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Sample records for advanced argillic alteration

  1. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  2. Mapping Phyllic and Argillic-Altered Rocks in Southeastern Afghanistan using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: ASTER data and logical operators were successfully used to map phyllic and argillic-altered rocks in the southeastern part of Afghanistan. Hyperion data were used to correct ASTER band 5 and ASTER data were georegistered to orthorectified Landsat TM data. Logical operator algorithms produced argillic and phyllic byte ASTER images that were converted to vector data and overlain on ASTER and Landsat TM images. Alteration and fault patterns indicated that two areas, the Argandab igneous complex, and the Katawaz basin may contain potential polymetallic vein and porphyry copper deposits. ASTER alteration mapping in the Chagai Hills indicates less extensive phyllic and argillic-altered rocks than mapped in the Argandab igneous complex and the Katawaz basin and patterns of alteration are inconclusive to predict potential deposit types.

  3. Chapter C: Hydrothermal Enrichment of Gallium in Zones of Advanced Argillic Alteration-Examples from the Paradise Peak and McDermitt Ore Deposits, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; John, David A.; Foster, Andrea; Ludington, Steven D.; Kotlyar, Boris

    2003-01-01

    Gallium is produced as a byproduct from bauxite and zinc sulfide ores and rarely from primary Ga ores. High Ga contents (>60 ppm) can occur in zones of advanced argillic alteration consisting of alunite+kaolinite+quartz associated with quartz-alunite (high sulfidation Au-Ag) deposits. In a magmatic-hydrothermal environment, the zones of advanced argillic alteration associated with quartz-alunite (high sulfidation) Au-Ag deposits have the highest Ga contents (max 120 ppm). In these Au deposits, Ga is enriched in the zone of alunite+kaolinite alteration and depleted in the zone of quartz-rich alteration within acid-leached rocks. Peripheral zones of argillic alteration have Ga contents and Al/Ga ratios similar to those in unaltered volcanic rocks. The zones of advanced argillic alteration that formed in a steam-heated environment in association with hot-spring-type Hg-Au deposits are not Ga enriched, and residual silicified zones have very low Ga contents. The McDermitt Hg and Paradise Peak Au-Hg deposits, Nev., have zones of advanced argillic alteration that are Ga enriched. At the Paradise Peak Au-Hg deposits, Ga is enriched in the zone of alunite+jarosite alteration that formed in a magmatic-hydrothermal environment. Ga is depleted in the zone of opal+alunite alteration formed in a steam-heated environment, in residual silicified zones formed in a magmatic-hydrothermal environment, and in zones of supergene jarosite alteration. At the McDermitt Hg deposit, Ga is enriched in the zone of alunite+kaolinite alteration below the zone of adularia-quartz alteration that coincides with the Hg ore body. The spatial relation of Ga enrichment to alunite-kaolinite alteration suggests that formation in a magmatic-hydrothermal environment. X-ray-absorption spectra of Ga-enriched samples from the McDermitt Hg deposit are similar to that of gallium sulfate and support the association of Ga enrichment with alunite alteration.

  4. Mapping argillic and advanced argillic alteration in volcanic rocks, quartzites, and quartz arenites in the western Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, southwestern Utah, using ASTER satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The Richfield quadrangle in southwestern Utah is known to contain a variety of porphyry Mo, skarn, polymetallic replacement and vein, alunite, and kaolin resources associated with 27-32 Ma calc-alkaline or 12-23 Ma bimodal volcano-plutonic centers in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Four scenes of visible to shortwave-infrared image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were analyzed to generate maps of exposed clay, sulfate, mica, and carbonate minerals, and ASTER thermal infrared data were analyzed to identify quartz and carbonate minerals. Argillic and advanced argillic alteration minerals including alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite, and kaolinite were identified in both undocumented (U) and known (K) areas, including in the southern Paradise Mtns. (U); in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Wah Wah Mtns. between Broken Ridge and the NG area (U/K); at Wah Wah Summit in a small zone adjacent to 33.1 Ma diorite and marble (U); in fractures cutting quartzites surrounding the 20-22 Ma Pine Grove Mo deposit (U); in volcanic rocks in the Shauntie Hills (U/K); in quartzites in the west-central San Francisco Mtns. (U); in volcanic rocks in the Black Mtns. (K); and in mainly 12-13 Ma rhyolitic rocks along a 20 km E-W belt that includes the Bible Spring fault zone west of Broken Ridge, with several small centers in the Escalante Desert to the south (U/K). Argillized Navajo Sandstone with kaolinite and (or) dickite ± alunite was mapped adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Star Range (U). Intense quartz-sericite alteration (K) with local kaolinite was identified in andesite adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Beaver Lake Mountains. Mo-bearing phyllic alteration was identified in 22.2 Ma rhyolite plugs at the center of the NG alunite area. Limestones, dolomites, and marbles were differentiated, and quartz and sericite were identified in most unaltered quartzites. Halos of

  5. Mineralogy, textures, and whole-rock geochemistry of advanced argillic alteration: Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Oyu Tolgoi mineral district, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Kavalieris, Imants; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    Advanced argillic (AA) alteration is developed over a vertical interval of 500 m, above (and enclosing) Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions that accompany porphyry-style Cu-Au mineralization at the Hugo Dummett deposit. The AA alteration is mainly in basaltic rocks and locally extends into the overlying dacitic ash-flow tuff for about 100 m. The AA zone overprints porphyry-style quartz veins associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions, but at least partly precedes high-grade porphyry-style bornite mineralization. Mineralogically, it consists of andalusite, corundum, residual quartz, titanium oxides, diaspore, alunite, aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals, zunyite, pyrophyllite, topaz, kaolinite, and dickite, as well as anhydrite and gypsum, but is dominated by residual quartz and pyrophyllite. Alteration zonation is not apparent, except for an alunite-bearing zone that occurs approximately at the limit of strong quartz veining. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the AA alteration removes most major elements except Si, Al, Ti, and P, and removes the trace elements Sc, Cs, and Rb. V, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, and Th are relatively immobile, whilst light REEs (La to Nd), Sr, Ba, and Ga can be enriched. Middle REEs (Sm to Gd) are moderately depleted; Y and heavy REEs (Tb to Lu) are strongly depleted except in two unusual samples where middle to heavy REEs are enriched.

  6. Quartz-sericite and argillic alterations at the Peschanka Cu-Mo-Au deposit, Chukchi Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchenko, L. I.; Baksheev, I. A.; Nagornaya, E. V.; Chitalin, A. F.; Nikolaev, Yu. N.; Kal'ko, I. A.; Prokofiev, V. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The porphyry Peschanka copper-molybdenum-gold deposit and the Nakhodka ore field located in the Baimka ore trend on the western Chukchi Peninsula are spatially related to monzonitic rocks of the Early Cretaceous Egdykgych Complex. Two types of quartz-sericite metasomatic rocks (QSR) have been identified at both the deposits and the ore field: (I) chlorite-quartz-muscovite rock with bornite and chalcopyrite (porphyry type) and (II) tourmaline-quartz-carbonate-muscovite ± phengite rock accompanied by veins with base-metal mineralization (subepithermal or transitional type), as well as carbonate-quartz-illite rock (argillic alteration) accompanied by veins with precious metal mineralization (epithermal type). The QSR I chlorite evolves from chamosite to clinochlore, which is caused by increasing H2S activity in mineralizing fluid and precipitation of sulfide minerals. The QSR I clinochlore is significantly depleted in silica as compared with that from the rocks affected by argillic alteration. The chemical composition of muscovite from both quartz-sericite alterations is similar. The QSR II carbonates evolve from calcite through dolomite to siderite, which results from the increasing activity of CO2 followed by the decreasing activity of H2S in mineralizing fluid. The Mn content in dolomite is similar to that in beresite (quartz-muscovite-carbonate-pyrite metasomatic rock) of the intrusion-related gold deposits. Illite from argillic alteration is depleted in Al as compared with that of postvolcanic epithermal Au-Ag deposits. However, carbonates from the discussed argillic alteration rhodochrosite and Mn-rich dolomite are similar to those from quartz-illite rock at postvolcanic epithermal Au-Ag deposits.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  8. Occurrence of perched saturation and interflow over an argillic horizon in a low relief hillslope.

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, James; Jackson, Rhett, C.

    2009-03-01

    Abstract. Many of the soils in the south-eastern US are characterized by an argillic, or clay horizon, that largely parallels the soil surface at depths ranging from a few centimeters to 100 cen-timeters. The degree to which these argillic horizons alter subsurface movement of infiltrated water is not well known. Interflow, or throughflow, is shallow lateral subsurface flow that moves over a horizon that restricts percolation. This research investigates how often and under what conditions a relatively deep (20-150+cm) argillic horizon on low slope (2-6%) hillsides causes interflow to oc-cur. Research is being conducted at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, on a small zero-order watershed. In the first phase of this research, a high resolution topographic map of the clay layer was developed. This map will be used to instrument designated “low” spots with max rise piezo-meters in order to determine if there is channelized subsurface flow. In situ conductivities of the clay layer and the surface horizons were measured using an Amoozegar meter, and bulk density samples were taken and measured. Along with soil topographic measurements, data-logging piezometers have been installed to measure the piezometric head above, in, and below the argillic horizon to further investigate interflow as a potential hydraulic routing mechanism. The stream that drains the catchment was instrumented with a 2’ H flume and data-logging pressure transducer to measure stream flow. Climate data including precipitation, barometric pressure and temperature, are being continuously collected in an open area approximately ¼ mile from the study site. Combining the shallow surface and subsurface piezometric heads with stream flow rates, we should be able to determine if and when the clay layer is contributing to inter-flow.

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusions in the transitional high-sulfidation epithermal-porphyry copper system at Red Mountain, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Newton, M. Claiborne; Westman, Erik C.; Kamilli, Robert J.; Canby, Vertrees M.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Red Mountain, Arizona, is a Laramide porphyry Cu system (PCD) that has experienced only a modest level of erosion compared to most other similar deposits in the southwestern United States. As a result, the upper portion of the magmatic–hydrothermal system, which represents the transition from shallower high-sulfidation epithermal mineralization to deeper porphyry Cu mineralization, is well preserved. Within the Red Mountain system, alteration, mineralization and fluid inclusion assemblages show a systematic distribution in both time and space. Early-potassic alteration (characterized by the minerals biotite and magnetite) is paragenetically earlier than late-potassic alteration (K-feldspar–anhydrite) and both are followed by later phyllic (sericite–pyrite) alteration. Advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite–alunite–other clay minerals) is thought to be coeval with or postdate phyllic alteration. Minerals characteristic of advanced argillic alteration are present in the near surface. Phyllic alteration extends to greater depths compared to advanced argillic alteration. Early-potassic and late-potassic alteration are only observed in the deepest part of the system. Considerable overlap of phyllic alteration with both early-potassic and late-potassic alteration zones is observed. The hypogene mineralization contains 0.4–1.2% Cu and is spatially and temporally related to the late-potassic alteration event. Molybdenum concentration is typically In the deepest part of the system, an early generation of low-to-moderate density and salinity liquid + vapor inclusions with opaque daughter minerals is followed in time by halite-bearing inclusions that also contain opaque daughter minerals indicating that an early intermediate-density magmatic fluid evolved to a high-density, high-salinity mineralizing fluid. The increase in density and salinity of fluids with time observed in the deeper parts of the system may be the result of immiscibility (“boiling”) of

  10. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks at Cuprite, Nevada, using the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (Aster), a new satellite-imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Hook, S.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-band multispectral instrument on board the Earth Observing System (EOS), TERRA. The three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 ??m and the six bands from 1.60 and 2.43 ??m, which have 15- and 30-m spatial resolution, respectively, were selected primarily for making remote mineralogical determinations. The Cuprite, Nevada, mining district comprises two hydrothermal alteration centers where Tertiary volcanic rocks have been hydrothermally altered mainly to bleached silicified rocks and opalized rocks, with a marginal zone of limonitic argilized rocks. Country rocks are mainly Cambrian phyllitic siltstone and limestone. Evaluation of an ASTER image of the Cuprite district shows that spectral reflectance differences in the nine bands in the 0.52 to 2.43 ??m region provide a basis for identifying and mapping mineralogical components which characterize the main hydrothermal alteration zones: opal is the spectrally dominant mineral in the silicified zone; whereas, alunite and kaolinite are dominant in the opalized zone. In addition, the distribution of unaltered country rocks was mapped because of the presence of spectrally dominant muscovite in the siltstone and calcite in limestone, and the tuffaceous rocks and playa deposits were distinguishable due to their relatively flat spectra and weak absorption features at 2.33 and 2.20 ??m, respectively. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image of the study area was processed using a similar methodology used with the ASTER data. Comparison of the ASTER and AVIRIS results shows that the results are generally similar, but the higher spectral resolution of AVIRIS (224 bands) permits identification of more individual minerals, including certain polymorphs. However, ASTER has recorded images of more than 90 percent of the Earth's land surface with less than 20 percent cloud cover, and these data are available at nominal or no cost

  11. Isotope geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration in East of Esfahan, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghipour, Sedigheh; Taghipour, Batoul

    2010-05-01

    In the Cenozoic magmatic belt of Central Iran, the Eocene volcanics and pyroclastics from the East of Esfahan underwent extensive hydrothermal alteration. The Eocene volcanics composed mostly of andesite lava and tuffs have been altered. The survey area is laterally zoned from an inner quartz-sericite alteration zone to an outer propylitic zone. Quartz-sericite alteration is predominant (>95%), but smaller zones of alunite-jarosite and silicified zones are present and superimposed onto a quartz-sericite alteration. In the quartz-sericite zone all altered rocks are light grayish to whitish in color and porphyritic with aphanitic groundmass. Concentrations of alunite and jarosite veinlets and stockworks are dispersed irregularly in this zone. Alunite and jarosite occur also as coatings on fractured rocks. All types of alunite occurrences are brick-red, cream, white and buff in colors, while jarosite is brown to rusty in colors. To verify, chemical composition of alunite and jarosite were identified by X-ray diffraction in mineral assemblages. Major alteration zones show inclusions of propylite, quartz sericite, advanced argillic and silicified zones. These alunites are mainly porcelaneous and their compositions show a solid solution between alunite and jarosite. In alteration zones, the mineral assemblage is characterized by alunite-jarosite + quartz + sericite + alkali feldspars + chlorite ± turquoise ± barite ± iron oxides. There are numerous alunite and jarosite occurrences, mainly as veinlets, in parts of the advanced argillic zone. Alunite δ18O and δ D values range from -1.76 to 8.81‰ and from -52.86 to -129.26‰ respectively. Field observations, mineralogical evidence and results from light element stable isotope data (δ18O, δ D and δ34S); indicate that in this area alunitization is supergene in origin.

  12. Geology and hydrothermal alteration at the Madh adh Dhahab epithermal precious-metal deposit, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, J.L.; LeAnderson, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Vein-related alteration consisting of quartz-sericite-pyrite, chloritic, argillic, and silicic halos was superimposed on broad zones of pervasive silicic, potassic, and argillic alteration that surrounds the rhyolite intrusive body. Quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration associated with the earliest stage of mineralization was followed by broad, pervasive, stratigraphically controlled potassic alteration. Subsequent mineralization was accompanied by quartz-sericitepyrite alteration and was followed by the main stage of mineralization that formed strong chloritic alteration halos. Development of broad zones and halos of argillic alteration also may have been related to the main stage of mineralization. Development of silicic halos was characteristic of the late stages of mineralization. Broad, pervasive propylitic alteration was then superimposed on all alteration types and represents cooling and inward encroachment of the hydrothermal system. All alteration, except the early silicic alteration is interpreted to have been related to circulating meteoric fluids heated by the rhyolite.

  13. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The ASTER alteration map and corresponding geologic maps were used to select circular to elliptical patterns of argillic- and phyllic-altered volcanic and intrusive rocks as potential porphyry copper sites. One hundred and seventy eight potential porphyry copper sites were mapped along the UDVB, and 23 sites were mapped along the CVB. The potential sites were selected to assist in further exploration and assessments of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  14. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoen, R.; White, D.E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

  15. Altered circadian rhythm and metabolic gene profile in rats subjected to advanced light phase shifts.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Laura; Valcarcel, Lorea; da Silva, Crhistiane Andressa; Albert, Nerea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat; Serra, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level.

  16. Altered Circadian Rhythm and Metabolic Gene Profile in Rats Subjected to Advanced Light Phase Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Laura; Valcarcel, Lorea; da Silva, Crhistiane Andressa; Albert, Nerea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat; Serra, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates metabolic homeostasis and its disruption predisposes to obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the effect of phase shifts on metabolism is not completely understood. We examined whether alterations in the circadian rhythm caused by phase shifts induce metabolic changes in crucial genes that would predispose to obesity. Three-month-old rats were maintained on a standard diet under lighting conditions with chronic phase shifts consisting of advances, delays or advances plus delays. Serum leptin, insulin and glucose levels decreased only in rats subjected to advances. The expression of the clock gene Bmal 1 increased in the hypothalamus, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of the advanced group compared to control rats. The advanced group showed an increase in hypothalamic AgRP and NPY mRNA, and their lipid metabolism gene profile was altered in liver, WAT and BAT. WAT showed an increase in inflammation and ER stress and brown adipocytes suffered a brown-to-white transformation and decreased UCP-1 expression. Our results indicate that chronic phase advances lead to significant changes in neuropeptides, lipid metabolism, inflammation and ER stress gene profile in metabolically relevant tissues such as the hypothalamus, liver, WAT and BAT. This highlights a link between alteration of the circadian rhythm and metabolism at the transcriptional level. PMID:25837425

  17. Scale Effects on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements in Sandy Topsoils and Argillic Subsoils: from point to hillslope-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Jackson, C. R.; Williamson, M. F.; Greco, J.

    2012-12-01

    The contrast between conductivities of top soils and impeding layers is the first order controlling factor determining hillslope flowpaths and connectivity. While hydrologic models are highly sensitive to saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), this property is often difficult to quantify. We measured Ksat values within sandy loam top soils (A and E horizons) and argillic sand clay loam subsoils within the Aiken plateau of the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain at point scale, meso-scale, and hillslope scale. Measurement scale affected the variability of subsoil Ksat measurements but had little effect on central tendencies. Conversely, measurement scale affected both the variability and central tendencies of Ksat values in the sandy loam topsoil. The Ksat measured by Constant Compact Head Permeameter (Amoozemeter) within the argillic horizon varied over six orders of magnitude horizon (0.003-300 cm/hour). We found evidence of anomalies within the argillic formed by tree root rot and animal activities, and these anomalies were filled with sand and organic matter, which likely explains higher Ksat values at these locations. Targeted Amoozemeter measurements in the argillic confirmed that the anomalies identified by visual inspection have greater Ksat (1.3-360 cm/hour) than occurred in randomly selected measurements. Meso-scale (one meter) constant head infiltrometer measurements in the argillic showed a very constrained range of Ksat (0.13-0.37 cm/hour). The argillic Ksat estimate determined by a hillslope irrigation experiment (0.3 cm/hour) fell within the middle of the range of the 1m scale measurements. As measurement scale increased, argillic Ksat values became more uniform. In the topsoils, however, central tendencies of Ksat values increased with the scale of measurement. The hillslope scale and one meter measurements of topsoil Ksats were at the very high end of the range of Ksats determined at the point scale. The results indicate that Ksat measurements are highly

  18. A preliminary study of older hot spring alteration in Sevenmile Hole, Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, P.B.; Phillips, A.; John, D.; Cosca, M.; Pritchard, C.; Andersen, A.; Manion, J.

    2009-01-01

    Erosion in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, Yellowstone Caldera (640??ka), Wyoming, has exposed a cross section of older hydrothermal alteration in the canyon walls. The altered outcrops of the post-collapse tuff of Sulphur Creek (480??ka) extend from the canyon rim to more than 300??m beneath it. The hydrothermal minerals are zoned, with an advanced argillic alteration consisting of an association of quartz (opal) + kaolinite ?? alunite ?? dickite, and an argillic or potassic alteration association with quartz + illite ?? adularia. Disseminated fine-grained pyrite or marcasite is ubiquitous in both alteration types. These alteration associations are characteristic products of shallow volcanic epithermal environments. The contact between the two alteration types is about 100??m beneath the rim. By analogy to other active geothermal systems including active hydrothermal springs in the Yellowstone Caldera, the transition from kaolinite to illite occurred at temperatures in the range 150 to 170????C. An 40Ar/39Ar age on alunite of 154,000 ?? 16,000??years suggests that hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a deeper structural control for the upflowing hydrothermal fluids. We interpret this deeper structure to be the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault that is covered by the younger tuff of Sulphur Creek. The Sevenmile Hole altered area lies at the eastern end of a band of hydrothermal centers that may mark the buried extension of the Yellowstone Caldera ring fault across the northern part of the Caldera. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Distribution of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Reko Diq, Pakistan mineralized area based on spectral analysis of ASTER data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Schmidt, R.G.; Mars, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Reko Diq, Pakistan mineralized study area, approximately 10??km in diameter, is underlain by a central zone of hydrothermally altered rocks associated with Cu-Au mineralization. The surrounding country rocks are a variable mixture of unaltered volcanic rocks, fluvial deposits, and eolian quartz sand. Analysis of 15-band Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the study area, aided by laboratory spectral reflectance and spectral emittance measurements of field samples, shows that phyllically altered rocks are laterally extensive, and contain localized areas of argillically altered rocks. In the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) phyllically altered rocks are characterized by Al-OH absorption in ASTER band 6 because of molecular vibrations in muscovite, whereas argillically altered rocks have an absorption feature in band 5 resulting from alunite. Propylitically altered rocks form a peripheral zone and are present in scattered exposures within the main altered area. Chlorite and muscovite cause distinctive absorption features at 2.33 and 2.20????m, respectively, although less intense 2.33????m absorption is also present in image spectra of country rocks. Important complementary lithologic information was derived by analysis of the spectral emittance data in the 5 thermal-infrared (TIR) bands. Silicified rocks were not distinguished in the 9 VNIR + SWIR bands because of the lack of diagnostic spectral absorption features in quartz in this wavelength region. Quartz-bearing surficial deposits, as well as hydrothermally silicified rocks, were mapped in the TIR bands by using a band 13/band 12 ratio image, which is sensitive to the intensity of the quartz reststrahlen feature. Improved distinction between the quartzose surficial deposits and silicified bedrock was achieved by using matched-filter processing with TIR image spectra for reference. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Structural controls on hydrothermal alteration and ore mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, B.R.; Henley, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    High-sulfidation copper-gold lode deposits such as Chinkuashih, Taiwan, Lepanto, Philippines, and Goldfield, Nevada, formed within 1500. m of the paleosurface in volcanic terranes. All underwent an early stage of extensive advanced argillic silica-alunite alteration followed by an abrupt change to spatially much more restricted stages of fracture-controlled sulfide-sulfosalt mineral assemblages and gold-silver mineralization. The alteration as well as ore mineralization stages of these deposits were controlled by the dynamics and history of syn-hydrothermal faulting. At the Sulfate Stage, aggressive advanced argillic alteration and silicification were consequent on the in situ formation of acidic condensate from magmatic vapor as it expanded through secondary fracture networks alongside active faults. The reduction of permeability at this stage due to alteration decreased fluid flow to the surface, and progressively developed a barrier between magmatic-vapor expansion constrained by the active faults and peripheral hydrothermal activity dominated by hot-water flow. In conjunction with the increased rock strength resulting from alteration, subsequent fault-slip inversion in response to an increase in compressional stress generated new, highly permeable fractures localized by the embrittled, altered rock. The new fractures focused magmatic-vapor expansion with much lower heat loss so that condensation occurred. Sulfide Stage sulfosalt, sulfide, and gold-silver deposition then resulted from destabilization of vapor phase metal species due to vapor decompression through the new fracture array. The switch from sulfate to sulfide assemblages is, therefore, a logical consequence of changes in structural permeability due to the coupling of alteration and fracture dynamics rather than to changes in the chemistry of the fluid phase at its magmatic source. ?? 2010.

  1. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  2. Melatonin implants do not alter estrogen feedback or advance puberty in gilts.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, D J; Hughes, P E; van Wettere, W H E J

    2015-05-01

    Puberty in pigs is often delayed during late summer and autumn, with long daylength the most likely cause. We hypothesised (1) that gilts born around the shortest day would have a later release from the negative feedback actions of estradiol than gilts born around the spring equinox and (2) melatonin treatment would result in an earlier release from estradiol negative feedback and advance the onset of puberty in gilts born around the spring equinox. We first determined the optimal number of estradiol implants required to monitor the release from estradiol negative feedback in ovariectomised gilts. Secondly we determined whether melatonin implants altered negative feedback in 4 cohorts of ovariectomised gilts born between the winter solstice and spring equinox, and in the following year whether melatonin altered the time of the first ovulation in 5 cohorts of intact gilts born between the winter solstice and spring equinox. Plasma LH and FSH increased between 126 and 210d of age (P<0.001) in each cohort (season), but there was no effect of cohort, melatonin treatment or interactions (P>0.05). Age at first detection of elevated plasma progesterone in untreated, intact gilts decreased across the 4 cohorts (P<0.05). Melatonin treatment of intact gilts failed to advance the age of puberty irrespective of their season of birth (P>0.05). In conclusion, while we confirmed that estradiol sensitivity is decreased as gilts age, we failed to demonstrate any effects of season or melatonin on estradiol feedback or melatonin on puberty. PMID:25618532

  3. Advancing environmental flow science: Developing frameworks for altered landscapes and integrating efforts across disciplines.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  4. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Shannon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  5. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.

  6. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines

    DOE PAGES

    Brewer, Shannon; McManamay, Ryan A.; Miller, Andrew D.; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A.; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-05-13

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a bettermore » understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards.« less

  7. Advancing Environmental Flow Science: Developing Frameworks for Altered Landscapes and Integrating Efforts Across Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Shannon K; McManamay, Ryan A; Miller, Andrew D; Mollenhauer, Robert; Worthington, Thomas A; Arsuffi, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Environmental flows represent a legal mechanism to balance existing and future water uses and sustain non-use values. Here, we identify current challenges, provide examples where they are important, and suggest research advances that would benefit environmental flow science. Specifically, environmental flow science would benefit by (1) developing approaches to address streamflow needs in highly modified landscapes where historic flows do not provide reasonable comparisons, (2) integrating water quality needs where interactions are apparent with quantity but not necessarily the proximate factor of the ecological degradation, especially as frequency and magnitudes of inflows to bays and estuaries, (3) providing a better understanding of the ecological needs of native species to offset the often unintended consequences of benefiting non-native species or their impact on flows, (4) improving our understanding of the non-use economic value to balance consumptive economic values, and (5) increasing our understanding of the stakeholder socioeconomic spatial distribution of attitudes and perceptions across the landscape. Environmental flow science is still an emerging interdisciplinary field and by integrating socioeconomic disciplines and developing new frameworks to accommodate our altered landscapes, we should help advance environmental flow science and likely increase successful implementation of flow standards. PMID:27177541

  8. Field guide to hydrothermal alteration in the White River altered area and in the Osceola Mudflow, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Rytuba, James J.; Ashley, Roger P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Vallance, James W.; Newport, Grant R.; Heinemeyer, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    . The morning of the trip will examine the White River altered area, which includes high-level alteration related to a large, early Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal system exposed about 10 km east of Enumclaw, Washington. Here, vuggy silica alteration is being quarried for silica and advanced argillic alteration has been prospected for alunite. Clay-filled fractures and sulfide-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of hydrothermal origin locally are enriched in precious metals. Many hydrothermal features common in high-sulfidation gold-silver deposits and in advanced argillic alteration zones overlying porphyry copper deposits (for example, Gustafson and Hunt, 1975; Hedenquist and others, 2000; Sillitoe, 2000) are exposed, although no economic base or precious metal mineralized rock has been discovered to date. The afternoon will be spent examining two exposures of the Osceola Mudflow along the White River. The Osceola Mudflow contains abundant clasts of altered Quaternary rocks from Mount Rainier that show various types of hydrothermal alteration and hydrothermal features. The mudflow matrix contains abundant hydrothermal clay minerals that added cohesiveness to the debris flow and helped allow it to travel much farther down valley than other, noncohesive debris flows from Mount Rainier (Crandell, 1971; Vallance and Scott, 1997). The White River altered area is the subject of ongoing studies by geoscientists from Weyerhaeuser Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The generalized descriptions of the geology, geophysics, alteration, and mineralization presented here represent the preliminary results of this study (Ashley and others, 2003). Additional field, geochemical, geochronologic, and geophysical studies are underway. The Osceola Mudflow and other Holocene debris flows from Mount Rainier also are the subject of ongoing studies by the USGS (for example, Breit and others, 2003; John and others, 2003; Plumlee and others, 2003, Sisson and others, 2003; Vallance and

  9. Field guide to hydrothermal alteration in the White River altered area and in the Osceola Mudflow, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Rytuba, James J.; Ashley, Roger P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Vallance, James W.; Newport, Grant R.; Heinemeyer, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    . The morning of the trip will examine the White River altered area, which includes high-level alteration related to a large, early Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal system exposed about 10 km east of Enumclaw, Washington. Here, vuggy silica alteration is being quarried for silica and advanced argillic alteration has been prospected for alunite. Clay-filled fractures and sulfide-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of hydrothermal origin locally are enriched in precious metals. Many hydrothermal features common in high-sulfidation gold-silver deposits and in advanced argillic alteration zones overlying porphyry copper deposits (for example, Gustafson and Hunt, 1975; Hedenquist and others, 2000; Sillitoe, 2000) are exposed, although no economic base or precious metal mineralized rock has been discovered to date. The afternoon will be spent examining two exposures of the Osceola Mudflow along the White River. The Osceola Mudflow contains abundant clasts of altered Quaternary rocks from Mount Rainier that show various types of hydrothermal alteration and hydrothermal features. The mudflow matrix contains abundant hydrothermal clay minerals that added cohesiveness to the debris flow and helped allow it to travel much farther down valley than other, noncohesive debris flows from Mount Rainier (Crandell, 1971; Vallance and Scott, 1997). The White River altered area is the subject of ongoing studies by geoscientists from Weyerhaeuser Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The generalized descriptions of the geology, geophysics, alteration, and mineralization presented here represent the preliminary results of this study (Ashley and others, 2003). Additional field, geochemical, geochronologic, and geophysical studies are underway. The Osceola Mudflow and other Holocene debris flows from Mount Rainier also are the subject of ongoing studies by the USGS (for example, Breit and others, 2003; John and others, 2003; Plumlee and others, 2003, Sisson and others, 2003; Vallance and

  10. Near-infrared reflectance of zunyite: implications for field mapping and remote-sensing detection of hydrothermally altered high alumina rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Several hydroxyl-bearing minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 2.0-2.4 mu m wave length range, and can be identified with an orbital radiometer and with high-resolution airborne and field portable spectrometers. Among such minerals, zunyite, 143Al13Si5O20(OH,F)18Cl, has distinctive spectral absorption characteristics and is notably restricted to, and thus an indicator mineral of, advanced argillic alteration. Although seldom noted because it visually resembles quartz, zunyite is probably not as rare as generally believed. Laboratory measurements and general considerations underlie suggestions favouring the feasibility of detecting zunyite, alone and in mixtures with other Al-OH minerals, using field portable spectrometers.-G.J.N.

  11. An assessment of AVIRIS data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrere, Veronique; Abrams, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were acquired over the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada, in September 1987. Goldfield is one of the group of large epithermal precious metal deposits in Tertiary volcanic rocks, associated with silicic volcanism and caldera formation. Hydrothermal alteration consists of silicification along fractures, advanced agrillic and argillic zones further away from veins and more widespread propylitic zones. An evaluation of AVIRIS data quality was performed. Faults in the data, related to engineering problems and a different behavior of the instrument while on-board the U2, were encountered. Consequently, a decision was made to use raw data and correct them only for dark current variations and detector read-out-delays. New software was written to that effect. Atmospheric correction was performed using the flat field correction technique. Analysis of the data was then performed to extract spectral information, mainly concentrating on the 2 to 2.45 micron window, as the alteration minerals of interest have their distinctive spectral reflectance features in this region. Principally kaolinite and alunite spectra were clearly obtained. Mapping of the different minerals and alteration zones was attempted using ratios and clustering techniques. Poor signal-to-noise performance of the instrument and the lack of appropriate software prevented the production of an alteration map of the area. Spectra extracted locally from the AVIRIS data were checked in the field by collecting representative samples of the outcrops.

  12. Fluids in early stage hydrothermal alteration of high-sulfidation epithermal systems: A view from the Vulcano active hydrothermal system (Aeolian Island, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Adrian J.; Fulignati, Paolo; Sbrana, Alessandro; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2007-10-01

    High-sulfidation (HS) epithermal systems have elements in common with passively degassing volcanoes associated with high T, acid fumarole fields or acid crater lakes. They are considered to form in two stages, the first of which involves advanced argillic alteration resulting from intense, strongly acidic fluid-rock interaction. The La Fossa hydrothermal system (Vulcano Island) represents a classic example of such an active HS system and can be considered as a modern analogue of this early stage of alteration, resulting in a core of intense silicic (90-95% pure SiO 2) alteration surrounded by alunitic alteration zones. This paper focuses on a geochemical and stable isotope study of the surficial alteration facies of Vulcano - particularly the horizon characterized by strong silicic alteration - and on deep seated xenoliths ejected during the last eruption of La Fossa volcano (1888-90) that can be considered as representative of fragments of the deep conduit system of La Fossa volcano. Using directly measured temperatures at the sites of sampling, we have calculated fluid composition in isotopic equilibrium with the alteration products. The large range of measured silica δ18O (12.3 to 29‰) reflects the wide range of formation temperatures (80-240 °C). The fluid compositions calculated for intense silicic alteration vary from - 0.9 to + 6.5‰. These are significantly heavier than local meteoric water (- 6‰), and are consistent with derivation from the condensation of high-temperature fumarolic gases, dominated by magmatic fluids and rich in acid gases (SO 2, H 2S, HCl, HF), into shallow groundwaters of meteoric origin, with dynamically variable ratios of fumarolic steam/meteoric water. The calculated δ18O and δD of water in equilibrium with alunite also suggest the mixing of magmatic and meteoric waters for the fluids involved in the genesis of advanced argillic alteration facies. The calculated δ18O of water in equilibrium with hedenbergitic clinopyroxene

  13. Perching and Interflow Occurrence over a Shallow Argillic Layer in a Low Relief Upper Coastal Plan Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; Jackson, C. R.; Vache, K. B.; Hopp, L.

