed is presented. Problems related to flutter optimization in a realistic design environment are discussed and an integrated approach to the entire flutter task is presented. Recommendations for further investigations are made. Results of numerical evaluations, applying the five methods of flutter optimization to the same design task, are presented.

  16. A Study of the Utilization of Advanced Composites in Fuselage Structures of Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.; Sumida, P. T.; Bunin, B. L.; Janicki, G. S.; Walker, J. V.; Fox, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composites in the future production of fuselage structure in large transport aircraft. Fuselage structures of six candidate airplanes were evaluated for the baseline component. The MD-100 was selected on the basis of its representation of 1990s fuselage structure, an available data base, its impact on the schedule and cost of the development program, and its availability and suitability for flight service evaluation. Acceptance criteria were defined, technology issues were identified, and a composite fuselage technology development plan, including full-scale tests, was identified. The plan was based on composite materials to be available in the mid to late 1980s. Program resources required to develop composite fuselage technology are estimated at a rough order of magnitude to be 877 man-years exclusive of the bird strike and impact dynamic test components. A conceptual composite fuselage was designed, retaining the basic MD-100 structural arrangement for doors, windows, wing, wheel wells, cockpit enclosure, major bulkheads, etc., resulting in a 32 percent weight savings.

  17. Advanced Numerical-Algebraic Thinking: Constructing the Concept of Covariation as a Prelude to the Concept of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Fernando; Morasse, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In this document we stress the importance of developing in children a structure for advanced numerical-algebraic thinking that can provide an element of control when solving mathematical situations. We analyze pupils' conceptions that induce errors in algebra due to a lack of control in connection with their numerical thinking. We…

  18. Dual-Mission Large Aircraft Feasibility Study and Aerodynamic Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri

    1997-01-01

    A Dual-Mission Large Aircraft, or DMLA, represents the possibility of a single aircraft capable of fulfilling both a Global Reach Aircraft (GRA) and Very Large Transport (VLT) roles. The DMLA, by combining the GRA and VLT into a single new aircraft, could possibly lower the aircraft manufacturer's production costs through the resulting increase in production quantity. This translates into lower aircraft acquisition costs, a primary concern for both the Air Force and commercial airlines. This report outlines the first steps taken in this study, namely the assessment of technical and economic feasibility of the DMLA concept. In the course of this project, specialized GRA and VLT aircraft were sized for their respective missions, using baseline conventional (i.e., lacking advanced enabling technologies) aircraft models from previous work for the Air Force's Wright Laboratory and NASA-Langley. DMLA baseline aircraft were then also developed, by first sizing the aircraft for the more critical of the two missions and then analyzing the aircraft's performance over the other mission. The resulting aircraft performance values were then compared to assess technical feasibility. Finally, the life-cycle costs of each aircraft (GRA, VLT, and DMLA) were analyzed to quantify economic feasibility. These steps were applied to both a two-engine aircraft set, and a four-engine aircraft set.

  19. How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

  20. Screening analysis and selection of emission reduction concepts for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Tucker, J. R.; Stuckas, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to screen, evaluate, and select three engine exhaust emission reduction concepts from a group of 14 candidate alternatives. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to survey the emission reduction technology state-of-the-art and establish contact with firms working on intermittent combustion engine development and pollution reduction problems. Concept development, advantages, disadvantages, and expected emission reduction responses are stated. A set of cost effectiveness criteria was developed, appraised for relative importance, and traded off against each concept so that its merit could be determined. A decision model was used to aid the evaluators in managing the criteria, making consistent judgements, calculating merit scores, and ranking the concepts. An Improved Fuel Injection System, Improved Cooling Combustion Chamber, and a Variable Timing Ignition System were recommended to NASA for approval and further concept development. An alternate concept, Air Injection, was also recommended.

