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Sample records for advanced backcross population

  1. A New Advanced Backcross Tomato Population Enables High Resolution Leaf QTL Mapping and Gene Identification

    PubMed Central

    Fulop, Daniel; Ranjan, Aashish; Ofner, Itai; Covington, Michael F.; Chitwood, Daniel H.; West, Donelly; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Headland, Lauren; Zamir, Daniel; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL) design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL) population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii. This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping. PMID:27510891

  2. Evaluation of a M-202x Oryza nivara advanced backcross population for seedling vigor, agronomic traits, yield components, yield and grain quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza nivara, the ancestral species of cultivated rice (O. sativa) is the source of novel alleles for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress lost during domestication, including those for improved yield. Interspecific advanced backcross (ABC) populations permit both the introgression of desirable ...

  3. Analysis of QTLs for yield components, agronomic traits, and disease resistance in an advanced backcross population of spring barley.

    PubMed

    Li, J Z; Huang, X Q; Heinrichs, F; Ganal, M W; Röder, M S

    2006-05-01

    Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of barley, is a potential source of useful genetic variation for barley breeding programs. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an advanced backcross population of barley. A total of 207 BC3 lines were developed using the 2-rowed German spring cultivar Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Brenda' as a recurrent parent and the H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum accession HS584 as a donor parent. The lines were genotyped by 108 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers and evaluated in field tests for the measurement of grain yield and its components, such as ear length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, spike number, and 1000-grain mass, as well as heading date and plant height. A total of 100 QTLs were detected. Ten QTLs with increasing effects were found for ear length, spikelet number, and grain number per spike. Three QTLs contributed by HS584 were found to significantly decrease days to heading across all years at 2 locations. In addition, 2 QTLs from HS584 on chromosomes 2H and 3H were associated with resistance to leaf rust. Based on genotypic data obtained from this population, 55 introgression lines carrying 1 or 2 donor segments were selected to develop a set of doubled-haploid lines, which will be used to reconfirm and investigate the effects of 100 QTLs for future genetic studies.

  4. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm.

  5. Advanced backcross QTL mapping of resistance to Fusarium head blight and plant morphological traits in a Triticum macha × T. aestivum population.

    PubMed

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Lemmens, Marc; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2011-07-01

    While many reports on genetic analysis of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in bread wheat have been published during the past decade, only limited information is available on FHB resistance derived from wheat relatives. In this contribution, we report on the genetic analysis of FHB resistance derived from Triticum macha (Georgian spelt wheat). As the origin of T. macha is in the Caucasian region, it is supposed that its FHB resistance differs from other well-investigated resistance sources. To introduce valuable alleles from the landrace T. macha into a modern genetic background, we adopted an advanced backcross QTL mapping scheme. A backcross-derived recombinant-inbred line population of 321 BC(2)F(3) lines was developed from a cross of T. macha with the Austrian winter wheat cultivar Furore. The population was evaluated for Fusarium resistance in seven field experiments during four seasons using artificial inoculations. A total of 300 lines of the population were genetically fingerprinted using SSR and AFLP markers. The resulting linkage map covered 33 linkage groups with 560 markers. Five novel FHB-resistance QTL, all descending from T. macha, were found on four chromosomes (2A, 2B, 5A, 5B). Several QTL for morphological and developmental traits were mapped in the same population, which partly overlapped with FHB-resistance QTL. Only the 2BL FHB-resistance QTL co-located with a plant height QTL. The largest-effect FHB-resistance QTL in this population mapped at the spelt-type locus on chromosome 5A and was associated with the wild-type allele q, but it is unclear whether q has a pleiotropic effect on FHB resistance or is closely linked to a nearby resistance QTL.

  6. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: II. Genetic analysis of seedling and field resistance against leaf rust in a wheat advanced backcross population.

    PubMed

    Naz, Ali Ahmad; Kunert, Antje; Lind, Volker; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2008-05-01

    The present study aimed to localize exotic quantitative trait locus (QTL) alleles for the improvement of leaf rust (P. triticina) resistance in an advanced backcross (AB) population, B22, which is derived from a cross between the winter wheat cultivar Batis (Triticum aestivum) and the synthetic wheat accession Syn022L. The latter was developed from hybridization of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides and T. tauschii. Altogether, 250 BC2F3 lines of B22 were assessed for seedling resistance against the leaf rust isolate 77WxR under controlled conditions. In addition, field resistance against leaf rust was evaluated by assessing symptom severity under natural infestation across multiple environments. Simultaneously, population B22 was genotyped with a total of 97 SSR markers, distributed over the wheat A, B and D genomes. The phenotype and genotype data were subjected to QTL analysis by applying a 3-factorial mixed model analysis of variance including the marker genotype as a fixed effect and the environments, the lines and the marker by environment interactions as random effects. The QTL analysis revealed six putative QTLs for seedling resistance and seven for field resistance. For seedling resistance, the effects of exotic QTL alleles improved resistance at all detected loci. The maximum decrease of disease symptoms (-46.3%) was associated with marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D. For field resistance, two loci had stable main effects across environments and five loci exhibited marker by environment interaction effects. The strongest effects were detected at marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D, at which the exotic allele decreased seedling symptoms by 46.3% and field symptoms by 43.6%, respectively. Some of the detected QTLs co-localized with known resistance genes, while others appear to be as novel resistance loci. Our findings indicate, that the exotic wheat accession Syn022L may be useful for the improvement of leaf rust resistance in cultivated wheat.

  7. Identification of QTL for Early Vigor and Stay-Green Conferring Tolerance to Drought in Two Connected Advanced Backcross Populations in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Samuel; Sun, Dapeng; SanVicente, Felix M; Zheng, Hongjian; Atlin, Gary N; Suarez, Edgar Antonio; Babu, Raman; Zhang, Xuecai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26-31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13-17; additivity: 0.1-0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop, DS

  8. Identification of QTL for Early Vigor and Stay-Green Conferring Tolerance to Drought in Two Connected Advanced Backcross Populations in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Trachsel, Samuel; Sun, Dapeng; SanVicente, Felix M.; Zheng, Hongjian; Atlin, Gary N.; Suarez, Edgar Antonio; Babu, Raman; Zhang, Xuecai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26–31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13–17; additivity: 0.1–0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop

  9. Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci for grain yield components from a dent corn inbred line in an advanced backcross BC2F2 population and comparison with its F2:3 population in popcorn.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Niu, S Z; Dong, Y B; Cui, D Q; Wang, Y Z; Liu, Y Y; Wei, M G

    2007-06-01

    Normal maize germplasm could be used to improve the grain yield of popcorn inbreds. Our first objective was to locate genetic factors associated with trait variation and make first assessment on the efficiency of advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis for the identification and transfer of favorable QTL alleles for grain yield components from the dent corn inbred. A second objective was to compare the detection of QTL in the BC2F2 population with results using F(2:3) lines of the same parents. Two hundred and twenty selected BC2F2 families developed from a cross between Dan232 and an elite popcorn inbred N04 were evaluated for six grain yield components under two environments, and genotyped by means of 170 SSR markers. Using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 19 significant QTL were detected. Eighteen QTL had favorable alleles contributed by the dent corn parent Dan232. Sixteen of these favorable QTL alleles were not in the same or near marker intervals with QTL for popping characteristics. Six QTL were also detected in the F(2:3) population. Improved N04 could be developed from 210 and 208 families with higher grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight, respectively, and 35 families with the same or higher popping expansion volume than N04. In addition, near isogenic lines containing detected QTL (QTL-NILs) for grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight could be obtained from 12 families. Our study demonstrated that the AB-QTL method can be applied to identify and manipulate favorable QTL alleles from normal corn inbreds and combine QTL detection and popcorn breeding efficiently. PMID:17492267

  10. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a

  11. Analysis of quantitative trait loci affecting chlorophyll content of rice leaves in a double haploid population and two backcross populations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Gonghao; Zeng, Jing; He, Yuqing

    2014-02-25

    Chlorophyll content, one of the most important physiological parameters related to plant photosynthesis, is usually used to predict yield potential. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the chlorophyll content of rice leaves, a double haploid (DH) population was developed from an indica/japonica (Zhenshan 97/Wuyujing 2) crossing and two backcross populations were established subsequently by backcrossing DH lines with each of their parents. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were determined by using a spectrophotometer to directly measure the leaf chlorophyll extracts. To determine the leaf chlorophyll retention along with maturation, all measurements were performed on the day of heading and were repeated 30 days later. A total of 60 QTLs were resolved for all the traits using these three populations. These QTLs were distributed on 10 rice chromosomes, except chromosomes 5 and 10; the closer the traits, the more clustering of the QTLs residing on common rice chromosomal regions. In general, the majority of QTLs that specify chlorophyll a content also play a role in determining chlorophyll b content. Strangely, chlorophyll content in this study was found mostly to be lacking or to have a negative correlation with yield. In both backcross F1 populations, overdominant (or underdominant) loci were more important than complete or partially dominant loci for main-effect QTLs and epistatic QTLs, thereby supporting previous findings that overdominant effects are the primary genetic basis for depression in inbreeding and heterosis in rice.

  12. Identifying Rare FHB-Resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anthony J.; Sarti-Dvorjak, Daniela; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Dong, Yanhong; Baik, Byung-Kee; Van Sanford, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476) with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS) and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL) to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over 2 years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7% on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012) and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an “all or nothing

  13. Hybridization but No Evidence for Backcrossing and Introgression in a Sympatric Population of Great Reed Warblers and Clamorous Reed Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Tarka, Maja; Dawson, Deborah A.; Horsburgh, Gavin J.

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization is observed frequently in birds, but often it is not known whether the hybrids are fertile and if backcrossing occurs. The breeding ranges of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and the clamorous reed warbler (A. stentoreus) overlap in southern Kazakhstan and a previous study has documented hybridization in a sympatric population. In the present study, we first present a large set of novel microsatellite loci isolated and characterised in great reed warblers. Secondly, we evaluate whether hybridization in the sympatric breeding population has been followed by backcrossing and introgression. We isolated 181 unique microsatellite loci in great reed warblers. Of 41 loci evaluated, 40 amplified and 30 were polymorphic. Bayesian clustering analyses based on genotype data from 23 autosomal loci recognised two well-defined genetic clusters corresponding to the two species. Individuals clustered to a very high extent to either of these clusters (admixture proportions ≥0.984) with the exception of four previously suggested arundinaceus–stentoreus hybrid birds that showed mixed ancestry (admixture proportions 0.495–0.619). Analyses of simulated hybrids and backcrossed individuals showed that the sampled birds do not correspond to first–fourth-generation backcrosses, and that fifth or higher generation backcrosses to a high extent resemble ‘pure’ birds at this set of markers. We conclude that these novel microsatellite loci provide a useful molecular resource for Acrocephalus warblers. The time to reach reproductive isolation is believed to be very long in birds, approximately 5 Myrs, and with an estimated divergence time of 2 Myrs between these warblers, some backcrossing and introgression could have been expected. However, there was no evidence for backcrossing and introgression suggesting that hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. Very low levels of introgression cannot be excluded, which still may be an important

  14. Saturated Molecular Map of the Rice Genome Based on an Interspecific Backcross Population

    PubMed Central

    Causse, M. A.; Fulton, T. M.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, S. N.; Chunwongse, J.; Wu, K.; Xiao, J.; Yu, Z.; Ronald, P. C.; Harrington, S. E.; Second, G.; McCouch, S. R.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    A molecular map has been constructed for the rice genome comprised of 726 markers (mainly restriction fragment length polymorphisms; RFLPs). The mapping population was derived from a backcross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and its wild African relative, Oryza longistaminata. The very high level of polymorphism between these species, combined with the use of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA libraries, contributed to mapping efficiency. A subset of the probes used in this study was previously used to construct an RFLP map derived from an inter subspecific cross, providing a basis for comparison of the two maps and of the relative mapping efficiencies in the two crosses. In addition to the previously described PstI genomic rice library, three cDNA libraries from rice (Oryza), oat (Avena) and barley (Hordeum) were used in this mapping project. Levels of polymorphism detected by each and the frequency of identifying heterologous sequences for use in rice mapping are discussed. Though strong reproductive barriers isolate O. sativa from O. longistaminata, the percentage of markers showing distorted segregation in this backcross population was not significantly different than that observed in an intraspecific F(2) population previously used for mapping. The map contains 1491 cM with an average interval size of 4.0 cM on the framework map, and 2.0 cM overall. A total of 238 markers from the previously described PstI genomic rice library, 250 markers from a cDNA library of rice (Oryza), 112 cDNA markers from oat (Avena), and 20 cDNA markers from a barley (Hordeum) library, two genomic clones from maize (Zea), 11 microsatellite markers, three telomere markers, eleven isozymes, 26 cloned genes, six RAPD, and 47 mutant phenotypes were used in this mapping project. Applications of a molecular map for plant improvement are discussed. PMID:7896104

  15. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa.