    2011-12-01

    On a first order, low relief, forested watershed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we are monitoring soil moisture, shallow piezometric behavior, interflow, groundwater dynamics, and streamflow to identify critical flow pathways, characterize system behavior, and parameterize distributed hydrologic models for estimating effects of bioenergy feedstock production. A mix of pine and hardwoods reforested from agricultural land abandoned in 1950 cover the watershed. Sandy topsoils overlie a low permeability sandy clay loam argillic layer on gently rolling hills with flat forested wetland valleys accommodating slow moving intermittent streamflow. Depths to clay and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of the clay are highly variable. Compact constant head permeameter measurements vary over six orders of magnitude, with anomalies featuring conductivities greater than those observed in the topsoils. Perching on the clay horizon was common. Although the geometric mean and median Ksat of the argillic layer are low (Ksat as low as 0.001 cm/hr), interflow only occurs with large storms on wet soils apparently due to clay anomalies, low relief topography, and relatively high active storage within the topsoil. Fine scale detection of depth to clay (2 by 1m) implies that delineation of subsurface topography may help to understand the flow behavior and destination. Wells records and saturated valley survey show that streamflow dynamics is poorly related to interflow but mainly controlled by seasonal groundwater dynamics. Streamflow analyses at different scales indicate hyporheic flow contribute significantly to the overall water budget at 1st order streams while the groundwater bypass is relatively small at downstream gauges. The next step is to integrate temporal series data of streamflow, soil moisture, groundwater, and interflow to develop and parameterized hydrologic models.

  14. Alunite in the Pascua-Lama high-sulfidation deposit: Constraints on alteration and ore deposition using stable isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deyell, C.L.; Leonardson, R.; Rye, R.O.; Thompson, J.F.H.; Bissig, T.; Cooke, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Pascua-Lama high-sulfidation system, located in the El Indio-Pascua belt of Chile and Argentina, contains over 16 million ounces (Moz) Au and 585 Moz Ag. The deposit is hosted primarily in granite rocks of Triassic age with mineralization occurring in several discrete Miocene-age phreatomagmatic breccias and related fracture networks. The largest of these areas is Brecha Central, which is dominated by a mineralizing assemblage of alunite-pyrite-enargite and precious metals. Several stages of hydrothermal alteration related to mineralization are recognized, including all types of alunite-bearing advanced argillic assemblages (magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated, magmatic steam, and supergene). The occurrence of alunite throughout the paragenesis of this epithermal system is unusual and detailed radiometric, mineralogical, and stable isotope studies provide constraints on the timing and nature of alteration and mineralization of the alunite-pyiite-enargite assemblage in the deposit. Early (preore) alteration occurred prior to ca. 9 Ma and consists of intense silicic and advanced argillic assemblages with peripheral argillic and widespread propylitic zones. Alunite of this stage occurs as fine intergrowths of alunite-quartz ?? kaolinite, dickite, and pyrophyllite that selectively replaced feldspars in the host rock. Stable isotope systematics suggest a magmatic-hydrothermal origin with a dominantly magmatic fluid source. Alunite is coeval with the main stage of Au-Ag-Cu mineralization (alunite-pyrite-enargite assemblage ore), which has been dated at approximately 8.8 Ma. Ore-stage alunite has an isotopic signature similar to preore alunite, and ?? 34Salun-py data indicate depositional temperatures of 245?? to 305??C. The ??D and ?? 18O data exclude significant involvement of meteoric water during mineralization and indicate that the assemblage formed from H2S-dominated magmatic fluids. Thick steam-heated alteration zones are preserved at the highest elevations in

  15. Advanced shotgun lipidomics for characterization of altered lipid patterns in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) is a powerful technology platform among current lipidomics practices due to its high efficiency, sensitivity, and reproducibility, as well as its broad coverage. This platform has been broadly used to determine the altered lipid profiles induced by diseases, injury, genetic manipulations, drug treatments, and aging, among others. Herein, we summarized the principles underlying this platform and presented a protocol for analysis of many of the lipid classes and subclasses covered by MDMS-SL directly from lipid extracts of brain samples. We believe that this protocol could aid the researchers in the field to determine the altered lipid patterns in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury. PMID:26235081

  16. Chronic phase advance alters circadian physiological rhythms and peripheral molecular clocks

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Gretchen; Duncan, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the onset of light, acutely or chronically, can profoundly affect responses to infection, tumor progression, development of metabolic disease, and mortality in mammals. To date, the majority of phase-shifting studies have focused on acute exposure to a shift in the timing of the light cycle, whereas the consequences of chronic phase shifts alone on molecular rhythms in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle have not been studied. In this study, we tested the effect of chronic phase advance on the molecular clock mechanism in two phenotypically different skeletal muscles. The phase advance protocol (CPA) involved 6-h phase advances (earlier light onset) every 4 days for 8 wk. Analysis of the molecular clock, via bioluminescence recording, in the soleus and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles and lung demonstrated that CPA advanced the phase of the rhythm when studied immediately after CPA. However, if the mice were placed into free-running conditions (DD) for 2 wk after CPA, the molecular clock was not phase shifted in the two muscles but was still shifted in the lung. Wheel running behavior remained rhythmic in CPA mice; however, the endogenous period length of the free-running rhythm was significantly shorter than that of control mice. Core body temperature, cage activity, and heart rate remained rhythmic throughout the experiment, although the onset of the rhythms was significantly delayed with CPA. These results provide clues that lifestyles associated with chronic environmental desynchrony, such as shift work, can have disruptive effects on the molecular clock mechanism in peripheral tissues, including both types of skeletal muscle. Whether this can contribute, long term, to increased incidence of insulin resistance/metabolic disease requires further study. PMID:23703115

  17. Molecular Mechanism Responsible for Fibronectin-controlled Alterations in Matrix Stiffness in Advanced Chronic Liver Fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ayumi; Sakai, Keiko; Moriya, Kei; Sasaki, Takako; Keene, Douglas R; Akhtar, Riaz; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Yasumura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Morishita, Shin; Sakai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. However, the functional contribution of tissue stiffening to noncancer pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Fibronectin (Fn) is an ECM glycoprotein substantially expressed during tissue repair. Here we show in advanced chronic liver fibrogenesis using a mouse model lacking Fn that, unexpectedly, Fn-null livers lead to more extensive liver cirrhosis, which is accompanied by increased liver matrix stiffness and deteriorated hepatic functions. Furthermore, Fn-null livers exhibit more myofibroblast phenotypes and accumulate highly disorganized/diffuse collagenous ECM networks composed of thinner and significantly increased number of collagen fibrils during advanced chronic liver damage. Mechanistically, mutant livers show elevated local TGF-β activity and lysyl oxidase expressions. A significant amount of active lysyl oxidase is released in Fn-null hepatic stellate cells in response to TGF-β1 through canonical and noncanonical Smad such as PI3 kinase-mediated pathways. TGF-β1-induced collagen fibril stiffness in Fn-null hepatic stellate cells is significantly higher compared with wild-type cells. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase significantly reduces collagen fibril stiffness, and treatment of Fn recovers collagen fibril stiffness to wild-type levels. Thus, our findings indicate an indispensable role for Fn in chronic liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in negatively regulating TGF-β bioavailability, which in turn modulates ECM remodeling and stiffening and consequently preserves adult organ functions. Furthermore, this regulatory mechanism by Fn could be translated for a potential therapeutic target in a broader variety of chronic fibrotic diseases.

  18. Climate change-driven treeline advances in the Urals alter soil microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djukic, Ika; Moiseev, Pavel; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Climatic warming may affect microbial communities and their functions either directly through increased temperatures or indirectly by changes in vegetation. Treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries from tundra to forests. In unmanaged regions of the Ural mountains, there is evidence that the forest-tundra ecotone has shifted upward in response to climate warming during the 20th century. Little is known about the effects of the treeline advances on the microbial structure and function and hence they feedbacks on the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling In our study, we aimed to estimate how ongoing upward shifts of the treeline ecotone might affect soil biodiversity and its function and hence soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the Southern and Polar Ural mountains. Along altitudinal gradients reaching from the tundra to forests, we determined the soil microbial community composition (using Phospholipid Fatty Acids method) and quantified the activity of several extracellular enzymes involved in the C and nutrient cycling. In addition, we measured C pools in biomass and soils and quantified C and N mineralization. The results for the top soils, both in South Urals and in the Polar Ural, indicate a close link between climate change driven vegetation changes and soil microbial communities. The observed changes in microbial structure are induced through the resulting more favorable conditions than due to a shift in litter quality. The activities of chitinase were significantly higher under trees than under herbaceous plants, while activities of cellulase and protease declined with altitude from the tundra to the closed forest. In contrast to enzymatic activities, soil carbon stocks did not change significantly with altitude very likely as a result of a balancing out of increased C inputs from vegetation by an enhanced C output through mineralization with forest expansion. The accelerated organic matter turnover in the forest than in the tundra

  19. Advances in the translational genomics of neuroblastoma: From improving risk stratification and revealing novel biology to identifying actionable genomic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Kristopher R; Maris, John M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy that commonly affects young children and is remarkably heterogenous in its malignant potential. Recently, the genetic basis of neuroblastoma has come into focus and not only has catalyzed a more comprehensive understanding of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis but also has revealed novel oncogenic vulnerabilities that are being therapeutically leveraged. Neuroblastoma is a model pediatric solid tumor in its use of recurrent genomic alterations, such as high-level MYCN (v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog) amplification, for risk stratification. Given the relative paucity of recurrent, activating, somatic point mutations or gene fusions in primary neuroblastoma tumors studied at initial diagnosis, innovative treatment approaches beyond small molecules targeting mutated or dysregulated kinases will be required moving forward to achieve noticeable improvements in overall patient survival. However, the clonally acquired, oncogenic aberrations in relapsed neuroblastomas are currently being defined and may offer an opportunity to improve patient outcomes with molecularly targeted therapy directed toward aberrantly regulated pathways in relapsed disease. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about neuroblastoma genetics and genomics, highlighting the improved prognostication and potential therapeutic opportunities that have arisen from recent advances in understanding germline predisposition, recurrent segmental chromosomal alterations, somatic point mutations and translocations, and clonal evolution in relapsed neuroblastoma.

  20. A single dose of alcohol does not meaningfully alter circadian phase advances and phase delays to light in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-04-15

    Central circadian timing influences mental and physical health. Research in nocturnal rodents has demonstrated that when alcohol is consumed, it reaches the central hypothalamic circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nuclei) and can directly alter circadian phase shifts to light. In two separate studies, we examined, for the first time, the effects of a single dose of alcohol on circadian phase advances and phase delays to light in humans. Two 23-day within-subjects placebo-controlled counterbalanced design studies were conducted. Both studies consisted of 6 days of fixed baseline sleep to stabilize circadian timing, a 2-day laboratory session, a 6-day break, and a repeat of 6 days of fixed sleep and a 2-day laboratory session. In the phase advance study (n= 10 light drinkers, 24-45 yr), the laboratory sessions consisted of a baseline dim light phase assessment, sleep episode, alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo, 2-h morning bright light pulse, and final phase assessment. In the phase-delay study (n= 14 light drinkers, 22-44 yr), the laboratory sessions consisted of a baseline phase assessment, alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo, 2-h late night bright light pulse, sleep episode, and final phase assessment. In both studies, alcohol either increased or decreased the observed phase shifts to light (interaction P≥ 0.46), but the effect of alcohol vs. placebo on phase shifts to light was always on average smaller than 30 min. Thus, no meaningful effects of a single dose of alcohol vs. placebo on circadian phase shifts to light in humans were observed. PMID:26936778

  1. A single dose of alcohol does not meaningfully alter circadian phase advances and phase delays to light in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Helen J; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-04-15

    Central circadian timing influences mental and physical health. Research in nocturnal rodents has demonstrated that when alcohol is consumed, it reaches the central hypothalamic circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nuclei) and can directly alter circadian phase shifts to light. In two separate studies, we examined, for the first time, the effects of a single dose of alcohol on circadian phase advances and phase delays to light in humans. Two 23-day within-subjects placebo-controlled counterbalanced design studies were conducted. Both studies consisted of 6 days of fixed baseline sleep to stabilize circadian timing, a 2-day laboratory session, a 6-day break, and a repeat of 6 days of fixed sleep and a 2-day laboratory session. In the phase advance study (n= 10 light drinkers, 24-45 yr), the laboratory sessions consisted of a baseline dim light phase assessment, sleep episode, alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo, 2-h morning bright light pulse, and final phase assessment. In the phase-delay study (n= 14 light drinkers, 22-44 yr), the laboratory sessions consisted of a baseline phase assessment, alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo, 2-h late night bright light pulse, sleep episode, and final phase assessment. In both studies, alcohol either increased or decreased the observed phase shifts to light (interaction P≥ 0.46), but the effect of alcohol vs. placebo on phase shifts to light was always on average smaller than 30 min. Thus, no meaningful effects of a single dose of alcohol vs. placebo on circadian phase shifts to light in humans were observed.

  2. Characteristics, extent and origin of hydrothermal alteration at Mount Rainier Volcano, Cascades Arc, USA: Implications for debris-flow hazards and mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, D.A.; Sisson, T.W.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.; Vallance, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal alteration at Mount Rainier waxed and waned over the 500,000-year episodic growth of the edifice. Hydrothermal minerals and their stable-isotope compositions in samples collected from outcrop and as clasts from Holocene debris-flow deposits identify three distinct hypogene argillic/advanced argillic hydrothermal environments: magmatic-hydrothermal, steam-heated, and magmatic steam (fumarolic), with minor superimposed supergene alteration. The 3.8??km3 Osceola Mudflow (5600??y BP) and coeval phreatomagmatic F tephra contain the highest temperature and most deeply formed hydrothermal minerals. Relatively deeply formed magmatic-hydrothermal alteration minerals and associations in clasts include quartz (residual silica), quartz-alunite, quartz-topaz, quartz-pyrophyllite, quartz-dickite/kaolinite, and quartz-illite (all with pyrite). Clasts of smectite-pyrite and steam-heated opal-alunite-kaolinite are also common in the Osceola Mudflow. In contrast, the Paradise lahar, formed by collapse of the summit or near-summit of the edifice at about the same time, contains only smectite-pyrite and near-surface steam-heated and fumarolic alteration minerals. Younger debris-flow deposits on the west side of the volcano (Round Pass and distal Electron Mudflows) contain only low-temperature smectite-pyrite assemblages, whereas the proximal Electron Mudflow and a < 100??y BP rock avalanche on Tahoma Glacier also contain magmatic-hydrothermal alteration minerals that are exposed in the avalanche headwall of Sunset Amphitheater, reflecting progressive incision into deeper near-conduit alteration products that formed at higher temperatures. The pre-Osceola Mudflow alteration geometry is inferred to have consisted of a narrow feeder zone of intense magmatic-hydrothermal alteration limited to near the conduit of the volcano, which graded outward to more widely distributed, but weak, smectite-pyrite alteration within 1??km of the edifice axis, developed chiefly in porous

  3. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI) Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF) was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  4. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken during 2012–2013 in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Since completion of this study, a new lahar modeling program (LAHAR_pz) has been released, which may produce slightly different modeling results from the LAHARZ model used in this study. The maps and data from this study should not be used in place of existing volcano hazard maps published by local authorities. For volcanoes without hazard maps and (or) published lahar-related hazard studies, this work will provide a starting point from which more accurate hazard maps can be produced. This is the first dataset to provide digital maps of altered volcanoes and adjacent watersheds that can be used for assessing volcanic hazards, hydrothermal alteration, and other volcanic processes in future studies.

  5. An assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala: implications for dome collapse hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Jessica L.; Calder, Eliza S.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Bernstein, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of field mapping, geochemistry, and remote sensing methods has been employed to determine the extent of hydrothermal alteration and assess the potential for failure at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala. The 90-year-old complex of four lava domes has only experienced relatively small and infrequent dome collapses in the past, which were associated with lava extrusion. However, existing evidence of an active hydrothermal system coupled with intense seasonal precipitation also presents ideal conditions for instability related to weakened clay-rich edifice rocks. Mapping of the Santiaguito dome complex identified structural features related to dome growth dynamics, potential areas of weakness related to erosion, and locations of fumarole fields. X-ray diffraction and backscattered electron images taken with scanning electron microscopy of dacite and ash samples collected from around fumaroles revealed only minor clay films, and little evidence of alteration. Mineral mapping using ASTER and Hyperion satellite images, however, suggest low-temperature (<150 °C) silicic alteration on erosional surfaces of the domes, but not the type of pervasive acid-sulfate alteration implicated in collapses of other altered edifices. To evaluate the possibility of internal alteration, we re-examined existing aqueous geochemical data from dome-fed hot springs. The data indicate significant water–rock interaction, but the Na–Mg–K geoindicator suggests only a short water residence time, and δ18O/δD ratios show only minor shifts from the meteoric water line with little precipitation of secondary (alteration) minerals. Based on available data, hydrothermal alteration on the dome complex appears to be restricted to surficial deposits of hydrous silica, but the study has highlighted, importantly, that the 1902 eruption crater headwall of Santa María does show more advanced argillic alteration. We also cannot rule out the possibility of advanced alteration

  6. An assessment of hydrothermal alteration in the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala: implications for dome collapse hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Calder, Eliza S.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Bernstein, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of field mapping, geochemistry, and remote sensing methods has been employed to determine the extent of hydrothermal alteration and assess the potential for failure at the Santiaguito lava dome complex, Guatemala. The 90-year-old complex of four lava domes has only experienced relatively small and infrequent dome collapses in the past, which were associated with lava extrusion. However, existing evidence of an active hydrothermal system coupled with intense seasonal precipitation also presents ideal conditions for instability related to weakened clay-rich edifice rocks. Mapping of the Santiaguito dome complex identified structural features related to dome growth dynamics, potential areas of weakness related to erosion, and locations of fumarole fields. X-ray diffraction and backscattered electron images taken with scanning electron microscopy of dacite and ash samples collected from around fumaroles revealed only minor clay films, and little evidence of alteration. Mineral mapping using ASTER and Hyperion satellite images, however, suggest low-temperature (<150 °C) silicic alteration on erosional surfaces of the domes, but not the type of pervasive acid-sulfate alteration implicated in collapses of other altered edifices. To evaluate the possibility of internal alteration, we re-examined existing aqueous geochemical data from dome-fed hot springs. The data indicate significant water-rock interaction, but the Na-Mg-K geoindicator suggests only a short water residence time, and δ18O/δD ratios show only minor shifts from the meteoric water line with little precipitation of secondary (alteration) minerals. Based on available data, hydrothermal alteration on the dome complex appears to be restricted to surficial deposits of hydrous silica, but the study has highlighted, importantly, that the 1902 eruption crater headwall of Santa María does show more advanced argillic alteration. We also cannot rule out the possibility of advanced alteration within the

  7. Alterations in Mouse Hypothalamic Adipokine Gene Expression and Leptin Signaling following Chronic Spinal Cord Injury and with Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Bigford, Gregory E.; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie C.; Nash, Mark S.; Bethea, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an accelerated trajectory of several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and related aging characteristics, however the molecular mechanisms that are activated have not been explored. Adipokines and leptin signaling are known to play a critical role in neuro-endocrine regulation of energy metabolism, and are now implicated in central inflammatory processes associated with CVD. Here, we examine hypothalamic adipokine gene expression and leptin signaling in response to chronic spinal cord injury and with advanced age. We demonstrate significant changes in fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF), resistin (Rstn), long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) and suppressor of cytokine-3 (SOCS3) gene expression following chronic SCI and with advanced age. LepRb and Jak2/stat3 signaling is significantly decreased and the leptin signaling inhibitor SOCS3 is significantly elevated with chronic SCI and advanced age. In addition, we investigate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the uncoupled protein response (UPR) as a biological hallmark of leptin resistance. We observe the activation of the ER stress/UPR proteins IRE1, PERK, and eIF2alpha, demonstrating leptin resistance in chronic SCI and with advanced age. These findings provide evidence for adipokine-mediated inflammatory responses and leptin resistance as contributing to neuro-endocrine dysfunction and CVD risk following SCI and with advanced age. Understanding the underlying mechanisms contributing to SCI and age related CVD may provide insight that will help direct specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:22815920

  8. Thermo-physical rock properties and the impact of advancing hydrothermal alteration - A case study from the Tauhara geothermal field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Philipp; Nehler, Mathias; Bignall, Greg; Sass, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    The thermo-physical rock properties density, porosity, matrix permeability, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of 418 orientated rock plugs cut from 233 cores recovered from geothermal investigation wells THM12, THM13, THM14, THM17, THM18, THM19, and TH18 at the Tauhara geothermal field, New Zealand were measured and a statistical database was set up. The lithotype of each sample was classified, and the hydrothermal alteration rank and intensity was determined by optical microscopy. The hydrothermal clays (typically smectite, smectite-illite, illite) were analysed by the methylene blue dye adsorption test and short wave infrared spectroscopy. Investigated stratigraphic units are the Huka Falls Formation with its sub members upper, middle and lower Huka Falls Formation, the Wairora Formation, Spa Andesite and its associated breccias, and Racetrack rhyolite and its associated breccias. Lithotypes are clay-altered tuff and intercalated mudstone/siltstone (cap rock for the Tauhara geothermal system); tuffaceous sandstones, sedimentary and pyroclastic breccias and pumiceous ash tuff (reservoir-hosting units); and rhyolitic and andesitic lavas, and their associated breccias. The obtained rock property data indicate a common porosity range of 30% to 45% for sediments, volcaniclastics and lava breccias, an average of 10% for andesite lava, and 39% for rhyolite lava. Matrix permeability of mudstone, siltstone, breccias and lavas is commonly < 1 mD, while sandstone, tuff and brecciated lavas have two to three orders of magnitude higher permeabilities. Both porosity and permeability decrease with depth. Thermal conductivity decreases with increasing porosity, and is similar for most lithotypes (0.7 W m- 1 K- 1 to 1 W m- 1 K- 1), while lavas have higher values (0.9 W m- 1 K- 1 to 1.4 W m- 1 K- 1). Specific heat capacity is similar for all lithotypes (0.6 kJ kg- 1 K- 1 to 0.8 kJ kg- 1 K- 1). Advancing hydrothermal alteration decreases the porosity of sandstone and

  9. Detection and mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks in the vicinity of the Comstock Lode, Virginia Range, Nevada, using enhanced Landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, Roger P.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.; Abrams, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Virginia Range, immediately southeast of Reno, Nev., consists mainly of flows, breccias, and turfs of Miocene age. Most of these volcanic rocks are of intermediate composition; rhyodacite is the most common rock type. Basalt, rhyolite and rhyolite tuff, and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of Miocene and Pliocene age also cover substantial areas in the range. Pre-Tertiary metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and granitic rocks are exposed in scattered inliers, mostly along the southern and eastern margins of the range. Several large areas and many small areas within the volcanic pile were subjected to hydrothermal alteration during and after the period of intermediate volcanic activity. Economic precious metal mineralization is spatially and temporally associated with the hydrothermal alteration in several areas. The most important deposit is the Comstock Lode, which produced 192 million troy ounces of silver and 8.3 million troy ounces of gold from epithermal veins (Bonham, 1969). The hydrothermally altered rocks include silicified, advanced argillic, montmorillonite-bearing argillic, and propylitic types. The first three types typically contain pyrite, and some propylitic rocks contain pyrite as well. Supergene oxidation of these pyritic rocks produces limonitic bleached rocks. The term 'limonite,' as used here, refers to any combination of the minerals hematite, goethite, and Jarosite. Where vegetation cover is sparse to moderate, these limonitic rocks are readily identified on Landsat images enhanced by the color-ratio composite technique developed by Rowan and others (1974), so the altered areas can be mapped. About 30 percent tree cover (here mainly pinyon pine) is sufficient to change the spectral signature of individual picture elements (pixels) enough so that limonitic materials can no longer be uniquely identified. As in all other areas where this technique has been applied, limonitic unaltered rocks with intermediate to high albedos have the same appearance on

  10. Serum cytokines are increased and circulating micronutrients are not altered in subjects with early compared to advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Aguirre, Dale; Trawick, Roy H; Rasmussen, G Lynn; Momberger, Nathan G

    2014-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of physical disability. At the early stage of knee OA, the increase in synovial fluid cytokine concentrations could contribute to the pathogenesis of OA by degrading articular cartilage. It is unknown, however, if inflammatory cytokines increase systemically at the early or advanced stage of knee OA. The systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines could be detrimental to the endogenous status of micronutrients that protect against excessive inflammation and cytokine-mediated events. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an increase in serum cytokines associate with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA. Advanced knee OA subjects (n=14) displayed radiographic, pain, and muscular weakness symptoms of knee OA. Early knee OA subjects (n=14) were matched (age, gender, and body mass index) to the advanced OA group and displayed one or two of the aforementioned symptoms of knee OA. Inflammatory cytokines, vitamins C (ascorbic acid), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), and E (α- and γ-tocopherols), and β-carotene were measured in fasting blood samples. In the early OA group, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13 concentrations were significantly (all p<0.05) increased. Circulating ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, α- and γ-tocopherol's, and β-carotene concentrations were not significantly different between groups. Based on these preliminary results, we conclude that the systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines is not associated with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA.

  11. Altered igneous rocks around Rocky Mountain manto deposits: the Gilman (Colorado) example

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, T.F.; Merchant, J.S.; Beaty, D.W.; Whitney, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Pando Porphyry at Gilman, Colorado forms an easterly-dipping sill above a major manto sulfide ore deposit hosted in the Leadville Dolomite. The sill is regionally altered to a propylitic assemblage (chl-epid-carb). Above the ore bodies the base of the sill is regionally altered to a phyllic assemblage (2M mica-qtz-py-kaol). The phyllic zone is divisible using birefringence of 2M mica into three subzones, which are mineralogically identical and gradational into one another. The phyllic zone is surrounded by a kaolinite-rich argillic zone with local sparse smectite. Spatially, the phyllic alteration is closely confined to the area of the ore bodies. Moreover, the thickness of phyllically altered porphyry is directly correlated with the intensity of mineralization. The distribution of alteration in the Pando sill (age = 70 Ma) requires that the manto mineralization process was at least predominantly: 1) hydrothermal; 2) Tertiary in age; and 3) had up-dip hydrothermal flux along the base of the sill. The sequence propyllitic-argillic-phyllic-ore is present at several other large Rocky Mountain manto deposits and argues for an epigenetic origin involving high-T, low-pH fluids.

  12. BRAF, PIK3CA, and HER2 Oncogenic Alterations According to KRAS Mutation Status in Advanced Colorectal Cancers with Distant Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jiwon; Kwak, Yoonjin; Seo, An Na; Park, Kyoung Un; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    Background Anti-EGFR antibody–based treatment is an important therapeutic strategy for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC); despite this, several mutations—including KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and HER2 amplification—are associated with the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequencies and clinical implications of these genetic alterations in advanced CRC. Methods KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations were determined by Cobas real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 191 advanced CRC patients with distant metastasis. Microsatellite instability (MSI) status was determined by a fragmentation assay and HER2 amplification was assessed by silver in situ hybridization. In addition, KRAS mutations were investigated by the Sanger sequencing method in 97 of 191 CRC cases. Results Mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA were found in 104 (54.5%), 6 (3.1%), and 25 (13.1%) cases of advanced CRC, respectively. MSI-high status and HER2 amplification were observed in 3 (1.6%) and 16 (8.4%) cases, respectively. PIK3CA mutations were more frequently found in KRAS mutant type (18.3%) than KRAS wild type (6.9%) (P = 0.020). In contrast, HER2 amplifications and BRAF mutations were associated with KRAS wild type with borderline significance (P = 0.052 and 0.094, respectively). In combined analyses with KRAS, BRAF and HER2 status, BRAF mutations or HER2 amplifications were associated with the worst prognosis in the wild type KRAS group (P = 0.004). When comparing the efficacy of detection methods, the results of real time PCR analysis revealed 56 of 97 (57.7%) CRC cases with KRAS mutations, whereas Sanger sequencing revealed 49 cases (50.5%). Conclusions KRAS mutations were found in 54.5% of advanced CRC patients. Our results support that subgrouping using PIK3CA and BRAF mutation or HER2 amplification status, in addition to KRAS mutation status, is helpful for managing advanced CRC patients. PMID

  13. Mapping of hydrothermally altered rocks using airborne multispectral scanner data, Marysvale, Utah, mining district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Segal, D.B.; Jones, O.D.

    1983-01-01

    Multispectral data covering an area near Marysvale, Utah, collected with the airborne National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 24-channel Bendix multispectral scanner, were analyzed to detect areas of hydrothermally altered, potentially mineralized rocks. Spectral bands were selected for analysis that approximate those of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and which are diagnostic of the presence of hydrothermally derived products. Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly volcanic rocks affected by solutions rich in sulfuric acid, are commonly characterized by concentrations of argillic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. These minerals are important for identifying hydrothermally altered rocks in multispectral images because they have intense absorption bands centered near a wavelength of 2.2 ??m. Unaltered volcanic rocks commonly do not contain these minerals and hence do not have the absorption bands. A color-composite image was constructed using the following spectral band ratios: 1.6??m/2.2??m, 1.6??m/0.48??m, and 0.67??m/1.0??m. The particular bands were chosen to emphasize the spectral contrasts that exist for argillic versus non-argillic rocks, limonitic versus nonlimonitic rocks, and rocks versus vegetation, respectively. The color-ratio composite successfully distinguished most types of altered rocks from unaltered rocks. Some previously unrecognized areas of hydrothermal alteration were mapped. The altered rocks included those having high alunite and/or kaolinite content, siliceous rocks containing some kaolinite, and ash-fall tuffs containing zeolitic minerals. The color-ratio-composite image allowed further division of these rocks into limonitic and nonlimonitic phases. The image did not allow separation of highly siliceous or hematitically altered rocks containing no clays or alunite from unaltered rocks. A color-coded density slice image of the 1.6??m/2.2??m band ratio allowed further discrimination among the altered units. Areas

  14. Prognostic impact and the relevance of PTEN copy number alterations in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) receiving bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Price, Timothy J; Hardingham, Jennifer E; Lee, Chee K; Townsend, Amanda R; Wrin, Joseph W; Wilson, Kate; Weickhardt, Andrew; Simes, Robert J; Murone, Carmel; Tebbutt, Niall C

    2013-06-01

    Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression may be prognostic in colorectal cancer (CRC) and may have a correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression via hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha, and the PI3K/mTOR pathways. We therefore have explored the prognostic association of PTEN loss and the potential that PTEN loss may be predictive of outcome with bevacizumab. Patients enrolled in the AGITG MAX trial, a randomized Phase III trial of capecitabine (C) +/- bevacizumab (B) (+/- mitomycin C [M]) with available tissues were analyzed for PTEN expression (loss vs. no loss) as assessed using a Taqman® copy number assay (CNA). Of the original 471 patients enrolled, tissues from 302 (64.1%) patients were analyzed. PTEN loss was observed in 38.7% of patients. There was no relationship between PTEN loss and KRAS or BRAF mutation. PTEN status was not prognostic for progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in multivariate analyses adjusting for other baseline factors; loss versus no loss PFS hazard ratio (HR) 0.9 (0.7-1.16), OS HR 1.04 (0.79-1.38). PTEN was not prognostic when assessed by KRAS and BRAF status. By using the comparison of C versus CB+CBM, PTEN status was not significantly predictive of the effectiveness of B for PFS or OS. PTEN status was not prognostic for survival in advanced colorectal cancer, irrespective of KRAS or BRAF status. PTEN status did not significantly predict different benefit with bevacizumb therapy.

  15. Clay alteration and gold deposition in the genesis and blue star deposits, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drews-Armitage, S. P.; Romberger, S.B.; Whitney, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Genesis and Blue Star sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits occur within the 40-mile-long Carlin trend and are located in Eureka County, Nevada. The deposits are hosted within the Devonian calcareous Popovich Formation, the siliciclastic Rodeo Creek unit and the siliciclastic Vinini Formation. The host rocks have undergone contact metamorphism, decalcification, silicification, argillization, and supergene oxidation. Detailed characterization of the alteration patterns, mineralogy, modes of occurrence, and associated geochemistry of clay minerals resulted in the following classifications: least altered rocks, found distal to the orebody, consisting of both metamorphosed and unmetamorphosed host rock that has not been completely decalcified; and altered rocks, found proximal to the orebody that have been decalcified. Altered rocks are classified further into the following groups based on clay mineral content: silicic, 1 to 10 percent clay; silicicargillic, 10 to 35 percent clay; and argillic, 35 to 80 percent clay. Clay species identified are 1M illite, 2M1 illite, kaolinite, halloysite, and dioctahedral smectite. An early hydrothermal event resulted in the precipitation of euhedral kaolinite and at least one generation of silica. This event occurred contemporaneously with decalcification which increased rock permeability and porosity. A second clay alteration event resulted in the precipitation of hydrothermal 1M illite which replaced hydrothermal kaolinite and is associated with gold deposition. Silver and silica deposition is also associated with this phase of hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration was followed by supergene alteration which resulted in the formation of supergene kaolinite, halloysite, and smectite as well as the oxidation of iron-bearing minerals. Supergene clays are concentrated along faults, dike margins, and within rocks containing carbonate. Gold mineralization is not associated with supergene clay minerals within the Genesis and

  16. Evaluation of 0.46- to 2.36-micrometre multispectral scanner images of the East Tintic mining district, Utah, for mapping hydrothermally altered rocks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Kahle, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner images recorded in the 0.46 to 2.36 micrometre region for the E Tintic mining district, Utah, were evaluated to determine their usefulness for distinguishing six types of hydrothermally altered rocks from a wide range of sedimentary and igneous rock types. The laboratory and field evaluation of a color ratio composite image, supported by in situ spectral reflectance measurements and an alteration map compiled from a published map, shows that silicified, argillized, and pyritized rocks can be mapped in detail utilizing an intense OH absorption band centered near 2.2 micrometre. This absorption band is absent or weak in most of the unaltered rocks. -from Authors

  17. Geothermometry, geochronology, and mass transfer associated with hydrothermal alteration of a rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Altaner, S.P.; Ylagan, R.F.; Savin, S.M.; Aronson, J.L.; Belkin, H.E.; Pozzuoli, A.