  1. Comparing middleware concepts for advanced healthcare system architectures.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B; Holena, M

    1997-09-01

    Different approaches to middleware, supporting systems integration in healthcare, are described and evaluated, regarding concepts, architectural framework, and relevance for healthcare enterprises. This evaluation includes CORBA, DHE, and HL7. CORBA, promoted in the healthcare area through the efforts of CORBAmed, is a strictly object-oriented approach, whereas DHE is based on process-related concepts. The earlier HL7 approach, without any modelling and with proprietary communication management, is changing to a harmonised information interchange concept in healthcare, taking into account also other protocols and medical domains with orientation to an electronic patient record. The opening also includes the separation of message definition and message exchange format, enabling the migration of different EDI standards. HL7 will also support the integration of standardised platforms as 'networking mediator applications'. Finally, some recommendations for future developments are given.

  2. Advanced Concepts in Multi-Dimensional Radiation Detection and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Kai; Haefner, Andy; Barnowski, Ross; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Shikaze, Yoshiaki

    Recent developments in the detector fabrication, signal readout, and data processing enable new concepts in radiation detection that are relevant for applications ranging from fundamental physics to medicine as well as nuclear security and safety. We present recent progress in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging in the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program. It is based on the ability to reconstruct scenes in three dimensions and fuse it with gamma-ray image information. We are using the High-Efficiency Multimode Imager HEMI in its Compton imaging mode and combining it with contextual sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect or visual cameras. This new concept of volumetric imaging or scene data fusion provides unprecedented capabilities in radiation detection and imaging relevant for the detection and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials. This concept brings us one step closer to the seeing the world with gamma-ray eyes.

  3. [Advance Directives: theoretical concept and practical significance in the USA].

    PubMed

    Vollmann, J; Pfaff, M

    2003-07-04

    The article examines on the basic of empirical data the discrepancy between the theoretical demand and the practical role of advance directives. Often advance directives have no influence on medical decision-making in clinical care of critically ill patients. The vague language of the widely used standard living wills and the lack of physician-patient communication in the process of delivering an advance directives are contributing factors. However, many physicians even disregard patients' preferences in concrete and meaningful living wills at the end of life. Besides the lack of information many even seriously ill patients do not deliver an advance because they misjudge their medical prognosis and life expectancy. Often the communication between patients and doctors are blocked because they expect from the each other the first step to talk about end of life decisions and advance directives. In this context physicians claim lack of time, training in communication skills and their discomfort in talking about death and dying with their patients.

  4. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  5. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  6. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  7. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  8. CFD evaluation of an advanced thrust vector control concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiarn, Weihnurng; Cavalleri, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A potential concept that can offer an alternate method for thrust vector control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the use of a cylindrical probe that is inserted (on demand) through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternate to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector (LITVC) system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment can be time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment can be very time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the proposed concept are PTVC vectoring performance and the active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. An active thermal cooling method is the injection of coolant around the pheriphery of the probe. How much coolant is required and how this coolant distributes itself in the flow field is of major concern. The objective of the work reported here is the use of CFD to answer these question and in the design of test hardware to substantiate the results of the CFD predictions.

  9. Evaluation of energy absorption of new concepts of aircraft composite subfloor intersections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Carden, Huey D.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-one composite aircraft subfloor intersection specimens were tested to determine the effects of geometry and material on the energy absorbing behavior, failure characteristics, and post-crush structural integrity of the specimens. The intersections were constructed of twelve ply + or - 45 sub 6 laminates of either Kevlar 49/934 or AS-4/934 graphite-epoxy in heights of 4, 8, and 12 inches. The geometry of the specimens varied in the designs of the intersection attachment angle. Four different geometries were tested.

  10. The linear and non-linear aerodynamics of three-surface aircraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, J. W.; Lyerla, G. W.; Grafton, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that most modern fighter aircraft rely on vortex interaction to provide lift enhancement at maneuvering angles of attack. It is shown that the close-coupled horizontal canard in a three-surface configuration provides a control surface which in addition to its other control functions, can be used to optimize this vortex interaction. Attention is given to a study intended to provide a detailed understanding of the aerodynamics of this type of configuration. The discussion examines the results of this investigation and hypotheses are presented to explain the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic phenomena observed.

  11. Study of aerodynamic technology for VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft: Horizontal attitude concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal attitude VSTOL (HAVSTOL) supersonic fighter attack aircraft powered by RALS turbofan propulsion system is analyzed. Reaction control for subaerodynamic flight is obtained in pitch and yaw from the RALS and roll from wingtip jets powered by bleed air from the RALS duct. Emphasis is placed on the development of aerodynamic characteristics and the identification of aerodynamic uncertainties. A wind tunnel program is shown to resolve some of the uncertainties. Aerodynamic data developed are static characteristics about all axes, control effectiveness, drag, propulsion induced effects and reaction control characteristics.