    PubMed

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R; Nice, Chris C

    2013-08-20

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids.

  16. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa

    PubMed Central

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S.; Gabor, Caitlin R.; Nice, Chris C.

    2013-01-01

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids. PMID:23918384

  17. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Lü, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC(2)F(2) , was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC(2)F(2) fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C(16) monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss.

  18. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. PMID:27342735

  19. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. PMID:27342735

  20. A comparative transcriptome analysis of two sets of backcross inbred lines differing in lint-yield derived from a Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense population.

    PubMed

    Man, Wu; Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Xihua; Xie, Xiaobing; Pei, Wenfeng; Yu, Jiwen; Yu, Shuxun; Zhang, Jinfa

    2016-08-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop, and its lint-yield improvement is impeded due to its narrow genetic base and the lack of understanding of the genetic basis of yield. Backcross inbred lines (BILs) or near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the same genetic background differing in lint yield, developed through advanced backcrossing, provide an important genomic resource to study the molecular genetic basis of lint yield. In the present study, a high-yield (HY) group and a low-yield (LY) group each with three BILs were selected from a BIL population between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Using a microarray-based comparative transcriptome analysis on developing fibers at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) between the two groups, 1486 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. A total of 212 DEGs were further mapped in the regions of 24 yield QTL and 11 yield trait QTL hotspots as reported previously, and 81 DEGs mapped with the 7 lint-yield QTL identified in the BIL population from which the two sets of BILs were selected. Gene Ontology annotations and Blast-Mapping-Annotation-KEGG analysis via Blast2GO revealed that more DEGs were associated with catalytic activity and binding, followed by transporters, nucleic acid binding transcription factors, structural molecules and molecular transducer activities. Six DEGs were chosen for a quantitative RT-PCR assay, and the results were consistent with the microarray analysis. The development of DEGs-based markers revealed that 7 single strand conformation polymorphism-based single nucleotide polymorphic (SSCP-SNP) markers were associated with yield traits, and 3 markers with lint yield. In the present study, we identified a number of yield and yield component QTL-co-localizing DEGs and developed several DEG-based SSCP-SNP markers for the traits, thereby providing a set of candidate genes for molecular breeding and genetic manipulation of lint yield in cotton. PMID:27256327

  1. Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

    2013-07-08

    Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

  2. Identification of novel loci associated with gastrointestinal parasite resistance in a Red Maasai x Dorper backcross population.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M; Gibson, John P; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089

  3. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  4. Genetic mapping of QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight spread (type 2 resistance) in a Triticum dicoccoides × Triticum durum backcross-derived population.

    PubMed

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Alimari, Abdallah; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Improvement of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a continuous challenge for durum wheat breeders, particularly due to the limited genetic variation within this crop species. We accordingly generated a backcross-derived mapping population using the type 2 FHB resistant Triticum dicoccoides line Mt. Gerizim #36 as donor and the modern Austrian T. durum cultivar Helidur as recipient; 103 BC1F6:7 lines were phenotyped for type 2 FHB resistance using single-spikelet inoculations and genotyped with 421 DNA markers (SSR and AFLP). QTL mapping revealed two highly significant QTL, mapping to chromosomes 3A and 6B, respectively. For both QTL the T. dicoccoides allele improved type 2 FHB resistance. Recombinant lines with both favorable alleles fixed conferred high resistance to FHB similar to that observed in the T. dicoccoides parent. The results appear directly applicable for durum wheat resistance breeding.

  5. Exploring sheath blight quantitative trait loci in a Lemont/O. meridionalis advanced backcross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza meridionalis is the wild Oryza species endemic to Australia. There are eight AA genome Oryza species, one of which is cultivated rice, O. sativa and O. meridionalis is the most diverged of the eight species. An O. eridionalis (IRGC105608) accession was identified as being moderately resistant...

  6. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods.

  7. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  8. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, M V B; Sonstegard, T S; Hanotte, O; Mugambi, J M; Garcia, J F; Nagda, S; Gibson, J P; Iraqi, F A; McClintock, A E; Kemp, S J; Boettcher, P J; Malek, M; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L

    2012-02-01

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F(1) rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AVPCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cm) were scored and corrected by Genoprob prior to qxpak analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL.

  10. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa.

  11. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa. PMID:14653804

  12. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  13. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability. PMID:26400358

  14. Genetic variation in salt tolerance during seed germination in a backcross inbred line population and advanced breeding lines derived from upland cotton x pima cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a crucial phase of the plant life cycle that affects its establishment and productivity. However, information on salt tolerance at this phase is limited. Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) may be more salt tolerant during germination than Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) based o...

  15. Central cell nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruity:a mechanism for segregation distortion in advanced backcross and selfed generations of (Allium cepa L. x Allium fistulosum L.) x A. cepa interspecific hybrid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mangum, P D; Peffley, E B

    2005-01-01

    A model is presented as an explanation for an anomaly observed in germination and establishment and isozyme segregation patterns in Allium cepa x A. fistulosum F2BC3 populations generated in an introgression-breeding program. The F1BC3 parent of these populations was selected for its heterozygous PGI phenotype, Pgi-1(2/3); Pgi-1(2) was inherited from an A. cepa (Ac) seed parent and Pgi-1(3) from an A. fistulosum (Af) pollen parent. Germination and establishment was recorded for the F2BC3 progeny population. Segregation of Ac and Af Pgi-1 alleles was investigated in F2BC3 seeds and embryo and endosperm tissue was isolated and tested for isozyme expression. A pooled goodness-of-fit test of the segregation of Pgi-1 alleles in the populations to the expected Mendelian 1:2:1 ratio using the chi-square statistic gave a chi2 = 185.9, well beyond the accepted limits at 2 degrees of freedom. The 1:2:1 ratio expected for simple Mendelian inheritance was rejected, while a pooled chi-square goodness-of-fit test of the segregation of Pgi-1 alleles in the populations fit a 1:1 ratio with a chi2 = 0.203, based on the incongruity model. We present here the central cell nuclear-cytoplasmic incongruity hypothesis to explain the observed anomalies. PMID:15753603

  16. Modes of inheritance of two apomixis components, diplospory and parthenogenesis, in Chinese chive (Allium ramosum) revealed by analysis of the segregating population generated by back-crossing between amphimictic and apomictic diploids.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ken-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Yoshiko; Namai, Kiyoshi; Amagai, Masayuki; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Wako, Tadayuki; Kojima, Akio

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the mode of inheritance of apomixis in Chinese chive, the degrees of diplospory and parthenogenesis were evaluated in F(1) and BC(1) progenies derived from crosses between amphimictic and apomictic diploids (2n = 16, 2x). The F(1) population was generated by crossing three amphimictic diploids 94Mo13, 94Mo49 and 94Mo50 with an apomictic diploid KaD2 and comprised 110 diploids and 773 triploids. All the diploid F(1) plants examined were completely or highly eusporous and completely syngamic. All the triploid F(1) plants examined were highly diplosporous and highly parthenogenetic. KaD2 could not transmit its high level of apomixis via monoploid pollen grains. The BC(1) population, generated by crossing 94Mo49 with apomictic triploids found in the F(1) offspring, exhibited heteroploidy; it comprised haploid, diploid, triploid, tetraploid and various aneuploid individuals. In this generation, clear segregation was observed between diplospory and parthenogenesis. Analysis of the BC(1) population suggests that diplospory and parthenogenesis are each controlled by single dominant genes, D and P, respectively. However, all the BC(1) plants characterized as parthenogenetic were diplosporous. The absence of phenotypically eusporous parthenogenetic plants can be explained by assuming that the presence of diplospory gene is a prerequisite for the parthenogenesis gene expression in Chinese chive.

  17. [Population policy: substantial but insufficient advances].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Y Gonzalez, A

    1988-01-01

    Population policy was revised in Mexico in 1973 following the introduction of family planning and the abolition of rules prohibiting contraceptives. The laws of 1936 and 1947 favored population growth, but it was due to the improvement of public health (and the resulting drop in mortality rates), agricultural reform, and industrialization that an accelerated demographic expansion occurred. The National Council on Population (CONAPO) was created whose activities include family planning with modern contraceptive technology and maternal-infant health care. In accordance with the goals set in 1977, population growth is sought to be reduced to 1%/year by the year 2000. Public educational programs about reproduction, the family, and the community have been launched. The integration of women into the development of the country under the aegis of the Comision Nacional de las Mujer has not been fully achieved. The processing and analysis of demographic information for longterm policy development has also been limited. The lack of clear guidance from CONAPO has limited the involvement of state and municipal councils in the solution of Mexico's population problems. Future challenges will focus on the legal framework for reconciling public and private interests, and the interaction of population programs and economic and social development. The centralized decision making of population policy has involved more organizations, but still more needs to be done.

  18. Estimation of recombination frequency in bi-parental genetic populations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziqi; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Luyan; Wang, Jiankang

    2012-06-01

    Summary Linkage analysis plays an important role in genetic studies. In linkage analysis, accurate estimation of recombination frequency is essential. Many bi-parental populations have been used, and determining an appropriate population is of great importance in precise recombination frequency. In this study, we investigated the estimation efficiency of recombination frequency in 12 bi-parental populations. The criteria that we used for comparison were LOD score in testing linkage relationship, deviation between estimated and real recombination frequency, standard error (SE) of estimates and the least theoretical population size (PS) required to observe at least one recombinant and to declare the statistically significant linkage relationship. Theoretical and simulation results indicated that larger PS and smaller recombination frequency resulted in higher LOD score and smaller deviation. Lower LOD score, higher deviation and higher SE for estimating the recombination frequency in the advanced backcrossing and selfing populations are larger than those in backcross and F2 populations, respectively. For advanced backcrossing and selfing populations, larger populations were needed in order to observe at least one recombinant and to declare significant linkage. In comparison, in F2 and F3 populations higher LOD score, lower deviation and SE were observed for co-dominant markers. A much larger population was needed to observe at least one recombinant and to detect loose linkage for dominant and recessive markers. Therefore, advanced backcrossing and selfing populations had lower precision in estimating the recombination frequency. F2 and F3 populations together with co-dominant markers represent the ideal situation for linkage analysis and linkage map construction.

  19. Enhancement of Seedling Emergence in Sweet Corn by Marker-Assisted Backcrossing of Beneficial QTL.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Gad G.; Juvik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Seedling emergence is an important trait that can limit commercialization of sweet corn hybrids. This study was designed to test what effect beneficial QTL alleles that enhance seedling emergence exert when introgressed, using marker-assisted backcrossing, into sweet corn commercial germplasm. Three RFLP marker alleles linked to QTL that enhanced seedling emergence were identified in an F(2:3) sweet corn mapping population. A recombinant inbred line (RIL, F(8)) derived from this population was used as a donor parent to backcross the marker-QTL alleles into three elite commercial sweet corn inbreds. Plants in the three segregating BC(2) populations were crossed to the non-recurrent commercial inbreds to produce three BC(2)F(1) populations with families either segregating or lacking the marker donor allele(s). These three populations were evaluated for seedling emergence under field conditions in two successive years. Across the three populations, BC(2)F(1) families segregating for the donor QTL allele linked to the marker umc139 (on chromosome 2), bnl9.08 (on chromosome 8), or php200689 (on chromosome 1) displayed 40.8, 30.2, and 28.2% increases in seedling emergence, respectively, over the unmodified F(1)s. The introgressed QTL alleles were observed to enhance seedling emergence in the BC(2)F(1) generation as was observed in the original F(2:3) mapping population. Marker-QTL associated effects were reproducible across generations and populations indicating that QTL identified in one population can exert similar effects in different genetic backgrounds. Results suggest that using DNA marker technology can help to identify and introgress beneficial QTL alleles, shortening the time and resources required to develop improved germplasm. PMID:11756259

  20. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. PMID:27121752

  1. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  2. Moving the Dial to Advance Population Health Equity in New York City Asian American Populations

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C.; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S.

    2015-01-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity. PMID:25905858

  3. Moving the dial to advance population health equity in New York City Asian American populations.

    PubMed

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Park, Rebecca; Nadkarni, Smiti Kapadia; Islam, Nadia S

    2015-07-01

    The shift toward a health equity framework for eliminating the health disparities burden of racial/ethnic minority populations has moved away from a disease-focused model to a social determinants framework that aims to achieve the highest attainment of health for all. The New York University Center for the Study of Asian American Health (CSAAH) has identified core themes and strategies for advancing population health equity for Asian American populations in New York City that are rooted in the following: social determinants of health; multisectoral, community-engaged approaches; leveraging community assets; improved disaggregated data collection and access to care; and building sustainability through community leadership and infrastructure-building activities. We describe the strategies CSAAH employed to move the dial on population health equity.