    2003-01-01

    A rhyolitic hyaloclastite from Ponza Island, Italy, was hydrothermally altered, producing four distinct alteration zones based on X-ray diffraction mineralogy and field textures: (1) nonpervasive argillic zone; (2) propylitic zone; (3) silicic zone; and (4) sericitic zone. The unaltered hyaloclastite is volcanic breccia with clasts of vesiculated obsidian in a matrix of predominantly pumice lapilli. Incomplete alteration of the hyaloclastite resulted in the nonpervasive argillic zone, characterized by smectite and disordered opal-CT. The other three zones exhibit more complete alteration of the hyaloclastite. The propylitic zone is characterized by mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) with 10 to 85% I, mordenite, opal-C, and authigenic K-feldspar (akspar). The silicic zone is characterized by I-S with ???90% I, pure illite, quartz, akspar, and occasional albite. The sericitic zone consists primarily of I-S with ???66% I, pure illite, quartz, and minor akspar and pyrite. K/Ar dates of I-S indicate hydrothermal alteration occurred at 3.38 ?? 0.08 Ma. Oxygen isotope compositions of I-S systematically decrease from zones 1 to 4. In the argillic zone, smectite has ??18 O values of 21.7 to 22.0??? and I-S from the propylitic, silicic, and sericitic zones ranges from 14.5 to 16.3???, 12.5 to 14.0???, and 8.6 to 11.9???, respectively. ??18 O values for quartz from the silicic and sericitic zones range from 12.6 to 15.9???. By use of isotope fractionation equations and data from authigenic quartz-hosted primary fluid inclusions, alteration temperatures ranged from 50 to 65 ??C for the argillic zone, 85 to 125 ??C for the propylitic zone, 110 to 210 ??C for the silicic zone, and 145 to 225 ??C for the sericitic zone. Fluid inclusion data and calculated ??18 O water values indicate that hydrothermal fluids were seawater dominated. Mass-transfer calculations indicate that hydrothermal alteration proceeded in a relatively open chemical system and alteration in the sericitic zone

  18. Oxydation catalytique du Phénol par le peroxyde d'hydrogène en présence d'argiles pontées par des espèces mixtes [Al-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, M.; Barrault, J.; Bouchoule, C.; Srasra, N. F.; Bergaya, F.

    1999-03-01

    Various processes can be used for the treatment of wastewater, but the one we feel to be important and more promising is the wet peroxide oxidation (WPO), in the presence of a solid catalyst, at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. Different types of materials can be used as catalysts for such reactions, but as shown in previous studies dealing with phenol oxidation clays-based catalysts seem to be attractive. It is well known that natural clays are inactive in the phenol oxidation, but the intercalation of polymeric species changes their properties. When the clay is pillared with pure aluminum oxyhydroxides species, the d{001} spacing and the surface area increase, but the activity is very low. When the clay is pillared with mixed [Al-Cu] species, there is a strong increase of the phenol conversion. Nevertheless W (Wyoming) based solids are more active than H (Haîdoudi) or L (Laponite) based catalysts. The stability, the activity and the percentage of copper depend on the preparation method. Différentes techniques de traitements des eaux usées peuvent être utilisées, et l'une des plus prometteuses est l'oxydation voie humide par le peroxyde d'hydrogène en milieu aqueux dilué (WPO), en présence de catalyseurs supportés, à pression atmosphérique et à 25 ° C. Lors de cette étude, il a été montré que les argiles brutes sont inactives en oxydation du phénol. L'intercalation d'espèces hydroxyaluminiques conduit à une augmentation de la surface spécifique et de l'espace interlamellaire, mais la conversion du phénol reste faible. En revanche, l'insertion d'espèces mixtes [Al-Cu] confère au catalyseur une importante activité. En outre, la quantité de cuivre intercalé est très faible (< 0.5 soient la nature de l'argile et la méthode de préparation. Néanmoins, la comparaison des divers catalyseurs, montre que l'utilisation de l'argile Wyoming (W), conduit à une activité supérieure à celle des argiles moins bien définies (Ha

  19. Evaluation of LANDSAT MSS vs TM simulated data for distinguishing hydrothermal alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Kahle, A. B.; Madura, D. P.; Soha, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The LANDSAT Follow-On (LFO) data was simulated to demonstrate the mineral exploration capability of this system for segregating different types of hydrothermal alteration and to compare this capability with that of the existing LANDSAT system. Multispectral data were acquired for several test sites with the Bendix 24-channel MSDS scanner. Contrast enhancements, band ratioing, and principal component transformations were used to process the simulated LFO data for analysis. For Red Mountain, Arizona, the LFO data allowed identification of silicified areas, not identifiable with LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. The improved LFO resolution allowed detection of small silicic outcrops and of a narrow silicified dike. For Cuprite - Ralston, Nevada, the LFO spectral bands allowed discrimination of argillic and opalized altered areas; these could not be spectrally discriminated using LANDSAT 1 and 2 data. Addition of data from the 1.3- and 2.2- micrometer regions allowed better discriminations of hydrothermal alteration types.

  20. Final Results of Local-Regional Control and Late Toxicity of RTOG 9003: A Randomized Trial of Altered Fractionation Radiation for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J.; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Karen K.; Trotti, Andy; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher U.; Garden, Adam S.; Shenouda, George; Harris, Jonathan; Ang, Kian K.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To test whether altered radiation fractionation schemes (hyperfractionation [HFX], accelerated fractionation, continuous [AFX-C], and accelerated fractionation with split [AFX-S]) improved local-regional control (LRC) rates for patients with squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck when compared with standard fractionation (SFX) of 70 Gy. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage III or IV (or stage II base of tongue) SCC (n=1076) were randomized to 4 treatment arms: (1) SFX, 70 Gy/35 daily fractions/7 weeks; (2) HFX, 81.6 Gy/68 twice-daily fractions/7 weeks; (3) AFX-S, 67.2 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks with a 2-week rest after 38.4 Gy; and (4) AFX-C, 72 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks. The 3 experimental arms were to be compared with SFX. Results: With patients censored for LRC at 5 years, only the comparison of HFX with SFX was significantly different: HFX, hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), P=.05; AFX-C, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.05), P=.11. With patients censored at 5 years, HFX improved overall survival (HR 0.81, P=.05). Prevalence of any grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity at 5 years; any feeding tube use after 180 days; or feeding tube use at 1 year did not differ significantly when the experimental arms were compared with SFX. When 7-week treatments were compared with 6-week treatments, accelerated fractionation appeared to increase grade 3, 4 or 5 toxicity at 5 years (P=.06). When the worst toxicity per patient was considered by treatment only, the AFX-C arm seemed to trend worse than the SFX arm when grade 0-2 was compared with grade 3-5 toxicity (P=.09). Conclusions: At 5 years, only HFX improved LRC and overall survival for patients with locally advanced SCC without increasing late toxicity.

  1. Correlative Analysis of Genetic Alterations and Everolimus Benefit in Hormone Receptor–Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Results From BOLERO-2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David; Piccart, Martine; Rugo, Hope S.; Burris, Howard A.; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Campone, Mario; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Perez, Alejandra T.; Deleu, Ines; Shtivelband, Mikhail; Masuda, Norikazu; Dakhil, Shaker; Anderson, Ian; Robinson, Douglas M.; He, Wei; Garg, Abhishek; McDonald, E. Robert; Bitter, Hans; Huang, Alan; Taran, Tetiana; Bachelot, Thomas; Lebrun, Fabienne; Lebwohl, David; Baselga, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the genetic landscape of tumors from patients enrolled on the BOLERO-2 trial to identify potential correlations between genetic alterations and efficacy of everolimus treatment. The BOLERO-2 trial has previously demonstrated that the addition of everolimus to exemestane prolonged progression-free survival by more than twofold in patients with hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative, advanced breast cancer previously treated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze genetic status of cancer-related genes in 302 archival tumor specimens from patients representative of the BOLERO-2 study population. Correlations between the most common somatic alterations and degree of chromosomal instability, and treatment effect of everolimus were investigated. Results Progression-free survival benefit with everolimus was maintained regardless of alteration status of PIK3CA, FGFR1, and CCND1 or the pathways of which they are components. However, quantitative differences in everolimus benefit were observed between patient subgroups defined by the exon-specific mutations in PIK3CA (exon 20 v 9) or by different degrees of chromosomal instability in the tumor tissues. Conclusion The data from this exploratory analysis suggest that the efficacy of everolimus was largely independent of the most commonly altered genes or pathways in hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative breast cancer. The potential impact of chromosomal instabilities and low-frequency genetic alterations on everolimus efficacy warrants further investigation. PMID:26503204

  2. Paleoproterozoic volcanic centers of the São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian craton, Brazil: Hydrothermal alteration and metallogenetic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, Raquel Souza; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Juliani, Caetano; Monteiro, Lena Virgínia Soares; Lagler, Bruno; Misas, Carlos Mario Echeverri

    2016-06-01

    Geological, petrographic, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies revealed hydrothermalized lithotypes evidenced by overprinted zones of potassic, propylitic, sericitic, and intermediate argillic alterations types, with pervasive and fracture-controlled styles, in Paleoproterozoic volcano-plutonic units of the São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The Sobreiro Formation presents propylitic (epidote + chlorite + carbonate + clinozoisite + sericite + quartz ± albite ± hematite ± pyrite), sericitic (sericite + quartz + carbonate), and potassic (potassic feldspar + hematite) alterations. The prehnite-pumpellyite pair that is common in geothermal fields also occurs in this unit. The Santa Rosa Formation shows mainly potassic (biotite + microcline ± magnetite), sericitic (sericite + quartz + carbonate ± chlorite ± gold), and intermediate argillic (montmorillonite + kaolinite/halloysite + illite) alterations. These findings strongly suggest the involvement of magma-sourced and meteoric fluids and draw attention to the metallogenetic potential of these volcanic units for Paleoproterozoic epithermal and rare and base metal porphyry-type mineralizations, similar to those already identified in other portions of the Amazonian craton.

  3. Anastrozole and everolimus in advanced gynecologic and breast malignancies: activity and molecular alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wheler, Jennifer J.; Moulder, Stacy L.; Naing, Aung; Janku, Filip; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.; Falchook, Gerald S.; Zinner, Ralph; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Fu, Siqing; Hong, David S.; Atkins, Johnique T.; Yelensky, Roman; Stephens, Philip J.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activation diminishes the effects of hormone therapy, combining aromatase inhibitors (anatrozole) with mTOR inhibitors (everolimus) was investigated. Patients and Methods: We evaluated anastrozole and everolimus in 55 patients with metastatic estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast and gynecologic tumors. Endpoints were safety, antitumor activity and molecular correlates. Results: Full doses of anastrozole (1 mg PO daily) and everolimus (10 mg PO daily) were well tolerated. Twelve of 50 evaluable patients (24%) (median = 3 prior therapies) achieved stable disease (SD) ≥ 6 months/partial response (PR)/complete response (CR) (n = 5 (10%) with PR/CR): 9 of 32 (28%) with breast cancer (n=5 (16%) with PR/CR); 2 of 10 (20%), ovarian cancer; and 1 of 6 (17%), endometrial cancer. Six of 22 patients (27%) with molecular alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway achieved SD ≥ 6 months/PR/CR. Six of 8 patients (75%) with SD ≥ 6 months/PR/CR with molecular testing demonstrated at least one alteration in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway: mutations in PIK3CA (n=3) and AKT1 (n=1) or PTEN loss (n=3). All three responders (CR (n = 1); PR (n=2)) who had next generation sequencing demonstrated additional alterations: amplifications in CCNE1, IRS2, MCL1, CCND1, FGFR1 and MYC and a rearrangement in PRKDC. Conclusions: Combination anastrozole and everolimus is well tolerated at full approved doses, and is active in heavily-pretreated patients with ER and/or PR-positive breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Responses were observed in patients with multiple molecular aberrations. Clinical Trails Included: NCT01197170 PMID:24912489

  4. A study of the hydrothermal alteration in Paleoproterozoic volcanic centers, São Félix do Xingu region, Amazonian Craton, Brazil, using short-wave infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, Raquel Souza; Fernandes, Carlos Marcello Dias; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Juliani, Caetano; Monteiro, Lena Virgínia Soares; de Almeida, Teodoro Isnard Ribeiro; Lagler, Bruno; de Carvalho Carneiro, Cleyton; Misas, Carlos Mario Echeverri

    2015-10-01

    Hypogene hydrothermal minerals have been identified by short-wave infrared spectroscopy in hydrothermally altered rocks from the Sobreiro and Santa Rosa formations, which belong to a Paleoproterozoic volcano-plutonic system in Amazonian craton. Three clay minerals are spectrally recognized: montmorillonite, kaolinite, and illite. The integration of these data with those available in the literature, including gold occurrences, suggests that those rocks are hydrothermal products of both volcanic thermal sources and later crustal intrusions, as evidenced by variable styles of propylitic, sericitic, potassic, and intermediate argillic alteration. The influence of meteoric fluids is emphasized. This low cost exploratory technique, which can be applied to hand samples, seems to be promising in the separation of hydrothermally altered volcano-plutonic centers in regions submitted to severe weathering conditions, in addition to aid elaborating models for prospecting mineral deposits.

  5. Melatonin advances the circadian timing of EEG sleep and directly facilitates sleep without altering its duration in extended sleep opportunities in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Middleton, Benita; Stone, Barbara M; Arendt, Josephine; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2004-01-01

    The rhythm of plasma melatonin originating from the pineal gland and driven by the circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus is closely associated with the circadian (approximately 24 h) variation in sleep propensity and sleep spindle activity in humans. We investigated the contribution of melatonin to variation in sleep propensity, structure, duration and EEG activity in a protocol in which sleep was scheduled to begin during the biological day, i.e. when endogenous melatonin concentrations are low. The two 14 day trials were conducted in an environmental scheduling facility. Each trial included two circadian phase assessments, baseline sleep and nine 16 h sleep opportunities (16.00–08.00 h) in near darkness. Eight healthy male volunteers (24.4 ± 4.4 years) without sleep complaints were recruited, and melatonin (1.5 mg) or placebo was administered at the start of the first eight 16 h sleep opportunities. During melatonin treatment, sleep in the first 8 h of the 16 h sleep opportunities was increased by 2 h. Sleep per 16 h was not significantly different and approached asymptotic values of 8.7 h in both conditions. The percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was not affected by melatonin, but the percentage of stage 2 sleep and sleep spindle activity increased, and the percentage of stage 3 sleep decreased. During the washout night, the melatonin-induced advance in sleep timing persisted, but was smaller than on the preceding treatment night and was consistent with the advance in the endogenous melatonin rhythm. These data demonstrate robust, direct sleep-facilitating and circadian effects of melatonin without concomitant changes in sleep duration, and support the use of melatonin in the treatment of sleep disorders in which the circadian melatonin rhythm is delayed relative to desired sleep time. PMID:15459246

  6. Altered serum glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) and soluble AGE receptor levels indicate carbonyl stress in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mayu; Ohnuma, Tohru; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Katsuta, Narimasa; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Takebayashi, Yuto; Higa, Motoyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nishimon, Shohei; Sannohe, Takahiro; Hotta, Yuri; Hanzawa, Ryo; Higashiyama, Ryoko; Shibata, Nobuto; Gohda, Tomohito; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Arai, Heii

    2015-04-23

    Recent cross-sectional and longitudinal studies indicate that measurements of peripheral blood carbonyl stress markers such as the advanced glycation end product (AGE) pentosidine and the reactive carbonyl-detoxifying B6 vitamin pyridoxal could be used as therapeutic biological markers in subpopulations of schizophrenia patients. Glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGE) have strong neurotoxicity, and soluble receptors for AGEs (sRAGE) may ameliorate the effects of AGEs. In the present study, we measured Glycer-AGEs and sRAGE levels to determine their potential as diagnostic, therapeutic, or clinical biological markers in patients with schizophrenia. After enrollment of 61 admitted Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia and 39 healthy volunteers, 54 patients were followed up from the acute stage to remission. Serum biomarkers were measured in blood samples taken before breakfast using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and Glycer-AGEs were significantly higher and sRAGE levels were significantly lower in patients with acute schizophrenia than in healthy controls. Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios were also higher in schizophrenia patients and were stable during the clinical course. Furthermore, discriminant analyses confirmed that Glycer-AGEs and Glycer-AGEs/sRAGE ratios are significant diagnostic markers for schizophrenia, and distinguished between patients and healthy controls in 70.0% of cases. However, these markers of carbonyl stress were not correlated with clinical features, including disease severity, or with daily chlorpromazine doses. These data indicate the potential of Glycer-AGEs, RAGEs, and their relative ratios as diagnostic markers for patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Effective use of principal component analysis with high resolution remote sensing data to delineate hydrothermal alteration and carbonate rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sandra C.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of applying principal component (PC) analysis to high resolution remote sensing imagery were examined. Using Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, PC analysis was found to be useful for removing the effects of albedo and noise and for isolating the significant information on argillic alteration, zeolite, and carbonate minerals. An effective technique for using PC analysis using an input the first 16 AIS bands, 7 intermediate bands, and the last 16 AIS bands from the 32 flat field corrected bands between 2048 and 2337 nm. Most of the significant mineralogical information resided in the second PC. PC color composites and density sliced images provided a good mineralogical separation when applied to a AIS data set. Although computer intensive, the advantage of PC analysis is that it employs algorithms which already exist on most image processing systems.

  8. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks in the Northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada and California with the airborne imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, Fred A.

    1987-01-01

    Seven flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were analyzed for an area of hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum, and an automated procedure was used to produce a color coded image displaying absorption band information. Individual spectra were extracted from the AIS images to determine the detailed mineralogy. Two alteration types were mapped based upon mineralogy identified using the AIS data. The primary alteration type is quartz sericite pyrite alteration which occurs in northwest-trending zones in quartz monzonite porphyry. The AIS data allow identification of sericite (muscovite) based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 micron and weaker absorption features near 2.35 and 2.45 micron. The second alteration type occurs as a zone of argillic alteration associated with a granitic intrusion. Montmorillonite was identified based on a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.2 micron and the absence of the two absorption features at longer wavelengths characteristic of sericite. Montmorillonite could be identified only where concentrations of sericite did not mask the montmorillonite spectrum.

  9. Magmatic-vapor expansion and the formation of high-sulfidation gold deposits: Chemical controls on alteration and mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henley, R.W.; Berger, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Large bulk-tonnage high-sulfidation gold deposits, such as Yanacocha, Peru, are the surface expression of structurally-controlled lode gold deposits, such as El Indio, Chile. Both formed in active andesite-dacite volcanic terranes. Fluid inclusion, stable isotope and geologic data show that lode deposits formed within 1500. m of the paleo-surface as a consequence of the expansion of low-salinity, low-density magmatic vapor with very limited, if any, groundwater mixing. They are characterized by an initial 'Sulfate' Stage of advanced argillic wallrock alteration ?? alunite commonly with intense silicification followed by a 'Sulfide' Stage - a succession of discrete sulfide-sulfosalt veins that may be ore grade in gold and silver. Fluid inclusions in quartz formed during wallrock alteration have homogenization temperatures between 100 and over 500 ??C and preserve a record of a vapor-rich environment. Recent data for El Indio and similar deposits show that at the commencement of the Sulfide Stage, 'condensation' of Cu-As-S sulfosalt melts with trace concentrations of Sb, Te, Bi, Ag and Au occurred at > 600 ??C following pyrite deposition. Euhedral quartz crystals were simultaneously deposited from the vapor phase during crystallization of the vapor-saturated melt occurs to Fe-tennantite with progressive non-equilibrium fractionation of heavy metals between melt-vapor and solid. Vugs containing a range of sulfides, sulfosalts and gold record the changing composition of the vapor. Published fluid inclusion and mineralogical data are reviewed in the context of geological relationships to establish boundary conditions through which to trace the expansion of magmatic vapor from source to surface and consequent alteration and mineralization. Initially heat loss from the vapor is high resulting in the formation of acid condensate permeating through the wallrock. This Sulfate Stage alteration effectively isolates the expansion of magmatic vapor in subsurface fracture arrays

  10. Rare-earth element and heavy-metal behaviour associated with the epithermal gold deposit on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottermoser, B. G.

    1990-06-01

    A thick sequence of alkaline intrusions and volcanic rocks underlies a Quaternary caldera on Lihir Island. The sequence is host to a still-active subaerial hydrothermal system and associated epithermal gold mineralization. Chondrite-normalized (La/Lu) cn and (La/Sm) cn ratios progressively increase up the alteration sequence from the potassic alteration zone, to the argillic zone to the advanced argillic zone. (Tb/Lu) cn ratios only significantly increase in argillic and advanced argillic assemblages. Surface oxide alteration lithologies and acid sulphate water precipitates possess distinctly lower (La/Lu) cn and (Tb/Lu) cn ratios than the underlying subsurface alteration units. The changes in the REE, LREE and HREE fractionation trends from subsurface to surface alteration zones reflect the transition from a magmatic-hydrothermal, neutral chloride fluid regime at depth to acid sulphate meteoric waters in the upper portion of the alteration profile. Boiling of the LREE-Eu-enriched magmatic fluids occurred at a depth of at least 750 m. It is proposed that pronounced differential flow rates of the vapour and liquid phases and solution chemistry changes approximately above 300-350 m caused the incorporation of LREE and Eu into anhydrite-calcite veins and the deposition of LREE and HREE into wallrocks of upper parts of the potassic alteration unit. Condensation of the vapour phases into meteoric waters gave rise to low-temperature acid fluids that deposited large amounts of LREE within argillic and advanced argillic alteration units. This was also accompanied by HREE mobility due to large fluid volumes, acid fluid conditions and abundant sulphate complexes within the solutions. The HREE were either lost from the hydrothermal system or deposited in oxide assemblages and acid sulphate water precipitates.

  11. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, A.U. |; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  12. Magmatic context of Bou Skour copper deposit (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Petrogrography, geochemistry and alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL Azmi, Daoud; Aissa, M.; Ouguir, H.; Mahdoudi, M. L.; El Azmi, M.; Ouadjo, A.; Zouhair, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Bou Skour copper deposit is located in the western part of the Saghro massif (Eastern Anti-Atlas), about 50 km East of the city of Ouarzazate. It is subdivided into several areas that are, from North to South: “Panthère”, “Chaigne”, “Anne Marie”, “Chapeau de fer” and “Patte d'Oie”. The latter is economically the most important and is the object of this study. The “Patte d'Oie” district consists mainly of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. The extrusive rocks are represented by andesites spatially associated with pyroclastic terms (ignimbrites and pyroclastic breccias). This volcanic unit is intruded by a pink granite pluton and a I-type granodiorite with equigranular texture (Bou Skour granodiorite) showing to the border a microgranular facies (microgranodiorite). All these magmatic formations are intersected by rhyolitic dykes (NNE-SSW) and doleritic dykes (WNW-ESE to NW-SE). The granodiorite and andesite have undergone a polyphase hydrothermal alteration: (i) potassic alteration, (ii) phyllitic alteration, (iii) silicification, (iv) argillic alteration and (v) propylitic alteration. The analysis of geochemical data of granodiorite, granite, andesite and dolerite confirmed: (i) their petrographic natures, (ii) the medium-K calc-alkaline affiliation of andesite and granodiorite, which would have been set up into an active geotectonic environment, probably of island arc or collision, during the Pan-African orogeny, (iii) The high-K calc-alkaline character of granite indicating a post-collision development during the Pan-African orogeny and (iv) The alkaline affinity of the dolerite which is linked to an extensive post-orogenic setting (post-Pan-African). The copper mineralization of “Patte d'Oie” area is hosted, exclusively, in the andesitic and granodioritic facies. It is represented, essentially, by chalcopyrite and bornite minerals and is, probably, related to a porphyry system (disseminated and stockwork mineralization

  13. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M.; Goel, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer “epigenome” has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, is presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC. PMID:26216839

  14. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  15. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed. PMID:15810684

  16. Geochemical results of a hydrothermally altered area at Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, James A.; Moye, Falma J.; Theobald, Paul K.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Larsen, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    The area immediately east of Baker Creek, Blaine County, Idaho, is underlain by a thick section of mafic to intermediate lava flows of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. Widespread propylitic alteration surrounds a zone of argillic alteration and an inner core of phyllic alteration. Silicified breccia is present along an east-trending fault within the zone of phyllic alteration. As part of a reconnaissance geochemical survey, soils and plants were sampled. Several species of plants (Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii ], mountain big sagebrush [ Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana ], and elk sedge [ Carex geyerii ]) were collected from 10 upland localities and stream sediments, panned concentrates, and aquatic mosses were collected from 16 drainage basin localities all of which were generally within the area of alteration. Geochemical results yielded anomalous concentrations of molybenum, zinc, silver, and lead in at least half of the seven different sample media and of gold, thallium, arsenic, antimony, manganese, boron, cadmium, bismuth, copper, and beryllium in from one to four of the various media. Part of this suite of elements? silver, gold, arsenic, antimony, thallium, and manganese? suggests that the mineralization in the area is epithermal. Barite and pyrite (commonly botryoidal-framboidal) are widespread throughout the area sampled. Visible gold and pyromorphite (a secondary lead mineral) were identified in only one small drainage basin, but high levels of gold were detected in aquatic mosses over a larger area. Data from the upland and stream sampling indicate two possible mineralized areas. The first mineralized area was identified by a grab sample from an outcrop of quartz stockwork that contained 50 ppb Au, 1.5 ppm Ag, and 50 ppm Mo. Although the soil and plant species that were sampled in the area indicated mineralized bedrock, the Douglas-fir samples were the best indicators of the silver anomaly. The second possible mineralized area centers on the

  17. Use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks in the northern grapevine mountains, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Three flightlines of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, acquired over the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, and California, were used to map minerals associated with hydrothermally altered rocks. The data were processed to remove vertical striping, normalized using an equal area normalization, and reduced to reflectance relative to an average spectrum derived from the data. An algorithm was developed to automatically calculate the absorption band parameters band position, band depth, and band width for the strongest absorption feature in each pixel. These parameters were mapped into an intensity, hue, saturation (IHS) color system to produce a single color image that summarized the absorption band information, This image was used to map areas of potential alteration based upon the predicted relationships between the color image and mineral absorption band. Individual AIS spectra for these areas were then examined to identify specific minerals. Two types of alteration were mapped with the AIS data. Areas of quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration were identified based upon a strong absorption feature near 2.21 ??m, a weak shoulder near 2.25 ??m, and a weak absorption band near 2.35 ??m caused by sericite (fine-grained muscovite). Areas of argillic alteration were defined based on the presence of montmorillonite, identified by a weak to moderate absorption feature near 2.21 ??m and the absence of the 2.35 ??m band. Montmorillonite could not be identified in mineral mixtures. Calcite and dolomite were identified based on sharp absorption features near 2.34 and 2.32 ??m, respectively. Areas of alteration identified using the AIS data corresponded well with areas mapped using field mapping, field reflectance spectra, and laboratory spectral measurements. ?? 1988.

  18. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  19. Petrography, geochemistry, and alteration of country rocks from the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karikari, Forson; Ferrière, Ludovic; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Mader, Dieter

    Samples of the country rocks that likely constituted the target rocks at the 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact structure in Ghana, West Africa, collected outside of the crater rim in the northern and southern parts of the structure, were studied for their petrographic characteristics and analyzed for their major- and trace-element compositions. The country rocks, mainly meta-graywacke, shale, and phyllite of the Early Proterozoic Birimian Supergroup and some granites of similar age, are characterized by two generations of alteration. A pre-impact hydrothermal alteration, often along shear zones, is characterized by new growth of secondary minerals, such as chlorite, sericite, sulfides, and quartz, or replacement of some primary minerals, such as plagioclase and biotite, by secondary sericite and chlorite. A late, argillic alteration, mostly associated with the suevites, is characterized by alteration of the melt/glass clasts in the groundmass of suevites to phyllosilicates. Suevite, which occurs in restricted locations to the north and to the south-southwest of the crater rim, contains melt fragments, diaplectic quartz glass, ballen quartz, and clasts derived from the full variety of target rocks. No planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz were found in the country rock samples, and only a few quartz grains in the suevite samples show PDFs, and in rare cases two sets of PDFs. Based on a total alkali element-silica (TAS) plot, the Bosumtwi granites have tonalitic to quartz-dioritic compositions. The Nb versus Y and Ta versus Yb discrimination plots show that these granites are of volcanic-arc tectonic provenance. Provenance studies of the metasedimentary rocks at the Bosumtwi crater have also indicated that the metasediments are volcanic-arc related. Compared to the average siderophile element contents of the upper continental crust, both country rocks and impact breccias of the Bosumtwi structure show elevated siderophile element contents. This, however, does not

  20. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  1. Hyperspectral image analysis for the determination of alteration minerals in geothermal fields: Çürüksu (Denizli) Graben, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uygur, Merve; Karaman, Muhittin; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Çürüksu (Denizli) Graben hosts various geothermal fields such as Kızıldere, Yenice, Gerali, Karahayıt, and Tekkehamam. Neotectonic activities, which are caused by extensional tectonism, and deep circulation in sub-volcanic intrusions are heat sources of hydrothermal solutions. The temperature of hydrothermal solutions is between 53 and 260 degree Celsius. Phyllic, argillic, silicic, and carbonatization alterations and various hydrothermal minerals have been identified in various research studies of these areas. Surfaced hydrothermal alteration minerals are one set of potential indicators of geothermal resources. Developing the exploration tools to define the surface indicators of geothermal fields can assist in the recognition of geothermal resources. Thermal and hyperspectral imaging and analysis can be used for defining the surface indicators of geothermal fields. This study tests the hypothesis that hyperspectral image analysis based on EO-1 Hyperion images can be used for the delineation and definition of surfaced hydrothermal alteration in geothermal fields. Hyperspectral image analyses were applied to images covering the geothermal fields whose alteration characteristic are known. To reduce data dimensionality and identify spectral endmembers, Kruse's multi-step process was applied to atmospherically and geometrically-corrected hyperspectral images. Minimum Noise Fraction was used to reduce the spectral dimensions and isolate noise in the images. Extreme pixels were identified from high order MNF bands using the Pixel Purity Index. n-Dimensional Visualization was utilized for unique pixel identification. Spectral similarities between pixel spectral signatures and known endmember spectrum (USGS Spectral Library) were compared with Spectral Angle Mapper Classification. EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral images and hyperspectral analysis are sensitive to hydrothermal alteration minerals, as their diagnostic spectral signatures span the visible and shortwave

  2. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  3. Immunization alters body odor.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. PMID:24524972

  4. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  5. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  6. Molecular and Genomic Alterations in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Ines; Vital, Ana Louisa; Gonzalez-Tablas, María; Patino, María del Carmen; Otero, Alvaro; Lopes, María Celeste; de Oliveira, Catarina; Domingues, Patricia; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, Maria Dolores

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the understanding of the molecular biology of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM); thus, complex genetic alterations and genomic profiles, which recurrently involve multiple signaling pathways, have been defined, leading to the first molecular/genetic classification of the disease. In this regard, different genetic alterations and genetic pathways appear to distinguish primary (eg, EGFR amplification) versus secondary (eg, IDH1/2 or TP53 mutation) GBM. Such genetic alterations target distinct combinations of the growth factor receptor-ras signaling pathways, as well as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/phosphatase and tensin homolog/AKT, retinoblastoma/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) N2A-p16(INK4A), and TP53/mouse double minute (MDM) 2/MDM4/CDKN2A-p14(ARF) pathways, in cells that present features associated with key stages of normal neurogenesis and (normal) central nervous system cell types. This translates into well-defined genomic profiles that have been recently classified by The Cancer Genome Atlas Consortium into four subtypes: classic, mesenchymal, proneural, and neural GBM. Herein, we review the most relevant genetic alterations of primary versus secondary GBM, the specific signaling pathways involved, and the overall genomic profile of this genetically heterogeneous group of malignant tumors.

  7. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  8. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  9. Epigenetic Alterations in Colorectal Cancer: Emerging Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Grady, William M; Goel, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the fundamental processes driving the initiation and progression of CRC is the accumulation of a variety of genetic and epigenetic changes in colonic epithelial cells. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of cancer epigenetics, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA) and noncoding RNA deregulation, and alterations in histone modification states. Assessment of the colon cancer "epigenome" has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and altered miRNA expression. The average CRC methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes and dozens of altered miRNAs. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these epigenetic alterations, called driver events, are presumed to have a functional role in CRC. In addition, the advances in our understanding of epigenetic alterations in CRC have led to these alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in this field suggests that these epigenetic alterations will be commonly used in the near future to direct the prevention and treatment of CRC.

  10. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  11. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  12. Hydrothermal systematics, alteration, and mineralization in the Grant Canyon, Bacon Flat, and Blackburn Oil Fields, Nevada - Intriguing Parallels with Carlin-Type gold deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Nevada's three known thermally active oil reservoirs-Blackburn, Bacon Flat, and Grand Canyon-share a surprisingly long list of essential attributes with the Carlin-type, low-grade, sediment-hosted gold deposits, particularly those of the Alligator Ridge mining district. Like these rich precious-metal ore bodies, the three fields (1) are hosted by Paleozoic carbonate and calcareous silici-clastic strata; (2) occur in structural or structural/stratigraphic traps sealed beneath shales or hydrothermally argillized and silicified tuffs and epiclastic debris, (3) have undergone intense fracturing and brecciation, as well as massive hydrothermal decalcification as major porosity-creating processes; (4) occupy rocks partly altered to or veined by the secondary-mineral assemblage quartz-kaolin-barite-pyrite-marcasite; (5) have a direct geothermal connection; (6) are enriched in the elements arsenic, antimony, mercury, thallium, and even contain significant traces of gold-up 50 ppb in altered Mississippian Chainmain Shale in the Blackburn field. Moreover, measured temperatures, as well as late-stage, fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures (T[sub h]) at the fields-all in the range 100-135[degrees]C-fall within the fluid-inclusion T[sub h] span of 90-165[degrees]C recorded for multiple Alligator Ridge deposits. Fracture-controlled live oil and oil-bearing fluid inclusions in some of the Alligator Ridge ores provide further evidence of genetic similarities with the oil reservoirs. The authors suggest that the three oil fields could represent either weakly mineralized analogs of the gold deposits or an incipient phase in their evolution ultimately leading to ore mineralization.

  13. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem.

  14. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  15. Parasites alter community structure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Byers, James E; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Altman, Irit; Donahue, Megan J; Blakeslee, April M H

    2007-05-29

    Parasites often play an important role in modifying the physiology and behavior of their hosts and may, consequently, mediate the influence hosts have on other components of an ecological community. Along the northern Atlantic coast of North America, the dominant herbivorous snail Littorina littorea structures rocky intertidal communities through strong grazing pressure and is frequently parasitized by the digenean trematode Cryptocotyle lingua. We hypothesized that the effects of parasitism on host physiology would induce behavioral changes in L. littorea, which in turn would modulate L. littorea's influence on intertidal community composition. Specifically, we hypothesized that C. lingua infection would alter the grazing rate of L. littorea and, consequently, macroalgal communities would develop differently in the presence of infected versus uninfected snails. Our results show that uninfected snails consumed 40% more ephemeral macroalgal biomass than infected snails in the laboratory, probably because the digestive system of infected snails is compromised by C. lingua infection. In the field, this weaker grazing by infected snails resulted in significantly greater expansion of ephemeral macroalgal cover relative to grazing by uninfected snails. By decreasing the per-capita grazing rate of the dominant herbivore, C. lingua indirectly affects the composition of the macroalgal community and may in turn affect other species that depend on macroalgae for resources or habitat structure. In light of the abundance of parasites across systems, we suggest that, through trait-mediated indirect effects, parasites may be a common determinant of structure in ecological communities. PMID:17517667

  16. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  17. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  18. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  19. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning.