  12. Large-scale static investigation of circulation-control-wing concepts applied to upper surface-blowing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Englar, R. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a circulation control to deflect turbofan engine thrust beyond 90 deg. has been proven in full-scale static ground tests of the circulation-control-wing/upper-surface-blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This powered high-lift system employs a circular, blown trailing edge to replace the USB mechanical flaps to entrain engine-exhaust flow, and to obtain both a vertical-thrust component and an augmented circulation lift for short takeoff and landing (STOL) applications. Previous tests (Phase 1), done in 1982, of a basic configuration installed on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft confirmed these CCW/USB systems capabilities. A second phase (Phase 2) of full-scale, static, thrust-deflection investigations has reconfirmed the ability to deflect engine thrust from 40 to 102 deg., depending on thrust level. Five new configurations were evaluated and performance improvements noted for those configurations with larger blown span, fences or favorable engine interactions, smaller slot height, and larger radii with less than 180 deg. of CCW surface arc. In general, a 90 deg. circular arc with a smaller slot height provided the best performance, demonstrating that adequate thrust turning can be produced by a trailing-edge shape which may have minimal cruise-performance penalty. Thrust deflections were achieved at considerably lower blowing momentum than was required for the baseline case of Phase 1. Improved performance and versatility were thus confirmed for the CCW/USB system applied to STOL aircraft, where the potential for developing a non-moving-parts pneumatic thrust deflector to rapidly vary horizontal force from thrust to drag, while maintaining constant vertical force, appears quite promising. The conversion from high-lift to lower-drag cruise mode by merely terminating the blowing provides an effective STOL aircraft system.

  13. Fostering Visions for the Future: A Review of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) was formed in 1998 to provide an independent source of advanced aeronautical and space concepts that could dramatically impact how NASA develops and conducts its missions. Until the program's termination in August 2007, NIAC provided an independent open forum, a high-level point of entry to NASA for an external community of innovators, and an external capability for analysis and definition of advanced aeronautics and space concepts to complement the advanced concept activities conducted within NASA. Throughout its 9-year existence, NIAC inspired an atmosphere for innovation that stretched the imagination and encouraged creativity. As requested by Congress, this volume reviews the effectiveness of NIAC and makes recommendations concerning the importance of such a program to NASA and to the nation as a whole, including the proper role of NASA and the federal government in fostering scientific innovation and creativity and in developing advanced concepts for future systems. Key findings and recommendations include that in order to achieve its mission, NASA must have, and is currently lacking, a mechanism to investigate visionary, far-reaching advanced concepts. Therefore, a NIAC-like entity should be reestablished to fill this gap.

  14. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1993-01-01

    Geodesically stiffened structures are very efficient in carrying combined bending, torsion, and pressure loading that is typical of primary aircraft structures. They are also very damage tolerant since there are multiple load paths available to redistribute loads compared to prismatically stiffened structures. Geodesically stiffened structures utilize continuous filament composite materials which make them amenable to automated manufacturing processes to reduce cost. The current practice for geodesically stiffened structures is to use a solid blade construction for the stiffener. This stiffener configuration is not an efficient concept and there is a need to identify other stiffener configurations that are more efficient but utilize the same manufacturing process as the solid blade. This paper describes a foam-filled stiffener cross section that is more efficient than a solid-blade stiffener in the load range corresponding to primary aircraft structures. A prismatic hat-stiffener panel design is then selected for structural evaluation in uni-axial compression with and without impact damage. Experimental results for both single stiffener specimens and multi-stiffener panel specimens are presented. Finite element analysis results are presented that predict the buckling and postbuckling response of the test specimens. Analytical results for both the element and panel specimens are compared with experimental results.