  4. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  5. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  6. Reproductive isolation on interspecific backcross of F1 pollen to parental species, Hemerocallis fulva and H. citrina (Hemerocallidaceae).

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive failure of backcross could play important roles in determining the evolutionary outcome of hybridization. However, such studies have been somewhat fewer than those of the F1-producing cross and F1 x F1 cross. We conducted hand-pollination backcross experiments using Hemerocallis fulva, H. citrina, and their F1 hybrids. Seed set per flower of the backcrosses reduced to about 50% of the control cross, irrespective of ovule parent species. This symmetrical seed set reduction on the backcross might be caused by the death of backcross embryo as a result of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility by recessive alleles. PMID:18301862

  7. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  8. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    PubMed Central

    De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid banana genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated banana hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated banana hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591

  9. Beyond fruit-flies: population genomic advances in non-Drosophila arthropods.

    PubMed

    Hasselmann, Martin; Ferretti, Luca; Zayed, Amro

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the evolutionary processes driving the adaptive differentiation of populations is of broad interest in biology. Genome-wide nucleotide polymorphisms provide the basis for population genetic studies powered by advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies. These advances have led to an extension of genome projects to a variety of non-genetic model organisms, broadening our view on the evolution of gene families and taxonomic-restricted novelties. Here, we review the progress of genome projects in non-Drosophila arthropods, focusing on advances in the analysis of large-scale polymorphism data and functional genomics and examples of population genomic studies.

  10. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K; Halbach, T J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control) Holsteins or to unproven F(1) Jersey × Holstein crossbred sires to produce backcross animals, whereas nulliparous dams were mated to proven Holstein sires to produce purebred (other) Holsteins. Traits were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, sire, birth year of sire, days in milk, lactation, and linear type score evaluator. Control Holsteins had greater 305-d milk yield (12,645 vs. 11,456 kg), 305-d mature equivalent milk yield (13,420 vs. 12,180 kg), peak daily milk yield (49.5 vs. 46.4 kg), total lactation milk yield (11,556 vs. 10,796 kg), and daily fat-corrected milk yield (43 vs. 40 kg) compared with backcrosses. Days open and services per conception as a heifer or cow did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, or backcrosses. The proportion of first-parity births that required assistance was less in control Holsteins than in backcross cows (3.7 vs. 11.2%). The incidence of scours or respiratory problems in calves did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, and backcrosses, nor did the incidence of mastitis, injury, or feet problems. Control Holstein heifers were heavier (629 vs. 557 kg), with greater hip height (145 vs. 139 cm), body length (167 vs. 163 cm), heart girth (205 vs. 198 cm), and hip width (54 vs. 53 cm) at 22 mo of age. On a 50-point scale for linear type traits, Holsteins were larger in stature compared with backcrosses (41 vs. 28), had wider rumps (37 vs. 33), and wider rear udders (34 vs. 32). Results of this study suggest that backcross Holstein × Jersey cattle have

  11. Molecular advances in understanding social insect population structure.

    PubMed

    Crozier, R H; Oldroyd, B P; Tay, W T; Kaufmann, B E; Johnson, R N; Carew, M E; Jennings, K M

    1997-08-01

    Social insects present many phenomena seen in all organisms but in more extreme forms and with larger sample sizes than those observable in most natural populations of vertebrates. Microsatellites are proving very much more informative than allozymes for the analysis of population biological problems, and prolifically polymorphic markers are fairly readily developed. In addition, the male-haploid genetic system of many social insects facilitates genetic analysis. The ability to amplify DNA from sperm stored in a female's sperm storage device enables the determination of mating types long after the death of the short-lived males, in addition to information on the degree of mixing of sperm from different males. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences are also proving important, not only in phylogenetic studies but also in molecular population genetics, as a tracer of female movements. Mitochondrial markers have definitively shown the movement of females between colonies, challenging models giving exclusive primacy to kin selection as the explanation for multiqueen colonies, in Australian meat ants, Iridomyrmex purpureus, and the aridzone queenless ant Rhytidoponera sp. 12. Microsatellite and mtDNA variation are being studied in Camponotus consobrinus sugar ants, showing an unexpected diversity of complexity in colony structure, and microsatellites have shown that transfer of ants between nests of the weaver ant Polyrhachis doddi must be slight, despite an apparent lack of hostility.

  12. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops.

  13. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops. PMID:27145323

  14. Population policies in advanced societies: pronatalist and migration strategies.

    PubMed

    Hohn, C

    1988-07-01

    This paper gives examples of pronatalist and migration policies adopted by several European countries, and evaluates their effectiveness: migration is the only practical means of preventing population stagnation. The pronatalist policies of France, German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Romania range from a system of family support so complicated that a special bureau has been set up to interpret it in France, through increasing benefits such as paid maternity leave in GDR, to an inconsistent support system in Hungary to coercive measures in Romania. In 1966 Romania severely restricted abortion and divorce, and even screened working women for pregnancy to prevent abortion. It has been estimated that the effect of these policies has been marginal and temporary: 0.2-0.3 children per woman in France, 0.1 in GDR, and 0.2 in Romania. Childbearing fell to former levels rapidly in Romania, probably a result of illegal abortion. Probably other social policies, such as housing infrastructure and child-care facilities, affect childbearing as much or more so than pronatalist measures. The migration policies of the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland are described. Most have varied over the years, entailing several rationales, such as humanitarianism, recruitment of workers, providing asylum to refugees, as well as maintaining population levels. Success of policies depends on economic conditions, social tensions regarding integration of foreigners and naturalization policies. Pronatalist policies in general are not very effective unless extremely costly and continuous, but they do provide social justice for parents. The solution to prevent harsh changes in population age structure is ultimately to allow migration from less developed countries. To make either of these policies effective, emancipation of (especially male) parents, and education of people about other cultures will be required.

  15. Inheritance of GFP-Bt transgenes from Brassica napus in backcrosses with three wild B. rapa accessions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Lawrence, John R; Warwick, Suzanne I; Mason, Peter; Braun, Lorraine; Halfhill, Matthew D; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Transgenes from transgenic oilseed rape, Brassica napus (AACC genome), can introgress into populations of wild B. rapa (AA genome), but little is known about the long-term persistence of transgenes from different transformation events. For example, transgenes that are located on the crop's C chromosomes may be lost during the process of introgression. We investigated the genetic behavior of transgenes in backcross generations of wild B. rapa after nine GFP (green fluorescent protein)-Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) B. napus lines, named GT lines, were hybridized with three wild B. rapa accessions, respectively. Each backcross generation involved crosses between hemizygous GT plants and non-GT B. rapa pollen recipients. In some cases, sample sizes were too small to allow the detection of major deviations from Mendelian segregation ratios, but the segregation of GT:non-GT was consistent with an expected ratio of 1:1 in all crosses in the BC1 generation. Starting with the BC2 generation, significantly different genetic behavior of the transgenes was observed among the nine GT B. napus lines. In some lines, the segregation of GT:non-GT showed a ratio of 1:1 in the BC2, BC3, and BC4 generations. However, in other GT B. napus lines the segregation ratio of GT:non-GT significantly deviated from 1:1 in the BC2 and BC3 generations, which had fewer transgenic progeny than expected, but not in the BC4 generation. Most importantly, in two GT B. napus lines the segregation of GT:non-GT did not fit into a ratio of 1:1 in the BC2, BC3 or BC4 generations due to a deficiency of transgenic progeny. For these lines, a strong reduction of transgene introgression was observed in all three B. rapa accessions. These findings imply that the genomic location of transgenes in B. napus may affect the long-term persistence of transgenes in B. rapa after hybridization has occurred.

  16. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  17. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  18. Effect of seven antibiotics on the growth and reproduction of Heliothis subflexa X H. virescens interspecific hydrids and backcross males

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, L.E.; Karpenko, C.P.

    1981-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a maternally transmitted cytoplasmic microorganism is involved in male hybrid sterility found in H. subflexa (Guenee) X H. virescens (F.) hybrid and backcross progeny, we reared H. subflexa, hybrids and backcross progeny on larval diets containing high concentrations of tetracycline, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, rifampin, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The insects tolerated relatively high concentrations (from 120 mg/liter to 6 g/liter) of antibiotics in the larval diet and showed virtually no changes in larval or pupal developmental time, adult lifespan, or fertility. Hybrid and backcross males reared on such adulterated diets were as sterile as those reared on conventional diets.

  19. Hybridization and Back-Crossing in Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a Summary of Hybridization in Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth M.; Techow, N. M. S. Mareile; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillips, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4–2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  20. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  1. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses. PMID:15612504

  2. Experimental hybridization and backcrossing reveal forces of reproductive isolation in Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i.e. ecological maladaptation or genetic incompatibilities) have not yet been detected. Here, backcrossing experiments, specifically controlling for the fungal species origins of the mating compatibility factors, were used to investigate reproductive isolation in the recently-derived species Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Microbotryum silenes-dioicae. Results Assortative mating was detected during backcrossing and was manifested by the preferential conjugation of the hybrid-produced gametes with non-hybrid gametes containing mating compatibility factors from the same parental species. Patterns of post-mating performance supported either a level of extrinsic isolation mechanism, where backcross progeny with a higher proportion of the pathogen genome adapted to the particular host environment were favored, or an infection advantage attributed to greater genetic contribution to the hybrid from the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome. Conclusion The use of controlled backcrossing experiments reveals significant species-specific mating type effects on conjugations between recently-derived sister species, which are likely to play important roles in both maintaining species separation and the nature of hybrids lineages that emerge in sympatry between Microbotryum species. PMID:24112452

  3. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses.

  4. Fine mapping QTLs in advanced interbred lines and other outbred populations

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Natalia M.; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative genetic studies in model organisms, particularly in mice, have been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions that are associated with a wide variety of behavioral and other traits. However, it is now widely understood that identification of the underlying genes will be far more challenging. In the last few years, a variety of populations have been utilized in an effort to more finely map these chromosomal regions with the goal of identifying specific genes. The common property of these newer populations is that linkage disequilibrium spans relatively short distances, which permits fine-scale mapping resolution. This review focuses on advanced intercross lines (AILs) which are the simplest such population. As originally proposed in 1995 by Darvasi and Soller, an AIL is the product of intercrossing two inbred strains beyond the F2 generation. Unlike recombinant inbred strains, AILs are maintained as outbred populations; brother-sister matings are specifically avoided. Each generation of intercrossing beyond the F2 further degrades linkage disequilibrium between adjacent makers, which allows for fine scale mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Advances in genotyping technology and techniques for the statistical analysis of AILs have permitted rapid advances in the application of AILs. We review some of the analytical issues and available software, including QTLRel, EMMA, EMMAX, GEMMA, TASSEL, GRAMMAR, WOMBAT, Mendel and others. PMID:24906874

  5. Advancing the science of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Nápoles, Anna M; Chadiha, Letha A

    2011-06-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations and the inadequacy of funding to advance systematically this field. We describe strategies used by the Resource Centers on Minority Aging Research and other National Institute of Aging-funded programs to advance the science of recruitment of ethnically diverse older adults. Finally, we propose a set of broad recommendations designed to generate a body of evidence on successful methods of recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse populations in health research. To eliminate health disparities and better understand aging processes in ethnically diverse populations, much more research is needed on effective strategies for increasing minority enrollment in health research. Comparative effectiveness research on more intensive recruitment and retention methods, which are often needed for including diverse populations, will require dedicated funding and concerted efforts by investigators.

  6. Molecular screening of walnut backcross populations for a DNA marker linked to cherry leafroll virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackline disease, a graft union disorder caused by infection of English walnut (Juglans regia) trees by Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) is a major problem for walnut production in Northern California where scions are grafted onto virus resistant black walnut (J. hindsii) or ‘Paradox’ (J. hindsii × J. ...

  7. Identifying rare FHB-resistant transgressive segregants in intransigent backcross and F2 winter wheat populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). FHB-infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) a mycotoxin ...

  8. A Random-Model Approach to QTL Mapping in Multiparent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Julong; Xu, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    Most standard QTL mapping procedures apply to populations derived from the cross of two parents. QTL detected from such biparental populations are rarely relevant to breeding programs because of the narrow genetic basis: only two alleles are involved per locus. To improve the generality and applicability of mapping results, QTL should be detected using populations initiated from multiple parents, such as the multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations. The greatest challenges of QTL mapping in MAGIC populations come from multiple founder alleles and control of the genetic background information. We developed a random-model methodology by treating the founder effects of each locus as random effects following a normal distribution with a locus-specific variance. We also fit a polygenic effect to the model to control the genetic background. To improve the statistical power for a scanned marker, we release the marker effect absorbed by the polygene back to the model. In contrast to the fixed-model approach, we estimate and test the variance of each locus and scan the entire genome one locus at a time using likelihood-ratio test statistics. Simulation studies showed that this method can increase statistical power and reduce type I error compared with composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiparent whole-genome average interval mapping (MPWGAIM). We demonstrated the method using a public Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC population and a mouse MAGIC population.