  20. Preliminary Mineralogic and Stable Isotope Studies of Altered Summit and Flank Rocks and Osceola Mudflow Deposits on Mount Rainier, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert O.; Breit, George N.; Zimbelman, David R.

    2003-01-01

    minerals define two and possibly three environments of alteration. At deeper levels magmatic vapor, H2S, SO2 and other gases from venting magmas migrated upward and condensed into the meteoric water. Disproportionation of SO2 into aqueous sulfate and H2S resulted in acid-sulfate (alunite + kaolinite + pyrite) and related argillic and propylitic alteration envelopes in a magmatic hydrothermal environment. At shallow levels H2S reacted with andesite to form pyrite that is associated with smectite along fractures on both the flanks and upper edifice. It is not clear to what extent H2S was oxidized by atmospheric O2 to form aqueous sulfate in a steam-heated environment. Near the ground surface, pyrite is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen resulting in soluble iron-and aluminum-hydroxysulfates. These supergene hydroxysulfates, which may also form around fumaroles from the oxidation of H2S, are subject to continuous solution and redeposition.

  1. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  2. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  3. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  4. Altered marine tephra deposits as potential slope failure planes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, Gauvain; Kopf, Achim

    2015-08-01

    Weathering of tephra results in increasing proportions of mechanically weak, authigenic clay minerals (smectite). This suggests that altered tephra represent inherent weak layers in slope sediment sequences, and these may facilitate slope failure in submarine and other aquatic environments. In drained direct shear experiments, tephra in different alteration stages were compared to common sand-clay mixtures for geotechnical reference. Attention is drawn to the influence of particle shape on shear strength. The results revealed volcanic ash to have (1) a high strength end-member at low alteration stages due to particle roughness and angularity and (2) a low strength end-member after complete diagenetic alteration, both under static conditions. This would suggest that strongly altered volcanic ash layers could potentially be responsible for slope failures. However, a review of ODP and IODP Expedition reports shows that advanced ash alteration mostly occurs at depths below (>800 mbsf) those commonly observed for slope failure initiation (<400 mbsf). This, in turn, suggests that volcanic ash alteration does not play an important role in the initiation of slope failure.

  5. Mineralogical study on volcanic ash of the eruption on September 27, 2014 at Ontake volcano, central Japan: correlation with porphyry copper systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yusuke; Imura, Takumi; Hayashi, Shintaro; Ohba, Tsukasa

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic ash of the eruption on September 27, 2014 at Ontake volcano consists mostly of altered rock fragments. The ash contains partly altered volcanic rock fragments consisting of primary igneous minerals (plagioclase, orthopyroxene, titanomagnetite, and feldspars) and volcanic glass accompanied by alteration minerals to some extents, and contains no juvenile fragments. These features indicate that the eruption was a non-juvenile hydrothermal eruption that was derived from the hydrothermal system developed under the crater. The major minerals derived from hydrothermal alteration zones are silica mineral, kaolin-group mineral, smectite, pyrophyllite, muscovite, alunite, anhydrite, gypsum, pyrite, K-feldspar, albite, and rutile. Minor chlorite, biotite, and garnet are accompanied. Five types of alteration mineral associations are identified from observations on individual ash particles: silica-pyrite, silica-pyrite ± alunite ± kaolin, silica-pyrophyllite-pyrite, silica-muscovite ± chlorite, and silica-K-feldspar ± albite ± garnet ± biotite. The associations indicate development of advanced argillic, sericite, and potassic alteration zones under the crater. Occurrence of anhydrite veinlet and the set of alteration zones indicate hydrothermal alteration zones similar to late-stage porphyry copper systems. Comparing the mineral associations with the geologic model of the late-stage porphyry copper systems, the source depths of mineral associations are estimated to range from near surface to >2 km. The depths of advanced argillic alteration, sericite, and potassic zones are 0 to ~2, ~1.5 to ~2, and >2 km, respectively.

  6. Brain Injury Alters Volatile Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Cohen, Akiva S; Gordon, Amy R; Opiekun, Maryanne; Martin, Talia; Elkind, Jaclynn; Lundström, Johan N; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-06-01

    Chemical signals arising from body secretions and excretions communicate information about health status as have been reported in a range of animal models of disease. A potential common pathway for diseases to alter chemical signals is via activation of immune function-which is known to be intimately involved in modulation of chemical signals in several species. Based on our prior findings that both immunization and inflammation alter volatile body odors, we hypothesized that injury accompanied by inflammation might correspondingly modify the volatile metabolome to create a signature endophenotype. In particular, we investigated alteration of the volatile metabolome as a result of traumatic brain injury. Here, we demonstrate that mice could be trained in a behavioral assay to discriminate mouse models subjected to lateral fluid percussion injury from appropriate surgical sham controls on the basis of volatile urinary metabolites. Chemical analyses of the urine samples similarly demonstrated that brain injury altered urine volatile profiles. Behavioral and chemical analyses further indicated that alteration of the volatile metabolome induced by brain injury and alteration resulting from lipopolysaccharide-associated inflammation were not synonymous. Monitoring of alterations in the volatile metabolome may be a useful tool for rapid brain trauma diagnosis and for monitoring recovery. PMID:26926034

  7. A Dose Escalation Study in Adult Patients With Advanced Solid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-19

    Advanced Solid Tumors With Alterations of FGFR1, 2 and/or 3;; Squamous Lung Cancer With FGFR1 Amplification;; Bladder Cancer With FGFR3 Mutation or Fusion; Advanced Solid Tumors With FGFR1 Amplication,; Advanced Solid Tumors With FGFR2 Amplication,; Advanced Solid Tumors With FGFR3 Mutation

  8. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  9. Microvascular complications and diabetic retinopathy: recent advances and future implications.

    PubMed

    Barot, Megha; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-03-01

    Retinal microvascular alterations have been observed during diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to the retinal susceptibility towards subtle pathological alterations. Therefore, retinal microvascular pathology is essential to understand the nature of retinal degenerations during DR. In this review, the role of retinal microvasculature complications during progression of DR, along with recent efforts to normalize such alterations for better therapeutic outcome, will be underlined. In addition, current therapeutics and future directions for advancement of standard treatment for DR patients will be discussed. PMID:23464520

  10. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  11. Dynamically Alterable Arrays of Polymorphic Data Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    An application library package was developed that represents data packets for Deep Space Network (DSN) message packets as dynamically alterable arrays composed of arbitrary polymorphic data types. The software was to address a limitation of the present state of the practice for having an array directly composed of a single monomorphic data type. This is a severe limitation when one is dealing with science data in that the types of objects one is dealing with are typically not known in advance and, therefore, are dynamic in nature. The unique feature of this approach is that it enables one to define at run-time the dynamic shape of the matrix with the ability to store polymorphic data types in each of its indices. Existing languages such as C and C++ have the restriction that the shape of the array must be known in advance and each of its elements be a monomorphic data type that is strictly defined at compile-time. This program can be executed on a variety of platforms. It can be distributed in either source code or binary code form. It must be run in conjunction with any one of a number of Lisp compilers that are available commercially or as shareware.

  12. Sweet Bones: The Pathogenesis of Bone Alteration in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic patients have increased fracture risk. The pathogenesis underlying the status of bone alterations in diabetes mellitus is not completely understood but is multifactorial. The major deficits appear to be related to a deficit in mineralized surface area, a decrement in the rate of mineral apposition, deceased osteoid surface, depressed osteoblast activity, and decreased numbers of osteoclasts due to abnormal insulin signaling pathway. Other prominent features of diabetes mellitus are an increased urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, and oxidative stress leading to sweet bones (altered bone's strength, metabolism, and structure). Every diabetic patient should be assessed for risk factors for fractures and osteoporosis. The pathogenesis of the bone alterations in diabetes mellitus as well as their molecular mechanisms needs further study. PMID:27777961

  13. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  14. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  15. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  16. Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anken, Craig S.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Artificial Intelligence Technology Testbed (AAITT) is a laboratory testbed for the design, analysis, integration, evaluation, and exercising of large-scale, complex, software systems, composed of both knowledge-based and conventional components. The AAITT assists its users in the following ways: configuring various problem-solving application suites; observing and measuring the behavior of these applications and the interactions between their constituent modules; gathering and analyzing statistics about the occurrence of key events; and flexibly and quickly altering the interaction of modules within the applications for further study.

  17. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  18. Art as Alterity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  19. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  20. Valuing hydrological alteration in multi-objective water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Pianosi, Francesca; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe management of water through the impoundment of rivers by dams and reservoirs is necessary to support key human activities such as hydropower production, agriculture and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objective optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between multiple interests. On the one hand, such optimization methods can enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other hand they risk strongly penalizing all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) included in the optimization algorithm. The alteration of the downstream hydrological regime is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation is commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe). However, it is rarely embedded in reservoir optimization routines and, even when explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index (valuing) that can serve as objective function in the optimization problem. This paper aims to address these issues by: (i) discussing the benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; (ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration, one based on the established framework of Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (Richter et al., 1996), and one satisfying the mathematical properties required by widely used optimization

  1. Recent advances in thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Christopher D

    2015-09-01

    Thermoregulation is the maintenance of a relatively constant core body temperature. Humans normally maintain a body temperature at 37°C, and maintenance of this relatively high temperature is critical to human survival. This concept is so important that control of thermoregulation is often the principal example cited when teaching physiological homeostasis. A basic understanding of the processes underpinning temperature regulation is necessary for all undergraduate students studying biology and biology-related disciplines, and a thorough understanding is necessary for those students in clinical training. Our aim in this review is to broadly present the thermoregulatory process taking into account current advances in this area. First, we summarize the basic concepts of thermoregulation and subsequently assess the physiological responses to heat and cold stress, including vasodilation and vasoconstriction, sweating, nonshivering thermogenesis, piloerection, shivering, and altered behavior. Current research is presented concerning the body's detection of thermal challenge, peripheral and central thermoregulatory control mechanisms, including brown adipose tissue in adult humans and temperature transduction by the relatively recently discovered transient receptor potential channels. Finally, we present an updated understanding of the neuroanatomic circuitry supporting thermoregulation.

  2. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  3. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    PubMed

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  4. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshuk, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems.

  5. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  6. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness.

  7. KINOMIC ALTERATIONS IN ATYPICAL MENINGIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Taylor, Robert B.; Fiveash, John B.; de Wijn, Rik; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Willey, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to profile Atypical Meningioma in a high-throughput manner to better understand the altered signaling within these tumors and specifically the kinases altered in recurrent atypical meningioma. Kinomic Profiles could be used to identify prognostic biomarkers for responders/non-responders to classify future patients that are unlikely to benefit from current therapies. Directly these results could be used to identify drug-actionable kinase targets as well. Methods Peptide-substrate microarray kinase activity analysis was conducted with a PamStation®12 analyzing the tyrosine kinome in each tumor kinetically against ~144 target peptides. These data were then analyzed relative to clinical outcome (e.g., tumor recurrence). Results 3 major clusters of atypical meningiomas were identified with highly variant peptides primarily being targets of EGFR family, ABL, BRK and BMX kinases. Kinomic analysis of recurrent atypical meningiomas indicated patterns of increased phosphorylation of BMX, TYRO3 and FAK substrates as compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion The atypical meningiomas profiled here exhibited molecular sub-clustering that may have phenotypic corollaries predictive of outcome. Recurrent tumors had increases in kinase activity that may predict resistance to current therapies, and may guide selection of directed therapies. Taken together these data further the understanding of kinomic alteration in atypical meningioma, and the processes that may not only mediate recurrence, but additionally may identify kinase targets for intervention. PMID:27158663

  8. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  9. Cardiovascular KATP channels and advanced aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua-Qian; Subbotina, Ekaterina; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Coetzee, William A.

    2016-01-01

    With advanced aging, there is a decline in innate cardiovascular function. This decline is not general in nature. Instead, specific changes occur that impact the basic cardiovascular function, which include alterations in biochemical pathways and ion channel function. This review focuses on a particular ion channel that couple the latter two processes, namely the KATP channel, which opening is promoted by alterations in intracellular energy metabolism. We show that the intrinsic properties of the KATP channel changes with advanced aging and argue that the channel can be further modulated by biochemical changes. The importance is widespread, given the ubiquitous nature of the KATP channel in the cardiovascular system where it can regulate processes as diverse as cardiac function, blood flow and protection mechanisms against superimposed stress, such as cardiac ischemia. We highlight questions that remain to be answered before the KATP channel can be considered as a viable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27733235

  10. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted.

  11. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  12. Altered cell function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1991-01-01

    The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

  13. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  14. Membrane lipid alterations in hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Frans A

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins. Hundreds of phospholipid molecular species spontaneously arrange themselves in a lipid bilayer and move rapidly in the plane as well as across the bilayer in a dynamic but highly organized fashion. Areas enriched in certain lipids determine proper protein function. Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed across the lipid bilayer with phosphatidylserine (PS) exclusively on the inside. Both the composition and organization of the RBC membrane is well maintained. Alterations lead to apoptosis during erythropoiesis or early demise of the cell in the circulation. The mechanisms that govern the maintenance of the lipid bilayer are only recently being unraveled at the individual protein level. Oxidized lipids are rapidly repaired using fatty acids taken up from plasma to maintain membrane integrity. Several isoforms of a RBC acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase have been reported, as well as the first member of a family of lysophospholipid acylCoA acyltransferases. Phospholipid asymmetry is maintained by the recently identified RBC amino-phospholipid translocase. These enzymes, essential in maintaining membrane lipid organization, are affected by oxidant stress or an increase in cytosolic calcium. Normal lipid composition and organization is lost in subpopulations of RBC in hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Despite elaborate antioxidant systems, lipids and membrane proteins, including those that maintain lipid organization, are damaged in these cells. This in turn leads to improper repair of damaged RBC membranes and altered interactions of RBCs with other blood cells and plasma components that play a role in the pathology that defines these disorders. The altered lipid bilayer in RBCs in hemoglobinopathies leads to premature removal (anemia) and imbalance in hemostasis, and plays a role in vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease. Lipid breakdown products of PS

  15. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  16. Aqueous Alteration of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ziegler, K.; Weisberg, M. K.; Gounelle, M.; Berger, E. L.; Le, L.; Ivanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kaidun meteorite is different from all other meteorites [1], consisting largely of a mixture of “incompatible” types of meteoritic material – carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, i.e. corre-sponding to the most oxidized and the most reduced samples of meteorite materials, including CI1, CM1-2, CV3, EH3-5, and EL3. In addition to these, minor amounts of ordinary and R chondrites are present. In addition, approximately half of the Kaidun lithologies are new materials not known as separate meteorites. Among these are aqueously altered enstatite chondrites [1], which are of considerable interest because they testify that not all reduced asteroids escaped late-stage oxidation, and hydrolysis, and also because hydrated poorly crystalline Si-Fe phase, which in turn is re-placed by serpentine (Figs 3-5). In the end the only indication of the original presence of metal is the re-sidual carbides. In other enstatite chondrite lithogies (of uncertain type) original silicates and metal have been thoroughly replaced by an assemblage of authi-genic plagioclase laths, calcite boxwork, and occasion-al residual grains of silica, Cr-rich troilite, ilmenite, and rare sulfides including heideite (Fig. 6). Fe and S have been largely leached from the rock (Fig. 4). Again the accessory phases are the first clue to the original character of the rock, which can be verified by O isotopes. It is fortunate that Kaidun displays every step of the alteration process.

  17. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  18. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  19. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use wheelchairs. (2) An alteration is deemed to be undertaken after January 26, 1992, if the physical... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alterations. 36.402 Section 36.402.... (1) Any alteration to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility, after January...

  20. Valuing hydrological alteration in Multi-Objective reservoir management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, S.; Pianosi, F.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Water management through dams and reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities ranging from hydropower production to water allocation for agricultural production, and flood risk mitigation. Advances in multi-objectives (MO) optimization techniques and ever growing computing power make it possible to design reservoir operating policies that represent Pareto-optimal tradeoffs between the multiple interests analysed. These progresses if on one hand are likely to enhance performances of commonly targeted objectives (such as hydropower production or water supply), on the other risk to strongly penalize all the interests not directly (i.e. mathematically) optimized within the MO algorithm. Alteration of hydrological regime, although is a well established cause of ecological degradation and its evaluation and rehabilitation are commonly required by recent legislation (as the Water Framework Directive in Europe), is rarely embedded as an objective in MO planning of optimal releases from reservoirs. Moreover, even when it is explicitly considered, the criteria adopted for its evaluation are doubted and not commonly trusted, undermining the possibility of real implementation of environmentally friendly policies. The main challenges in defining and assessing hydrological alterations are: how to define a reference state (referencing); how to define criteria upon which to build mathematical indicators of alteration (measuring); and finally how to aggregate the indicators in a single evaluation index that can be embedded in a MO optimization problem (valuing). This paper aims to address these issues by: i) discussing benefits and constrains of different approaches to referencing, measuring and valuing hydrological alteration; ii) testing two alternative indices of hydrological alteration in the context of MO problems, one based on the established framework of Indices of Hydrological Alteration (IHA, Richter et al., 1996), and a novel satisfying the

  1. Window to 'Clovis's' Altered Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole (center) into it with its rock abrasion tool. An analysis of the interior of the hole with the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer found higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine compared to basaltic, or volcanic, rocks at Gusev. This might indicate that Clovis was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004).

  2. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alteration data and identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and...

  3. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future alteration data developed by the holder of a type certificate, the holder must— (1) Review alteration...

  4. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future alteration data developed by the holder of a type certificate, the holder must— (1) Review alteration...

  5. Utility of high-altitude infrared spectral data in mineral exploration: Application to Northern Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, B.R.; King, T.V.V.; Morath, L.C.; Phillips, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Synoptic views of hydrothermal alteration assemblages are of considerable utility in regional-scale minerals exploration. Recent advances in data acquisition and analysis technologies have greatly enhanced the usefulness of remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy for reliable alteration mineral assemblages mapping. Using NASA's Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, this study mapped large areas of advanced argillic and phyllic-argillic alteration assemblages in the southeastern Santa Rita and northern Patagonia mountains, Arizona. Two concealed porphyry copper deposits have been identified during past exploration, the Red Mountain and Sunnyside deposits, and related published hydrothermal alteration zoning studies allow the comparison of the results obtained from AVIRIS data to the more traditional field mapping approaches. The AVIRIS mapping compares favorably with field-based studies. An analysis of iron-bearing oxide minerals above a concealed supergene chalcocite deposit at Red Mountain also indicates that remotely sensed data can be of value in the interpretation of leached caps above porphyry copper deposits. In conjunction with other types of geophysical data, AVIRIS mineral maps can be used to discriminate different exploration targets within a region.

  6. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  7. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate.

  8. Epigenetic Alterations Associated with War Trauma and Childhood Maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Ramo-Fernández, Laura; Schneider, Anna; Wilker, Sarah; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of war trauma or childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for trauma-spectrum disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, traumatic stress has been associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine and the immune system, enhancing the risk for physical diseases. Traumatic experiences might even affect psychological as well as biological parameters in the next generation, i.e. traumatic stress might have transgenerational effects. This article outlines how epigenetic processes, which represent a pivotal biological mechanism for dynamic adaptation to environmental challenges, might contribute to the explanation of the long-lasting and transgenerational effects of trauma. In particular, epigenetic alterations in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system have been observed in survivors of childhood and adult trauma. These changes could result in enduring alterations of the stress response as well as the physical health risk. Furthermore, the effects of parental trauma could be transmitted to the next generation by parental distress and the pre- and postnatal environment, as well as by epigenetic marks transmitted via the germline. While epigenetic research has a high potential of advancing our understanding of the consequences of trauma, the findings have to be interpreted with caution, as epigenetics only represent one piece of a complex puzzle of interacting biological and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. CNS development under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity. In furtherance of this goal, the present studies assessed the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum. Specifically, the expression of selected cerebellar proteins and corresponding genes was compared in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5G) from embryonic day (E) 11 to postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Cerebellar proteins were analyzed by quantitative western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Densitometric analysis of western blots suggested 21% to 31% reduction in neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 31% to 45% reduction in glial acidic protein (GFAP). RPA results suggested a small reduction (<10%) in NCAM mRNA and a moderate reduction (<25%) in GFAP mRNA. These data indicate that the expression of selected cerebellar proteins may be affected at both the transcriptional and translational/postranslational level. Furthermore, these results suggest that changes in expression of selected genes may underlie hypergravity's effect on the developing CNS. (Supported by NASA grant NCC2-1042 and BWH Psychiatry Fund).

  10. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  11. Polyamines alter intestinal glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L R; Brockway, P D; Madsen, K; Hardin, J A; Gall, D G

    1995-03-01

    Polyamines are required for the growth of all eukaryotic cells. Enterocytes respond to luminal nutrients with large increases in polyamine synthesis, even though they are mature, nonproliferating cells. The role of polyamines in these cells is unknown. The current experiments examined whether polyamines affected intestinal transport of glucose, since absorption is the primary activity of enterocytes and since polyamines are known to affect membrane function and stability. Glucose transport was examined in rabbit brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). BBMV from rabbits given 5% alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in their drinking water 24 h before they were killed transported significantly less glucose than control vesicles [38% decrease in maximal transport rate (Jmax)]. Orogastric administration of spermine, spermidine, or putrescine to DFMO-treated animals 24 h before they were killed prevented the decrease. In rabbits receiving only orogastric spermine, glucose transport was significantly increased (64% increase in Jmax), whereas in vivo spermidine and putrescine decreased Jmax. This increase in Jmax caused by in vivo administration of spermine was not dependent on protein synthesis. Addition of polyamines whether in vivo or in vitro decreased Michaelis constant in vesicles from control and DFMO-treated animals. The change in glucose transport induced by DFMO or polyamines was not related to altered membrane lipid composition or fluidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The hydrothermal alteration of cooling lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Calder, Eliza S.; Valentine, Greg A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration is a recognized cause of volcanic instability and edifice collapse, including that of lava domes or dome complexes. Alteration by percolating fluids transforms primary minerals in dome lavas to weaker secondary products such as clay minerals; moreover, secondary mineral precipitation can affect the porosity and permeability of dome lithologies. The location and intensity of alteration in a dome depend heavily on fluid pathways and availability in conjunction with heat supply. Here we investigate postemplacement lava dome weakening by hydrothermal alteration using a finite element numerical model of water migration in simplified dome geometries. This is combined with the rock alteration index (RAI) to predict zones of alteration and secondary mineral precipitation. Our results show that alteration potential is highest at the interface between the hot core of a lava dome and its clastic talus carapace. The longest lived alteration potential fields occur in domes with persistent heat sources and permeabilities that allow sufficient infiltration of water for alteration processes, but not so much that domes cool quickly. This leads us to conclude that alteration-induced collapses are most likely to be shallow seated and originate in the talus or talus/core interface in domes which have a sustained supply of magmatic heat. Mineral precipitation at these zones of permeability contrast could create barriers to fluid flow, potentially causing gas pressurization which might promote deeper seated and larger volume collapses. This study contributes to our knowledge of how hydrothermal alteration can affect lava domes and provides constraints on potential sites for alteration-related collapses, which can be used to target hazard monitoring.

  13. Genetic and molecular alterations associated with oral squamous cell cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Somoza-Martín, José M; Barros-Angueira, Francisco; Reboiras-López, María D; Gándara Rey, José M; García-García, Abel

    2009-12-01

    The development of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is a multistep process involving the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations modulated by genetic pre-disposition and environmental influences such as tobacco and alcohol use, chronic inflammation, and viral infections. All of these factors can lead to a wide range of genetic and molecular alterations that can be detected using a range of molecular studies. The alterations mostly affect two large groups of genes: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which can be either inactivated or overexpressed through mutations, loss of heterozygosity, deletions, or epigenetic modifications such as methylation. Other molecules that are closely associated with tumor pathogenesis and prognosis also exist and warrant further study. Important advances in molecular biology are helping to shed light on oral cancer and thus aiding in the early diagnosis and development of new personalized treatment approaches. The purpose of the review is to explore the genetic and molecular alterations associated with OSCC.

  14. Genetic/molecular alterations of meningiomas and the signaling pathways targeted

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Ruiz, Laura; Miranda, David; Sousa, Pablo; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Meningiomas are usually considered to be benign central nervous system tumors; however, they show heterogenous clinical, histolopathological and cytogenetic features associated with a variable outcome. In recent years important advances have been achieved in the identification of the genetic/molecular alterations of meningiomas and the signaling pathways involved. Thus, monosomy 22, which is often associated with mutations of the NF2 gene, has emerged as the most frequent alteration of meningiomas; in addition, several other genes (e.g. AKT1, KLF4, TRAF7, SMO) and chromosomes have been found to be recurrently altered often in association with more complex karyotypes and involvement of multiple signaling pathways. Here we review the current knowledge about the most relevant genes involved and the signaling pathways targeted by such alterations. In addition, we summarize those proposals that have been made so far for classification and prognostic stratification of meningiomas based on their genetic/genomic features. PMID:25965831

  15. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Grasslands comprise 17% of the North American landscape but provide primary habitat for only 5% of native bird species. On the Great Plains, grasslands include an eastern component of tall grasses and a western component of short grasses, both of which have been regionally altered by removing native grazers, plowing sod, draining wetlands, and encouraging woody vegetation. As a group, populations of endemic bird species of the grasslands have declined more than others (including neotropical migrants) in the last quarter century. Individually, populations of the Upland Sandpiper and McCown’s Longspur have increased; the wetlands-associated Marbled Godwit and Wilson’s Phalarope appear stable; breeding ranges are shifting for the Ferruginous Hawk, Mississippi Kite, Short-eared Owl, Upland Sandpiper, Horned Lark, Vesper, Savannah, and Henslow’s sparrows, and Western Meadowlark; breeding habitats are disappearing locally for Franklin’s Gull, Dickcissel, Henslow’s and Grasshopper sparrows. Lark Bunting, and Eastern Meadowlark; and populations are declining throughout the breeding ranges for Mountain Plover, and Cassin’s and Clay-colored sparrows. Declines of these latter three species, and also the Franklin’s Gull, presumably are due to ecological phenomena on their respective wintering areas. Unlike forest species that winter in the neotropics, most birds that breed in the North American grasslands also winter on the continent and problems driving declines in grassland species are associated almost entirely with North American processes. Contemporary programs and initiatives hold promise for the conservation of breeding habitats for these birds. Ecological ignorance of wintering habits and habitats clouds the future of the endemic birds of grasslands, especially those currently experiencing widespread declines across breeding locales.

  16. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology have significantly changed the cockpit environment in current 'glass cockpit' aircraft. Recent developments in display technology, on-board processing, data storage, and datalinked communications are likely to further alter the environment in second and third generation 'glass cockpit' aircraft. The interaction of advanced cockpit technology with human cognitive performance has been a major area of activity within the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the MIT Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility. Several recent research projects are briefly reviewed and the most important results are summarized.

  17. Methylglyoxal can mediate behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Fernanda; Pandolfo, Pablo; Galland, Fabiana; Torres, Felipe Vasconcelos; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Batassini, Cristiane; Guerra, Maria Cristina; Leite, Marina Concli; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with loss of cognitive function and increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are elevated in diabetes and AD and have been suggested to act as mediators of the cognitive decline observed in these pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MG) is an extremely reactive carbonyl compound that propagates glycation reactions and is, therefore, able to generate AGEs. Herein, we evaluated persistent behavioral and biochemical parameters to explore the hypothesis that elevated exogenous MG concentrations, induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion, lead to cognitive decline in Wistar rats. A high and sustained administration of MG (3μmol/μL; subdivided into 6days) was found to decrease the recognition index of rats, as evaluated by the object-recognition test. However, MG was unable to impair learning-memory processes, as shown by the habituation in the open field (OF) and Y-maze tasks. Moreover, a single high dose of MG induced persistent alterations in anxiety-related behavior, diminishing the anxiety-like parameters evaluated in the OF test. Importantly, MG did not alter locomotion behavior in the different tasks performed. Our biochemical findings support the hypothesis that MG induces persistent alterations in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, related to glyoxalase 1 activity, AGEs content and glutamate uptake. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100B content, as well as S100B secretion (astroglial-related parameters of brain injury), were not altered by ICV MG administration. Taken together, our data suggest that MG interferes directly in brain function and that the time and the levels of exogenous MG determine the different features that can be seen in diabetic patients.

  18. Methylglyoxal can mediate behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Fernanda; Pandolfo, Pablo; Galland, Fabiana; Torres, Felipe Vasconcelos; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Batassini, Cristiane; Guerra, Maria Cristina; Leite, Marina Concli; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with loss of cognitive function and increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are elevated in diabetes and AD and have been suggested to act as mediators of the cognitive decline observed in these pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MG) is an extremely reactive carbonyl compound that propagates glycation reactions and is, therefore, able to generate AGEs. Herein, we evaluated persistent behavioral and biochemical parameters to explore the hypothesis that elevated exogenous MG concentrations, induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion, lead to cognitive decline in Wistar rats. A high and sustained administration of MG (3μmol/μL; subdivided into 6days) was found to decrease the recognition index of rats, as evaluated by the object-recognition test. However, MG was unable to impair learning-memory processes, as shown by the habituation in the open field (OF) and Y-maze tasks. Moreover, a single high dose of MG induced persistent alterations in anxiety-related behavior, diminishing the anxiety-like parameters evaluated in the OF test. Importantly, MG did not alter locomotion behavior in the different tasks performed. Our biochemical findings support the hypothesis that MG induces persistent alterations in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, related to glyoxalase 1 activity, AGEs content and glutamate uptake. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100B content, as well as S100B secretion (astroglial-related parameters of brain injury), were not altered by ICV MG administration. Taken together, our data suggest that MG interferes directly in brain function and that the time and the levels of exogenous MG determine the different features that can be seen in diabetic patients. PMID:27235733

  19. Advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Advance directives allow patients to have some control over decisions even when they are no longer able to make decisions themselves. All states authorize written advance directives, such as the appointment of a health care proxy, but commonly impose procedural requirements. Some states have restricted the use of oral advance directives, although they are frequently used in everyday practice. Advance directives are limited because they are infrequently used, may not be informed, and may conflict with the patient's current best interests. Moreover, surrogates often cannot state patients' preferences accurately. Furthermore, discussions among physicians and patients about advance directives are flawed. Physicians can improve discussions about advance directives by asking the patient who should serve as proxy and by ascertaining the patient's values and general preferences before discussing specific clinical situations. PMID:15538068

  20. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  1. Tectonic and magmatic controls on the metal composition of some cenozoic hydrothermal systems of the northwestern US

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, J. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Many Cenozoic, Au-Ag-rich, hydrothermal systems in the northwestern US have formed in two distinct magmatic and tectonic environments: (1) andesitic volcanic piles'' or arcs yield intrusion-related, porphyry-style Cu-Mo-B mineralization and acid-sulfate, advanced argillic alteration; base-metal rich (Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-Au-Mn), adularia-sericite, epithermal veins form in the peripheral propylitically-altered areas; and (2) Au-Se-Sb-As[+-]Ag-rich, Pb-Zn-Ba-Mn poor, adularia-sericite epithermal deposits in rhyolitic (commonly ash-flow tuffs), andesitic, and locally bimodal volcanic terrains undergoing significant extension or transtension. Porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization, acid-sulfate/advanced-argillic alteration, and base-metal rich veins are apparently absent in the second/environment, possibly owing in part to smaller amounts of magmatic volatiles entering the hydrothermal system. Examples of type 1 are the Miocene Cascades in WA and OR (e.g., Bohemia district) and the Miocene Virginia Range in NW Nevada (Washington Hill and Comstock districts). Examples of type 2 are the deposits at Republic and Wenatchee, WA, which formed during extension in the Eocene; DeLamar, ID and Sleeper, NV, which formed during the onset of rapid Basin and Range extension following Mid Miocene flood-basalt activity; and Wind Mtn., Sulfur, Florida Canyon, and possibly Rosebud, NV.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration facies within the intrusive-hosted Salave gold prospect, NW Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Salave gold prospect occurs within an Hercynian granodioritic complex intruding Cambro-Ordovician metasediments and a heterogeneous gabbroic body. Mineralization consists mostly of disseminated and veinlet pyrite, arsenopyrite, molybdenite, stibnite, and lesser sphalerite associated with a zoned sequence of hydrothermal alteration. Gold occurs as free particles and/or intergrown with the sulfides. Mathematical appraisal of analytical data suggests that the hydrothermal alteration resulted from largely isochemical redistribution processes imposed on the mineralogy of the host granodiorite by influxes of sporadically boiling fluids rich in CO/sub 2/. Hydrothermal alteration is described in terms of a zonal sequence inward from unaltered host rock through (1) chlorite-sericite alteration-(2) propylitic to advanced propylitic alterations-(3)albitites-(4) an auriferous (greater than or equal to 1g/t Au) sericite-carbonate-albite-(+/-)quartz-sulfide cataclastic facies. The zonation corresponds to increasing carbonatization, sericitization, albitization, desilification, and destruction of the original igneous texture. Aventurine alteration is common and is thought to be the product of late stage hydrothermal oxidizing conditions. Potassic alteration in the form of K-feldspar or biotite was occasionally observed.

  3. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  4. 46 CFR 107.271 - Inspection: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspection: Alterations. 107.271 Section 107.271 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.271 Inspection: Alterations. After plans...

  5. 46 CFR 107.271 - Inspection: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspection: Alterations. 107.271 Section 107.271 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.271 Inspection: Alterations. After plans...

  6. 46 CFR 107.271 - Inspection: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection: Alterations. 107.271 Section 107.271 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.271 Inspection: Alterations. After plans...

  7. 46 CFR 107.271 - Inspection: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspection: Alterations. 107.271 Section 107.271 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.271 Inspection: Alterations. After plans...

  8. 46 CFR 107.271 - Inspection: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspection: Alterations. 107.271 Section 107.271 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.271 Inspection: Alterations. After plans...

  9. Altered Books in Art Therapy with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Gioia

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how altered books can be used in art therapy with adolescents. An altered book is a published book that has been changed into a new work of visual art through various art processes such as painting, drawing, collage, writing, and embellishment. Books are discussed as an art canvas on which to provide stimulation, structure,…

  10. Advancing the educational agenda.

    PubMed

    Baker, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    This timely paper provides a thought-provoking analysis of current advanced practice nursing education in Canada. It comes at a critical juncture in the evolution of Canadian healthcare services and the redefinition of nursing roles. Increasingly, multiple sectors of society are calling for more nurses with advanced practice preparation and for a wider range of advanced practice nursing specialties. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are being proposed as a solution to a financially overburdened national healthcare system, the increasing complexity of healthcare services, and a crisis in access to primary healthcare. Thus, governments seeking greater fiscal efficiency, medical specialists needing sophisticated collaborative support, and healthcare consumers see APNs as the way forward.