  15. Static investigation of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing concept applied to the quiet short haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.; Jaynes, D. N.; Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Full scale static investigations were conducted on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) to determine the thrust deflecting capabilities of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This scheme, which combines favorable characteristics of both the A-6/CCW and QSRA, employs the flow entrainment properties of CCW to pneumatically deflect engine thrust in lieu of the mechanical USB flap system. Results show that the no moving parts blown system produced static thrust deflections in the range of 40 deg to 97 deg (depending on thrust level) with a CCW pressure of 208,900 Pa (30.3 psig). In addition, the ability to vary horizontal forces from thrust to drag while maintaining a constant vertical (or lift) value was demonstrated by varying the blowing pressure. The versatility of the CCW/USB system, if applied to a STOL aircraft, was confirmed, where rapid conversion from a high drag approach mode to a thrust recovering waveoff or takeoff configuration could be achieved by nearly instantaneous blowing pressure variation.

  16. Recent advances in approximation concepts for optimum structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    The basic approximation concepts used in structural optimization are reviewed. Some of the most recent developments in that area since the introduction of the concept in the mid-seventies are discussed. The paper distinguishes between local, medium-range, and global approximations; it covers functions approximations and problem approximations. It shows that, although the lack of comparative data established on reference test cases prevents an accurate assessment, there have been significant improvements. The largest number of developments have been in the areas of local function approximations and use of intermediate variable and response quantities. It also appears that some new methodologies are emerging which could greatly benefit from the introduction of new computer architecture.

  17. Advanced Structural Concepts for Weapons Storage - Flat and Mountainous Terrains.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    OF THIS PAGEWm, Dea Satmmo BLOCK 20. (Cont’d). " This study has developed 12 concepts for a modern weapons storage area and evaluated them in terms of...these more modern criteria, yet still have as little effect on the local environment as possible, require minimum personnel and resources, and require...evaluated in terms of their construction and life cycle costa, number of personnel required to operate the security and safety features, load-out time, and

  18. An advanced concept that promises ecological and economic viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. R.; Sedgwick, T. A.; Urie, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The actuality of supersonic commercial service being provided by Concorde is demonstrating to the world the advantages offered by supersonic travel for both business and recreation. Public acceptance will gradually and persistently stimulate interest to proceed with a second generation design that meets updated economic and ecological standards. It is estimated that this concept could operate profitably on world-wide routes with a revenue structure based upon economy fares. Airplanes will meet all present day ecological requirements regarding noise and emissions.

  19. Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A two-year study conducted to establish a basis for industry decisions on the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to future commercial transports was presented. Areas of investigation included: (1) mission definition and baseline selection; (2) concepts evaluations; and (3) LFC transport configuration selection and component design. The development and evaluation of competing design concepts was conducted in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials, and systems. The results of supporting wind tunnel and laboratory testing on a full-scale LFC wing panel, suction surface opening concepts and structural samples were included. A final LFC transport was configured in incorporating the results of concept evaluation studies and potential performance improvements were assessed. Remaining problems together with recommendations for future research are discussed.

  20. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Povitsky, Alex; Schkolnikov, Natalia; Njoroge, Norman; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory at Hampton University (HU/FM&AL) jointly with the NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted four connected subprojects under the reporting project. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of theoretical explanation of experimental facts and creation of accurate numerical simulation techniques and prediction theory for solution of current problems in propulsion systems of interest to the NAVY and NASA agencies. This work is also supported by joint research between the NASA GRC and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IM/MSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The FM&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. The fundamental idea uniting these subprojects is to use nontraditional 3D corrugated and composite nozzle and inlet designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust loss and even with thrust augmentation. These subprojects are: (1) Aeroperformance and acoustics of Bluebell-shaped and Telescope-shaped designs; (2) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round, diamond-round and other nozzles; (3) Measurement technique improvement for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel; a new course in the field of aerodynamics, teaching and training of HU students; experimental tests of Mobius-shaped screws: research and training; (4) Supersonic inlet shape optimization. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (l) Publications: The AIAA Paper #00-3170 was presented at the 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 17-19 June, 2000, Huntsville, AL. The AIAA

  1. Description of Selected Algorithms and Implementation Details of a Concept-Demonstration Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A ground-based system has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of automating the process of collecting relevant weather data, predicting wake vortex behavior from a data base of aircraft, prescribing safe wake vortex spacing criteria, estimating system benefit, and comparing predicted and observed wake vortex behavior. This report describes many of the system algorithms, features, limitations, and lessons learned, as well as suggested system improvements. The system has demonstrated concept feasibility and the potential for airport benefit. Significant opportunities exist however for improved system robustness and optimization. A condensed version of the development lab book is provided along with samples of key input and output file types. This report is intended to document the technical development process and system architecture, and to augment archived internal documents that provide detailed descriptions of software and file formats.