  9. The Analysis of Quantitative Traits for Simple Genetic Models from Parental, F1 and Backcross Data

    PubMed Central

    Elston, R. C.; Stewart, John

    1973-01-01

    The following models are considered for the genetic determination of quantitative traits: segregation at one locus, at two linked loci, at any number of equal and additive unlinked loci, and at one major locus and an indefinite number of equal and additive loci. In each case an appropriate likelihood is given for data on parental, F1 and backcross individuals, assuming that the environmental variation is normally distributed. Methods of testing and comparing the various models are presented, and methods are suggested for the simultaneous analysis of two or more traits. PMID:4711900

  10. Blood genetic marker studies of a sheep-goat hybrid and its back-cross offspring.

    PubMed

    Tucker, E M; Denis, B; Kilgour, L

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples from a female sheep-goat hybrid and its back-cross male offspring were tested for electrophoretic variants of plasma albumin, transferrin and esterase, and of red cell carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase, NADH-diaphorase, 'X'-protein, superoxide dismutase, malic enzyme and haemoglobin. Red cells were also tested for blood group antigens. Both animals showed variants that could not be attributed to either sheep or goat alone, thus confirming previous chromosomal data that the female was a genuine sheep-goat hybrid. PMID:2757269

  11. Identification of a hidden resistance gene in tetraploid wheat using laboratory strains of Pyricularia oryzae produced by backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Cumagun, Christian Joseph R; Anh, Vu Lan; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Asano, Hokuto; Hyon, Gang-Su; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In the process (BC3F1 generation) of backcrossing an Avena isolate of Pyricularia oryzae with a Triticum isolate, color mutants with white mycelia were obtained. These white mutants lacked virulence on all (31/31) hexaploid and most (28/32) tetraploid wheat lines tested. In a BC4F1 population, white and black cultures segregated in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is controlled by a single gene. Furthermore, the mycelial color was perfectly linked with avirulence in the BC4F1 population; white cultures were all avirulent on common wheat (Triticum aestivum) 'Norin 4' (N4) whereas black cultures were all virulent. White cultures in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generations were also avirulent on tetraploid wheat (T. dicoccoides) accession 'KU109' (Tat4), which was susceptible to all cultures derived from the parental wild isolates through the BC2F1 generation. A cross between Tat4 and a susceptible tetraploid (T. paleocolchicum) accession 'KU196' (Tat14) produced resistant and susceptible F2 seedlings in a 3:1 ratio against the white cultures. In the F3 generation homozygous resistant/segregating/homozygous susceptible lines segregated in a 1:2:1 ratio. These results suggest that the resistance of Tat4 to the white cultures is controlled by a single major gene. This gene, tentatively designated as RmgTd(t), is considered to be a hidden resistance gene because it was not detected with the Br58, F1, BC1F1, or BC2F1 cultures. Cytological analysis revealed that the moderate resistance controlled by RmgTd(t) was associated with a hypersensitive reaction of mesophyll cells. PMID:24824421

  12. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  13. Incorporation of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes Into Lowland Rice Cultivar Through Marker-Assisted Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Pandit, Elssa; Behera, Lambodar; Anandan, Annamalai; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Lenka, Srikanta; Barik, Durga Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major disease of rice in many rice growing countries. Pyramided lines carrying two BB resistance gene combinations (Xa21+xa13 and Xa21+xa5) were developed in a lowland cultivar Jalmagna background through backcross breeding by integrating molecular markers. In each backcross generation, markers closely linked to the disease resistance genes were used to select plants possessing the target genes. Background selection was continued in those plants carrying resistant genes until BC(3) generation. Plants having the maximum contribution from the recurrent parent genome were selected in each generation and hybridized with the recipient parent. The BB-pyramided line having the maximum recipient parent genome recovery of 95% was selected among BC3F1 plants and selfed to isolate homozygous BC(3)F(2) plants with different combinations of BB resistance genes. Twenty pyramided lines with two resistance gene combinations exhibited high levels of tolerance against the BB pathogen. In order to confirm the resistance, the pyramided lines were inoculated with different X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains of Odisha for bioassay. The genotypes with combination of two BB resistance genes conferred high levels of resistance to the predominant X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates prevalent in the region. The pyramided lines showed similarity with the recipient parent with respect to major agro-morphologic traits.

  14. Multivariate analysis of backcross progeny of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) for pre-breeding genotype selection.

    PubMed

    Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Sousa, A G R; Viana, A P; Santos, E A

    2015-01-01

    The Ward-MLM procedure was used to evaluate genetic variation in four backcross progenies and in their parents, hybrid F1 HD13 and donor parent Passiflora sublanceolata. Sixteen quantitative descriptors and five qualitative characteristics of relevance to ornamental flower production were assessed. Using the pseudo-F and pseudo-T² criteria, we identified four groups among these plants in two evaluation periods. In both evaluations, the BC1 plants showed greater dissimilarity to their recurrent parent, but showed high genetic similarity with the P. sublanceolata parent. The first two canonical variables produced by the Ward-MLM procedure accounted for over 90% of the variation in both evaluation periods, enabling the representation of diversity through two-dimensional graphics. Groups II and IV were formed in the first assessment period. Groups I and IV formed in the second period and showed plants with selection potential. We found that it was essential to use both qualitative and quantitative variables for this analysis. Assessments of quantitative descriptors indicate that the selection of BC1 plants can be performed in any of the four progenies. Because of the similarities observed for some floral descriptors between BC1 and the P. sublanceolata parent, a second generation backcross was not recommended. However, the selection of BC1 plants for evaluation and direct use as an ornamental cultivar, or as a resource in other breeding programs, can be recommended. PMID:26634503

  15. Two genes required for diabetes in BB rats. Evidence from cyclical intercrosses and backcrosses

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The BB rat develops a syndrome of autoimmune diabetes similar to Type I diabetes of man. It also has a severe T cell lymphopenia. As part of an ongoing breeding program to transfer the diabetogenic genes of the BB rat onto inbred rat strain backgrounds, diabetic animals were used in a backcross (BC)- intercross (IC)-backcross breeding scheme with Brown Norway (BN), Lewis (L), and Wistar-Furth (WF) inbred rats. We have used monoclonal antibodies to analyze both lymphopenia and major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens (the RT1 locus in the rat) in relation to the development of diabetes. To examine T cell subsets we used a panel of monoclonal antibodies, in particular W3/25 and OX19 , which discriminate the abnormal phenotype better than W3/13. In our breeding program, at least two independent genes or gene complexes are required for the expression of diabetes. One gene determines the lymphopenia, is inherited by simple autosomal recessive genetics and is not linked to the MHC. The second gene is linked to the MHC. Both genes are necessary, but neither gene is sufficient by itself for the development of diabetes. PMID:6202817

  16. A multiparent advanced generation inter-cross population for genetic analysis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bevan E; George, Andrew W; Forrest, Kerrie L; Kilian, Andrzej; Hayden, Matthew J; Morell, Matthew K; Cavanagh, Colin R

    2012-09-01

    We present the first results from a novel multiparent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population derived from four elite wheat cultivars. The large size of this MAGIC population (1579 progeny), its diverse genetic composition and high levels of recombination all contribute to its value as a genetic resource. Applications of this resource include interrogation of the wheat genome and the analysis of gene-trait association in agronomically important wheat phenotypes. Here, we report the utilization of a MAGIC population for the first time for linkage map construction. We have constructed a linkage map with 1162 DArT, single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers distributed across all 21 chromosomes. We benchmark this map against a high-density DArT consensus map created by integrating more than 100 biparental populations. The linkage map forms the basis for further exploration of the genetic architecture within the population, including characterization of linkage disequilibrium, founder contribution and inclusion of an alien introgression into the genetic map. Finally, we demonstrate the application of the resource for quantitative trait loci mapping using the complex traits plant height and hectolitre weight as a proof of principle.

  17. Genotype × Environment Interactions of Yield Traits in Backcross Introgression Lines Derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna/Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Subrahmanyam, Desiraju; Badri, Jyothi; Raju, Addanki Krishnam; Rao, Yadavalli Venkateswara; Beerelli, Kavitha; Mesapogu, Sukumar; Surapaneni, Malathi; Ponnuswamy, Revathi; Padmavathi, G.; Babu, V. Ravindra; Neelamraju, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs) developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI), Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE) and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi) for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S) and G6 (166S) showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions. PMID:27807437

  18. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  19. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  20. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  1. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast. PMID:25553855

  2. Economic Impact of an Advanced Illness Consultation Program within a Medicare Advantage Plan Population

    PubMed Central

    Colaberdino, Vincent; Marshall, Colleen; DuBose, Paul; Daitz, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In the United States the quality and cost associated with medical treatment for individuals experiencing an advanced illness is highly variable and is often misaligned with the patient's and family's quality of life values and priorities. Many of the obstacles that stand in the way of aligning the care that an individual receives with their priorities are well understood in the context of behavioral science. Through employing behavioral based approaches to improve the quality of communication and shared decision making processes among patients, providers and families it is possible to enhance the efficiency of delivering care which is also more highly aligned with the individual's preferences. Objectives: The study objectives were to measure the economic impact of a proprietary advanced illness behavioral consultation program, the Vital Decisions Living Well Consultation Program (LWCP), on the cost of care delivered during the last six and three months of life for enrolled members in a Medicare Advantage plan. Study design: Retrospective matched case control analysis examined medical, pharmaceutical, and capitation expenses after an offset by premium revenue. Methods: The treatment population consisted of participating members of the LWCP who died between October 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013 (N = 1755). The control population consisted of plan members who died between July 1, 2008 and June 1, 2011, prior to the introduction of the LWCP (N = 5560). Criteria used to match treatment subjects with one or more control subjects were diagnosis, age at death, and health care costs incurred prior to the time under examination. A paired t-test evaluated the significance of differences between the matched treatment and control members. Results: The mean cost reduction during the last six months of life for treatment members compared to matched control group members was $13,956 (p < 0.001) during the last six months of life and $9,285 (p < 0

  3. Recent advances in systemic lupus erythematosus genetics in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang Cheol

    2015-02-01

    Recent advances in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) genetics in Asian populations have been achieved by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and following replication studies, which expanded the genetic information about shared or population-specific risk genes between ethnic groups. Meta-analyses and multi-ethnic replication studies may be possible approaches that could demonstrate stronger or more suggestive evidence for multiple variants for SLE. In addition to the susceptibility of SLE itself, several genotype-phenotype analyses have shown that the specific phenotypes of SLE can also be influenced by genetic factors. Almost all SLE genetic loci are involved in the potential pathways of SLE pathogenesis, such as Toll-like receptor/type I interferon signaling, nuclear factor κB signaling, immune complex clearing mechanism, immune cell (B, T cell, neutrophil and monocyte) function and signaling, cell-cycle regulation, DNA methylation and autophagy. Further studies, including the next generation sequencing technology and the systematic strategy using bioinformatics, in addition to international collaboration among SLE genetic researchers, will give us better understanding of the genetic basis of SLE.

  4. Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Gonçalves, L S A; Berilli, A P C G; Pinto, F O; Ribeiro, E H

    2012-05-14

    Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

  5. Cytomorphological and molecular diversity in backcross-derived inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Prabakaran, A J; Dwivedi, Sangam L; Chandra, S

    2008-04-01

    A set of 250 distinct, stable, and uniform backcross-derived inbred lines were developed in sunflower through 5 interspecific cross combinations involving 4 wild diploid annual species (Helianthus argophyllus, H. petiolaris, H. annuus, and H. debilis). The presence of the wild-species genome in these inbred lines was confirmed through higher chromosome associations (tri- and quadrivalents) at diakinesis. Maximum structural rearrangements of chromosomes were observed in lines derived from H. petiolaris. Forty morphologically diverse inbred lines along with 2 controls were subjected to measurements of phenotypic and genetic distance using 118 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of known map location. A total of 204 alleles were identified and the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 and 5. There were 46 unique alleles and the number of unique alleles was highest in the lines derived from the cross involving H. petiolaris. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.05 to 0.575. The pair-wise comparison values based on genetic dissimilarity estimates computed using molecular marker data varied between 0.143 and 0.486 among the 42 lines. The results indicate that the sunflower gene pool could benefit from introgression of novel alleles from the latent genetic diversity present in the wild species and particularly through exploitation of the diploid annual H. petiolaris.