  11. Mapping technologically and economically important materials at lunar and terrestrial sites using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standart, Douglas Laurence

    the samples were collected. A least-squares regression to the ilmenite vs. 1-μm absorption data is then used to predict ilmenite concentrations of mare basalts from M3 spectra. Using this methodology, we built ilmenite maps for the following nearside mare: western Mare Imbrium; southern Oceanus Procellarum; eastern Mare Nubium; Mare Serenitatis; and Tranquillitatis. Based on the concentrations of Th and ilmenite associated with the eruptions, we determined that at least three eruption episodes of mare basalts occurred, each with different geochemical signatures. In addition we identified late stage (<3.1 Gya) ilmenite- and Th-rich basalts within the PKT, which we suggest were supplied by the arrival of a KREEP-, and ilmenite-rich plume that formed at the core-mantle boundary after ilmenite-rich and KREEP-rich melts sank into the mantle. However, areas outside of PKT, such as Tranquillitatis and Serenatatis, do not exhibit both high KREEP and high ilmenite concentrations. Instead, early stage basaltic eruptions---consisting of low-Th, ilmenite-rich basalts are present at Mare Tranquillitatis and Th- and ilmenite-poor basalts are present at Serenitatis. We propose two possible scenarios to explain this. In the first, the Ti-rich but Th-poor mare basalts would have erupted after (or during) a degree-1 downwelling that affected the nearby PKT early in lunar history. In the second scenario, the Ti-rich but Th-poor mare basalts would have erupted prior to the degree-1 downwelling. Project III: Alunite (KAl3(SO4) 2(OH)6) is a sulfate mineral that is commonly found in argillic alteration zones of porphyry and epithermal systems, and in other supergene enriched mineral deposits. Using ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data, we target spectral features associated with hydroxyl (OH-) and sulfate (SO42-). Previous studies have used OH- absorptions near 2.2 μm to target alunite, but their methods can confuse alunite with carbonates, detrital

  12. Mapping technologically and economically important materials at lunar and terrestrial sites using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standart, Douglas Laurence

    the samples were collected. A least-squares regression to the ilmenite vs. 1-μm absorption data is then used to predict ilmenite concentrations of mare basalts from M3 spectra. Using this methodology, we built ilmenite maps for the following nearside mare: western Mare Imbrium; southern Oceanus Procellarum; eastern Mare Nubium; Mare Serenitatis; and Tranquillitatis. Based on the concentrations of Th and ilmenite associated with the eruptions, we determined that at least three eruption episodes of mare basalts occurred, each with different geochemical signatures. In addition we identified late stage (<3.1 Gya) ilmenite- and Th-rich basalts within the PKT, which we suggest were supplied by the arrival of a KREEP-, and ilmenite-rich plume that formed at the core-mantle boundary after ilmenite-rich and KREEP-rich melts sank into the mantle. However, areas outside of PKT, such as Tranquillitatis and Serenatatis, do not exhibit both high KREEP and high ilmenite concentrations. Instead, early stage basaltic eruptions---consisting of low-Th, ilmenite-rich basalts are present at Mare Tranquillitatis and Th- and ilmenite-poor basalts are present at Serenitatis. We propose two possible scenarios to explain this. In the first, the Ti-rich but Th-poor mare basalts would have erupted after (or during) a degree-1 downwelling that affected the nearby PKT early in lunar history. In the second scenario, the Ti-rich but Th-poor mare basalts would have erupted prior to the degree-1 downwelling. Project III: Alunite (KAl3(SO4) 2(OH)6) is a sulfate mineral that is commonly found in argillic alteration zones of porphyry and epithermal systems, and in other supergene enriched mineral deposits. Using ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data, we target spectral features associated with hydroxyl (OH-) and sulfate (SO42-). Previous studies have used OH- absorptions near 2.2 μm to target alunite, but their methods can confuse alunite with carbonates, detrital

  13. Conodont color and textural alteration: an index to regional metamorphism, contact metamorphism, and hydrothermal alteration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rejebian, V.A.; Harris, A.G.; Huebner, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental and field data are used to extend the utility of conodonts as semi-quantitative thermal indices into the regimes of regional and contact metamorphism, as well as hydrothermal alteration. These experiments approximate the type of Colour Alteration Indices mixture characteristically found in conodonts recovered from hydrothermally altered rocks. These data indicate that CAI values of 6 to 8 cannot be used to assess precise temperatures of hydrothermally altered rocks but may serve as useful indicators of potential mineralization. - from Authors

  14. Aqueous Alteration on Mars. Chapter 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is the change in composition of a rock, produced in response to interactions with H2O-bearing ices, liquids, and vapors by chemical weathering. A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Mineralogical indicators for aqueous alteration include goethite (lander), jarosite (lander), kieserite (orbiter), gypsum (orbiter) and other Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-sulfates (landers), halides (meteorites, lander), phyllosilicates (orbiter, meteorites), hematite and nanophase iron oxides (telescopic, orbiter, lander), and Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-carbonates (meteorites). Geochemical indicators (landers only) for aqueous alteration include Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-sulfates, halides, and secondary aluminosilicates such as smectite. Based upon these indicators, several styles of aqueous alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of jarosite, gypsum, hematite, and goethite), may occur during (1) the oxidative weathering of ultramafic igneous rocks containing sulfides, (2) sulfuric acid weathering of basaltic materials, and (3) acid fog (i.e., vapors rich in H2SO4) weathering of basaltic or basaltic-derived materials. Near-neutral or alkaline alteration occurs when solutions with pH near or above 7 move through basaltic materials and form phases such as phyllosilicates and carbonates. Very low water:rock ratios appear to have been prominent at most of the sites visited by landed missions because there is very little alteration (leaching) of the original basaltic composition (i.e., the alteration is isochemical or in a closed hydrologic system). Most of the aqueous alteration appears to have occurred early in the history of the planet (3 to 4.5 billion years ago); however, minor aqueous alteration may be occurring at the

  15. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future... and identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under § 26.43... fatigue critical alteration structure; (3) Develop and submit to the FAA Oversight Office for review...

  16. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future... and identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under § 26.43... fatigue critical alteration structure; (3) Develop and submit to the FAA Oversight Office for review...

  17. Changing climate cues differentially alter zooplankton dormancy dynamics across latitudes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Natalie T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    In seasonal climates, dormancy is a common strategy that structures biodiversity and is necessary for the persistence of many species. Climate change will likely alter dormancy dynamics in zooplankton, the basis of aquatic food webs, by altering two important hatching cues: mean temperatures during the ice-free season, and mean day length when lakes become ice free. Theory suggests that these changes could alter diversity, hatchling abundances and phenology within lakes, and that these responses may diverge across latitudes due to differences in optimal hatching cues and strategies. To examine the role of temperature and day length on hatching dynamics, we collected sediment from 25 lakes across a 1800 km latitudinal gradient and exposed sediment samples to a factorial combination of two photoperiods (12 and 16 h) and two temperatures (8 and 12 °C) representative of historical southern (short photoperiod, warm) and northern (long photoperiod, cool) lake conditions. We tested whether sensitivity to these hatching cues varies by latitudinal origin and differs among taxa. Higher temperatures advanced phenology for all taxa, and these advances were greatest for cladocerans followed by copepods and rotifers. Although phenology differed among taxa, the effect of temperature did not vary with latitude. The latitudinal origin of the egg bank influenced egg abundance and hatchling abundance and diversity, with these latter effects varying with taxa, temperature and photoperiod. Copepod hatchling abundances peaked at mid-latitudes in the high temperature and long photoperiod treatments, whereas hatchling abundances of other zooplankton were greatest at low latitudes and high temperature. The overall diversity of crustacean zooplankton (copepods and cladocerans) also reflected distinct responses of each taxa to our treatments, with the greatest diversity occurring at mid-latitudes (~56 °N) in the shorter photoperiod treatment. Our results demonstrate that hatching cues

  18. Faculty Peer Networks: Role and Relevance in Advancing Agency and Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Organisational efforts to alter gender asymmetries are relatively rare, yet they are taking place in a number of universities. In the USA, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, ADVANCE programmes implement a number of interventions to improve the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women faculty. This study focused on one common…

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  20. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  1. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  2. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  3. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  4. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  5. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  6. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  7. Genetically modified animal models recapitulating molecular events altered in human hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Aránzazu; Fabregat, Isabel

    2009-04-01

    New advancements have been made in recent years in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human liver tumorigenesis. Experimental animal models have been widely used, especially mouse models. In this review we highlight some of the genetically engineered mouse models that have proved to be excellent tools to study the intracellular signalling pathways altered in hepatocarcinogenesis and establish potential correlations with data from humans, with special focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer. Information obtained from these animal models will help to design future therapeutic approaches to HCC, particularly those that explore drugs that specifically target the altered molecular pathways.

  8. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  9. Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-02-01

    Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.

  10. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  11. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks on Mount Rainier, Washington, with Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Zimbelman, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Mount Rainier has produced numerous Holocene debris flows, the largest of which contain clays and other minerals derived from hydrothermally altered rocks on the volcano's edifice. Imagery from an advanced airborne sensor was used to map altered rocks at Mount Rainier and demonstrates their distinctly nonuniform distribution. The mapping of altered rocks helps to identify edifice failure surfaces and to recognize the source areas for the largest debris flow events. Remote sensing methods like those used at Mount Rainier can enhance ground-based mapping efforts and should prove useful for rapidly identifying hazardous sectors at other volcanoes.

  12. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  13. Radiolytic Alteration of Biosignatures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. C.

    2016-05-01

    When exposed to ionizing radiation, a complex distribution of redox states and reactive intermediates form in both perchlorate and nitrate salts. These reactive species then act to alter the forms of organic biosignatures preserved on Mars.

  14. Altering Flashlamp Output for Realistic Solar Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.; Seaman, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial glass optical filter corrects spectrum of xenon flashtubes used to test photovoltaic solar cells. Filter withstands thousands of flashes without perceptible alteration of passband characteristics. With filter, calibration errors reduced to less than 1 percent.

  15. Composition of weakly altered Martian crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Erard, S.

    1993-01-01

    The mineralogic and chemical composition of weakly altered crust remains an unresolved question for Mars. Dark regions hold clues to the composition since they are thought to comprise surface exposures of weakly altered crustal materials. Understanding the in situ composition of relatively pristine crustal rocks in greater detail is important for investigating basic volcanic processes. Also, this will provide additional constraints on the chemical pathways by which pristine rocks are altered to produce the observed ferric iron-bearing assemblages and inferred clay silicate, sulphate, and magnetic oxide phases. Reflectance spectra of dark regions obtained with the ISM instrument are being used to determine the basic mineralogy of weakly altered crust for a variety of regions on Mars.

  16. 48 CFR 552.270-12 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... have the right during the existence of this lease to make alterations, attach fixtures, and erect structures or signs in or upon the premises hereby leased, which fixtures, additions or structures so...

  17. 48 CFR 552.270-12 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... have the right during the existence of this lease to make alterations, attach fixtures, and erect structures or signs in or upon the premises hereby leased, which fixtures, additions or structures so...

  18. 48 CFR 552.270-12 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... have the right during the existence of this lease to make alterations, attach fixtures, and erect structures or signs in or upon the premises hereby leased, which fixtures, additions or structures so...

  19. 48 CFR 552.270-12 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... have the right during the existence of this lease to make alterations, attach fixtures, and erect structures or signs in or upon the premises hereby leased, which fixtures, additions or structures so...

  20. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... use wheelchairs. (2) An alteration is deemed to be undertaken after January 26, 1992, if the physical...., those who use wheelchairs) would not be feasible, the facility shall be made accessible to persons...

  1. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use wheelchairs. (2) An alteration is deemed to be undertaken after January 26, 1992, if the physical...., those who use wheelchairs) would not be feasible, the facility shall be made accessible to persons...

  2. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  3. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  4. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  5. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  6. Using on-line altered auditory feedback treating Parkinsonian speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen, Leo; de Vries, Meinou H.

    2005-09-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease tend to have dysarthric speech that is hesitant, accelerated, and repetitive, and that is often resistant to behavior speech therapy. In this pilot study, the speech disturbances were treated using on-line altered feedbacks (AF) provided by SpeechEasy (SE), an in-the-ear device registered with the FDA for use in humans to treat chronic stuttering. Eight PD patients participated in the study. All had moderate to severe speech disturbances. In addition, two patients had moderate recurring stuttering at the onset of PD after long remission since adolescence, two had bilateral STN DBS, and two bilateral pallidal DBS. An effective combination of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered feedback was selected for each subject and provided via SE worn in one ear. All subjects produced speech samples (structured-monologue and reading) under three conditions: baseline, with SE without, and with feedbacks. The speech samples were randomly presented and rated for speech intelligibility goodness using UPDRS-III item 18 and the speaking rate. The results indicted that SpeechEasy is well tolerated and AF can improve speech intelligibility in spontaneous speech. Further investigational use of this device for treating speech disorders in PD is warranted [Work partially supported by Janus Dev. Group, Inc.].

  7. The inflammatory response to vaccination is altered in the elderly.

    PubMed

    El Yousfi, Mimoun; Mercier, Sabine; Breuillé, Denis; Denis, Philippe; Papet, Isabelle; Mirand, Philippe Patureau; Obled, Christiane

    2005-08-01

    To further explore whether immune function and acute phase response are altered during ageing, the response to a mild inflammatory stress (DT-Polio-Typhim vaccination) was studied in elderly and young subjects. Cytokine production (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10) by whole blood cultures, circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins were analysed before and 2 days after vaccination. Prior to vaccination, only IFN-gamma production was lower in the elderly than in the young subjects due to a lower mononuclear cell number. In the same time, although in the normal range, several acute phase proteins were greater in elderly than in young subjects, suggesting a low-grade inflammatory state in the elderly. After vaccination, IFN-gamma production remained lower in the elderly than in the young, supporting an altered cell-mediated immunity with advancing age. TNF-alpha production was unaffected by either ageing or vaccination. IL-6 production was stimulated by vaccination in young subjects but not significantly in the elderly. IL-10 production was inhibited by vaccination in the elderly but not in the young. Acute phase proteins were less increased in elderly than in young subjects. Taken together, these results support a general lack of inflammatory response in the elderly exposed to an immune challenge and suggest that immune deficiency may concern both Th1 and Th2 responses. However, the interpretation must respect the limitation of small subjects number.

  8. Protein kinase A alterations in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, S; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J

    2014-11-01

    Stimulation of the cAMP pathway by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is essential for adrenal cortex maintenance, glucocorticoid and adrenal androgens synthesis, and secretion. Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cAMP pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway. Molecular alterations of PKA subunits have been observed in adrenocortical tumors. PKA molecular defects can be germline in hereditary disorders or somatic in sporadic tumors. Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) can be observed in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Germline gene duplication of the catalytic subunits Cα (PRKACA) has been observed in patients with PPNAD. Furthermore, exome sequencing revealed recently activating somatic mutations of PRKACA in about 40% of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies help in the progress to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical tumors development due to PKA regulatory subunits alterations. All these alterations are observed in benign oversecreting tumors and are mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. On the long term, unraveling these alterations will open new strategies of pharmacological treatment targeting the cAMP pathway in adrenal tumors and cortisol-secretion disorders. PMID:25105543

  9. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  10. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ece A; Gillevet, Patrick M; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2012-05-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  11. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    PubMed

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  12. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences

    PubMed Central

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A.; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Liu, Jean C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences. PMID:26500479

  13. Advances in cancer control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.N. ); Engstrom, P.F. ); Mortenson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the sixth annual meeting on Advances in Cancer Control. Included are the following articles: Barriers and facilitators to compliance with routine mammographic screening, Preliminary report of an intervention to improve mammography skills of radiologists.

  14. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem.

  15. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  16. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  17. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  18. Recent Advances in Vibroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous vibroacoustics advances and impacts in the aerospace industry have occurred over the last 15 years. This article addresses some of these that developed from engineering programmatic task-work at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  19. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  20. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  1. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  2. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  3. Non-enzymatic Glycation of Almond Cystatin Leads to Conformational Changes and Altered Activity.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Azad A; Sohail, Aamir; Bhat, Sheraz A; Rehman, Md T; Bano, Bilqees

    2015-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and reducing sugars, known as glycation, leads to the formation of inter and intramolecular cross-links of proteins. Stable end products called as advanced Maillard products or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received tremendous attention since last decades. It was suggested that the formation of AGEs not only modify the conformation of proteins but also induces altered biological activity. In this study, cystatin purified from almond was incubated with three different sugars namely D-ribose, fructose and lactose to monitor the glycation process. Structural changes induced in cystatin on glycation were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and FTIR techniques. Glycated cystatin was found to migrate slower on electrophoresis as compared to control cystatin. Biological activity data of glycated cystatin showed that D-ribose was most effective in inducing conformational changes with maximum altered activity.

  4. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  5. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  6. [Advances in hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto; Pichardo Cuevas, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    This review provides an update regarding newer options in hormonal contraception that include the progestin-releasing intrauterine system, the contraceptive patch and ring, the single rod progestin-releasing implant, extended and emergency oral contraception and recent advances in hormonal male contraception. These methods represent a major advancement in this field, allowing for the development of more acceptable, safety and effective birth control regimens.

  7. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  8. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  9. Conditions of formation of the Mavrokoryfi high-sulfidation epithermal Cu-Ag-Au-Te mineralization (Petrota Graben, NE Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voudouris, Panagiotis Christos

    2011-01-01

    The Mavrokoryfi Cu-Ag-Au-Te prospect, northeastern Greece, consists of atypical, high-sulfidation mineralization where precious metals were introduced contemporaneously with advanced argillic alteration from magmatic vapors. It occurs as veins of massive sulfides in zones of silicic and advanced argillic alteration spatially associated with an andesitic lava dome and hyaloclastites. Mineralogical data demonstrate an unusual ore and gangue mineralogy that is compatible with formation under very oxidizing conditions (log fO2 values of >-31.8) at temperatures of 200°C to 250°C. Oxidizing conditions favored the formation of hypogene lead sulfates (anglesite and barian celestite) instead of galena. Selenian acanthite, cadmian freibergite, and argentian goldfieldite are the main carriers of silver in the deposit and are reported in Greece for the first time. They were deposited at log fS2 of -9 to -7 and log fTe2 values of -9 to -12.5 (250°C). Ag-poor goldfieldite at Mavrokoryfi has up to 3.7 apfu Te and is the most Te-rich goldfieldite yet reported. The mineralization is accompanied by aluminum-phosphate-sulfate minerals of magmatic-hydrothermal origin and an unusual Pb-enrichment. Ore-forming components were likely derived from andesite porphyries.

  10. Age-related alterations in retinal neurovascular and inflammatory transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Van Kirk, Colleen A.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Young, Megan; Farley, Julie A.; Sonntag, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Vision loss is one of the most common complications of aging, even in individuals with no diagnosed ocular disease. Increasing age induces structural alterations and functional impairments in retinal neurons and microvasculature linked to the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways. Commonalities between the effects of aging and those observed with diabetes, including visual impairment, vascular dysfunction, and increased inflammatory response, have led to the hypothesis that diabetes-associated pathologies reflect an “advanced aging” phenotype. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of aging on retinal mRNA expression of neurovascular and inflammatory transcripts previously demonstrated to be regulated with diabetes. Methods The relative expression of 36 genes of interest previously identified as consistently regulated with diabetes was assessed in retinas of Young (3 month), Adult (12 month), and Aged (26 month) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F1) hybrid rats using quantitative PCR. Serum samples obtained at sacrifice were assayed to determine serum glucose levels. Results Eleven inflammation- and microvascular-related genes previously demonstrated to be upregulated in young diabetic rats (complement component 1 s subcomponent [C1s], chitinase 3-like 1 [Chi3L1], endothelin 2 [Edn2], guanylate nucleotide binding protein 2 [Gbp2], glial fibrillary acidic protein [Gfap], intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [Icam1], janus kinase 3 [Jak3], lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor [Litaf], complement 1-inhibitor [Serping1], signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [Stat3], tumor necrosis factor receptor subfamily member 12a [Tnfrsf12a]) demonstrated progressively increasing retinal expression in aged normoglycemic rats. Additionally, two neuronal function–related genes (glutamate receptor ionotropic NMDA 2A [Grin2a] and polycomb group ring finger 1 [Pcgf1]) and one inflammation-related gene (pigment epithelium-derived growth

  11. Alteration of mammary gland development and gene expression by in utero exposure to arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Daniela A.; Greenfield, Morgan; Evans, Claire; Chichura, Anna; Alpaugh, Alexandra; Williams, James; Martin, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Early life exposure to estrogens and estrogen like contaminants in the environment are thought to contribute to the early onset of puberty and consequently increase the risk of developing breast cancer in the exposed female. The results of this study show that in utero exposure to the metalloestrogen arsenite altered mammary gland development prior to its effect on puberty onset. In the prepubertal gland, in utero exposure resulted in an increase in the number of mammosphere-forming cells and an increase in branching, epithelial cells, and density. In the postpubertal gland, in utero exposure resulted in the overexpression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) that was due to the increased and altered response of the ERα transcripts derived from exons O and OT to estradiol. These results suggest that, in addition to advancing puberty onset, in utero exposure to arsenite alters the pre- and postpubertal development of the mammary gland and possibly, the risk of developing breast cancer. PMID:25543096

  12. Determination of Diffusion Profiles in Altered Wellbore Cement Using X-ray Computed Tomography Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Harris E.; Walsh, Stuart D. C.; DuFrane, Wyatt L.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining “effective linear activity coefficients” (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment.

  13. Determination of diffusion profiles in altered wellbore cement using X-ray computed tomography methods.

    PubMed

    Mason, Harris E; Walsh, Stuart D C; DuFrane, Wyatt L; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-06-17

    The development of accurate, predictive models for use in determining wellbore integrity requires detailed information about the chemical and mechanical changes occurring in hardened Portland cements. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) provides a method that can nondestructively probe these changes in three dimensions. Here, we describe a method for extracting subvoxel mineralogical and chemical information from synchrotron XRCT images by combining advanced image segmentation with geochemical models of cement alteration. The method relies on determining "effective linear activity coefficients" (ELAC) for the white light source to generate calibration curves that relate the image grayscales to material composition. The resulting data set supports the modeling of cement alteration by CO2-rich brine with discrete increases in calcium concentration at reaction boundaries. The results of these XRCT analyses can be used to further improve coupled geochemical and mechanical models of cement alteration in the wellbore environment. PMID:24869420

  14. Nonlinear optical microscopy reveals invading endothelial cells anisotropically alter three-dimensional collagen matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.-F.; Yeh, Alvin T.; Bayless, Kayla J.

    2009-02-01

    The interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are fundamental in mediating various steps of angiogenesis, including cell adhesion, migration and sprout formation. Here, we used a noninvasive and non-destructive nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) technique to optically image endothelial sprouting morphogenesis in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. We simultaneously captured signals from collagen fibers and endothelial cells using second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPF), respectively. Dynamic 3D imaging revealed EC interactions with collagen fibers along with quantifiable alterations in collagen matrix density elicited by EC movement through and morphogenesis within the matrix. Specifically, we observed increased collagen density in the area between bifurcation points of sprouting structures and anisotropic increases in collagen density around the perimeter of lumenal structures, but not advancing sprout tips. Proteinase inhibition studies revealed membrane-associated matrix metalloproteinase were utilized for sprout advancement and lumen expansion. Rho-associated kinase (p160ROCK) inhibition demonstrated that the generation of cell tension increased collagen matrix alterations. This study followed sprouting ECs within a 3D matrix and revealed that the advancing structures recognize and significantly alter their extracellular environment at the periphery of lumens as they progress.

  15. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity.

  16. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  17. Multiple genetic alterations in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, T; Terada, M; Yokota, J; Hirohashi, S; Wakabayashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Cancer development in man appeared to be a multistage process as suggested by epidemiological studies on commonly occurring gastric, colon, and breast cancers and also on human retrovirus-related leukemia, and by the finding by physicians and surgeons of precancerous lesions for many types of neoplasias. In the last 10 years it has become evident that human cancers have multiple genetic alterations caused by point mutations, recombinations, amplifications, and/or deletions. The genes affected include both oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes and genes that accelerate cell proliferation and metastasis. Cancers with more malignant properties and poorer prognosis are generally associated with larger numbers of genetic alterations. These multiple genetic alterations are considered to be a direct reflection of the multiple steps involved in carcinogenesis. The multiple genetic alterations are caused by multiple environmental carcinogenic substances or factors, each of which usually exists only at minute concentrations and does not exert any major impact alone except under particular occupational, iatrogenic, and locally geographic conditions. The fact that carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving multiple genetic alterations clearly needs to be taken into consideration in assessing the risks of environmental carcinogenic substances or factors. The increasing incidence of multiple primary cancers is also most easily understood from the viewpoint of multiple steps in carcinogenesis. Possible multiple approaches to cancer prevention should therefore be considered in relation to multistep carcinogenesis and multiple carcinogenic factors. PMID:1486862

  18. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Vielma, Alejandra Z.; Arismendi, Marlene N.; Boric, Mauricio P.; Sáez, Juan C.; Velarde, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day) for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L). Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects. PMID:24416726

  19. Septic Shock in Advanced Age: Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Altered Molecular Signatures in Neutrophil Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vieira da Silva Pellegrina, Diogo; Severino, Patricia; Vieira Barbeiro, Hermes; Maziero Andreghetto, Flávia; Tadeu Velasco, Irineu; Possolo de Souza, Heraldo; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira César; Reis, Eduardo Moraes; Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the highest causes of mortality in hospitalized people and a common complication in both surgical and clinical patients admitted to hospital for non-infectious reasons. Sepsis is especially common in older people and its incidence is likely to increase substantially as a population ages. Despite its increased prevalence and mortality in older people, immune responses in the elderly during septic shock appear similar to that in younger patients. The purpose of this study was to conduct a genome-wide gene expression analysis of circulating neutrophils from old and young septic patients to better understand how aged individuals respond to severe infectious insult. We detected several genes whose expression could be used to differentiate immune responses of the elderly from those of young people, including genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and TGF-β signaling, among others. Our results identify major molecular pathways that are particularly affected in the elderly during sepsis, which might have a pivotal role in worsening clinical outcomes compared with young people with sepsis. PMID:26047321

  20. Genomic Alterations in Advanced Esophageal Cancer May Lead to Subtype-Specific Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of targeted agents for metastatic esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors has been limited when compared with that for other common tumors. To date, the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) antibody, trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, is the only approved novel agent for these cancers, and its use is limited to the small population of patients whose tumors overexpress HER-2. Despite recent progress in the field, median overall survival remains only 8–12 months for patients with stage IV esophageal or GEJ cancer. In this article, we examine the molecular aberrations thought to drive the development and spread of esophageal cancer and identify promising targets for specific tumor inhibition. Data from clinical studies of targeted agents are reviewed, including epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, HER-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor-directed therapy. Current and future targets include MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and immune-based therapies. Evidence from trials to date suggests that molecularly unselected patient cohorts derive minimal benefit from most target-specific agents, suggesting that future collaborative investigation should focus on preselected molecular subgroups of patients with this challenging heterogeneous disease. PMID:23853247

  1. Genomic alterations in advanced esophageal cancer may lead to subtype-specific therapies.

    PubMed

    Forde, Patrick M; Kelly, Ronan J

    2013-01-01

    The development of targeted agents for metastatic esophageal or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors has been limited when compared with that for other common tumors. To date, the anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) antibody, trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, is the only approved novel agent for these cancers, and its use is limited to the small population of patients whose tumors overexpress HER-2. Despite recent progress in the field, median overall survival remains only 8-12 months for patients with stage IV esophageal or GEJ cancer. In this article, we examine the molecular aberrations thought to drive the development and spread of esophageal cancer and identify promising targets for specific tumor inhibition. Data from clinical studies of targeted agents are reviewed, including epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, HER-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor-directed therapy. Current and future targets include MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor, and immune-based therapies. Evidence from trials to date suggests that molecularly unselected patient cohorts derive minimal benefit from most target-specific agents, suggesting that future collaborative investigation should focus on preselected molecular subgroups of patients with this challenging heterogeneous disease.

  2. Diet-mediated alteration of chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Castro, C E; Armstrong-Major, J; Ramirez, M E

    1986-08-01

    Higher-order chromatin structure and the process of transcription are related. The significance of a nutritional state's altering chromatin structure lies in the potential role of that nutritional state in the regulation of gene expression. In rats short-term feeding of semisynthetic diets varying in the proportion of carbohydrate, protein, or fat alters the configuration of liver chromatin as measured by sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease (EC 3.1.31.1). A carbohydrate-rich, fat-free diet increases the sensitivity of rat liver chromatin to micrococcal nuclease and decreases the nucleosome repeat length. In contrast, a protein-free diet or a diet deficient in magnesium or zinc decreases the sensitivity of liver nuclear chromatin to micrococcal nuclease. Diet-mediated mechanisms that alter chromatin structure are now unknown, but the continued study of nutritional interaction with the genome should identify the responsible features as well as their significance to gene function.

  3. Altered global brain signal in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Savic, Aleksandar; Glasser, Matthew F.; Pittenger, Christopher; Krystal, John H.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Glahn, David C.; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia display a complex neurobiology, which has long been associated with distributed brain dysfunction. However, no investigation has tested whether schizophrenia shows alterations in global brain signal (GS), a signal derived from functional MRI and often discarded as a meaningless baseline in many studies. To evaluate GS alterations associated with schizophrenia, we studied two large chronic patient samples (n = 90, n = 71), comparing them to healthy subjects (n = 220) and patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 73). We identified and replicated increased cortical power and variance in schizophrenia, an effect predictive of symptoms yet obscured by GS removal. Voxel-wise signal variance was also increased in schizophrenia, independent of GS effects. Both findings were absent in bipolar patients, confirming diagnostic specificity. Biologically informed computational modeling of shared and nonshared signal propagation through the brain suggests that these findings may be explained by altered net strength of overall brain connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:24799682

  4. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  5. Psychobiology of altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kübler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Ott, Ulrich; Pütz, Peter; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the multiple ASC resulted in 4 dimensions by which they can be characterized: activation, awareness span, self-awareness, and sensory dynamics. The neurophysiological approach revealed that the different states of consciousness are mainly brought about by a compromised brain structure, transient changes in brain dynamics (disconnectivity), and neurochemical and metabolic processes. Besides these severe alterations, environmental stimuli, mental practices, and techniques of self-control can also temporarily alter brain functioning and conscious experience.

  6. Protein kinase A alterations in endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Ragazzon, B; Rizk-Rabin, M; Bertherat, J

    2012-09-01

    Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Since protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway, studies of the alterations of PKA subunits in endocrine tumors reveal new aspects of the mechanisms of cAMP pathway alterations in human diseases. So far, most alterations have been observed for the regulatory subunits, mainly PRKAR1A and to a lower extent, PRKAR2B. One of the best examples of such alteration today is the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC). The most common endocrine gland manifestations of CNC are pituitary GH-secreting adenomas, thyroid tumors, testicular tumors, and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) are observed in about two-third of CNC patients, and also in patients with isolated PPNAD. PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic endocrine tumors. More than 120 different PRKAR1A mutations have been found today. Most of them lead to an unstable mutant mRNA, which will be degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay. In vitro and in vivo functional studies are in progress to understand the mechanisms of endocrine tumor development due to PKA regulatory subunits inactivation. PRKAR1A mutations stimulate in most models PKA activity, mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. Cross-talks with other signaling pathways summarized in this review have been described and might participate in endocrine tumorigenesis. PMID:22752956

  7. Borosilicate glass alteration driven by magnesium carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debure, M.; Frugier, P.; De Windt, L.; Gin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The alteration of simplified synthetic glass, representative of the French reference nuclear glass R7T7, in presence of hydromagnesite has been experimentally investigated and modeled. Magnesium in solution is known to potentially enhance glass alteration; nuclear glass clayed host rocks contain magnesium and can dissolve to maintain the concentration of magnesium in solution. For modeling purposes, it was suitable to study a simple system. Hydromagnesite was therefore chosen as a simple model mineral in order to check the influence of an Mg-rich mineral on glass alteration. Since the models use thermodynamic and kinetic parameters measured in pure water and pH-buffered solutions, changing the solution composition or adding minerals is a key step towards the validation of the modeling assumptions before using the model for predictive purposes. Experiments revealed that glass alteration is enhanced in presence of hydromagnesite. Modeling was performed using the GRAAL model implemented within the CHESS/HYTEC reactive transport code. Modeling proved useful both for explaining the mechanisms involved and quantifying the impact on glass alteration: Mg coming from hydromagnesite dissolution reacts with Si provided by the glass in order to form magnesium silicates. This reaction decreases the pH down to neutral conditions where magnesium silicates are more soluble than at the natural alkali pH imposed by glass or hydromagnesite dissolution. The driving force of the magnesium silicate precipitation is eventually the interdiffusion of alkali within the altered amorphous glass layer as this mechanism consumes protons. The model's ability to describe the concentrations of elements in solution and formed solids whatever the glass/hydromagnesite ratio strongly supports the basic modeling hypothesis.

  8. Voluntary alteration of visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Bumgartner, J; Epstein, C M

    1982-11-01

    Fifteen normal adults had pattern-shift visual evoked potentials (PSVEPs) using monocular checkerboard pattern reversal. Subjects were instructed to concentrate on the pattern in the first set of trials and then to avoid perceiving it in the second set. Direct, continuous visual observation ensured that the eye remained open and fixed on the pattern. Nonetheless, a third of the subjects could spontaneously alter or obliterate the PSVEP using several maneuvers, including meditation, daydreaming, and convergence. Several could produce shifts in apparent PSVEP latency. With explicit instruction, most subjects could learn to alter their PSVEP by maneuvers that are inapparent even to an observent technician.

  9. Epigenetic alterations in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Menke, Andreas; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2014-09-01

    Epigenetic modifications control chromatin structure and function, and thus mediate changes in gene expression, ultimately influencing protein levels. Recent research indicates that environmental events can induce epigenetic changes and, by this, contribute to long-term changes in neural circuits and endocrine systems associated with altered risk for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as major depression. In this review, we describe recent approaches investigating epigenetic modifications associated with altered risk for major depression or response to antidepressant drugs, both on the candidate gene levels as well as the genome-wide level. In this review we focus on DNA methylation, as this is the most investigated epigenetic change in depression research.

  10. White matter alterations in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, P. B.; Salmon, C. E.; Velasco, T. R.; Sakamoto, A. C.; Leite, J. P.; Santos, A. C.

    2011-03-01

    In This study, we used Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (D), parallel diffusivity (D//) and perpendicular diffusivity (D), to localize the regions where occur axonal lesion and demyelization. TBSS was applied to analyze the FA data. After, the regions with alteration were studied with D, D// and D maps. Patients exhibited widespread degradation of FA. With D, D// and D maps analysis we found alterations in corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, internal capsule, corona radiate, Sagittal stratum, cingulum, fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exist demyelization and axonal damage in patients with TLE.