  2. Advanced Polarimetric Concepts - Part 2 (Polarimetric Target Classification)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    polarization and single polarization /single polarization modes, and the C- band RADARSAT II [Meisl 2000] and L- band ALOS ...likelihood classifiers to a. Each individual polarization , | HH |2, |VV|2 and |HV|2, for all three bands . b. Combinations of dual polarizations without the...advanced satellite radar systems such as PALSAR, an L- band SAR sensor on board the NASDA ALOS satellite and Radarsat II, a C- band polarimetric

  3. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  4. A study of engine variable geometry systems for an advanced high subsonic long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compagnon, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Several variable geometry high Mach inlet concepts, aimed at meeting a system noise objective of 15 EPNdB below FAR part 36, for a long range, Mach 0.9 advanced commercial transport are assessed and compared to a fixed geometry inlet with multiple splitters. The effects of a variable exhaust nozzle (mixed exhaust engine) on noise, inlet geometry requirements, and economics are also presented. The best variable geometry inlet configuration identified is a variable cowl design which relies on a high throat Mach number for additional inlet noise suppression only at takeoff, and depends entirely on inlet wall treatment for noise suppression at approach power. Relative economic penalties as a function of noise level are also presented.

  5. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  6. A Novel superconducting toroidal field magnet concept using advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The plasma physics database indicates that two distinct approaches to tokamak design may lead to commercial fusion reactors: low Aspect ratio, high plasma current, relatively low magnetic field devices, and high Aspect ratio, high field devices. The former requires significant enhancements in plasma performance, while the latter depends primarily upon technology development. The key technology for the commercialization of the high-field approach is large, high magnetic field superconducting magnets. In this paper, the physics motivation for the high field approach and key superconducting magnet (SCM) development issues are reviewed. Improved SCM performance may be obtained from improved materials and/or improved engineering. Superconducting materials ranging from NbTi to high- T c oxides are reviewed, demonstrating the broad range of potential superconducting materials. Structural material options are discussed, including cryogenic steel alloys and fiber-reinforced composite materials. Again, the breadth of options is highlighted. The potential for improved magnet engineering is quantified in terms of the Virial Theorem Limit, and two examples of approaches to highly optimized magnet configurations are discussed. The force-reduced concept, which is a finite application of the force-free solutions to Ampere's Law, appear promising for large SCMs but may be limited by the electromagnetics of a fusion plasma. The Solid Superconducting Cylinder (SSC) concept is proposed. This concept combines the unique properties of high- T c superconductors within a low- T c SCM to obtain (1) significant reductions in the structural material volume, (2) a decoupling of the tri-axial (compressive and tensile) stress state, and (3) a demountable TF magnet system. The advantages of this approach are quantified in terms of a 24 T commercial reactor TF magnet system. Significant reductions in the mechanical stress and the TF radial build are demonstrated.

  7. Performance Evaluation of SARDA: An Individual Aircraft-Based Advisory Concept for Surface Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard; Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Hayashi, Miwa

    2015-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. NASAs Spot And Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) tool was developed to address these inefficiencies through Air Traffic Control Tower advisories. The SARDA system is being updated to include collaborative gate hold, either tactically or strategically. This paper presents the results of the human-in-the-loop evaluation of the tactical gate hold version of SARDA in a 360 degree simulated tower setting. The simulations were conducted for the east side of the Dallas-Fort Worth airport. The new system provides gate hold, ground controller and local controller advisories based on a single scheduler. Simulations were conducted with SARDA on and off, the off case reflecting current day operations with no gate hold. Scenarios based on medium (1.2x current levels) and heavy (1.5x current levels) traffic were explored. Data collected from the simulation was analyzed for runway usage, delay for departures and arrivals, and fuel consumption. Further, Traffic Management Initiatives were introduced for a subset of the aircraft. Results indicated that runway usage did not change with the use of SARDA, i.e., there was no loss in runway throughput as compared to baseline. Taxiing delay was significantly reduced with the use of advisory by 45 in medium scenarios and 60 in heavy. Arrival delay was unaffected by the use of advisory. Total fuel consumption was also reduced by 23 in medium traffic and 33 in heavy. TMI compliance appeared unaffected by the advisory.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Individual Aircraft Based Advisory Concept for Surface Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard; Jung, Yoon; Hong, Ty; Hayashi, Miwa