  6. Parasites as biological tags to assess host population structure: Guidelines, recent genetic advances and comments on a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Sarah R; Whittington, Ian D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2014-08-01

    We review the use of parasites as biological tags of marine fishes and cephalopods in host population structure studies. The majority of the work published has focused on marine fish and either single parasite species or more recently, whole parasite assemblages, as biological tags. There is representation of host organisms and parasites from a diverse range of taxonomic groups, although focus has primarily been on host species of commercial importance. In contrast, few studies have used parasites as tags to assess cephalopod population structure, even though records of parasites infecting cephalopods are well-documented. Squid species are the only cephalopod hosts for which parasites as biological tags have been applied, with anisakid nematode larvae and metacestodes being the parasite taxa most frequently used. Following a brief insight into the importance of accurate parasite identification, the population studies that have used parasites as biological tags for marine fishes and cephalopods are reviewed, including comments on the dicyemid mesozoans. The advancement of molecular genetic techniques is discussed in regards to the new ways parasite genetic data can be incorporated into population structure studies, alongside host population genetic analyses, followed by an update on the guidelines for selecting a parasite species as a reliable tag candidate. As multiple techniques and methods can be used to assess the population structure of marine organisms (e.g. artificial tags, phenotypic characters, biometrics, life history, genetics, otolith microchemistry and parasitological data), we conclude by commenting on a holistic approach to allow for a deeper insight into population structuring.

  7. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  8. [Advanced approaches to studying the population diversity of marine fishes: new opportunities for fisheries control and management].

    PubMed

    Zelenina, D A; Martinson, Ia T; Ogden, R; Volkov, A A; Zelenina, I A; Carvalho, G R

    2011-12-01

    Recent conceptual and technological advances now enable fisheries geneticists to detect and monitor the dynamics and distribution of marine fish populations more effectively than ever before. Information on the extent of genetically-based divergence among populations, so-called "population diversity", is crucial in the quest to manage exploited living resources sustainably since it endows evolutionary potential in the face of environmental change. The generally limited dialogue between scientists, fisheries managers and policy makers, however, continues to constrain integration of population genetic data into tangible policy applications. Largely drawing on the approach and outputs from a European research project, FishPopTrace, we provide an example how the uncovering of marine fish population diversity enables players from genetics, forensics, management and the policy realm to generate a framework tackling key policy-led questions relating to illegal fishing and traceability. We focus on the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in European populations of cod, herring, hake and common sole, and explore how forensics together with a range of analytical approaches, and combined with improved communication of research results to stakeholders, can be used to secure sufficiently robust, tractable and targeted data for effective engagement between science and policy. The essentially binary nature of SNPs, together with generally elevated signals of population discrimination by SNPs under selection, allowed assignment of fish to populations from more areas and with higher certainty than previously possible, reaching standards suitable for use in a court of law. We argue that the use of such tools in enforcement and deterrence, together with the greater integration of population genetic principles and methods into fisheries management, provide tractable elements in the arsenal of tools to achieve sustainable exploitation and conservation of depleted marine fish

  9. Empirical population and public health ethics: A review and critical analysis to advance robust empirical-normative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod

    2016-05-01

    The field of population and public health ethics (PPHE) has yet to fully embrace the generation of evidence as an important project. This article reviews the philosophical debates related to the 'empirical turn' in clinical bioethics, and critically analyses how PPHE has and can engage with the philosophical implications of generating empirical data within the task of normative inquiry. A set of five conceptual and theoretical issues pertaining to population health that are unresolved and could potentially benefit from empirical PPHE approaches to normative inquiry are discussed. Each issue differs from traditional empirical bioethical approaches, in that they emphasize (1) concerns related to the population, (2) 'upstream' policy-relevant health interventions - within and outside of the health care system and (3) the prevention of illness and disease. Within each theoretical issue, a conceptual example from population and public health approaches to HIV prevention and health promotion is interrogated. Based on the review and critical analysis, this article concludes that empirical-normative approaches to population and public health ethics would be most usefully pursued as an iterative project (rather than as a linear project), in which the normative informs the empirical questions to be asked and new empirical evidence constantly directs conceptualizations of what constitutes morally robust public health practices. Finally, a conceptualization of an empirical population and public health ethics is advanced in order to open up new interdisciplinary 'spaces', in which empirical and normative approaches to ethical inquiry are transparently (and ethically) integrated.

  10. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  11. Outcomes of Feeding Problems in Advanced Dementia in a Nursing Home Population

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.; Ersek, Mary; Lin, Feng Chang; Carey, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Weight loss is common in advanced dementia, but regulators and clinicians are uncertain how often it is treatable. Study objectives were to describe: 1) quality of care for feeding problems in advanced dementia, and 2) probability and predictors of weight loss and mortality. Design Prospective cohort Setting 24 nursing homes Participants 256 residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems, and family surrogates Measurements Family reported on quality of feeding care at enrollment and 3 months. Chart reviews at enrollment, 3, 6 and 9 months provided data on feeding problems, treatments, weight loss of >5% in 30 days or >10% in 6 months, and mortality. Organizational variables were obtained from administrator surveys and publically reported data. Results Residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems had an average age of 85; 80% had chewing and swallowing problems, 11% weight loss and 48% poor intake. Family reported feeding assistance of moderate quality; 23% felt the resident received less assistance than needed. Mortality risk was significant; 8% died within 3 months, 17% within 6 months and 27% within 9 months. Residents with advanced dementia and stable weight had a 5.4% rate of significant weight loss and a 2.1% risk of death over 3 months. Residents with advanced dementia and weight loss had a 38.9% chance of stabilizing weight over the next 3 months, but also had a 19.2% chance of dying. Weight loss was the only independent predictor of death. Conclusion Weight loss is a predictor of death in advanced dementia. Treatments can often stabilize weight, but weight loss should be used to trigger discussion of goals of care and treatment options. PMID:24083403

  12. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Jugulam, M.; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K. Y.; Chen, Shu; Hall, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  13. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  14. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  15. Development of introgression lines and advanced backcross QTL analysis for disease resistance, oil quality and yield component traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ploidy difference between wild Arachis species and cultivated genotypes hinder transfer of useful alleles for agronomically important traits. To overcome this genetic barrier, several synthetics have been developed at ICRISAT. Furthermore, two synthetic amphidiploids viz., ISATGR 1212 (A. duranensis...

  16. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  17. Caring for Special Populations: Total Pain Theory in Advanced Heart Failure: Applications to Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Joy R.; Doering, Lynn V.; Lorenz, Karl A.; Maliski, Sally L.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Describe total pain theory and apply it to research and practice in advanced heart failure (HF). SOURCE OF INFORMATION Total pain theory provides a holistic perspective for improving care, especially at the end of life. In advanced HF, multiple domains of well-being known to influence pain perception are adversely affected by declining health and increasing frailty. A conceptual framework is suggested which addresses domains of well-being identified by total pain theory. CONCLUSION By applying total pain theory, providers may be more effective in mitigating the suffering of individuals with progressive, life-limiting diseases. PMID:19691653

  18. Advancing Telemedicine Services for the Aging Population: The challenge of Interoperability.

    PubMed

    van Velsen, Lex; Solana, Javier; Oude-Nijeweme D'Hollosy, Wendy; Garate-Barreiro, Francisco; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    We reflect on our experiences in two projects in which we developed interoperable telemedicine applications for the aging population. While technically data exchange could be implemented technically, uptake was impeded by a lack of working procedures. We argue that development of interoperable health technology for the aging population should go accompanied by a thorough study into working protocols by consulting all end-users and stakeholders.

  19. Major impact: a global population policy can advance human development in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Mcnamara, R S

    1992-12-01

    In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth

  20. Major impact: a global population policy can advance human development in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Mcnamara, R S

    1992-12-01

    In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth

  1. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  2. Advancing community-based research with urban American Indian populations: multidisciplinary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, William E; Wendt, Dennis C; Saftner, Melissa A; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L

    2014-09-01

    The US has witnessed significant growth among urban American Indian (AI) populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391

  3. Advancing Community–Based Research with Urban American Indian Populations: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, William E.; Wendt, Dennis C.; Saftner, Melissa A.; Marcus, John; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. has witnessed significant growth among urban AI populations in recent decades, and concerns have been raised that these populations face equal or greater degrees of disadvantage than their reservation counterparts. Surprisingly little urban AI research or community work has been documented in the literature, and even less has been written about the influences of urban settings on community-based work with these populations. Given the deep commitments of community psychology to empowering disadvantaged groups and understanding the impact of contextual factors on the lives of individuals and groups, community psychologists are well suited to fill these gaps in the literature. Toward informing such efforts, this work offers multidisciplinary insights from distinct idiographic accounts of community-based behavioral health research with urban AI populations. Accounts are offered by three researchers and one urban AI community organization staff member, and particular attention is given to issues of community heterogeneity, geography, membership, and collaboration. Each first-person account provides “lessons learned” from the urban context in which the research occurred. Together, these accounts suggest several important areas of consideration in research with urban AIs, some of which also seem relevant to reservation-based work. Finally, the potential role of research as a tool of empowerment for urban AI populations is emphasized, suggesting future research attend to the intersections of identity, sense of community, and empowerment in urban AI populations. PMID:24659391

  4. Genetic variation in salt tolerance at the seedling stage in an interspecific backcross inbred line population of cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil salinity reduces cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality and has become a serious problem in the arid southwestern region of the Unites States. Development and planting of salt-tolerant cultivars could ameliorate the deleterious effects. The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic v...

  5. Development of a new genetic map for testing effects of creeping wildrye genes in basin wildrye backcross populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) is the largest native grass in western North America. Creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) is strongly rhizomatous grass that forms fertile hybrids with basin wildrye. Inter-specific hybrids, designated "TC" from the species epithets, display biomass heterosis and ...

  6. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  7. Inclusion of populations at risk of advanced melanoma in an opportunistic targeted screening project involving general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Rat, Cédric; Quereux, Gaelle; Grimault, Charlotte; Fernandez, Jérémy; Poiraud, Mickael; Gaultier, Aurélie; Chaslerie, Anicet; Pivette, Jacques; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Nguyen, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to measure the rates of inclusion of populations at risk of advanced melanoma in a pilot targeted screening project involving general practitioners. Design This cross-sectional database study compared the inclusion rates of patients who signed inclusion in a targeted screening project with those of patients who did not, during a period in which both groups of patients consulted investigators. Setting Data were extracted from the national healthcare insurance records in western France from 11 April to 30 October 2011. Patients Patients, older than 18, considered for the data extraction had consulted one of the 78 participating GPs during the study period, and were affiliated with the national healthcare insurance. Main outcome measures Inclusion in the screening was the main outcome measure. Patients at risk of advanced melanoma were characterized by male gender, age over 50, low income, rural residence, farmer, and presence of chronic disease. Results A total of 57,279 patients consulted GPs during the inclusion period and 2711 (4.73%) were included in the targeted screening. Populations at risk of advanced melanoma were less included: men (OR = 0.67; 95%CI [0.61–0.73]; p < 0.001), older than 50 (OR = 0.67; 95%CI [0.60–0.74]; p < 0.001), low income (OR = 0.65; 95%CI [0.55–0.77]; p < 0.001), farmer (OR = 0.23; 95%CI [0.17–0.30]; p < 0.001) and presence of a chronic disease (OR = 0.87; 95%CI [0.77–0.98]; p < 0.028). Conclusion This study demonstrated inequalities in the inclusion of patients in a melanoma screening. Patients at risk of advanced cancer were screened less often. Further studies should focus on GPs ability to identify and screen these patients. Key Points Advanced melanoma is more frequently diagnosed in men, older patients and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, which leads to survival inequalities.• Despite the involvement of general practitioners, the

  8. Advancing the evolution of healthcare: information technology in a person-focused population health model.

    PubMed

    Velianoff, George D

    2014-01-01

    The current changes introduced into the healthcare delivery system through the Affordable Care Act require more than the isolated, quality/cost process solutions utilized to date. Robust information systems with capabilities to push information and provide valid analytics and decision support utilizing point-of-care data input are required to achieve a complex, person-centered, lifetime-focused model. This article presents a review of the current state of population health, a model identifying components within population health, and an example of information technology integration.

  9. Advances in isolation and characterization of homogeneous cell populations using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Mizuarai, S; Takahashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Kotani, H

    2005-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of homogeneous cell populations are of great importance for the analysis of gene expression, because normal tissues contain various types of cells, and the differences in the populations of isolated cells exert significant effects on gene expression analysis. Researchers have attempted to develop methods for the isolation of homogeneous cell populations, such as flow cytometry and mechanical dissection. However, the recent emergence of laser-assisted microdissection has revolutionized the isolation of single-cell populations from solid tissues. With the help of a cutting laser, laser microdissection can isolate tissues (cells) of interest without contamination from surrounding tissues with the microscopic visualization field. By combining laser microdissection and subsequent microarray technology, several studies have resulted in the identification of disease-related genes. In this review, we summarize the principle of laser microdissection and provide several successful examples of target-gene identification using the conventional method combining laser microdissection and microarray. Next, we discuss the practical drawbacks of the combinational method, such as the need for a large number of cells and the disturbance of the relative abundance of transcripts during RNA amplification. We introduce our modifications to combined laser microdissection and microarray for detection of disease-related genes; the technique is simple, yet practical and accurate. Finally, versatile applications of laser microdissection, not only to transcript expression analysis, but also to other genomics and proteomics analyses are, also presented.