  11. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  13. Advances in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Sherard A; Losquadro, William D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed many advances in craniofacial surgery. Advances in surgical techniques, such as distraction osteogenesis and endoscopic procedures, combined with refinements in surgical equipment, such as resorbable plating and distractors, have improved surgical outcomes, while minimizing morbidity. Technological advances in 3-dimensional imaging, computer simulation, and intraoperative navigation facilitate diagnosis, preoperative planning, and surgical execution. Rising cases of deformational plagiocephaly owing to increased supine infant sleep positioning necessitated the development of appropriate diagnosis and treatment and the avoidance of unnecessary surgery. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of craniofacial disorders has allowed better preoperative assessment and counseling. Finally, efforts to develop better bone graft substitutes with gene therapy and nanotechnology are ongoing. PMID:19018057

  14. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  15. Advanced servomanipulator development

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world.

  16. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  17. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  18. Advanced quantum noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Ulrich; Glasser, Ryan T.; Clark, Jeremy B.; Glorieux, Quentin; Li, Tian; Corzo, Neil V.; Lett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We use the quantum correlations of twin beams of light to investigate the fundamental addition of noise when one of the beams propagates through a fast-light medium based on phase-insensitive gain. The experiment is based on two successive four-wave mixing processes in rubidium vapor, which allow for the generation of bright two-mode-squeezed twin beams followed by a controlled advancement while maintaining the shared quantum correlations between the beams. The demonstrated effect allows the study of irreversible decoherence in a medium exhibiting anomalous dispersion, and for the first time shows the advancement of a bright nonclassical state of light. The advancement and corresponding degradation of the quantum correlations are found to be operating near the fundamental quantum limit imposed by using a phase-insensitive amplifier.

  19. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  20. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  1. Advances in genetics: widening our understanding of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Angela C.; Fioretti, Flavia F.; Brooke, Greg N.; Bevan, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in Western men. Our understanding of the genetic alterations associated with disease predisposition, development, progression, and therapy response is rapidly improving, at least in part, owing to the development of next-generation sequencing technologies. Large advances have been made in our understanding of the genetics of prostate cancer through the application of whole-exome sequencing, and this review summarises recent advances in this field and discusses how exome sequencing could be used clinically to promote personalised medicine for prostate cancer patients. PMID:27408704

  2. Advanced solar dynamic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, James

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

  3. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  4. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  5. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  6. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-06-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  7. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  8. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  9. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  10. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  11. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  12. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  13. Advanced subsonic transport propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Ciepluch, C. C.; Chamberlain, R.; Meleason, E. T.; Kraft, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of the current NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)) Project is presented. Included in this review are the factors that influenced the design of these turbofan engines and the advanced technology incorporated in them to reduce fuel consumption and improve environmental characteristics. In addition, factors such as the continuing spiral in fuel cost, that could influence future aircraft propulsion systems beyond those represented by the E(3) engines, are also discussed. Advanced technologies that will address these influencing factors and provide viable future propulsion systems are described. The potential importance of other propulsion system types, such as geared fans and turboshaft engines, is presented.

  14. Advances in surgery.

    PubMed

    Weder, W

    2012-09-01

    In the last decade, technological advances, new staging tools, better understanding the role of surgery within multimodal treatment concepts in advanced stages and progress in the functional assessment of surgical candidates improved the quality of surgery in the management of patients with lung cancer. Lung resection with video-assisted thoracoscopic access gained wide acceptance, the indication for lobectomy or sublobar resection in early stages was applied based on new data and selection for multimodal treatment in stage III is better understood based on the data. a major impact on the outcome of patients with lung cancer has the treatment in specialized high-volume centers.

  15. Advanced Morphological and Functional Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Mattei, Peter A.; Caulo, Massimo; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Navarra, Riccardo; Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Marchini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Recent data documented that glaucoma is not limited to the retinal ganglion cells but that it also extends to the posterior visual pathway. The diagnosis is based on the presence of signs of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and consistent functional visual field alterations. Unfortunately these functional alterations often become evident when a significant amount of the nerve fibers that compose the optic nerve has been irreversibly lost. Advanced morphological and functional magnetic resonance (MR) techniques (morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, arterial spin labeling, and functional connectivity) may provide a means for observing modifications induced by this fiber loss, within the optic nerve and the visual cortex, in an earlier stage. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if the use of these advanced MR techniques could offer the possibility of diagnosing glaucoma at an earlier stage than that currently possible. PMID:26167474

  16. Recent advances in understanding apicomplexan parasites

    PubMed Central

    Seeber, Frank; Steinfelder, Svenja

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular single-celled parasites belonging to the large phylum Apicomplexa are amongst the most prevalent and morbidity-causing pathogens worldwide. In this review, we highlight a few of the many recent advances in the field that helped to clarify some important aspects of their fascinating biology and interaction with their hosts. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria, and thus the recent emergence of resistance against the currently used drug combinations based on artemisinin has been of major interest for the scientific community. It resulted in great advances in understanding the resistance mechanisms that can hopefully be translated into altered future drug regimens. Apicomplexa are also experts in host cell manipulation and immune evasion. Toxoplasma gondii and Theileria sp., besides Plasmodium sp., are species that secrete effector molecules into the host cell to reach this aim. The underlying molecular mechanisms for how these proteins are trafficked to the host cytosol ( T. gondii and Plasmodium) and how a secreted protein can immortalize the host cell ( Theileria sp.) have been illuminated recently. Moreover, how such secreted proteins affect the host innate immune responses against T. gondii and the liver stages of Plasmodium has also been unraveled at the genetic and molecular level, leading to unexpected insights. Methodological advances in metabolomics and molecular biology have been instrumental to solving some fundamental puzzles of mitochondrial carbon metabolism in Apicomplexa. Also, for the first time, the generation of stably transfected Cryptosporidium parasites was achieved, which opens up a wide variety of experimental possibilities for this understudied, important apicomplexan pathogen. PMID:27347391

  17. Recent advances in understanding apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Frank; Steinfelder, Svenja

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular single-celled parasites belonging to the large phylum Apicomplexa are amongst the most prevalent and morbidity-causing pathogens worldwide. In this review, we highlight a few of the many recent advances in the field that helped to clarify some important aspects of their fascinating biology and interaction with their hosts. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria, and thus the recent emergence of resistance against the currently used drug combinations based on artemisinin has been of major interest for the scientific community. It resulted in great advances in understanding the resistance mechanisms that can hopefully be translated into altered future drug regimens. Apicomplexa are also experts in host cell manipulation and immune evasion. Toxoplasma gondii and Theileria sp., besides Plasmodium sp., are species that secrete effector molecules into the host cell to reach this aim. The underlying molecular mechanisms for how these proteins are trafficked to the host cytosol ( T. gondii and Plasmodium) and how a secreted protein can immortalize the host cell ( Theileria sp.) have been illuminated recently. Moreover, how such secreted proteins affect the host innate immune responses against T. gondii and the liver stages of Plasmodium has also been unraveled at the genetic and molecular level, leading to unexpected insights. Methodological advances in metabolomics and molecular biology have been instrumental to solving some fundamental puzzles of mitochondrial carbon metabolism in Apicomplexa. Also, for the first time, the generation of stably transfected Cryptosporidium parasites was achieved, which opens up a wide variety of experimental possibilities for this understudied, important apicomplexan pathogen. PMID:27347391

  18. Review: Mechanisms of How the Intestinal Microbiota Alters the Effects of Drugs and Bile Acids.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Cui, Julia Yue

    2015-10-01

    Information on the intestinal microbiota has increased exponentially this century because of technical advancements in genomics and metabolomics. Although information on the synthesis of bile acids by the liver and their transformation to secondary bile acids by the intestinal microbiota was the first example of the importance of the intestinal microbiota in biotransforming chemicals, this review will discuss numerous examples of the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota alters the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs and other chemicals. More specifically, the altered pharmacology and toxicology of salicylazosulfapridine, digoxin, l-dopa, acetaminophen, caffeic acid, phosphatidyl choline, carnitine, sorivudine, irinotecan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heterocyclic amines, melamine, nitrazepam, and lovastatin will be reviewed. In addition, recent data that the intestinal microbiota alters drug metabolism of the host, especially Cyp3a, as well as the significance and potential mechanisms of this phenomenon are summarized. The review will conclude with an update of bile acid research, emphasizing the bile acid receptors (FXR and TGR5) that regulate not only bile acid synthesis and transport but also energy metabolism. Recent data indicate that by altering the intestinal microbiota, either by diet or drugs, one may be able to minimize the adverse effects of the Western diet by altering the composition of bile acids in the intestine that are agonists or antagonists of FXR and TGR5. Therefore, it may be possible to consider the intestinal microbiota as another drug target.

  19. Review: Mechanisms of How the Intestinal Microbiota Alters the Effects of Drugs and Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Julia Yue

    2015-01-01

    Information on the intestinal microbiota has increased exponentially this century because of technical advancements in genomics and metabolomics. Although information on the synthesis of bile acids by the liver and their transformation to secondary bile acids by the intestinal microbiota was the first example of the importance of the intestinal microbiota in biotransforming chemicals, this review will discuss numerous examples of the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota alters the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs and other chemicals. More specifically, the altered pharmacology and toxicology of salicylazosulfapridine, digoxin, l-dopa, acetaminophen, caffeic acid, phosphatidyl choline, carnitine, sorivudine, irinotecan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heterocyclic amines, melamine, nitrazepam, and lovastatin will be reviewed. In addition, recent data that the intestinal microbiota alters drug metabolism of the host, especially Cyp3a, as well as the significance and potential mechanisms of this phenomenon are summarized. The review will conclude with an update of bile acid research, emphasizing the bile acid receptors (FXR and TGR5) that regulate not only bile acid synthesis and transport but also energy metabolism. Recent data indicate that by altering the intestinal microbiota, either by diet or drugs, one may be able to minimize the adverse effects of the Western diet by altering the composition of bile acids in the intestine that are agonists or antagonists of FXR and TGR5. Therefore, it may be possible to consider the intestinal microbiota as another drug target. PMID:26261286

  20. Clay minerals on Mars: Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain) as Earth analogue for acidic alteration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, C.; Cuadros, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Nieto, J. M.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration. The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided mild to extreme acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years. The mineral assemblages are strongly dependent on their acidic alteration intensity. The observed mineralogical parageneses and leaching conditions for our sites at Riotinto are consistent with three alteration sequences: i) Mild: containing a range of clay minerals from vermiculite to kaolinite, with a wide variety of crystal order and mixed-layering; ii) Intermediate: containing smectite to kaolinite with jarosite-group phases; iii) Advanced: containing kaolinite, jarosite-group phases, and iron oxides. Our findings suggest that, even within this general scheme, the specific alteration pathways can be different.

  1. When vegetation change alters ecosystem water availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined effects of vegetation and climate change on biosphere-atmosphere water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchanges are expected to vary depending, in part, on how biotic activity is controlled by and alters water availability. This is particularly important when a change in ecosystem...

  2. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemia causing relapsing altered mental status

    PubMed Central

    Khatiwada, Binod; Holbrook, Christopher; Ekeh, Ifeoma Sylvia; Uzoka, Chukwuemeka; Ikwu, Isaac; Upadhyay, Bishwas

    2015-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is a recognized cause of encephalopathy. However, it is commonly seen in patients with liver disease. The clinical entity of noncirrhotic hyperammonemia is now being increasingly recognized. We report a man who presented to our hospital with relapsing altered mental status later diagnosed as noncirrhotic hyperammonemia. PMID:26424945

  3. Moral Education as Pedagogy of Alterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega Ruiz, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author states that education could be better defined as reception and responsibility and that this ethical relationship between educator and pupil is the root or essential element of education. The author proposes a new paradigm, the pedagogy of alterity, inspired by Levinas, as a different model for educational praxis and…

  4. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V.; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  5. Genetic alterations of PTEN in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Aguissa-Touré, Almass-Houd; Li, Gang

    2012-05-01

    The PTEN gene is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes in sporadic cancers. Inactivating mutations and deletions of the PTEN gene are found in many types of cancers, including melanoma. However, the exact frequency of PTEN alteration in melanoma is unknown. In this study, we comprehensively reviewed 16 studies on PTEN genetic changes in melanoma cell lines and tumor biopsies. To date, 76 PTEN alterations have been reported in melanoma cell lines and 38 PTEN alterations in melanoma biopsies. The rate of PTEN alterations in melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma, and metastatic melanoma is 27.6, 7.3, and 15.2%, respectively. Three mutations were found in both melanoma cell lines and biopsies. These mutations are scattered throughout the gene, with the exception of exon 9. A mutational hot spot is found in exon 5, which encodes the phosphatase activity domain. Evidence is also presented to suggest that numerous homozygous deletions and missense variants exist in the PTEN transcript. Studying PTEN functions and implications of its mutations and other genes could provide insights into the precise nature of PTEN function in melanoma and additional targets for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:22076652

  6. The Cellular Redox Environment Alters Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Jonathan A.; Croft, Nathan P.; Dudek, Nadine L.; Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Theodossis, Alex; Webb, Andrew I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Illing, Patricia T.; Butler, Noah S.; Fett, Craig; Tscharke, David C.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Perlman, Stanley; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine-containing peptides represent an important class of T cell epitopes, yet their prevalence remains underestimated. We have established and interrogated a database of around 70,000 naturally processed MHC-bound peptides and demonstrate that cysteine-containing peptides are presented on the surface of cells in an MHC allomorph-dependent manner and comprise on average 5–10% of the immunopeptidome. A significant proportion of these peptides are oxidatively modified, most commonly through covalent linkage with the antioxidant glutathione. Unlike some of the previously reported cysteine-based modifications, this represents a true physiological alteration of cysteine residues. Furthermore, our results suggest that alterations in the cellular redox state induced by viral infection are communicated to the immune system through the presentation of S-glutathionylated viral peptides, resulting in altered T cell recognition. Our data provide a structural basis for how the glutathione modification alters recognition by virus-specific T cells. Collectively, these results suggest that oxidative stress represents a mechanism for modulating the virus-specific T cell response. PMID:25135637

  7. Altered Images: The Camera, Computer, & Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieglitz, Mary

    The speech contained in this document originally accompanied a slide presentation on the altered photographic image. The discussion examines the links between photographic tradition and contemporary visual imaging, the current transformation of visual imaging by the computer, and the effects of digital imaging on visual arts. Photography has a…

  8. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  9. Acting: An Altered State of Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiffele, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Uses notions from the field Psychology of Consciousness, including an explanation of how psychologists define and investigate Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs). Argues that actors routinely enter an ASC. Establishes acting as a way to enter an ASC and discusses why theater artists, educators, and advocates need to be aware of both the dangers…

  10. Reorientation from Altered States: Please, More Carefully.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Claims counselors too often appear to forget to reorient clients from altered states of consciousness used in counseling and that failure to reorient can result in unnecessary discomfort for clients. Provides suggestions for when and how to reorient to avoid unwanted, lingering aftereffects. (Author/ABL)

  11. Deep alteration between Hellas and Isidis Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultel, B.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Andréani, M.; Clénet, H.; Lozac'h, L.

    2015-11-01

    Recent investigations of alteration of martian crustal outcrops suggest putative crustal hydrothermal systems, which are favorable environments for the emergence of life. In this study, we perform an analysis of the CRISM targeted observations covering crustal outcrops in the region between the Hellas and Isidis basins with the goal of investigating the alteration phases. Over the wide studied region, we detect the presence of possible serpentines, chlorites, smectites and carbonates. These detections occur within ejecta blankets, crater walls and central uplifts of impact craters. We investigate the relation between the observed associations of minerals and the ages of the impact craters assessed by crater count. No clear relation is observed. We also investigate the relationship between the group of detected mineral and the pre-impact depth of the studied outcrops assessed from the size of the impact craters. This method allows us to reconstruct the pre-impact cross-section. We suggest that alteration of the first 7 km of the crust between the Hellas and Isidis basins may have undergone alteration processes.

  12. [Epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Ríos-Romero, Magdalena; Soto-Valladares, Ana Guadalupe; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of the screening test, such as Papanicolaou, and the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer remains as a public health problem in México and it is the second leading cause of death for malignant neoplasias among women. High-risk HPV infection is the main risk factor for the development of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer; however, HPV infection is not the only factor; there are various genetic and epigenetic alterations required for the development of neoplasias; some of them have been described and even in some cases they have been suggested as biomarkers for prognosis. However, in contrast with other cancer types, such as breast cancer, in cervical cancer the use of biomarkers has not been established for clinical applications. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversible; in this sense, their characterization is important, since they have not only a potential use as biomarkers, but they also could represent new therapeutic targets for treatment of cervical cancer. This review describes some of the more common epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer and its potential use in routine clinical practice.

  13. Martian Alteration in Unique Meteorite NWA 8159?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Simpson, S.; Mark, D.; Lee, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to determine if the olivine alteration in martian meteorite NWA 8159 has a martian origin. If so, the unique nature of this meteorite presents evidence for aqueous processes at a new time and location on the martian surface.

  14. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  15. Low temperature alteration processes affecting ultramafic bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesbitt, H.W.; Bricker, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    At low temperatures, in the presence of an aqueous solution, olivine and orthopyroxene are not stable relative to the hydrous phases brucite, serpentine and talc. Alteration of dunite and peridotite to serpentine or steatite bodies must therefore proceed via non-equilibrium processes. The compositions of natural solutions emanating from dunites and peridotites demonstrate that the dissolution of forsterite and/or enstatite is rapid compared with the precipitation of the hydrous phases; consequently, dissolution of anhydrous minerals controls the chemistry of such solutions. In the presence of an aqueous phase, precipitation of hydrous minerals is the rate-controlling step. Brucite-bearing and -deficient serpentinites alter at low temperature by non-equilibrium processes, as evidenced by the composition of natural solutions from these bodies. The solutions approach equilibrium with the least stable hydrous phase and, as a consequence, are supersaturated with other hydrous phases. Dissolution of the least stable phase is rapid compared to precipitation of other phases, so that the dissolving mineral controls the solution chemistry. Non-equilibrium alteration of anhydrous ultramafic bodies continues until at least one anhydrous phase equilibrates with brucite, chrysotile or talc. The lowest temperature (at a given pressure) at which this happens is defined by the reaction: 3H2O + 2Mg2SiO4 ??? Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 + Mg(OH)2 (Johannes, 1968, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 19, 309-315) so that non-equilibrium alteration may occur well into greenschist facies metamorphic conditions. ?? 1978.

  16. Recent advances in understanding schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Chiara S.; Padmanabhan, Jaya L.; Lizano, Paulo; Torous, John

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling disorder whose causes remain to be better understood, and treatments have to be improved. However, several recent advances have been made in diagnosis, etiopathology, and treatment. Whereas reliability of diagnosis has improved with operational criteria, including Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM) Fifth Edition, validity of the disease boundaries remains unclear because of substantive overlaps with other psychotic disorders. Recent emphasis on dimensional approaches and translational bio-behavioral research domain criteria may eventually help move toward a neuroscience-based definition of schizophrenia. The etiology of schizophrenia is now thought to be multifactorial, with multiple small-effect and fewer large-effect susceptibility genes interacting with several environmental factors. These factors may lead to developmentally mediated alterations in neuroplasticity, manifesting in a cascade of neurotransmitter and circuit dysfunctions and impaired connectivity with an onset around early adolescence. Such etiopathological understanding has motivated a renewed search for novel pharmacological as well as psychotherapeutic targets. Addressing the core features of the illness, such as cognitive deficits and negative symptoms, and developing hypothesis-driven early interventions and preventive strategies are high-priority goals for the field. Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder and is among the most disabling disorders in all of medicine. It is estimated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) that 2.4 million people over the age of 18 in the US suffer from schizophrenia. This illness typically begins in adolescence and derails the formative goals of school, family, and work, leading to considerable suffering and disability and reduced life expectancy by about 20 years. Treatment outcomes are variable, and some people are successfully treated and reintegrated (i.e. go back to work

  17. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  18. Advanced geometries and regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.

    2013-07-26

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

  19. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  20. Advanced Combustion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center (ACERC), which is a cooperative project of Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, and 25 governmental and industrial research laboratories. Discusses the research objectives, the academic program, the industrial relations and technology transfer program,…

  1. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  2. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  3. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  4. Advances in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on advances in distance learning. "The Adoption of Computer Technology and Telecommunications: A Case Study" (Larry M. Dooley, Teri Metcalf, Ann Martinez) reports on a study of the possible applications of two theoretical models (Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model and the Concerns-Based Adoption…

  5. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  6. Advances in Helium Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciver, S. W. Van

    This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature helium, driven mostly by new applications. However, to keep the review from being too broad, this presentation focuses mainly on three of the most significant advances. These are: (1) the development of large-scale recuperative refrigeration systems mainly for superconducting magnet applications in accelerators and other research facilities; (2) the use of stored superfluid helium (He II) as a coolant for spacebased astrophysics experiments; and (3) the application of regenerative cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperatures primarily for cooling superconducting devices. In each case, the reader should observe that critical technologies were developed to facilitate these applications. In addition to these three primary advances, other significant helium cryogenic technologies are briefly reviewed at the end of this chapter, along with some vision for future developments in these areas.

  7. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  8. The Advancement Checkup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that an external audit of a college advancement program is analogous to a periodic physical examination that offers objectivity and expertise. Audits are appropriate at the time of administrative transitions, performance difficulties, and even periods of sustained success. Guidelines and expectations are discussed. (MSE)

  9. Advanced intrarenal ureteroscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manoj; Beeman, William W

    2004-02-01

    The role of flexible ureteroscopy in the management of intrarenal pathology has undergone a dramatic evolution, powered by improvements in flexible ureteroscope design; deflection and image quality; diversification of small, disposable instrumentation; and the use of holmium laser lithotripsy. This article reviews the application of flexible ureteroscopy for advanced intrarenal procedures.

  10. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  11. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  12. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  13. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  14. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. The Teacher Advancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Tamara W.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains two essays discussing the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) and a criticism of merit pay for teachers. Today's schools are larger, often overcrowded, and frequently staffed by temporary or inexperienced teachers. TAP was created in response to the need for teacher-quality reform. It addresses challenges of teacher quality…

  16. Interfaces for Advanced Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the coming generation of supercomputers that will have the power to make elaborate "artificial realities" that facilitate user-computer communication. Illustrates these technological advancements with examples of the use of head-mounted monitors which are connected to position and orientation sensors, and gloves that track finger and…

  17. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  18. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  19. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  20. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  1. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  2. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  3. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  4. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  5. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  7. Pathology and Molecular Genetics of Meningioma: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    SHIBUYA, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common intracranial primary neoplasm in adults. Although the spectrum of clinical and molecular genetic issues regarding meningiomas remains undefined, novel genetic alterations that are associated with tumor morphology, malignancy, or location have recently been discovered. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding of the heterogenous pathology of meningiomas, particularly on associations between the clinical, histological, etiological, epidemiological, and molecular genetical aspects of the neoplasm. PMID:25744347

  8. Recent advances in understanding nuclear size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Richik N; Chen, Pan; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-04-25

    Size and shape are important aspects of nuclear structure. While normal cells maintain nuclear size within a defined range, altered nuclear size and shape are associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown if altered nuclear morphology contributes to pathology, and answering this question requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size and shape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nuclear morphology, focusing on nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell cycle, and potential links between nuclear size and size regulation of other organelles. We then discuss the functional significance of nuclear morphology in the context of early embryonic development. Looking toward the future, we review new experimental approaches that promise to provide new insights into mechanisms of nuclear size control, in particular microfluidic-based technologies, and discuss how altered nuclear morphology might impact chromatin organization and physiology of diseased cells.

  9. Recent advances in understanding nuclear size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Richik N; Chen, Pan; Levy, Daniel L

    2016-04-25

    Size and shape are important aspects of nuclear structure. While normal cells maintain nuclear size within a defined range, altered nuclear size and shape are associated with a variety of diseases. It is unknown if altered nuclear morphology contributes to pathology, and answering this question requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that control nuclear size and shape. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nuclear morphology, focusing on nucleocytoplasmic transport, nuclear lamins, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell cycle, and potential links between nuclear size and size regulation of other organelles. We then discuss the functional significance of nuclear morphology in the context of early embryonic development. Looking toward the future, we review new experimental approaches that promise to provide new insights into mechanisms of nuclear size control, in particular microfluidic-based technologies, and discuss how altered nuclear morphology might impact chromatin organization and physiology of diseased cells. PMID:26963026

  10. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  11. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  12. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  13. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  14. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  15. 28 CFR 36.403 - Alterations: Path of travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alterations: Path of travel. 36.403... Alterations: Path of travel. (a) General. (1) An alteration that affects or could affect the usability of or... the maximum extent feasible, the path of travel to the altered area and the restrooms, telephones,...

  16. 46 CFR 50.05-10 - Alterations or repairs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alterations or repairs. 50.05-10 Section 50.05-10... Application § 50.05-10 Alterations or repairs. (a) When alteration or repair of boilers, pressure vessels... accordance with the regulations in effect for new construction. (b) When alterations or repairs are made to...

  17. 46 CFR 126.150 - Repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs and alterations. 126.150 Section 126.150... CERTIFICATION General § 126.150 Repairs and alterations. (a) Except in an emergency, no repairs or alterations... notice to the cognizant OCMI in the inspection zone where the repairs or alterations are to be made....

  18. 46 CFR 169.509 - Approval for repairs and alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval for repairs and alterations. 169.509 Section... repairs and alterations. No extensive repairs or alterations, except in an emergency, may be made to any.... Repairs and alterations must be made to the original standard of construction and tested in the...

  19. Experimental aqueous alteration of the Allende meteorite under oxidizing conditions: Constraints on asteroidal alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Catherine L.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2006-02-01

    We have performed an experimental study of the aqueous alteration of the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite under highly oxidizing conditions, in order to examine the alteration behavior of Allende's anhydrous mineralogy. The experiments were carried out at temperatures of 100, 150, and 200 °C, for time periods between 7 and 180 days, with water/rock ratios ranging from 1:1 to 9:1. Uncrushed cubes of Allende were used so that the spatial relationships between reactant and product phases could be examined in detail. Scanning electron microscope studies show that in all the experiments, even those of short duration (7 days), soluble salts of Ca and Mg (CaSO 4, CaCO 3, and MgSO 4) precipitated on the sample surface, indicating that these elements are rapidly mobilized during alteration. In addition, iron oxides and hydroxides formed on the sample surfaces. The sulfates, carbonates, and the majority of the iron-bearing secondary minerals are randomly distributed over the surface of samples. In some instances the iron oxides and hydroxides are constrained to the boundaries of altering mineral grains. Transmission electron microscope studies show that the FeO-rich olivine in the interior of the samples has altered to form interlayered serpentine/saponite and Fe-oxyhydroxides. The degree of alteration increases significantly with increasing water/rock ratio, and to a lesser extent with increasing duration of heating. The serpentine/saponite forms both by direct replacement of the olivine in crystallographically oriented intergrowths, and by recrystallization of an amorphous Si-rich phase that precipitates in pore space between the olivine grains. The alteration assemblage bears many similarities to those found in altered carbonaceous chondrites, although in detail there are important differences, which we attribute to (a) the relatively high temperatures of our experiments and (b) comparatively short reaction times compared with the natural examples. In terms of mineral

  20. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  1. The Jebel Ohier deposit—a newly discovered porphyry copper-gold system in the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield, Red Sea Hills, NE Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierlein, F. P.; McKeag, S.; Reynolds, N.; Bargmann, C. J.; Bullen, W.; Murphy, F. C.; Al-Athbah, H.; Brauhart, C.; Potma, W.; Meffre, S.; McKnight, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing exploration in the Red Sea Hills of NE Sudan has led to the identification of a large alteration-mineralization system within a relatively undeformed Neoproterozoic intrusive-extrusive succession centered on Jebel Ohier. The style of mineralization, presence of an extensive stockwork vein network within a zoned potassic-propylitic-argillic-advanced argillic-altered system, a mineralization assemblage comprising magnetite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite (±gold, silver and tellurides), and the recurrence of fertile mafic to intermediate magmatism in a developing convergent plate setting all point to a porphyry copper-gold association, analogous to major porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in Phanerozoic supra-subduction settings such as the SW Pacific. Preliminary U-Pb age dating yielded a maximum constraint of c. 730 Ma for the emplacement of the stockwork system into a significantly older ( c. 800 Ma) volcanic edifice. The mineralization formed prior to regional deformation and accretion of the host terrane to a stable continental margin at by c. 700 Ma, thus ensuring preservation of the deposit. The Jebel Ohier deposit is interpreted as a relatively well-preserved, rare example of a Neoproterozoic porphyry Cu-Au system and the first porphyry Cu-Au deposit to be identified in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  2. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  3. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  4. Alteration of consciousness in focal epilepsy: the global workspace alteration theory.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of consciousness (AOC) is an important clinical manifestation of partial seizures that greatly impacts the quality of life of patients with epilepsy. Several theories have been proposed in the last fifty years. An emerging concept in neurology is the global workspace (GW) theory that postulates that access to consciousness (from several sensorial modalities) requires transient coordinated activity from associative cortices, in particular the prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal associative cortex. Several lines of evidence support the view that partial seizures alter consciousness through disturbance of the GW. In particular, a nonlinear relation has been shown between excess of synchronization in the GW regions and the degree of AOC. Changes in thalamocortical synchrony occurring during the spreading of the ictal activity seem particularly involved in the mechanism of altered consciousness. This link between abnormal synchrony and AOC offers new perspectives in the treatment of the AOC since means of decreasing consciousness alteration in seizures could improve patients' quality of life.

  5. Nanocomposites polyethylene/argile destines a des applications electriques: Conception et relations structure-proprietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazoum, Bouchaib

    The aim of this work is the manufacturing of PE/clay nanocomposites and to study the structure-property relationships of these materials. The nanocomposites materials were prepared by mixing a commercially available premixed LLDPE/O-MMT masterbatch into a polyethylene blend matrix containing 80 wt % low density polyethylene and 20 wt % high density polyethylene with and without anhydride modified polyethylene (PE-MA) as the compatibilizer using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Firstly, the effect of nanoclay and compatibilizer on the structure and dielectric response of PE/clay nanocomposites has been investigated. The microstructure of PE/clay nanocomposites was characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric response of neat PE was compared with those of PE/clay nanocomposite with and without the compatibilizer in order to understand the effect of the quality of dispersion of nanoclay on dielectric response. In the nanocomposite materials two relaxation modes are detected in the dielectric losses. The first relaxation is due to a Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and the second relaxation is related to dipolar polarization. A relationship between the degree of dispersion and the relaxation rate f max of Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars was found and discussed. Secondly, PE/clay nanocomposites have been characterized by various techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, TEM, TGA, DMTA and dielectric breakdown measurements. A correlation between structure and dielectric breakdown strength was discussed. Finally, a 3D simulation model by the finite element method is developed in order to study the effect of dispersion of nanoclay particles, varying the permittivity and radius of the inclusion on effective permittivity, electric field distribution and polarization. The simulation results were compared with theoretical solution obtained from classical models.

  6. Therapeutic advances in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M; Calandrella, Daniela

    2015-09-15

    Knowledge on dystonia has greatly improved recently, because of a renewed effort in understanding its cause, pathophysiology, and clinical characterization. Different drug classes traditionally have been used for the symptomatic treatment of dystonia, more recently surpassed by the introduction of botulinum neurotoxins and deep brain stimulation. No curative or disease-modifying treatments are available. Recent knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of inherited dystonias is highlighting new potential treatment strategies. We review therapeutic advances in dystonia that have been published over the last 3 years, particularly regarding oral medications, local injections of botulinum neurotoxins, deep brain stimulation, and transcranial or epidural brain stimulations. We discuss evidence of efficacy, highlight recent advances, and focus on key areas under development. PMID:26301801

  7. Advances in Estuarine Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccready, Parker; Geyer, W. Rockwell

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of estuarine circulation and salinity structure are reviewed. We focus on well- and partially mixed systems that are long relative to the tidal excursion. Dynamics of the coupled system of width- and tidally averaged momentum and salt equations are now better understood owing to the development of simple numerical solution techniques. These have led to a greater appreciation of the key role played by the time dependency of the length of the salt intrusion. Improved realism in simplified tidally averaged physics has been driven by simultaneous advances in our understanding of the detailed dynamics within the tidal cycle and across irregular channel cross-sections. The complex interactions of turbulence, stratification, and advection are now understood well enough to motivate a new generation of physically plausible mixing parameterizations for the tidally averaged equations.

  8. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  9. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  10. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation.

  11. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  12. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  13. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  14. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation. PMID:25345035

  15. Therapeutic advances in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M; Calandrella, Daniela

    2015-09-15

    Knowledge on dystonia has greatly improved recently, because of a renewed effort in understanding its cause, pathophysiology, and clinical characterization. Different drug classes traditionally have been used for the symptomatic treatment of dystonia, more recently surpassed by the introduction of botulinum neurotoxins and deep brain stimulation. No curative or disease-modifying treatments are available. Recent knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of inherited dystonias is highlighting new potential treatment strategies. We review therapeutic advances in dystonia that have been published over the last 3 years, particularly regarding oral medications, local injections of botulinum neurotoxins, deep brain stimulation, and transcranial or epidural brain stimulations. We discuss evidence of efficacy, highlight recent advances, and focus on key areas under development.

  16. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler–Volmer and Marcus–Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of ‘nano-impacts’. PMID:26246984

  17. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  18. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  19. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  20. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  1. Recent Advances in Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of 'nano-impacts'. PMID:26246984

  2. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  3. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  4. Plant secondary metabolism in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lindsey K; Levine, Lanfang H; Musgrave, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Plans by the space program to use plants for food supply and environmental regeneration have led to an examination of how plants grow in microgravity. Because secondary metabolic compounds are so important in determining the nutritional and flavor characteristics of plants-as well as making plants more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses-their responses to altered gravity are now being studied. These experiments are technically challenging because temperature, humidity, atmospheric composition, light, and water status must be maintained around the plant while simultaneously altering the g-load, either in the free-fall of orbital spacecraft or on a centrifuge rotor. In general, plants have shown increased accumulation of small secondary metabolites in microgravity (<10(-3) g), while these have decreased in hypergravity (>1-g). Gravity-related changes in the plant environment as well as mechanical loading effects account for these responses.

  5. Neurobiological alterations in alcohol addiction: a review.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Callado, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    The exact mechanism by which ethanol exerts its effects on the brain is still unknown. However, nowadays it is well known that ethanol interacts with specific neuronal membrane proteins involved in signal transmission, resulting in changes in neural activity. In this review different neurochemical alterations produced by ethanol are described. Primarily, ethanol interacts with two membrane receptors: GABAA and NMDA ion channel receptors. Ethanol enhances the GABA action and antagonizes glutamate action, therefore acting as a CNS depressant. In addition, ethanol affects most other neurochemical and endocrine systems. In regard to the brain reward system, both dopaminergic and opioid system are affected by this drug. Furthermore, the serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotropin-releasing factor and cannabinoid systems seem to play an important role in the neurobiology of alcoholism. At last but not least, ethanol can also modulate cytoplasmic components, including the second messengers. We also review briefly the different actual and putative pharmacological treatments for alcoholism, based on the alterations produced by this drug.