    2013-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. NASA's Spot And Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) tool was developed to address these inefficiencies through Air Traffic Control Tower advisories. The SARDA system is being updated to include collaborative gate hold, either tactically or strategically. This paper presents the results of the human-in-the-loop evaluation of the tactical gate hold version of SARDA in a 360 degree simulated tower setting. The simulations were conducted for the east side of the Dallas/Fort Worth airport. The new system provides gate hold, ground controller and local controller advisories based on a single scheduler. Simulations were conducted with SARDA on and off, the off case reflecting current day operations with no gate hold. Scenarios based on medium (1.2x current levels) and heavy (1.5x current levels) traffic were explored. Data collected from the simulation was analyzed for runway usage, delay for departures and arrivals, and fuel consumption. Further, Traffic Management Initiatives were introduced for a subset of the aircraft. Results indicated that runway usage did not change with the use of SARDA, i.e., there was no loss in runway throughput as compared to baseline. Taxiing delay was significantly reduced with the use of advisory by 45% in medium scenarios and 60% in heavy. Arrival delay was unaffected by the use of advisory. Total fuel consumption was also reduced by 23% in medium traffic and 33% in heavy. TMI compliance appeared unaffected by the advisory

  9. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  10. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC9104O during the period October 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOI+ Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work invoives the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing.

  11. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-08-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period April 1, 2001 to June 30 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  12. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-11-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 2001 to September 30 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  13. ADVANCED DIRECT LIQUEFACTION CONCEPTS FOR PETC GENERIC UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Adam J. Berkovich

    2001-04-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period January 1, 2001 to March 31 2001. This work involves the introduction into the basic two-stage liquefaction process several novel concepts, which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This project has been modified to include an investigation into the production of value added materials from coal using low-severity liquefaction based technologies.

  14. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  15. Commercial space opportunities - Advanced concepts and technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the status of current and future commercial space opportunities. The goal is to pioneer innovative, customer-focused space concepts and technologies, leveraged through industrial, academic, and government alliance, to ensure U.S. commercial competitiveness and preeminence in space. The strategy is to develop technologies which enable new products and processes, deploy existing technology into commercial and military products and processes, and integrate military and commercial research and production activities. Technology development areas include information infrastructure, electronics design and manufacture, health care technology, environment technology, and aeronautical technologies.

  16. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  17. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Peck, S. J.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range vapor chamber type heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for potential use on the space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include type of material, material and panel thickness, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. A thin-wall all-welded stainless steel design with methanol as the working fluid was the initial prototype unit. It was found that an aluminum panel could not be fabricated in the same manner as a stainless steel panel due to diffusion bonding and resistance welding considerations. Therefore, a formed and welded design was developed. The prototype consists of ten panels welded together into a large panel 122 by 24 by 0.15 in., with a heat rejection capability of 1000 watts and a fin efficiency of essentially 1.0.

  18. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H2S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H2S followed by direct oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out.

  19. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  20. Proof-of-concept and advancement of the CellFlux concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal, Christian; Steinmann, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-05-01

    The CellFlux storage system is a new concept for reducing the costs of medium to high temperature thermal energy storage. Initially designed for solar thermal power plants, the concept is suitable for industrial processes and power to heat applications as well. This paper gives first results of a new pilot scale plant set up at DLR in Stuttgart as a proof of concept. Experimental results are used for the validation of a simplified model. The model is apllied to calculate pareto optimal storage configurations in terms of necessary storage mass and exergetic efficiency, suitable for two types of solar thermal power plants. Particularly for applications having larger temperature differences, high exergetic efficiencies at low costs for the storage material can be achieved.