  10. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for preweaning traits of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-03-01

    The effects of heterosis for gestation length, dystocia, calf survival, birth weight, 200-d weight, and ADG from birth to weaning were evaluated in F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations in three composite populations. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll, Hereford, Angus, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, and Charolais) that contributed to the three composite populations. Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated except survival at birth. The large differences among breeds in additive direct and additive maternal genetic effects offer a great opportunity to use the genetic differences among breeds to achieve and maintain optimum additive genetic (breed) composition to match genetic resources to a wide range of production-marketing ecosystems. There was no heterosis for gestation length. Mean heterosis for dystocia was significant estimated in F1 but not in F2 or in the combined F3 and F4 generations. Mean heterosis was not significant in any generation for survival at birth, to 72 h, and to weaning for the F1 generation; mean heterosis was significant for survival to weaning for the F2 generation and approached significance (P = .06) for the combined F3 and F4 generations. Mean heterosis over all composite populations and heterosis for each composite population were significant in all generations for weight at birth and at 200 d and for ADG from birth to weaning. Retained heterosis was not less than expected from retained heterozygosity in composite populations for the traits evaluated. These results suggest that heterosis for these traits likely is due to dominance effects and, thus, can be attributed to the recovery of accumulated inbreeding depression in the parental breeds.

  11. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  12. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. P.; Almany, G. R.; Russ, G. R.; Sale, P. F.; Steneck, R. S.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-06-01

    The extent of larval dispersal on coral reefs has important implications for the persistence of coral reef metapopulations, their resilience and recovery from an increasing array of threats, and the success of protective measures. This article highlights a recent dramatic increase in research effort and a growing diversity of approaches to the study of larval retention within (self-recruitment) and dispersal among (connectivity) isolated coral reef populations. Historically, researchers were motivated by alternative hypotheses concerning the processes limiting populations and structuring coral reef assemblages, whereas the recent impetus has come largely from the need to incorporate dispersal information into the design of no-take marine protected area (MPA) networks. Although the majority of studies continue to rely on population genetic approaches to make inferences about dispersal, a wide range of techniques are now being employed, from small-scale larval tagging and paternity analyses, to large-scale biophysical circulation models. Multiple approaches are increasingly being applied to cross-validate and provide more realistic estimates of larval dispersal. The vast majority of empirical studies have focused on corals and fishes, where evidence for both extremely local scale patterns of self-recruitment and ecologically significant connectivity among reefs at scales of tens of kilometers (and in some cases hundreds of kilometers) is accumulating. Levels of larval retention and the spatial extent of connectivity in both corals and fishes appear to be largely independent of larval duration or reef size, but may be strongly influenced by geographic setting. It is argued that high levels of both self-recruitment and larval import can contribute to the resilience of reef populations and MPA networks, but these benefits will erode in degrading reef environments.

  13. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  14. Microbial Population Differentials between Mucosal and Submucosal Intestinal Tissues in Advanced Crohn's Disease of the Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Chiodini, Rodrick J.; Dowd, Scot E.; Chamberlin, William M.; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Glassing, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Since Crohn's disease is a transmural disease, we hypothesized that examination of deep submucosal tissues directly involved in the inflammatory disease process may provide unique insights into bacterial populations transgressing intestinal barriers and bacterial populations more representative of the causes and agents of the disease. We performed deep 16s microbiota sequencing on isolated ilea mucosal and submucosal tissues on 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls with a depth of coverage averaging 81,500 sequences in each of the 70 DNA samples yielding an overall resolution down to 0.0001% of the bacterial population. Of the 4,802,328 total sequences generated, 98.9% or 4,749,183 sequences aligned with the Kingdom Bacteria that clustered into 8545 unique sequences with <3% divergence or operational taxonomic units enabling the identification of 401 genera and 698 tentative bacterial species. There were significant differences in all taxonomic levels between the submucosal microbiota in Crohn's disease compared to controls, including organisms of the Order Desulfovibrionales that were present within the submucosal tissues of most Crohn's disease patients but absent in the control group. A variety of organisms of the Phylum Firmicutes were increased in the subjacent submucosa as compared to the parallel mucosal tissue including Ruminococcus spp., Oscillospira spp., Pseudobutyrivibrio spp., and Tumebacillus spp. In addition, Propionibacterium spp. and Cloacibacterium spp. were increased as well as large increases in Proteobacteria including Parasutterella spp. and Methylobacterium spp. This is the first study to examine the microbial populations within submucosal tissues of patients with Crohn's disease and to compare microbial communities found deep within the submucosal tissues with those present on mucosal surfaces. Our data demonstrate the existence of a distinct submucosal microbiome and ecosystem that is not well

  15. Microbial Population Differentials between Mucosal and Submucosal Intestinal Tissues in Advanced Crohn's Disease of the Ileum.

    PubMed

    Chiodini, Rodrick J; Dowd, Scot E; Chamberlin, William M; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Glassing, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Since Crohn's disease is a transmural disease, we hypothesized that examination of deep submucosal tissues directly involved in the inflammatory disease process may provide unique insights into bacterial populations transgressing intestinal barriers and bacterial populations more representative of the causes and agents of the disease. We performed deep 16s microbiota sequencing on isolated ilea mucosal and submucosal tissues on 20 patients with Crohn's disease and 15 non-inflammatory bowel disease controls with a depth of coverage averaging 81,500 sequences in each of the 70 DNA samples yielding an overall resolution down to 0.0001% of the bacterial population. Of the 4,802,328 total sequences generated, 98.9% or 4,749,183 sequences aligned with the Kingdom Bacteria that clustered into 8545 unique sequences with <3% divergence or operational taxonomic units enabling the identification of 401 genera and 698 tentative bacterial species. There were significant differences in all taxonomic levels between the submucosal microbiota in Crohn's disease compared to controls, including organisms of the Order Desulfovibrionales that were present within the submucosal tissues of most Crohn's disease patients but absent in the control group. A variety of organisms of the Phylum Firmicutes were increased in the subjacent submucosa as compared to the parallel mucosal tissue including Ruminococcus spp., Oscillospira spp., Pseudobutyrivibrio spp., and Tumebacillus spp. In addition, Propionibacterium spp. and Cloacibacterium spp. were increased as well as large increases in Proteobacteria including Parasutterella spp. and Methylobacterium spp. This is the first study to examine the microbial populations within submucosal tissues of patients with Crohn's disease and to compare microbial communities found deep within the submucosal tissues with those present on mucosal surfaces. Our data demonstrate the existence of a distinct submucosal microbiome and ecosystem that is not well

  16. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    PubMed

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations. PMID:20950527

  17. Networks as a type of social entrepreneurship to advance population health.

    PubMed

    Wei-Skillern, Jane

    2010-11-01

    A detailed case study from the field of social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the network approach, which does not require more resources but rather makes better use of existing resources. Leaders in public health can use networks to overcome some of the barriers that inhibit the widespread adoption of a population health approach to community health. Public health leaders who embrace social entrepreneurship may be better able to accomplish their missions by building their networks rather than just their organizations.

  18. Chromosome characteristics and behavior differences in Allium fistulosum L., A. cepa L, their F1 hybrid, and selected backcross progeny.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1994-11-01

    Mitotic and meiotic studies were performed on Allium fistulosum, A. cepa, their F1 hybrid, and ten selected backcross (BC)1 plants [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x (A. cepa)]. Each BC1 plant had at least one A. cepa isozyme allele (Pgi, Idh, or Adh). Chromosome morphology and behavior differed among plants. Meiocytes were observed with one, two, or three bridges and/ or fragments, indicating at least three paracentric inversions between A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Unusual crossing over and multivalent associations suggest that the 5F subtelocentric chromosome of A. fistulosum is involved in at least one translocation. The number of bridges and fragments and multivalent associations varied between the F1 hybrid and BC1 progenies. The F1 hybrid and all BC1 progenies were either sterile or had very little seed set. Fertility was not restored in any of the selected BC1 plants.

  19. Use of an Advanced Intercross Line Population for Precise Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Gray Leaf Spot Resistance in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grey leaf spot (GLS) (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) of maize (Zea mays L.)is an important fungal disease of maize in the U.S. and worldwide. The IBM population, an advanced intercross recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines Mo17 (resistant) and B73 (sus...

  20. Precise mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight, caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O, using an Advanced Intercross Maize Population.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IBM population, an advanced intercross recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines Mo17 (resistant) and B73 (susceptible), was evaluated in four environments for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O. ...

  1. Compositional differences between near-isogenic GM and conventional maize hybrids are associated with backcrossing practices in conventional breeding.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Cook, Kevin; Liu, Bing; Perez, Timothy; Willse, Alan; Tichich, Ryan; Feng, Ping; Harrigan, George G

    2015-02-01

    Here, we show that differences between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM comparators cannot be attributed unequivocally to the GM trait, but arise because of minor genomic differences in near-isogenic lines. Specifically, this study contrasted the effect of three GM traits (drought tolerance, MON 87460; herbicide resistance, NK603; insect protection, MON 89034) on maize grain composition relative to the effects of residual genetic variation from backcrossing. Important features of the study included (i) marker-assisted backcrossing to generate genetically similar inbred variants for each GM line, (ii) high-resolution genotyping to evaluate the genetic similarity of GM lines to the corresponding recurrent parents and (iii) introgression of the different GM traits separately into a wide range of genetically distinct conventional inbred lines. The F1 hybrids of all lines were grown concurrently at three replicated field sites in the United States during the 2012 growing season, and harvested grain was subjected to compositional analysis. Proximates (protein, starch and oil), amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and minerals were measured. The number of statistically significant differences (α = 0.05), as well as magnitudes of difference, in mean levels of these components between corresponding GM variants was essentially identical to that between GM and non-GM controls. The largest sources of compositional variation were the genetic background of the different conventional inbred lines (males and females) used to generate the maize hybrids and location. The lack of any compositional effect attributable to GM suggests the development of modern agricultural biotechnology has been accompanied by a lack of any safety or nutritional concerns.

  2. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  3. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  4. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  5. Advancing Suicide Prevention Research With Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P.; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O’Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-01-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance’s prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  6. Advancing suicide prevention research with rural American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O'Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-05-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance's prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  7. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  8. Single-cell analysis of population context advances RNAi screening at multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Snijder, Berend; Sacher, Raphael; Rämö, Pauli; Liberali, Prisca; Mench, Karin; Wolfrum, Nina; Burleigh, Laura; Scott, Cameron C; Verheije, Monique H; Mercer, Jason; Moese, Stefan; Heger, Thomas; Theusner, Kristina; Jurgeit, Andreas; Lamparter, David; Balistreri, Giuseppe; Schelhaas, Mario; De Haan, Cornelis A M; Marjomäki, Varpu; Hyypiä, Timo; Rottier, Peter J M; Sodeik, Beate; Marsh, Mark; Gruenberg, Jean; Amara, Ali; Greber, Urs; Helenius, Ari; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Isogenic cells in culture show strong variability, which arises from dynamic adaptations to the microenvironment of individual cells. Here we study the influence of the cell population context, which determines a single cell's microenvironment, in image-based RNAi screens. We developed a comprehensive computational approach that employs Bayesian and multivariate methods at the single-cell level. We applied these methods to 45 RNA interference screens of various sizes, including 7 druggable genome and 2 genome-wide screens, analysing 17 different mammalian virus infections and four related cell physiological processes. Analysing cell-based screens at this depth reveals widespread RNAi-induced changes in the population context of individual cells leading to indirect RNAi effects, as well as perturbations of cell-to-cell variability regulators. We find that accounting for indirect effects improves the consistency between siRNAs targeted against the same gene, and between replicate RNAi screens performed in different cell lines, in different labs, and with different siRNA libraries. In an era where large-scale RNAi screens are increasingly performed to reach a systems-level understanding of cellular processes, we show that this is often improved by analyses that account for and incorporate the single-cell microenvironment. PMID:22531119

  9. Advances in statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci in outbred populations.

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, I; Uimari, P; Grignola, F E; Zhang, Q; Gage, K M

    1997-11-01

    Statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in outbred populations are reviewed, extensions and applications to human and plant genetic data are indicated, and areas for further research are identified. Simple and computationally inexpensive methods include (multiple) linear regression of phenotype on marker genotypes and regression of squared phenotypic differences among relative pairs on estimated proportions of identity-by-descent at a locus. These methods are less suited for genetic parameter estimation in outbred populations but allow the determination of test statistic distributions via simulation or data permutation; however, further inferences including confidence intervals of QTL location require the use of Monte Carlo or bootstrap sampling techniques. A method which is intermediate in computational requirements is residual maximum likelihood (REML) with a covariance matrix of random QTL effects conditional on information from multiple linked markers. Testing for the number of QTLs on a chromosome is difficult in a classical framework. The computationally most demanding methods are maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, which take account of the distribution of multilocus marker-QTL genotypes on a pedigree and permit investigators to fit different models of variation at the QTL. The Bayesian analysis includes the number of QTLs on a chromosome as an unknown.