  6. Metabolic alterations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Brunelli, Matteo; Piva, Francesco; Modena, Alessandra; Bimbatti, Davide; Fantinel, Emanuela; Santini, Daniele; Cheng, Liang; Cascinu, Stefano; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). We analyzed the key metabolic abnormalities underlying RCC carcinogenesis, highlighting those altered pathways that may represent potential targets for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies.

  7. Plant secondary metabolism in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lindsey K; Levine, Lanfang H; Musgrave, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Plans by the space program to use plants for food supply and environmental regeneration have led to an examination of how plants grow in microgravity. Because secondary metabolic compounds are so important in determining the nutritional and flavor characteristics of plants-as well as making plants more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses-their responses to altered gravity are now being studied. These experiments are technically challenging because temperature, humidity, atmospheric composition, light, and water status must be maintained around the plant while simultaneously altering the g-load, either in the free-fall of orbital spacecraft or on a centrifuge rotor. In general, plants have shown increased accumulation of small secondary metabolites in microgravity (<10(-3) g), while these have decreased in hypergravity (>1-g). Gravity-related changes in the plant environment as well as mechanical loading effects account for these responses. PMID:19521860

  8. Skeletal adaptation in altered gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Tony S.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the single factor that most limits human survivability in non Earth environments is the phenomenon of bone demineralization and the medical problems induced by the subsequent imbalance in the calcium metabolism. Alterations of skeletal properties occur as a result of disturbances in the normal mechanical loading environment of bone. These alterations or adaptations obey physical laws, but the precise mathematical relationship remains to be determined. Principles governing unloading and overloading of bone are gaining more attention as a consequence of the planning of manned space stations, Moon and Mars bases and spaceflights of long duration. A mathematical framework which allows for the prediction of skeletal adaptation on Earth and in non Earth gravity environments by power law relationships is presented.

  9. Implications of altered gastrointestinal motility in obesity.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, T K; Geoghegan, J G; Baird, A W; Winter, D C

    2007-10-01

    The onset of obesity occurs as a result of an imbalance between nutrient consumption/absorption and energy expenditure. Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a critical role in the rate of consumption of foods, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. Various segments of the GI tract coordinate in a complex yet precise way, to control the process of food consumption, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. GI motility not only regulates the rates at which nutrients are processed and absorbed in the gut, but also, via mechanical and neurohormonal methods, participates in the control of appetite and satiety. Altered GI motility has frequently been observed in obese patients, the significance of which is incompletely understood. However, these alterations can be considered as potential contributing factors in the development and maintenance of obesity and changed eating behavior. Therapies aimed at regulating or counteracting the observed changes in GI motility are being actively explored and applied clinically in the management of obese patients. PMID:18098402

  10. Advances in Oral Coagulants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews current and future treatment practices concerning oral anticoagulants. In the second decade of the 21st millennium clinicians can finally treat thrombotic disease with long-awaited new oral anticoagulant medications. In addition, improvements have been made in managing warfarin, the traditional but far from obsolete medication. The first part of this review will cover current advances with warfarin treatment. The second portion will discuss specific active coagulation factor inhibitors, the new oral anticoagulants.

  11. Advanced composites for windmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquardez, G.

    A development status assessment is conducted for advanced composite construction techniques for windmill blade structures which, as in the case of composite helicopter rotors, promise greater reliability, longer service life, superior performance, and lower costs. Composites in wind turbine applications must bear aerodynamic, inertial and gravitational loads in complex interaction cycles. Attention is given to large Darrieus-type vertical axis windmills, to which composite construction methods may offer highly effective pitch-control mechanisms, especially in the 'umbrella' configuration.

  12. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  13. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  14. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  15. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  16. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  17. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput. PMID:22840822

  18. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  19. Therapeutic advances in immunosuppression.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A W; Forrester, J V

    1994-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is appropriate for the prevention or reversal of allograft rejection, and for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and allergic disease. Recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate immune responses have paralleled elucidation of the modes of action of a variety of therapeutic immunosuppressive agents, both 'old' and new. These developments have identified potential targets for more refined and specific intervention strategies that are now being tested in the clinic. PMID:7994898

  20. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  1. Recent advances in dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Teresa; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The use of dermoscopy has offered a new morphological dimension of skin lesions and has provided an effective diagnostic tool to differentiate melanoma from other benign or malignant skin tumors but also to support the clinical diagnosis in general dermatology. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent and important advances in the rising world of dermoscopy. PMID:26949523

  2. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  3. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  4. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  5. Advances in Laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made airway management safer. Because difficult intubation remains challenging to predict, having tools readily available that can be used to manage a difficult airway in any setting is critical. Fortunately, video technology has resulted in improvements for intubation performance while using laryngoscopy by various means. These technologies have been applied to rigid optical stylets, flexible intubation scopes, and, most notably, rigid laryngoscopes. These tools have proven effective for the anticipated difficult airway as well as the unanticipated difficult airway.

  6. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  7. Biochemical alterations during swimming induced stress.

    PubMed

    Aruj, N; Sharafatullah, T; Najam, R; Ahmed, S P; Ahmad, S I

    1994-07-01

    Stress can be defined as any stimulus that creates an imbalance in the internal environment. Hypothalamus has sensors that detect changes produced in the body. Stress can cause diseases by altering immune system, cardiovascular System neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine functions. Present study is designed to evaluate the effect of stress on few biochemical parameters during swimming induced stress. Significant changes have been observed especially in lipid profile. Corticosterone was also evaluated as reliable stress marker.

  8. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries. PMID:27358374

  9. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries.

  10. Repetitive DNA alterations in human skin cancers.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Gil R H; Francisco, Guilherme; Teixeira, Lúcia V S; Romão-Correia, Rosana F; Sanches, José A; Neto, Cyro Festa; Ruiz, Itamar R G

    2004-11-01

    Repetitive sequences constitute landmarks for genome regulation, evolution, and chromatin architecture. Patterns of specific and non-specific repetitive sequences change in many types and stages of tumor cells, characterized by band loss, gain, and (de) increased staining of pre-existing bands. In this work, repetitive DNA was studied in search of genome instability of skin cancers: basal and squamous cell carcinomas (BCC and SCC), malignant melanoma (MM), melanocytic nevus (MN), and actinic keratosis (AK) lesions. DNAs were extracted from blood and tumor samples from 21 BCC, 7 SCC, 11 MM and 7 lesions. Banding patterns were obtained by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and specific D9S50 and D9S52 microsatellites (9p21). D9S50 patterns revealed microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 36% BCC, 25% SCC, and 57% MM tumors. D9S52 microsatellite showed 28.5%; 42.8%; and 71.4% altered tumors, respectively. No microsatellite alterations were found in MN and AK. On the other hand, genomic rearrangements detected by RAPD were present in 100% tumors. In BCC, the mean number of tumor DNA alterations showed predominant gain of bands. On the contrary, MM samples presented loss, or decreased intensity signal of RAPD bands. Genome alterations in skin cancers would result from chromosomal rearrangements, aneuploidy and/or polysomies. The low-cost and quick RAPD technique may reveal unknown genes or DNA sequences associated with tumor development and progression, and may be easily implemented in clinical diagnosis.

  11. Well differentiated follicular thyroid neoplasia: impact of molecular and technological advances on detection, monitoring and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Giannelli, Silvana M; Salameh, Wael A; McPhaul, Laron W

    2011-01-30

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for follicular thyroid cell oncogenesis has been advanced significantly in recent years. Specific genetic alterations and the molecular pathways they affect have been associated with particular histologic subtypes of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and are now being evaluated for their utility as clinical tools with diagnostic, prognostic and even therapeutic relevance. This paper focuses on the most common and clinically relevant genetic alterations shown to be consistently associated with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We review the impact of recent molecular and technological advances on thyroid cancer standard of care and the practice of clinical medicine.

  12. An Alteration Scale for CM Chondrites and Implications for Planetary Noble Gas Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, L. B.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Zolensky, M.

    1993-07-01

    Three progressive alteration parameters have been identified from the mineralogical and textural analyses of 7 CM chondritic falls. These indices predict the following order of progressive alteration [3]: Murchison (MC)advancing aqueous alteration and the bulk abundance of the planetary noble gases, Ar^36, Xe^84, and Kr^132. Two of the progressive alteration parameters monitor the volumetric production of CM phyllosilicates, which was estimated from the modal analysis of 1 to 3 thin sections from each of the analyzed falls. These are the percentages of phyllosilicates in chondrules and the volume of anhydrous matrix silicates, which increase and decease, respectively, with progressive alteration. The third alteration index, the mean Fe^3+/(2-Si) ratio in phyllosilicates, is a stoichiometric-based approximation that monitors variations in mineral composition during progressive alteration, and decreases with increasing alteration. Values of Fe^3+/(2-Si) were calculated from an average of microprobe analyses of matrix phyllosilicates in each meteorite based on a generalized phyllosilicate stoichiometry, [(Fe, Mg)(sub)3-x (Al,Fe^3+)(sub)x(Si(sub)(2-x)(Al,Fe^3+)(sub)x)O(sub)5(OH)(sub)4], which accommodates a continuous transition from cronstedtite to serpentine compositions. The bulk Ar^36 content of the 7 investigated samples decreases with increasing alteration as predicted by the alteration parameters, which suggests the possibility of degassing events. The same trend is observed for Kr^84 and Xe^132. The loss of noble gases in CM chondritic meteorites has previously been noted [1,5], and may be related to the open-system behavior that is predicted for other volatile components in CM chondrites, such as C1 [4], water [3], and methane [2]. Although high-temperature minerals are depleted in noble gases relative to the low

  13. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  14. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  15. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  16. [Advanced sleep phase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ondzé, B; Espa, F; Ming, L C; Chakkar, B; Besset, A; Billiard, M

    2001-11-01

    The Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) is a sleep disorder characterized by an early sleep onset and early awakening without any disturbance of the sleep structure. The management of this disease requires clinical and laboratory investigations in an attempt to confirm the phase advance of body core temperature and melatonin rhythm. The use of light therapy, possibly associated with chronotherapy or melatonin intake has been proposed. The evolution is variable. Seven subjects, aged 15 to 72 were diagnosed in our sleep disorders unit by mean of sleep log, actigraphy, sleep and temperature recording. The sleep onset and sleep offset times were approximately the same according to sleep log, actigraphy and night polysomnography. The nadir of body core temperature was at 01:38 +/- 01:03. Two familial cases were identified of which 1 was investigated in constant routine condition with hourly blood sampling. An advanced phase of melatonin and cortisol was evidenced. The disease temporarily improved in 3 cases with light therapy and in one case with the association of light therapy and chronotherapy. These data show the difficulties of the management and the treatment of this rarely diagnosed disease. PMID:11924025

  17. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  18. Advanced gearbox technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Cedoz, R. W.; Salama, E. E.; Wagner, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced 13,000 HP, counterrotating (CR) gearbox was designed and successfully tested to provide a technology base for future designs of geared propfan propulsion systems for both commercial and military aircraft. The advanced technology CR gearbox was designed for high efficiency, low weight, long life, and improved maintainability. The differential planetary CR gearbox features double helical gears, double row cylindrical roller bearings integral with planet gears, tapered roller prop support bearings, and a flexible ring gear and diaphragm to provide load sharing. A new Allison propfan back-to-back gearbox test facility was constructed. Extensive rotating and stationary instrumentation was used to measure temperature, strain, vibration, deflection and efficiency under representative flight operating conditions. The tests verified smooth, efficient gearbox operation. The highly-instrumented advanced CR gearbox was successfully tested to design speed and power (13,000 HP), and to a 115 percent overspeed condition. Measured CR gearbox efficiency was 99.3 percent at the design point based on heat loss to the oil. Tests demonstrated low vibration characteristics of double helical gearing, proper gear tooth load sharing, low stress levels, and the high load capacity of the prop tapered roller bearings. Applied external prop loads did not significantly affect gearbox temperature, vibration, or stress levels. Gearbox hardware was in excellent condition after the tests with no indication of distress.

  19. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  20. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  1. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks.

  2. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth.

  3. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  4. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  5. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  6. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease. PMID:27529679

  7. Gas exchange under altered gravitational stress.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G Kim

    2011-01-01

    Efficient gas exchange in the lung depends on the matching of ventilation and perfusion. However, the human lung is a readily deformable structure and as a result gravitational stresses generate gradients in both ventilation and perfusion. Nevertheless, the lung is capable of withstanding considerable change in the applied gravitational load before pulmonary gas exchange becomes impaired. The postural changes that are part of the everyday existence for most bipedal species are well tolerated, as is the removal of gravity (weightlessness). Increases in the applied gravitational load result only in a large impairment in pulmonary gas exchange above approximately three times that on the ground, at which point the matching of ventilation to perfusion is so impaired that efficient gas exchange is no longer possible. Much of the tolerance of the lung to alterations in gravitation stress comes from the fact that ventilation and perfusion are inextricably coupled. Deformations in the lung that alter ventilation necessarily alter perfusion, thus maintaining a degree of matching and minimizing the disruption in ventilation to perfusion ratio and thus gas exchange.

  8. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  9. Recent advances in siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Salzano, Giuseppina; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2015-12-01

    In the 1990s an unexpected gene-silencing phenomena in plants, the later called RNA interference (RNAi), perplexed scientists. Following the proof of activity in mammalian cells, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have quickly crept into biomedical research as a new powerful tool for the potential treatment of different human diseases based on altered gene expression. In the past decades, several promising data from ongoing clinical trials have been reported. However, despite surprising successes in many pre-clinical studies, concrete obstacles still need to be overcome to translate therapeutic siRNAs into clinical reality. Here, we provide an update on the recent advances of RNAi-based therapeutics and highlight novel synthetic platforms for the intracellular delivery of siRNAs. PMID:26609865

  10. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  11. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  12. Molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma and impact of therapeutic advances

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Bandoh, Salome; Roberts, Lewis R.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality and has an increasing incidence worldwide. HCC can be induced by multiple etiologies, is influenced by many risk factors, and has a complex pathogenesis. Furthermore, HCCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, which compounds the difficulties in developing effective therapies against this highly lethal cancer. With advances in cancer biology and molecular and genetic profiling, a number of different mechanisms involved in the development and progression of HCC have been identified. Despite the advances in this area, the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma is still not completely understood. This review aims to elaborate our current understanding of the most relevant genetic alterations and molecular pathways involved in the development and progression of HCC, and anticipate the potential impact of future advances on therapeutic drug development. PMID:27239288

  13. [Advances in hereditary hemochromatosis].

    PubMed

    Nardi, Graciela; Cadiz, Claudia; Lachman, J; Cornelio, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Hereditary hemocromatosis (HH) is a genetic disease with a recessive autosomic pattern, in which inadequate iron (Fe) absorption is made by the intestinal cell. As consequence of that process, takes place a progressive accumulation of metal in different organs, predominantly in the liver. This leads to an alteration of liver structure and function: cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma (1). The gene implied in this pathology was identified (HFE) in 1996. This codes a similar molecule to the mayor histocompatibility complex type 1(MHC-T1 like) that can modulate the transport of PE binding the transferrin receptor. This progress allows a deep understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of the homeostasis of the Fe and its alterations in the NH. The diagnosis of disease by means of a genetic test let to carry out a familiar screening and to detect asymptomatic carriers. This makes possible to begin the appropriate treatment at early stages of the disease in order to avoid its consequences and offering a better quality of life to these patients.

  14. Altered mechanical properties of the nucleus in disease.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maria Lucia; Lammerding, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus is the largest and most rigid organelle. Therefore, its physical properties contribute critically to the biomechanical behavior of cells, e.g., during amoeboid migration or perfusion through narrow capillaries. Furthermore, it has been speculated that nuclear deformations could directly allow cells to sense mechanical stress, e.g., by modulating the access of specific transcription factors to their binding sites. Defects in nuclear mechanics have also been reported in a variety of muscular dystrophies caused by mutations in nuclear envelope proteins, indicating an important role in the maintenance of cells in mechanically stressed tissue. These findings have prompted the growing field of nuclear mechanics to develop advanced experimental methods to study the physical properties of the nucleus as a function of nuclear structure and organization, and to understand its role in physiology and disease. These experimental techniques include micropipette aspiration, atomic force microscopy of isolated nuclei, cellular strain and compression experiments, and microneedle manipulation of intact cells. These experiments have provided important insights into the mechanical behavior of the nucleus under physiological conditions, the distinct mechanical contributions of the nuclear lamina and interior, and how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins associated with a variety of human diseases can cause distinct alterations in the physical properties of the nucleus and contribute to the disease mechanism. Here, we provide a brief overview of the most common experimental techniques and their application and discuss the implication of their results on our current understanding of nuclear mechanics.

  15. Altered Circadian Rhythmicity in Patients in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Gazendam, Joost A. C.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Grant, Devon A.; Freedman, Neil S.; Zwaveling, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients in the ICU are thought to have abnormal circadian rhythms, but quantitative data are lacking. Methods: To investigate circadian rhythms in the ICU, we studied core body temperatures over a 48-h period in 21 patients (59 ± 11 years of age; eight men and 13 women). Results: The circadian phase position for 17 of the 21 patients fell outside the published range associated with morningness/eveningness, which determines the normative range for variability among healthy normal subjects. In 10 patients, the circadian phase position fell earlier than the normative range; in seven patients, the circadian phase position fell later than the normative range. The mean ± SD of circadian displacement in either direction (advance or delay) was 4.44 ± 3.54 h. There was no significant day-to-day variation of the 24-h temperature profile within each patient. Stepwise linear regression was performed to determine if age, sex, APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) III score, or day in the ICU could predict the patient-specific magnitude of circadian displacement. The APACHE III score was found to be significantly predictive of circadian displacement. Conclusions: The findings indicate that circadian rhythms are present but altered in patients in the ICU, with the degree of circadian abnormality correlating with severity of illness. PMID:23471224

  16. Intraventricular flow alterations due to dyssynchronous wall motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Audrey M.; Lai, Hong Kuan; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2015-11-01

    Roughly 30% of patients with systolic heart failure suffer from left ventricular dyssynchrony (LVD), in which mechanical discoordination of the ventricle walls leads to poor hemodynamics and suboptimal cardiac function. There is currently no clear mechanistic understanding of how abnormalities in septal-lateral (SL) wall motion affects left ventricle (LV) function, which is needed to improve the treatment of LVD using cardiac resynchronization therapy. We use an experimental flow phantom with an LV physical model to study mechanistic effects of SL wall motion delay on LV function. To simulate mechanical LVD, two rigid shafts were coupled to two segments (apical and mid sections) along the septal wall of the LV model. Flow through the LV model was driven using a piston pump, and stepper motors coupled to the above shafts were used to locally perturb the septal wall segments relative to the pump motion. 2D PIV was used to examine the intraventricular flow through the LV physical model. Alterations to SL delay results in a reduction in the kinetic energy (KE) of the flow field compared to synchronous SL motion. The effect of varying SL motion delay from 0% (synchronous) to 100% (out-of-phase) on KE and viscous dissipation will be presented. This research was supported by the Oklahoma Center for Advancement of Science and Technology (HR14-022).

  17. Effects of PTEN gene alteration in patients with gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Mishra, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Sadhana; Arora, Asit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh

    2015-12-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy usually diagnosed in an advanced stage. We investigated the effects of alterations of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene on the occurrence and development of GBC, which has not been previously reported. A total 141 cases of GBC were analyzed for mutation, expression, and methylation across the nine exons of the PTEN gene. DNA sequencing methods were applied for mutation detection, whereas protein expression and methylation status were evaluated by immunohistochemical and methylation-specific PCR analysis, respectively. Novel PTEN mutations were observed in 6.3% of cases (9/141), and they included two silent mutations. In mutant cases, according to changes in codons, the respective amino acid sequences were also changed, which caused of proteins. A high percentage (72%) of loss of protein expression was observed more often in cases than in control samples. Interestingly, all nine cases with mutations showed loss of PTEN expression, whereas four of these nine cases showed positive promoter methylation. Hypermethylation was significantly more common in older patients than in younger ones (P<0.02). These findings suggest that PTEN mutations and inactivation may play an important role in the development and progression of gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:26586294

  18. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    DOE PAGES

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion,more » and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.« less

  19. Lignin structural alterations in thermochemical pretreatments with limited delignification

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, Yunqiao; Hu, Fan; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2015-08-02

    Lignocellulosic biomass has a complex and rigid cell wall structure that makes biomass recalcitrant to biological and chemical degradation. Among the three major structural biopolymers (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) in plant cell walls, lignin is considered the most recalcitrant component and generally plays a negative role in the biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. The conversion of biomass to biofuels through a biochemical platform usually requires a pretreatment stage to reduce the recalcitrance. Pretreatment renders compositional and structural changes of biomass with these changes ultimately govern the efficiency of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid, hot water, steam explosion, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatments are among the leading thermochemical pretreatments with a limited delignification that can reduce biomass recalcitrance. Practical applications of these pretreatment are rapidly developing as illustrated by recent commercial scale cellulosic ethanol plants. While these thermochemical pretreatments generally lead to only a limited delignification and no significant change of lignin content in the pretreated biomass, the lignin transformations that occur during these pretreatments and the roles they play in recalcitrance reduction is an important research aspect. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of lignin alterations during these limited delignification thermochemical pretreatments, with emphasis on lignin chemical structures, molecular weights, and redistributions in the pretreated biomass.

  20. Cortical and subcortical brain alterations in Juvenile Absence Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tondelli, Manuela; Vaudano, Anna Elisabetta; Ruggieri, Andrea; Meletti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE) in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Freesurfer analyses were used. When compared to healthy controls, patients revealed both grey matter volume and surface area reduction in bilateral frontal regions, anterior cingulate, and right mesial-temporal lobe. Correlation analysis with disease duration showed that longer disease was correlated with reduced surface area in right pre- and post-central gyrus. A possible effect of valproate treatment on brain structures was excluded. Our results indicate that subtle structural brain changes are detectable in JAE and are mainly located in anterior nodes of regions known to be crucial for awareness, attention and memory. PMID:27551668

  1. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Meyerle, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices. PMID:24828202

  2. Age-associated alterations of the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Jang, Youngmok C; Van Remmen, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle mass and function greatly affects quality of life in the elderly population. Several hypotheses have been proposed but accumulating evidence point to alterations in neuromuscular system during aging as a key event that leads to functional denervation, muscle wasting, and weakness. Over the past few decades, age-associated degeneration of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and its components have been well documented. With advancing age, pre-terminal portions of motor axons exhibit regions of abnormal thinning, distension, and sprouting whereas postsynaptic endplates decrease in size and reduce in number, length, and density of postsynaptic folds. Although the exact underlying mechanisms are still lacking, recent studies provided direct evidence that age-associated increase in oxidative stress plays a crucial role in NMJ degeneration and progression of sarcopenia. Homozygous deletion of an important antioxidant enzyme, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, SOD1) leads to acceleration of age-dependent muscle atrophy, with a significant NMJ degeneration similar to that seen in old wild-type sarcopenic animals. In this short review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of some of the cellular and molecular changes in the NMJ during aging and suggest a role for oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in age-related changes in the maintenance of neuromuscular innervation.

  3. TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Martin, Michael O., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The "TIMSS Advanced 2015 Assessment Frameworks" provides the foundation for the two international assessments to take place as part of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) Advanced 2015--Advanced Mathematics and Physics. Chapter 1 (Liv…

  4. TIMSS Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden, Robert A.; Lie, Svein; Robitaille, David F.; Angell, Carl; Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Foy, Pierre; Arora, Alka

    2006-01-01

    Developing the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced 2008 Assessment Frameworks was a collaborative venture involving mathematics and physics experts from around the world. The document contains two frameworks for implementing TIMSS Advanced 2008--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics. It also contains…

  5. Advances in ice mechanics - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.S.; Hallam, S.D.; Maatanen, M.; Sinha, N.K.; Sodhi, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the interaction of icebergs with offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included advances in ice mechanics in the United Kingdom, ice mechanics in Finland, recent advances in ice mechanics in Canada, advances in sea ice mechanics in the USA, foundations, monitoring, hazards, risk assessment, and deformation.

  6. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  7. Dyslipidemia-associated alterations in B cell subpopulation frequency and phenotype during experimental atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Arévalo, Héctor; Castaño, Diana; Villa-Pulgarín, Janny; Rojas, Mauricio; Vásquez, Gloria; Correa, Luis A; Ramírez-Pineda, José R; Yassin, Lina M

    2016-04-01

    Lymphocytes, the cellular effectors of adaptive immunity, are involved in the chronic inflammatory process known as atherosclerosis. Proatherogenic and atheroprotective properties have been ascribed to B cells. However, information regarding the role of B cells during atherosclerosis is scarce. Both the frequency and the phenotype of B cell subpopulations were studied by flow cytometry in wild type and apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat (HFD) or control diet. Whereas the proportion of follicular cells was decreased, transitional 1-like cells were increased in mice with advanced atherosclerotic lesions (apoE(-/-) HFD). B cells in atherosclerotic mice were more activated, indicated by their higher surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD40 and CD95 and increased serum IgG1 levels. In the aorta, a decreased frequency of B cells was observed in mice with advanced atherosclerosis. Low expression of CD19 was observed on B cells from the spleen, aorta and lymph nodes of apoE(-/-) HFD mice. This alteration correlated with serum levels of IgG1 and cholesterol. A reduction in CD19 expression was induced in splenic cells from young apoE(-/-) mice cultured with lipemic serum. These results show that mice with advanced atherosclerosis display a variety of alterations in the frequency and phenotype of B lymphocytes, most of which are associated with dyslipidemia.

  8. In situ biospectroscopic investigation of rapid ischemic and postmortem induced biochemical alterations in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Mark J; Britz, Carter J; Paterson, Phyllis G; Nichol, Helen; Pickering, Ingrid J; George, Graham N

    2015-02-18

    Rapid advances in imaging technologies have pushed novel spectroscopic modalities such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the sulfur K-edge to the forefront of direct in situ investigation of brain biochemistry. However, few studies have examined the extent to which sample preparation artifacts confound results. Previous investigations using traditional analyses, such as tissue dissection, homogenization, and biochemical assay, conducted extensive research to identify biochemical alterations that occur ex vivo during sample preparation. In particular, altered metabolism and oxidative stress may be caused by animal death. These processes were a concern for studies using biochemical assays, and protocols were developed to minimize their occurrence. In this investigation, a similar approach was taken to identify the biochemical alterations that are detectable by two in situ spectroscopic methods (FTIR, XAS) that occur as a consequence of ischemic conditions created during humane animal killing. FTIR and XAS are well suited to study markers of altered metabolism such as lactate and creatine (FTIR) and markers of oxidative stress such as aggregated proteins (FTIR) and altered thiol redox (XAS). The results are in accordance with previous investigations using biochemical assays and demonstrate that the time between animal death and tissue dissection results in ischemic conditions that alter brain metabolism and initiate oxidative stress. Therefore, future in situ biospectroscopic investigations utilizing FTIR and XAS must take into consideration that brain tissue dissected from a healthy animal does not truly reflect the in vivo condition, but rather reflects a state of mild ischemia. If studies require the levels of metabolites (lactate, creatine) and markers of oxidative stress (thiol redox) to be preserved as close as possible to the in vivo condition, then rapid freezing of brain tissue via decapitation into

  9. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may serve as a model for chemical alteration on Mars. Multiple palagonitic tuffs, altered pillow lavas, hydrothermal springs and alteration at glacial run-off streams were observed during a recent field trip in Iceland. Formation of alteration products and ferrihydrite in similar environments on Mars may have contributed to the ferric oxide-rich surface material there. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic alteration products and ferrihydrites are presented here.

  10. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  11. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  12. Advanced composite fuselage technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Smith, Peter J.; Horton, Ray E.

    1993-01-01

    Boeing's ATCAS program has completed its third year and continues to progress towards a goal to demonstrate composite fuselage technology with cost and weight advantages over aluminum. Work on this program is performed by an integrated team that includes several groups within The Boeing Company, industrial and university subcontractors, and technical support from NASA. During the course of the program, the ATCAS team has continued to perform a critical review of composite developments by recognizing advances in metal fuselage technology. Despite recent material, structural design, and manufacturing advancements for metals, polymeric matrix composite designs studied in ATCAS still project significant cost and weight advantages for future applications. A critical path to demonstrating technology readiness for composite transport fuselage structures was created to summarize ATCAS tasks for Phases A, B, and C. This includes a global schedule and list of technical issues which will be addressed throughout the course of studies. Work performed in ATCAS since the last ACT conference is also summarized. Most activities relate to crown quadrant manufacturing scaleup and performance verification. The former was highlighted by fabricating a curved, 7 ft. by 10 ft. panel, with cocured hat-stiffeners and cobonded J-frames. In building to this scale, process developments were achieved for tow-placed skins, drape formed stiffeners, braided/RTM frames, and panel cure tooling. Over 700 tests and supporting analyses have been performed for crown material and design evaluation, including structural tests that demonstrated limit load requirements for severed stiffener/skin failsafe damage conditions. Analysis of tests for tow-placed hybrid laminates with large damage indicates a tensile fracture toughness that is higher than that observed for advanced aluminum alloys. Additional recent ATCAS achievements include crown supporting technology, keel quadrant design evaluation, and

  13. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  14. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  15. Advanced PDV velocity extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Daniel; Ao, Tommy; Furnish, Michael

    2015-06-01

    While PDV has become a standard diagnostic, reliable velocity extraction remains challenging. Measurements with multiple real/apparent velocities are intrinsically difficult to analyze, and overlapping frequency components invalidate standard extraction methods. This presentation describes an advanced analysis technique where overlapping frequency components are resolved in the complex Fourier spectrum. Practical matters--multiple region of interest selection, component intersection, and shock transitions--will also be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85.

  16. Advances in Therapeutic Cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Renata Nobre; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, cholangioscopy is an established modality in diagnostic and treatment of pancreaticobiliary diseases. The more widespread use and the recent development of new technologies and accessories had renewed the interest of endoscopic visualization of the biliary tract, increasing the range of indications and therapeutic procedures, such as diagnostic of indeterminate biliary strictures, lithotripsy of difficult bile duct stones, ablative techniques for intraductal malignancies, removal of foreign bodies and gallbladder drainage. These endoscopic interventions will probably be the last frontier in the near future. This paper presents the new advances in therapeutic cholangioscopy, focusing on the current clinical applications and on research areas. PMID:27403156

  17. Advanced composites technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. Critical technology issues that must be addressed and solved to develop composite primary structures for transport aircraft are delineated. The program schedule and milestones are included. Work completed in the first 3 years of the program indicates the potential for achieving composite structures that weigh less and are cost effective relative to conventional aluminum structure. Selected technical accomplishments are noted. Readers who are seeking more in-depth technical information should study the other papers included in these proceedings.

  18. Advances in Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frois, B.

    2005-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the next generations of nuclear reactors and the perspectives of development of nuclear energy. Advanced reactors will progressively replace the existing ones during the next two decades. Future systems of the fourth generation are planned to be built beyond 2030. These systems have been studied in the framework of the "Generation IV" International Forum. The goals of these systems is to have a considerable increase in safety, be economically competitive and produce a significantly reduced volume of nuclear wastes. The closed fuel cycle is preferred.

  19. Advanced Optical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Steve; Michael, Xuejun

    The following article describes an advanced dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) Optical Network developed by L-3 Photonics. The network, configured as an amplified optical bus, carries traffic simultaneously in both directions, using multiple wavelengths. As a result, data distribution is of the form peer-to-multi-peer, it is protocol independent, and it is scalable. The network leverages the rapid growth in commercial optical technologies, including wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and when applied to military and commercial platforms such as aircraft, ships, unmanned and other vehicles, provides a cost-effective, low-weight, high-speed, and high noise-immune data distribution system.

  20. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  1. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  2. Advances in optoelectronic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguimdo, Romain M.; Saleh, Khaldoun; Lin, Guoping; Matinenghi, Romain; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-02-01

    Optoelectronic oscillators are used for a wide variety of applications in microwave photonics. We here report the latest advances in this technology from our research group, with emphasis on the analysis of phase noise performance. We present a stochastic modelling approach for phase noise performance analysis of optoelectronic oscillators based on whispering gallery mode resonators and/or optical fiber delay lines, and the theory is complemented with experimental measurements. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis which enables us to find the stationary states of the system as well as their stability. Our calculations also permit to find explicit formulas for the phase noise spectra, thereby allowing for their optimization.

  3. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  4. Advance Care Planning

    Cancer.gov

    The thirteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the attitudes and practices of African Americans related to completion of advance directives, and recommends effective strategies to improve decision-making in the setting of serious, life-threatening illness, in ways that augment patient autonomy and support patient-centered goal-setting and decision-making among African American patients and their families.

  5. Advanced Turboprop Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Roy D.; Vrabel, Deborah

    1988-01-01

    At the direction of Congress, a task force headed by NASA was organized in 1975 to identify potential fuel saving concepts for aviation. The result was the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program implemented in 1976. An important part of the program was the development of advanced turboprop technology for Mach 0.65 to 0.85 applications having the potential fuel saving of 30 to 50 percent relative to existing turbofan engines. A historical perspective is presented of the development and the accomplishments that brought the turboprop to successful flight tests in 1986 and 1987.

  6. Advanced turboprop project

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, R.D.; Vrabel, D.

    1988-01-01

    At the direction of Congress, a task force headed by NASA was organized in 1975 to identify potential fuel saving concepts for aviation. The result was the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Program implemented in 1976. An important part of the program was the development of advanced turboprop technology for Mach 0.65 to 0.85 applications having the potential fuel saving of 30 to 50 percent relative to existing turbofan engines. A historical perspective is presented of the development and the accomplishments that brought the turboprop to successful flight tests in 1986 and 1987.

  7. Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raboin, Jasen; Niebuhr, Jason; Cruz, Santana; Lamoreaux, chris

    2007-01-01

    The advanced resistive exercise device (ARED), now at the prototype stage of development, is a versatile machine that can be used to perform different customized exercises for which, heretofore, it has been necessary to use different machines. Conceived as a means of helping astronauts and others to maintain muscle and bone strength and endurance in low-gravity environments, the ARED could also prove advantageous in terrestrial settings (e.g., health clubs and military training facilities) in which many users are exercising simultaneously and there is heavy demand for use of exercise machines.

  8. The Milstar Advanced Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjia, Khiem-Hian; Heely, Stephen D.; Morphet, John P.; Wirick, Kevin S.