  10. Polymorphism analysis in advanced mutant population of oat (Avena sativa L.) using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Tiwari, Sharad; Tripathi, Niraj; Mehta, Anoop K

    2016-01-01

    Present investigation was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity among 38 M6 population of oat cv. JO-1. To validate the observed morpho-physiological variations, these lines were analyzed with 21 ISSR primers. A total of 132 loci were amplified by these 21 ISSR markers and 116 loci were found to be polymorphic (87.87 %). The genetic similarity coefficient values among 39 oat genotypes based on ISSR analysis ranged from 0.305 to 0.957. The cluster analysis divided the oat genotypes into two groups. Mutants JMO 81 and JMO 82 were found to be most divergent, hence can be used as parents in breeding program for the development of superior cultivars.

  11. The most effective and promising population health strategies to advance human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; Agunwamba, Amenah A; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-01-01

    The US is failing to make substantive progress toward improving rates of human papillomavirus vaccine uptake. While the Healthy People 2020 goal for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is 80%, the three-dose completion rate in the US in 2014 for 13- to 17-year-old females is less than 40%, and the rate for males is just above 20%. Experts point to a number of reasons for the poor HPV vaccination rates including parental concerns about safety, necessity, and timing. However, the evidence refuting these concerns is substantial. Efforts focusing on education and communication have not shown promise, but several population health strategies have reminder/recall systems; practice-focused strategies targeting staff, clinicians, and parents; assessment and feedback activities; and school-based HPV vaccination programs. PMID:26559567

  12. Polymorphism analysis in advanced mutant population of oat (Avena sativa L.) using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Tiwari, Sharad; Tripathi, Niraj; Mehta, Anoop K

    2016-01-01

    Present investigation was carried out to evaluate genetic diversity among 38 M6 population of oat cv. JO-1. To validate the observed morpho-physiological variations, these lines were analyzed with 21 ISSR primers. A total of 132 loci were amplified by these 21 ISSR markers and 116 loci were found to be polymorphic (87.87 %). The genetic similarity coefficient values among 39 oat genotypes based on ISSR analysis ranged from 0.305 to 0.957. The cluster analysis divided the oat genotypes into two groups. Mutants JMO 81 and JMO 82 were found to be most divergent, hence can be used as parents in breeding program for the development of superior cultivars. PMID:27186025

  13. Role of methylphenidate in the treatment of fatigue in advanced pancreatic cancer population

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhenyang; Butler-Bowen, Harriet; Rodriguez, Teresa; Garcon, Marie C.; Smith, Melissa Hennessey; Relias, Valerie; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a common but devastating symptom for advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) patients. To date, no proven treatment exists. Methylphenidate (MPH) showed inconsistent results in treating other cancer related fatigue. We performed a retrospective study to assess MPH in ameliorating fatigue in APC patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our clinic APC patients’ records who visited from 06/2011 - 11/2014. Fatigue was assessed by Visual Analog Fatigue Scale (VAFS) and classified as grade 1 (VAFS 1-3), grade 2 (VAFS 4-6) and grade 3 (VAFS 7-10) to correspond with CTCAE V4.0. MPH was dosed at 5 mg daily in the morning and was escalated to 10 mg after 2 weeks if needed. The primary endpoint was to assess the change of fatigue grade after 4 weeks of MPH. Secondary outcomes included MPH’s effect on depression, anorexia, maintenance chemotherapy intensity and adverse effects. Results A total of 71 APC patients on concomitant chemotherapy were included, of whom 67% received doublet, 13% triplet, and 20% single-agent chemotherapy. Mean baseline VAFS was 7, which dropped to 4 after 4 weeks of MPH, 55% patients’ fatigue score improved by 1 grade, 8% by 2 grades, 23% had fatigue resolved, 14% without benefit. 72% patients maintained chemotherapy intensity, 39% felt less depression and 52% had improved appetite. 13% stopped MPH due to side effects. Rare Grade 3 or 4 adverse events included insomnia, restlessness, palpitations and anorexia. Conclusions Our findings support low-dose MPH benefits APC patients with improved fatigue, depression and anorexia. A large randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm its usage and safety.

  14. Advanced glycation end products measured by skin autofluorescence in a population with central obesity.

    PubMed

    den Engelsen, Corine; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J; Salomé, Philippe L; Rutten, Guy E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress and this process may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a measure of accumulation of AGEs in skin collagen, is associated with vascular disease in patients with diabetes.   Because central obesity enhances oxidative stress people with central obesity might already have increased accumulation of AGEs before diabetes or cardiovascular disease become manifest. To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of skin AF and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with and without central obesity. Skin AF was measured by a validated AGE Reader in 816 persons with and 431 persons without central obesity, aged 20-70 y. Mean skin AF increased with age and smoking and was higher in centrally obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals (p = 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p = 0.13). Mean skin AF in the subgroups without central obesity and without other risk factors (n = 106), central obesity without other risk factors (n = 74) and central obesity with other risk factors (n = 742) was 1.63 ± 0.37, 1.74 ± 0.44 and 1.87 ± 0.43 AU, respectively (p for trend < 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p for trend = 0.12). In the group with central obesity age, current smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, creatinine clearance and hs-CRP were independently associated with skin AF (R(2) = 29.4%). Waist circumference hardly contributed to the explained variance. The relationship between waist circumference and skin AF is not as obvious as we hypothesized.

  15. Advanced glycation end products measured by skin autofluorescence in a population with central obesity.

    PubMed

    den Engelsen, Corine; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J; Salomé, Philippe L; Rutten, Guy E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress and this process may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a measure of accumulation of AGEs in skin collagen, is associated with vascular disease in patients with diabetes.   Because central obesity enhances oxidative stress people with central obesity might already have increased accumulation of AGEs before diabetes or cardiovascular disease become manifest. To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of skin AF and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with and without central obesity. Skin AF was measured by a validated AGE Reader in 816 persons with and 431 persons without central obesity, aged 20-70 y. Mean skin AF increased with age and smoking and was higher in centrally obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals (p = 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p = 0.13). Mean skin AF in the subgroups without central obesity and without other risk factors (n = 106), central obesity without other risk factors (n = 74) and central obesity with other risk factors (n = 742) was 1.63 ± 0.37, 1.74 ± 0.44 and 1.87 ± 0.43 AU, respectively (p for trend < 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p for trend = 0.12). In the group with central obesity age, current smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, creatinine clearance and hs-CRP were independently associated with skin AF (R(2) = 29.4%). Waist circumference hardly contributed to the explained variance. The relationship between waist circumference and skin AF is not as obvious as we hypothesized. PMID:22870350

  16. SNP genotyping and population genomics from expressed sequences - current advances and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    De Wit, Pierre; Pespeni, Melissa H; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid increase in production of genetic data from new sequencing technologies, a myriad of new ways to study genomic patterns in nonmodel organisms are currently possible. Because genome assembly still remains a complicated procedure, and because the functional role of much of the genome is unclear, focusing on SNP genotyping from expressed sequences provides a cost-effective way to reduce complexity while still retaining functionally relevant information. This review summarizes current methods, identifies ways that using expressed sequence data benefits population genomic inference and explores how current practitioners evaluate and overcome challenges that are commonly encountered. We focus particularly on the additional power of functional analysis provided by expressed sequence data and how these analyses push beyond allele pattern data available from nonfunction genomic approaches. The massive data sets generated by these approaches create opportunities and problems as well - especially false positives. We discuss methods available to validate results from expressed SNP genotyping assays, new approaches that sidestep use of mRNA and review follow-up experiments that can focus on evolutionary mechanisms acting across the genome.

  17. A population-based study of prognosis in advanced stage follicular lymphoma managed by watch and wait.

    PubMed

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Bilgrau, Anders E; de Nully Brown, Peter; Mylam, Karen J; Ahmad, Syed A; Pedersen, Lars M; Gang, Anne O; Bentzen, Hans H; Juul, Maja B; Bergmann, Olav J; Pedersen, Robert S; Nielsen, Berit J; Johnsen, Hans E; Dybkaer, Karen; Bøgsted, Martin; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Watch and wait (WAW) is a common approach for asymptomatic, advanced stage follicular lymphoma (FL), but single-agent rituximab is an alternative for these patients. In this nationwide study we describe the outcome of patients selected for WAW. A cohort of 286 out of 849 (34%) stage III-IVA FL patients seen between 2000 and 2011, were managed expectantly and included. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 29-42]. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 65% (95%CI 54-78), and the cumulative risk of dying from lymphoma within 10 years of diagnosis was 13% (95%CI 7-20). Elevated lactate dehydrogenase and > four nodal regions involved were associated with a higher risk of lymphoma treatment and death from lymphoma. The WAW patients and a matched background population had similar OS during the first 50 months after diagnosis (P = 0·7), but WAW patients had increased risk of death after 50 months (P < 0·001). The estimated loss of residual life after 10 years was 6·8 months. The 10-year cumulative risk of histological transformation was 22% (95%CI 15-29) and the 3-year OS after transformation was 71% (95%CI 58-87%). In conclusion, advanced stage FL managed by WAW had a favourable outcome and abandoning this strategy could lead to overtreatment in some patients.

  18. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ≥ 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ≥ 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID

  19. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr's analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in

  20. Heart valve disease in elderly Chinese population: effect of advanced age and comorbidities on treatment decision-making and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kui; Li, Jun; Wan, Yun; Hong, Tao; Lu, Shu-Yang; Guo, Chang-Fa; Wang, Chun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of elderly patients with symptomatic severe heart valve disease are treated conservatively despite clear indications for surgical intervention. However, little is known about how advanced age and comorbidities affect treatment decision-making and therapeutic outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 234, mean age: 78.5 ± 3.7 years) with symptomatic severe heart valve disease hospitalized in our center were included. One hundred and fifty-one patients (65%) were treated surgically (surgical group) and 83 (35%) were treated conservatively (conservative group). Factors that affected therapeutic decision-making and treatment outcomes were investigated and long-term survival was explored. Results Isolated aortic valve disease, female sex, chronic renal insufficiency, aged ≥ 80 years, pneumonia, and emergent status were independent factors associated with therapeutic decision-making. In-hospital mortality for the surgical group was 5.3% (8/151). Three patients (3.6%) in the conservative group died during initial hospitalization. Low cardiac output syndrome and chronic renal insufficiency were identified as predictors of in-hospital mortality in the surgical group. Conservative treatment was identified as the single risk factor for late death in the entire study population. The surgical group had better 5-year (77.2% vs. 45.4%, P < 0.0001) and 10-year (34.5% vs. 8.9%, P < 0.0001) survival rates than the conservative group, even when adjusted by propensity score-matched analysis. Conclusions Advanced age and geriatric comorbidities profoundly affect treatment decision-making for severe heart valve disease. Valve surgery in the elderly was not only safe but was also associated with good long-term survival while conservative treatment was unfavorable for patients with symptomatic severe valve disease. PMID:27605940

  1. Improving salt tolerance of lowland rice cultivar 'Rassi' through marker-aided backcross breeding in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bimpong, Isaac Kofi; Manneh, Baboucarr; Sock, Mamadou; Diaw, Faty; Amoah, Nana Kofi Abaka; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Wopereis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress affects about 25% of the 4.4 million ha of irrigated and lowland systems for rice cultivation in West Africa (WA). A major quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosome 1 (Saltol) that enhances tolerance to salt stress at the vegetative stage has enabled the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop salt-tolerant rice cultivar(s) in WA. We used 3 cycles of backcrossing with selection based on DNA markers and field-testing using 'FL478' as tolerant donor and the widely grown 'Rassi' as recurrent parent. In the BC3F2 stage, salt-tolerant lines with over 80% Rassi alleles except in the region around Saltol segment were selected. 429 introgression lines (Saltol-ILs) were identified as tolerant at vegetative stage, of which 116 were field-tested for four seasons at the reproductive stage. Sixteen Saltol-ILs had less yield loss (3-26% relative to control trials), and 8 Saltol-ILs showed high yield potential under stress and non-stress conditions. The 16 Saltol-ILs had been included for further African-wide testing prior to release in 6 WA countries. MAS reduced the time for germplasm improvement from at least 7 to about 4 years. Our objective is to combine different genes/QTLs conferring tolerance to stresses under one genetic background using MAS. PMID:26566846

  2. Recombinant Inbred Strain and Interspecific Backcross Analysis of Molecular Markers Flanking the Murine Agouti Coat Color Locus

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, L. D.; Buchberg, A. M.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant inbred strain and interspecific backcross mice were used to create a molecular genetic linkage map of the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. The orientation and distance of the Ada, Emv-13, Emv-15, Hck-1, Il-1a, Pck-1, Psp, Src-1 and Svp-1 loci from the β(2)-microglobulin locus and the agouti locus were established. Our mapping results have provided the identification of molecular markers both proximal and distal to the agouti locus. The recombinants obtained provide valuable resources for determining the direction of chromosome walking experiments designed to clone sequences at the agouti locus. Comparisons between the mouse and human genome maps suggest that the human homolog of the agouti locus resides on human chromosome 20q. Three loci not present on mouse chromosome 2 were also identified and were provisionally named Psp-2, Hck-2 and Hck-3. The Psp-2 locus maps to mouse chromosome 14. The Hck-2 locus maps near the centromere of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lyn locus. The Hck-3 locus maps near the distal end of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lck locus. PMID:2759422

  3. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning.