    The Milstar Advanced Processor (MAP) is a 'drop-in' replacement for its predecessor which preserves existing interfaces with other Milstar satellite processors and minimizes the impact of such upgrading to already-developed application software. In addition to flight software development, and hardware development that involves the application of VHSIC technology to the electrical design, the MAP project is developing two sophisticated and similar test environments. High density RAM and ROM are employed by the MAP memory array. Attention is given to the fine-pitch VHSIC design techniques and lead designs used, as well as the tole of TQM and concurrent engineering in the development of the MAP manufacturing process.

  9. Spatial and temporal age-related spectral alterations in benign human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Fogarty, Simon W.; Trevisan, Júlio; Strong, Rebecca J.; Heys, Kelly A.; Patel, Imran I.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that cancers attributable to exogenous carcinogenic agents may appear decades after initiating exposures. Environmental factors including lifestyle and/or diet have been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer. Breast tissue undergoes continuous molecular and morphological changes from the time of thelarche to menopause and thereafter. These alterations are both cyclical and longitudinal, and can be influenced by several environmental factors including exposure to oestrogens. Research into the latent period leading to breast carcinogenesis has been mostly limited to when hyperplastic lesions are present. Investigations to identify a biomarker of commitment to disease in normal breast tissue are hindered by the molecular and histological diversity of disease-free breast tissue. Benign tissue from reduction mammoplasties provides an opportunity to study biochemical differences between women of similar ages as well as alterations with advancing age. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to examine the terminal ductal lobular epithelium (TDLU) and, intra- and inter-lobular epithelium to identify spatial and temporal changes within these areas. Principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis of mid-infrared spectra revealed unambiguous inter-individual as well as age-related differences in each histological compartment interrogated. Moreover, exploratory PCA of luminal and myoepithelial cells within the TDLU indicated the presence of specific cells, potentially stem cells. Understanding alterations within benign tissue may assist in the identification of alterations in latent pre-clinical stages of breast cancer.

  10. Nail Alterations in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Series and Review of Nail Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Brian E.; Wulkan, Adam; Kerdel, Francisco; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) encompasses a broad range of lymphoproliferative diseases affecting the skin and can be clinically misleading due to its variable presentation. Nail alterations commonly appear in advanced-stage mycosis fungoides and true Sézary syndrome; however, they may be present in any stage of the disease. Although proper recognition of nail involvement in CTCL has both clinical and therapeutic value, specific nail findings have been infrequently described in the current literature. Observations We describe 4 patients with CTCL who presented with clinically significant nail alterations. The most common findings were nail discoloration, thickening, crumbling, onycholysis, and onychomadesis. Other notable findings included splinter hemorrhages, subungual hyperkeratosis, and anonychia. Conclusions and Message The described cases illustrate many of the documented nail findings associated with CTCL and emphasize the variable nature of nail manifestations. The presence of specific nail alterations should increase the clinical suspicion of CTCL – especially in patients with concomitant systemic and/or cutaneous manifestations – and early biopsy specimens should be taken for diagnosis. Nail alterations should also be accurately described and monitored in all patients with biopsy-confirmed CTCL to help identify treatment response and detect disease recurrence. PMID:27170938

  11. Foscarnet alters antidiuretic hormone-mediated transport.

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, B S; Shahmehdi, S J; Louis, B M; Lipner, H I

    1995-01-01

    Therapy with foscarnet is associated with acute renal failure. Prior studies have emphasized foscarnet's proximal tubular toxicity, but there have been isolated reports of foscarnet-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. As a phosphate analog, foscarnet is a competitive inhibitor of NaPO4 cotransport. However, foscarnet's effect on antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-induced transport has not been previously investigated. We studied foscarnet's modulation of transport in the toad urinary bladder. Foscarnet at 10 microM to 10 mM did not alter basal water or urea flux. Urea transport induced by a maximal dose of ADH (24 mIU/ml) was inhibited by 0.1 to 5.0 mM foscarnet. In tissues challenged with 0.5 to 1.0 mIU of ADH per ml, 1.0 to 10 mM foscarnet increased water flow but did not alter urea flux. Foscarnet also increased water flow induced by 1.0 to 10 microM forskolin. In tissues pretreated with 10 microM naproxen, foscarnet did not alter water flow induced by 0.5 to 1.0 mIU of ADH per ml or forskolin. These results indicate that foscarnet stimulates water flow induced by 0.5 to 1.0 mIU of ADH per ml at a site proximal to that of the generation of cyclic AMP and inhibits urea flux induced by a maximal dose of ADH at a separate site. In humans, foscarnet nephrotoxicity is likely not limited to the proximal nephron, but extends to the collecting duct. Patients receiving foscarnet should be closely monitored for disorders of urinary concentration. PMID:8540707

  12. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. PMID:27197087

  13. White Matter Alteration in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shimoji, Keigo; Abe, Osamu; Uka, Takanori; Yasmin, Hasina; Kamagata, Koji; Asahi, Kouichi; Hori, Masaaki; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Aoki, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We explored the regional pattern of white matter alteration in subjects with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated whether white matter alteration was correlated with BMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seven middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome and seven without metabolic syndrome underwent diffusion tensor imaging with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging imager. We analyzed the fractional anisotropy (FA) values by using a tract-based spatial statistics technique (whole-brain analysis). We subsequently focused on measuring the mean FA values of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) of all subjects by tract-specific analysis (regional brain analysis). We used a Pearson correlation coefficient to evaluate the relationship between BMI and mean FA values of the right IFOF. RESULTS In the whole-brain analysis, subjects with metabolic syndrome had significantly lower FA values than control subjects in part of the right external capsule (part of the right IFOF), the entire corpus callosum, and part of the deep white matter of the right frontal lobe. In the regional brain analysis, the mean FA value of the right IFOF was 0.41 ± 0.03 for subjects with metabolic syndrome and 0.44 ± 0.05 for control subjects. A significant negative correlation was observed between BMI and FA values in the right IFOF (r = −0.56, P < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Our results show that microstructural white matter changes occur in patients with metabolic syndrome. FA values may be useful indices of white matter alterations in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:23172976

  14. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  15. Sulfide solubilities in Alteration-controlled Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, J.J.; Meyer, C.; Hodgson, C.J.; Thatcher, A.B.

    1967-01-01

    Solubilities of sphalerite (ZnS) and galena (PbS) were determined at 300?? to 500??C and 1000 bars total pressure in a chemical environment buffered by silicate mineral equilibria. Chloride solutions and muscovite-bearing assemblages characteristic of hydrothermal wall-rock alteration were used; weak acidities at temperature were therefore involved. The metal concentrations encountered tended to be higher than those observed in high bisulfide-H2S systems at neutral to weakly basic pH used in most previous experimentation; the chemical conditions of the work, although not completely satisfactory, are geologically more realistic than previous experimentation done in the basic-pH region.

  16. Altered CD45 expression and disease.

    PubMed

    Tchilian, Elma Z; Beverley, Peter C L

    2006-03-01

    CD45, the leucocyte common antigen, is a haemopoietic cell-specific tyrosine phosphatase. Many isoforms are generated by alternative splicing, but their function remains obscure. The extracellular domain of CD45 is highly polymorphic in all vertebrates. Importantly, human polymorphic variants that alter CD45 isoform expression are associated with autoimmune and infectious diseases, establishing CD45 as an important immunomodulator with a significant influence on disease burden. Here, we discuss the new opportunities provided by the human variants for investigating and understanding how CD45 regulates antigen receptor signalling, cytokine responses and apoptosis. PMID:16423560

  17. Assessing the welfare of genetically altered mice.

    PubMed

    Wells, D J; Playle, L C; Enser, W E J; Flecknell, P A; Gardiner, M A; Holland, J; Howard, B R; Hubrecht, R; Humphreys, K R; Jackson, I J; Lane, N; Maconochie, M; Mason, G; Morton, D B; Raymond, R; Robinson, V; Smith, J A; Watt, N

    2006-04-01

    In 2003, under the auspices of the main UK funders of biological and biomedical research, a working group was established with a remit to review potential welfare issues for genetically altered (GA) mice, to summarize current practice, and to recommend contemporary best practice for welfare assessments. The working group has produced a report which makes practical recommendations for GA mouse welfare assessment and dissemination of welfare information between establishments using a 'mouse passport'. The report can be found at www.nc3rs.org.uk/GAmice and www.lal.org.uk/gaa and includes templates for the recommended welfare assessment scheme and the mouse passport. An overview is provided below.

  18. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-08-14

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  19. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  20. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: fulfilling the promise.

    PubMed

    Gogas, Helen; Polyzos, Aristidis; Kirkwood, John

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and despite early detection and intervention, the number of patients dying from metastatic disease continues to rise. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor, with median survival between 6 and 9 months. Over the past thirty years and despite extensive clinical research, the treatment options for metastatic disease were limited and melanoma is still considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. Single-agent and combination chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agent therapy and combination regimes failed to show significant improvement in overall survival. Recent advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma, have contributed in the development of new agents. Based on the molecular and immunological background of the disease, the new drugs have shown benefit in overall and progression free survival. As the picture of the disease begins to change, oncologists need to alter their approach to melanoma treatment and consider disease biology together with targeted individualized treatment. In this review the authors attempt to offer an insight in present and past melanoma treatment options, with a focus on the recently approved immunotherapeutic agents and the clinical perspectives of these new weapons against metastatic melanoma. PMID:23725878

  1. Recent Advances Combining Remote Sensing Data with Advanced Models to Assess Disturbance Related Plant-Climate Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem dynamics are strongly influenced by processes of disturbance and recovery across a range of spatial and temporal scales, from large catastrophic events including tropical cyclones, fires, and pest outbreaks, to fine-scale forest canopy gap dynamics. Natural disturbances episodically alter vegetation structure and create important fluxes of carbon from vegetation to coarse woody debris and litter, and can alter land surface properties important for climate. Similarly, anthropogenic disturbances have the capacity to alter important land surface properties. Recovery following disturbances tends to restore vegetation structure and carbon over longer time scales as vegetation regrows and debris decomposes and land surface properties are restored. The complex spatial pattern from a legacy of past events, together with ongoing and potentially changing future events, presents a challenge not only for understanding, but also for prediction. As many disturbance processes are climate related, being climate driven and/or producing affects on climate through biophysical or biogeochemical alterations of the land surface, disturbance is a critical link in understanding plant-climate interactions. Here we review past progress, current results, and future priorities for utilizing remote sensing data in advanced models to understand of the role of disturbance in plant-climate interactions. Recent advances have helped to quantify the long term impacts of hurricanes on forests, account for recent forest disturbance events, quantify the vulnerability of ecosystems to potential future disturbance rates, and project future vegetation change in response to climate change, and reduce uncertainty through improved initial conditions accounting for the history of past disturbance events. Now, a new generation of land use data are being developed constrained by remote sensing to drive the next generation of Earth system models to estimate the effects of anthropogenic

  2. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Bonk, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  3. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  4. Advanced geothermal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetten, J. T.; Murphy, H. D.; Hanold, R. J.; Myers, C. W.; Dunn, J. C.

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the U.S. Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico was producing 10 MW thermal, and still climbing, proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction was demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive.

  5. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  6. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn’s disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  7. Advances in Capsule Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan; Enns, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a minimally invasive technology that has revolutionized the approach to small intestinal disease investigation and management. Designed primarily to provide diagnostic imaging of the small intestine, VCE is used predominantly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and suspected Crohn's disease; however, numerous other indications have been established, including the assessment of celiac disease, investigation of small bowel tumors, and surveillance of hereditary polyposis syndromes. Since the introduction of small bowel VCE in 2000, more than 1600 articles have been published describing the evolution of this technology. The main adverse outcome is capsule retention, which can potentially be avoided by careful patient selection or by using a patency capsule. Despite the numerous advances in the past 15 years, limitations such as incomplete VCE studies, missed lesions, and time-consuming reporting remain. The inability to control capsule movement for the application of targeted therapy or the acquisition of tissue for histologic analysis remains among the greatest challenges in the further development of capsule technology. This article outlines the recent technological and clinical advances in VCE and the future directions of research in this field. PMID:27482183

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  9. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  10. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  11. Advanced composites technology

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J; Groves, S E; Sanchez, R J

    1998-10-01

    The development of fiber composite components in next-generation munitions, such as sabots for kinetic energy penetrators and lightweight cases for advanced artillery projectiles, relies on design trade-off studies using validated computer code simulations. We are developing capabilities to determine the failure of advanced fiber composites under multiaxial stresses to critically evaluate three-dimensional failure models and develop new ones if necessary. The effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on failure of composites are being investigated using a high-pressure testing system that incorporates several unique features. Several improvements were made to the system this year, and we report on the first tests of both isotropic and fiber composite materials. The preliminary results indicate that pressure has little effect on longitudinal compression strength of unidirectional composites, but issues with obtaining reliable failures in these materials still remain to be resolved. The transverse compression strength was found to be significantly enhanced by pressure, and the trends observed for this property and the longitudinal strength are in agreement with recent models for failure of fiber composites.

  12. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically. PMID:26815844

  13. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  14. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  15. Aeroacoustics of advanced propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1990-01-01

    The aeroacoustics of advanced, high speed propellers (propfans) are reviewed from the perspective of NASA research conducted in support of the Advanced Turboprop Program. Aerodynamic and acoustic components of prediction methods for near and far field noise are summarized for both single and counterrotation propellers in uninstalled and configurations. Experimental results from tests at both takeoff/approach and cruise conditions are reviewed with emphasis on: (1) single and counterrotation model tests in the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 (low speed) and 8 by 6 (high speed) wind tunnels, and (2) full scale flight tests of a 9 ft (2.74 m) diameter single rotation wing mounted tractor and a 11.7 ft (3.57 m) diameter counterrotation aft mounted pusher propeller. Comparisons of model data projected to flight with full scale flight data show good agreement validating the scale model wind tunnel approach. Likewise, comparisons of measured and predicted noise level show excellent agreement for both single and counterrotation propellers. Progress in describing angle of attack and installation effects is also summarized. Finally, the aeroacoustic issues associated with ducted propellers (very high bypass fans) are discussed.

  16. Advanced desiccant materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Thomas, T.M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  17. Simulated climate warming alters phenological synchrony between an outbreak insect herbivore and host trees.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Jamieson, Mary A; Raffa, Kenneth F; Reich, Peter B; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Lindroth, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    As the world's climate warms, the phenologies of interacting organisms in seasonally cold environments may advance at differing rates, leading to alterations in phenological synchrony that can have important ecological consequences. For temperate and boreal species, the timing of early spring development plays a key role in plant-herbivore interactions and can influence insect performance, outbreak dynamics, and plant damage. We used a field-based, meso-scale free-air forest warming experiment (B4WarmED) to examine the effects of elevated temperature on the phenology and performance of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) in relation to the phenology of two host trees, aspen (Populus tremuloides) and birch (Betula papyrifera). Results of our 2-year study demonstrated that spring phenology advanced for both insects and trees, with experimentally manipulated increases in temperature of 1.7 and 3.4 °C. However, tree phenology advanced more than insect phenology, resulting in altered phenological synchrony. Specifically, we observed a decrease in the time interval between herbivore egg hatch and budbreak of aspen in both years and birch in one year. Moreover, warming decreased larval development time from egg hatch to pupation, but did not affect pupal mass. Larvae developed more quickly on aspen than birch, but pupal mass was not affected by host species. Our study reveals that warming-induced phenological shifts can alter the timing of ecological interactions across trophic levels. These findings illustrate one mechanism by which climate warming could mediate insect herbivore outbreaks, and also highlights the importance of climate change effects on trophic interactions.

  18. Simulated climate warming alters phenological synchrony between an outbreak insect herbivore and host trees.

    PubMed

    Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Jamieson, Mary A; Raffa, Kenneth F; Reich, Peter B; Montgomery, Rebecca A; Lindroth, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    As the world's climate warms, the phenologies of interacting organisms in seasonally cold environments may advance at differing rates, leading to alterations in phenological synchrony that can have important ecological consequences. For temperate and boreal species, the timing of early spring development plays a key role in plant-herbivore interactions and can influence insect performance, outbreak dynamics, and plant damage. We used a field-based, meso-scale free-air forest warming experiment (B4WarmED) to examine the effects of elevated temperature on the phenology and performance of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) in relation to the phenology of two host trees, aspen (Populus tremuloides) and birch (Betula papyrifera). Results of our 2-year study demonstrated that spring phenology advanced for both insects and trees, with experimentally manipulated increases in temperature of 1.7 and 3.4 °C. However, tree phenology advanced more than insect phenology, resulting in altered phenological synchrony. Specifically, we observed a decrease in the time interval between herbivore egg hatch and budbreak of aspen in both years and birch in one year. Moreover, warming decreased larval development time from egg hatch to pupation, but did not affect pupal mass. Larvae developed more quickly on aspen than birch, but pupal mass was not affected by host species. Our study reveals that warming-induced phenological shifts can alter the timing of ecological interactions across trophic levels. These findings illustrate one mechanism by which climate warming could mediate insect herbivore outbreaks, and also highlights the importance of climate change effects on trophic interactions. PMID:24889969

  19. Regional hydrothermal alteration in Noctis Labyrinthus: scattered, yet pervasive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thollot, P.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed 113 CRISM cubes in Noctis Labyrinthus. We found 10 classes of alteration minerals including clays and sulfates, sometimes associated in the same setting. Fe and Al sulfates argue for acidic hydrothermal alteration.

  20. 32 CFR 310.33 - New and altered record systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alterations. (ii) Increases in numbers of individuals due to normal growth are not considered alterations... significantly the scope of population covered (for example, expansion of a system of records covering a...

  1. Tungsten Mobility During Alteration Processes: An Experimental Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, N. H.; Fabre, S.; Quitté, G.

    2016-08-01

    Most chondrites show evidence of relatively low temperature alteration. Mass-dependent fractionation of non-traditional stable isotopes such as tungsten (W) are well suited to trace metal-silicate differentiation and alteration processes.

  2. Recent Advances in Petroleum Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have extended our understanding of the metabolic processes related to microbial transformation of petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiological responses of microorganisms to the presence of hydrocarbons, including cell surface alterations and adaptive mechanisms for uptake and efflux of these substrates, have been characterized. New molecular techniques have enhanced our ability to investigate the dynamics of microbial communities in petroleum-impacted ecosystems. By establishing conditions which maximize rates and extents of microbial growth, hydrocarbon access, and transformation, highly accelerated and bioreactor-based petroleum waste degradation processes have been implemented. Biofilters capable of removing and biodegrading volatile petroleum contaminants in air streams with short substrate-microbe contact times (<60 s) are being used effectively. Microbes are being injected into partially spent petroleum reservoirs to enhance oil recovery. However, these microbial processes have not exhibited consistent and effective performance, primarily because of our inability to control conditions in the subsurface environment. Microbes may be exploited to break stable oilfield emulsions to produce pipeline quality oil. There is interest in replacing physical oil desulfurization processes with biodesulfurization methods through promotion of selective sulfur removal without degradation of associated carbon moieties. However, since microbes require an environment containing some water, a two-phase oil-water system must be established to optimize contact between the microbes and the hydrocarbon, and such an emulsion is not easily created with viscous crude oil. This challenge may be circumvented by application of the technology to more refined gasoline and diesel substrates, where aqueous-hydrocarbon emulsions are more easily generated. Molecular approaches are being used to broaden the substrate specificity and increase the rates and

  3. Altered sensory feedbacks in pianist's dystonia: the altered auditory feedback paradigm and the glove effect

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Felicia P.-H.; Großbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the effect of altered auditory feedback (AAF) in musician's dystonia (MD) and discusses whether AAF can be considered as a sensory trick in MD. Furthermore, the effect of AAF is compared with altered tactile feedback, which can serve as a sensory trick in several other forms of focal dystonia. Methods: The method is based on scale analysis (Jabusch et al., 2004). Experiment 1 employs synchronization paradigm: 12 MD patients and 25 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in synchrony with a metronome on a MIDI-piano with three auditory feedback conditions: (1) normal feedback; (2) no feedback; (3) constant delayed feedback. Experiment 2 employs synchronization-continuation paradigm: 12 MD patients and 12 healthy pianists had to repeatedly play C-major scales in two phases: first in synchrony with a metronome, secondly continue the established tempo without the metronome. There are four experimental conditions, among them three are the same AAF as in Experiment 1 and 1 is related to altered tactile sensory input. The coefficient of variation of inter-onset intervals of the key depressions was calculated to evaluate fine motor control. Results: In both experiments, the healthy controls and the patients behaved very similarly. There is no difference in the regularity of playing between the two groups under any condition, and neither did AAF nor did altered tactile feedback have a beneficial effect on patients' fine motor control. Conclusions: The results of the two experiments suggest that in the context of our experimental designs, AAF and altered tactile feedback play a minor role in motor coordination in patients with musicians' dystonia. We propose that altered auditory and tactile feedback do not serve as effective sensory tricks and may not temporarily reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from MD in this experimental context. PMID:24381552

  4. Spectroscopic mapping of the white horse alunite deposit, Marysvale volcanic field, Utah: Evidence of a magmatic component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, B.W.; Cunningham, C.G.; Breit, G.N.; Rye, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the replacement alunite deposits just north of the town of Marysvale, Utah, USA, were formed primarily by low-temperature (100??-170?? C), steam-heated processes near the early Miocene paleoground surface, immediately above convecting hydrothermal plumes. Pyrite-bearing propylitically altered rocks occur mainly beneath the steam-heated alunite and represent the sulfidized feeder zone of the H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids, the oxidation of which at higher levels led to the formation of the alunite. Maps of surface mineralogy at the White Horse deposit generated from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used in conjunction with X-ray diffraction studies of field samples to test the accuracy and precision of AVIRIS-based mineral mapping of altered rocks and demonstrate the utility of spectroscopic mapping for ore deposit characterization. The mineral maps identified multiple core zones of alunite that grade laterally outward to kaolinite. Surrounding the core zones are dominantly propylitically altered rocks containing illite, montmorillonite, and chlorite, with minor pyrite, kaolinite, gypsum, and remnant potassium feldspar from the parent rhyodacitic ash-flow tuff. The AVIRIS mapping also identified fracture zones expressed by ridge-forming selvages of quartz + dickite + kaolinite that form a crude ring around the advanced argillic core zones. Laboratory analyses identified the aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals woodhouseite and svanbergite in one sample from these dickite-bearing argillic selvages. Reflectance spectroscopy determined that the outer edges of the selvages contain more dickite than do the medial regions. The quartz + dickite ?? kaolinite ?? APS-mineral selvages demonstrate that fracture control of replacement processes is more prevalent away from the advanced argillic core zones. Although not exposed at the White Horse deposit, pyrophyllite ?? ordered illite was identified

  5. Compounds altering fat storage in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Rita; Garreta, Elba; Campos, Bruno; Lemos, Marco F L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Tauler, Romà; Barata, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of lipid disruptive effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the lipid metabolic pathways. A recent study showed that tributyltin activated the ecdysteroid, juvenile hormone and retinoic X receptor signaling pathways, and disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in post-spawning females. Tributyltin disruptive effects correlated with lower fitness for offspring and adults. The present study aims to addresses effects of existing compounds on storage lipids in post-spawning females and their health effects. D. magna individuals were exposed 12 chemicals that included vertebrate obesogens (tributyltin, triphenyltin, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), other contaminants known to affect arthropods (pyriproxyfen, fenarimol, methoprene, emamectin benzoate and fluoxetine), as well as the natural hormones methyl farnesoate and 20-hydroxyecdysone. Reproductive effects were also assessed. Quantitative changes in storage lipids accumulated in lipid droplets were studied using Nile red staining, which showed a close relationship with whole organism levels of triacylglycerols. Ten compounds altered storage lipids in a concentration related manner enhancing (tributyltin, bisphenol A, methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen and 20-hydroxyecdysone) or decreasing (nonylphenol, fenarimol, emamectin benzoate, methoprene and fluoxetine) their levels in post-spawning females. Eight compounds that altered lipid levels also had detrimental effects on growth and/or reproduction. PMID:26747981

  6. Compounds altering fat storage in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Jordão, Rita; Garreta, Elba; Campos, Bruno; Lemos, Marco F L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Tauler, Romà; Barata, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of lipid disruptive effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the lipid metabolic pathways. A recent study showed that tributyltin activated the ecdysteroid, juvenile hormone and retinoic X receptor signaling pathways, and disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids in the crustacean Daphnia magna impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in post-spawning females. Tributyltin disruptive effects correlated with lower fitness for offspring and adults. The present study aims to addresses effects of existing compounds on storage lipids in post-spawning females and their health effects. D. magna individuals were exposed 12 chemicals that included vertebrate obesogens (tributyltin, triphenyltin, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), other contaminants known to affect arthropods (pyriproxyfen, fenarimol, methoprene, emamectin benzoate and fluoxetine), as well as the natural hormones methyl farnesoate and 20-hydroxyecdysone. Reproductive effects were also assessed. Quantitative changes in storage lipids accumulated in lipid droplets were studied using Nile red staining, which showed a close relationship with whole organism levels of triacylglycerols. Ten compounds altered storage lipids in a concentration related manner enhancing (tributyltin, bisphenol A, methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen and 20-hydroxyecdysone) or decreasing (nonylphenol, fenarimol, emamectin benzoate, methoprene and fluoxetine) their levels in post-spawning females. Eight compounds that altered lipid levels also had detrimental effects on growth and/or reproduction.

  7. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered stress responses.

    PubMed

    Crews, David; Gillette, Ross; Scarpino, Samuel V; Manikkam, Mohan; Savenkova, Marina I; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-06-01

    Ancestral environmental exposures have previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and influence all aspects of an individual's life history. In addition, proximate life events such as chronic stress have documented effects on the development of physiological, neural, and behavioral phenotypes in adulthood. We used a systems biology approach to investigate in male rats the interaction of the ancestral modifications carried transgenerationally in the germ line and the proximate modifications involving chronic restraint stress during adolescence. We find that a single exposure to a common-use fungicide (vinclozolin) three generations removed alters the physiology, behavior, metabolic activity, and transcriptome in discrete brain nuclei in descendant males, causing them to respond differently to chronic restraint stress. This alteration of baseline brain development promotes a change in neural genomic activity that correlates with changes in physiology and behavior, revealing the interaction of genetics, environment, and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance in the shaping of the adult phenotype. This is an important demonstration in an animal that ancestral exposure to an environmental compound modifies how descendants of these progenitor individuals perceive and respond to a stress challenge experienced during their own life history.

  8. Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research.

    PubMed

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one's child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (research) for their child, especially as part of the first wave(s) of PGA research participants and especially for non-medically oriented purposes. This is because doing otherwise is inconsistent with a plausible and defensible understanding of virtuous parenting and parental virtues, founded on a genuine concern for promoting the overall flourishing of the eventual child. In essence, given the current and foreseeable state of the art, parents who allow prenatal genetic alteration of their children are less-than-virtuous parents to those children, even in cases where they have a right to do so and even if PGA turns out to be beneficial to the eventual child. PMID:26160602

  9. Altered sense of humor in dementia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L; Cohen, Miriam H; Woodward, Felix J; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications.

  10. Altered Sense of Humor in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Gordon, Elizabeth; Golden, Hannah L.; Cohen, Miriam H.; Woodward, Felix J.; Macpherson, Kirsty; Slattery, Catherine F.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Sense of humor is potentially relevant to social functioning in dementias, but has been little studied in these diseases. We designed a semi-structured informant questionnaire to assess humor behavior and preferences in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 15), semantic dementia (SD; n = 7), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 10), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 16) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 21). Altered (including frankly inappropriate) humor responses were significantly more frequent in bvFTD and SD (all patients) than PNFA or AD (around 40% of patients). All patient groups liked satirical and absurdist comedy significantly less than did healthy controls. This pattern was reported premorbidly for satirical comedy in bvFTD, PNFA, and AD. Liking for slapstick comedy did not differ between groups. Altered sense of humor is particularly salient in bvFTD and SD, but also frequent in AD and PNFA. Humor may be a sensitive probe of social cognitive impairment in dementia, with diagnostic, biomarker and social implications. PMID:26444779

  11. Aqueous Alteration Mineralogy in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chokai, J.; Zolensky, M.; Le, L.; Nakamura, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Monkawa, A.; Koizumi, E.; Miyamoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    Iron-nickel sulfides are found in most or all solar system environments, and are probably the only minerals found in all extraterrestrial materials on hand. Despite the ubiquity, they have not received the attention they deserve. The most common Fe-Ni sulfides in chondrites are troilite (FeS), pyrrhotite (Fe1- XS) and pentlandite (Fe,Ni)9S8. Troilite is believed to have resulted from sulfidation of metal (Fe-Ni) grains in an H2Scontaining environment. Pyrrhotite is produced when friable troilite grains, which are exfoliated from the metal nucleus, are submitted to continued sulfidation [1]. Some asteroids are known to have experienced aqueous alteration, forming products including new generations of sulfides (pyrrhotite and pentlandite). Pentlandite in particular is known to form during such alteration [1]. However, experimental work by Lauretta has indicated that pentlandite may also have been formed during the initial sulfidation process [2], due to the faster diffusion rate of nickel into the forming sulfide, as compared to iron. Finally, there is considerable evidence [1,3&4] for a family of phases intermediate between pyrrhotite and pentlandite, following the trend of the high temperature monosulfide solid solution [5], something not encountered in terrestrial rocks.

  12. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. PMID:26902479

  13. Synaptic protein alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Burn, David; Morris, Christopher; Dexter, David

    2012-02-01

    Alterations occur within distal neuronal compartments, including axons and synapses, during the course of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). These changes could hold important implications for the functioning of neural networks, especially since research studies have shown a loss of dendritic spines locating to medium spiny projection neurons and impaired axonal transport in PD-affected brains. However, despite ever-increasing awareness of the vulnerability of synapses and axons, inadequate understanding of the independent mechanisms regulating non-somatic neurodegeneration prevails. This has resulted in limited therapeutic strategies capable of targeting these distinct cellular compartments. Deregulated protein synthesis, folding and degrading proteins, and protein quality-control systems have repeatedly been linked with morphological and functional alterations of synapses in the PD-affected brains. Here, we review current understanding concerning the proteins involved in structural and functional changes that affect synaptic contact-points in PD. The collection of studies discussed emphasizes the need for developing therapeutics aimed at deregulated protein synthesis and degradation pathways operating at axonal and dendritic synapses for preserving "normal" circuitry and function, for as long as possible.

  14. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    PubMed

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  15. Nucleolar proteins change in altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, M. A.; Kordyum, E. L.; Gonzalez-Camacho, F.; Medina, F. J.

    Discovery of gravisensitivity of cells no specified to gravity perception focused continuous attention on an elucidation of mechanisms involved in altered gravity effects at the different levels of cellular organization A nucleolus is the nuclear domain in which the major portion of ribosome biogenesis takes place This is a basic process for cell vitality beginning with the transcription of rDNA followed by processing newly synthesized pre-rRNA molecules A wide range of nucleolar proteins plays a highly significant role in all stages of biosynthesis of ribosomes Different steps of ribosome biogenesis should respond to various external factors affecting generally the cell metabolism Nevertheless a nucleolus remains not enough studied under the influence of altered environmental conditions For this reason we studied root apices from 2-day old Lepidium sativum seedlings germinated and grown under slow horizontal clinorotation and stationary conditions in darkness The extraction of cell nuclei followed by sequential fractionation of nuclear proteins according to their solubility in buffers of increasing ionic strength was carried out This procedure gave rise to 5 distinct fractions We analyzed nuclear subproteomes of the most soluble fraction called S2 It is actually a functionally significant fraction consisting of ribonucleoproteins actively engaged in pre-rRNA synthesis and processing 2D-electrophoresis of S2 fraction proteins was carried out The gels were silver stained and stained gels were scanned and analyzed

  16. Obesity promotes alterations in iron recycling.

    PubMed

    Citelli, Marta; Fonte-Faria, Thaís; Nascimento-Silva, Vany; Renovato-Martins, Mariana; Silva, Raphael; Luna, Aderval Severino; Silva, Simone Vargas da; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN), a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  17. Altered pharyngeal muscles in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Beach, Thomas G

    2012-06-01

    Dysphagia (impaired swallowing) is common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and is related to aspiration pneumonia, the primary cause of death in PD. Therapies that ameliorate the limb motor symptoms of PD are ineffective for dysphagia. This suggests that the pathophysiology of PD dysphagia may differ from that affecting limb muscles, but little is known about potential neuromuscular abnormalities in the swallowing muscles in PD. This study examined the fiber histochemistry of pharyngeal constrictor and cricopharyngeal sphincter muscles in postmortem specimens from 8 subjects with PD and 4 age-matched control subjects. Pharyngeal muscles in subjects with PD exhibited many atrophic fibers, fiber type grouping, and fast-to-slow myosin heavy chain transformation. These alterations indicate that the pharyngeal muscles experienced neural degeneration and regeneration over the course of PD. Notably, subjects with PD with dysphagia had a higher percentage of atrophic myofibers versus with those without dysphagia and controls. The fast-to-slow fiber-type transition is consistent with abnormalities in swallowing, slow movement of food, and increased tone in the cricopharyngeal sphincter in subjects with PD. The alterations in the pharyngeal muscles may play a pathogenic role in the development of dysphagia in subjects with PD.

  18. Obesity promotes alterations in iron recycling.

    PubMed

    Citelli, Marta; Fonte-Faria, Thaís; Nascimento-Silva, Vany; Renovato-Martins, Mariana; Silva, Raphael; Luna, Aderval Severino; Silva, Simone Vargas da; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN), a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function. PMID:25569627

  19. Childhood nail alterations in Polish population.

    PubMed

    Sobjanek, Michał; Michajłowski, Igor; Konczalska, Monika; Włodarkiewicz, Adam; Roszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology and nature of childhood nail apparatus pathology is not well known. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and nature of nail alterations in Polish pediatric patients. Among 1588 patients diagnosed and treated at our clinic due to nail alterations, 82 (5.16%) patients under age 16 were selected. The most frequent (36.59%) diagnosis were variants of normal nails, which were observed in 30 patients. The most common pathology were viral warts (19.51%). Differences in the distribution of onychomycosis and viral warts in children and adults were statistically significant. Onychomycosis was more common in adults (60.39% vs. 9.76%), whereas viral warts were more common in children (19.51% vs. 5.86%; P<0.0001). Melanonychia was diagnosed in one (1.22%) case. Benign and malignant tumors were not observed. In conclusion, distribution of nail apparatus pathology in children is different comparing with adults. In the group of children under 6 years of age, there were mainly variants of normal nails, whereas in older children viral infection and acquired structural disorders were recorded. The risk of nail apparatus malignancy in childhood seems to be extremely low. PMID:22726282

  20. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Espen Borgå; Killeen, Peter R; Russell, Vivienne A; Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R; Tannock, Rosemary; Williams, Jonathan; Sagvolden, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD. PMID:19226460