  4. The Cluster Population of the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449 as Seen by the Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2011-10-01

    We present a study of the star cluster population in the starburst irregular galaxy NGC 4449 based on B, V, I, and Hα images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive cluster properties such as size, ellipticity, and total magnitude. Cluster ages and masses are derived fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with different population synthesis models. Our analysis is strongly affected by the age-metallicity degeneracy; however, if we assume a metallicity of ~1/4 solar, as derived from spectroscopy of H II regions, we find that the clusters have ages distributed quite continuously over a Hubble time, and they have masses from ~103 M sun up to ~2 × 106 M sun, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function down to 0.1 M sun. Young clusters are preferentially located in regions of young star formation (SF), while old clusters are distributed over the whole NGC 4449 field of view, like the old stars (although we note that some old clusters follow linear structures, possibly a reflection of past satellite accretion). The high SF activity in NGC 4449 is confirmed by its specific frequency of young massive clusters, higher than the average value found in nearby spirals and in the Large Magellanic Cloud (but lower than in other starburst dwarfs such as NGC 1705 and NGC 1569), and by the flat slope of the cluster luminosity function (dN(LV )vpropL -1.5 V dL for clusters younger than 1 Gyr). We use the upper envelope of the cluster log(mass) versus log(age) distribution to quantify cluster disruption, and do not find evidence for the high (90%) long-term infant mortality found by some studies. For the red clusters, we find correlations between size, ellipticity, luminosity, and mass: brighter and more massive clusters tend to be more compact, and brighter clusters also tend to be more elliptical. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute which is operated

  5. THE CLUSTER POPULATION OF THE IRREGULAR GALAXY NGC 4449 AS SEEN BY THE HUBBLE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Van der Marel, R. P.

    2011-10-15

    We present a study of the star cluster population in the starburst irregular galaxy NGC 4449 based on B, V, I, and H{alpha} images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We derive cluster properties such as size, ellipticity, and total magnitude. Cluster ages and masses are derived fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with different population synthesis models. Our analysis is strongly affected by the age-metallicity degeneracy; however, if we assume a metallicity of {approx}1/4 solar, as derived from spectroscopy of H II regions, we find that the clusters have ages distributed quite continuously over a Hubble time, and they have masses from {approx}10{sup 3} M{sub sun} up to {approx}2 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun}, assuming a Salpeter initial mass function down to 0.1 M{sub sun}. Young clusters are preferentially located in regions of young star formation (SF), while old clusters are distributed over the whole NGC 4449 field of view, like the old stars (although we note that some old clusters follow linear structures, possibly a reflection of past satellite accretion). The high SF activity in NGC 4449 is confirmed by its specific frequency of young massive clusters, higher than the average value found in nearby spirals and in the Large Magellanic Cloud (but lower than in other starburst dwarfs such as NGC 1705 and NGC 1569), and by the flat slope of the cluster luminosity function (dN(L{sub V} ){proportional_to}L{sup -1.5}{sub V} dL for clusters younger than 1 Gyr). We use the upper envelope of the cluster log(mass) versus log(age) distribution to quantify cluster disruption, and do not find evidence for the high (90%) long-term infant mortality found by some studies. For the red clusters, we find correlations between size, ellipticity, luminosity, and mass: brighter and more massive clusters tend to be more compact, and brighter clusters also tend to be more elliptical.

  6. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  7. Money Income and Poverty Status in the United States: 1987. (Advance Data from the March 1988 Current Population Survey). Current Population Reports: Consumer Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This report presents data from the March 1988 Current Population Survey (CPS) on the income and poverty status of families and persons in the United States for the calender year 1987. The following family characteristics are examined: (1) family income; (2) family composition, race, and Hispanic origin; (3) educational attainment of householder;…

  8. Advancing Environmental Noise Pollution Analysis in Urban Areas by Considering the Variation of Population Exposure in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, S.; Gomes, N.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient noise is a subtle form of pollution in large urban areas, degrading human health and well-being. In Europe, directives require that urban environmental noise be measured and mapped for the main periods of the daily cycle. Subsequent analyses of human exposure to noise in those periods is usually conducted using resident (i.e., nighttime) population from the census and assuming constant densities within the enumeration units. However, population distribution and densities vary considerably from night to day in metropolitan areas, and disregard for that process results in gross misestimation of exposure to ambient noise in the daytime period. This study considers the spatio-temporal variation of population distribution in assessing exposure to ambient noise in a major urban area, the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Detailed and compatible day- and nighttime population distribution maps were used, developed by means of "intelligent dasymetric mapping". After categorizing noise levels in existing maps in each period, classified according to current legislation, human exposure to ambient noise was assessed with temporally matching population surfaces. Population exposure to noise in 2000 and 2009 was compared and further analyzed in regards to main source of noise, i.e. road traffic vs. aircraft.. Results show that human exposure to noise shifts substantially in time and space, with a significant increase in exposed population from the nighttime to daytime period, especially in the higher noise levels. This is due to the combined effects of the daily variation of noise patterns and population distribution.

  9. Mitigation using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene precludes establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in hybrids and backcrosses with weedy Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Gressel, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants can interbreed with nearby weedy Brassica rapa, potentially enhancing the weediness and/or invasiveness of subsequent hybrid offspring. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mitigation effectively reduces the fitness of the transgenic dwarf and herbicide-resistant B. napus volunteers. We now report the efficacy of such a tandem construct, including a primary herbicide-resistant gene and a dwarfing mitigator gene, to preclude the risks of gene establishment in the related weed B. rapa and its backcross progeny. The transgenically mitigated and non-transgenic B. rapa x B. napus interspecific hybrids and the backcrosses (BC(1)) with B. rapa were grown alone and in competition with B. rapa weed. The reproductive fitness of hybrid offspring progressively decreased with increased B. rapa genes in the offspring, illustrating the efficacy of the concept. The fitness of F(2) interspecific non-transgenic hybrids was between 50% and 80% of the competing weedy B. rapa, whereas the fitness of the comparable T(2) interspecific transgenic hybrids was never more than 2%. The reproductive fitness of the transgenic T(2) BC(1) mixed with B. rapa was further severely suppressed to 0.9% of that of the competing weed due to dwarfism. Clearly, the mitigation technology works efficiently in a rapeseed crop-weed system under biocontainment-controlled environments, but field studies should further validate its utility for minimizing the risks of gene flow.

  10. Mitigation using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene precludes establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in hybrids and backcrosses with weedy Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Gressel, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants can interbreed with nearby weedy Brassica rapa, potentially enhancing the weediness and/or invasiveness of subsequent hybrid offspring. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mitigation effectively reduces the fitness of the transgenic dwarf and herbicide-resistant B. napus volunteers. We now report the efficacy of such a tandem construct, including a primary herbicide-resistant gene and a dwarfing mitigator gene, to preclude the risks of gene establishment in the related weed B. rapa and its backcross progeny. The transgenically mitigated and non-transgenic B. rapa x B. napus interspecific hybrids and the backcrosses (BC(1)) with B. rapa were grown alone and in competition with B. rapa weed. The reproductive fitness of hybrid offspring progressively decreased with increased B. rapa genes in the offspring, illustrating the efficacy of the concept. The fitness of F(2) interspecific non-transgenic hybrids was between 50% and 80% of the competing weedy B. rapa, whereas the fitness of the comparable T(2) interspecific transgenic hybrids was never more than 2%. The reproductive fitness of the transgenic T(2) BC(1) mixed with B. rapa was further severely suppressed to 0.9% of that of the competing weed due to dwarfism. Clearly, the mitigation technology works efficiently in a rapeseed crop-weed system under biocontainment-controlled environments, but field studies should further validate its utility for minimizing the risks of gene flow. PMID:17177782

  11. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  12. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  13. Palliative Medicine Consultation Reduces Length of Stay, Improves Symptom Management, and Clarifies Advance Directives in the Geriatric Trauma Population.

    PubMed

    Kupensky, Diane; Hileman, Barbara M; Emerick, Eric S; Chance, Elisha A

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Palliative Medicine Consultation (PMC) on geriatric trauma patients' outcomes was evaluated. It was hypothesized that patients with PMC would have a shorter length of stay. Patients aged 65 years or older and admitted to trauma services were analyzed. Patients with a PMC were more likely to have a documented advance directive discussion (P < .001) and a code status update (P < .001). Length of stay was reduced for patients with a PMC on or before trauma day 2 compared to those with a PMC after trauma day 2. Palliative Medicine should be consulted early into a geriatric patient's hospital stay. PMID:26352657

  14. An international reference consensus genetic map with 897 marker loci based on 11 mapping populations for tetraploid groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using ...

  15. The Promise and Potential Perils of Big Data for Advancing Symptom Management Research in Populations at Risk for Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Reame, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Symptom management research is a core area of nursing science and one of the priorities for the National Institute of Nursing Research, which specifically focuses on understanding the biological and behavioral aspects of symptoms such as pain and fatigue, with the goal of developing new knowledge and new strategies for improving patient health and quality of life. The types and volume of data related to the symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and outcomes are increasingly accessible for research. Traditional data streams are now complemented by consumer-generated (i.e., quantified self) and "omic" data streams. Thus, the data available for symptom science can be considered big data. The purposes of this chapter are to (a) briefly summarize the current drivers for the use of big data in research; (b) describe the promise of big data and associated data science methods for advancing symptom management research; (c) explicate the potential perils of big data and data science from the perspective of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice; and (d) illustrate strategies for balancing the promise and the perils of big data through a case study of a community at high risk for health disparities. Big data and associated data science methods offer the promise of multidimensional data sources and new methods to address significant research gaps in symptom management. If nurse scientists wish to apply big data and data science methods to advance symptom management research and promote health equity, they must carefully consider both the promise and perils.

  16. The Promise and Potential Perils of Big Data for Advancing Symptom Management Research in Populations at Risk for Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Reame, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Symptom management research is a core area of nursing science and one of the priorities for the National Institute of Nursing Research, which specifically focuses on understanding the biological and behavioral aspects of symptoms such as pain and fatigue, with the goal of developing new knowledge and new strategies for improving patient health and quality of life. The types and volume of data related to the symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and outcomes are increasingly accessible for research. Traditional data streams are now complemented by consumer-generated (i.e., quantified self) and "omic" data streams. Thus, the data available for symptom science can be considered big data. The purposes of this chapter are to (a) briefly summarize the current drivers for the use of big data in research; (b) describe the promise of big data and associated data science methods for advancing symptom management research; (c) explicate the potential perils of big data and data science from the perspective of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice; and (d) illustrate strategies for balancing the promise and the perils of big data through a case study of a community at high risk for health disparities. Big data and associated data science methods offer the promise of multidimensional data sources and new methods to address significant research gaps in symptom management. If nurse scientists wish to apply big data and data science methods to advance symptom management research and promote health equity, they must carefully consider both the promise and perils. PMID:26673385

  17. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for reproduction and maternal traits of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-03-01

    Heterosis effects in F1 dams producing F2 progeny and retained heterosis in combined F2 and F3 dams producing F3 and F4 progeny were evaluated in dams 2 yr old, in dams greater than or equal to 5 yr old, and in dams of all ages. Traits included pregnant percentage, calf crop born percentage, calf crop weaned percentage, 200-d calf weight per heifer or cow exposed, and 200-d calf weight. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated in the three age groupings and generally were greatest in 2-yr-old dams and smallest in dams greater than or equal to 5 yr old. Heterosis effects for 200-d calf weight were relatively uniform among age groupings and among the three composite populations and heterosis retained was equal to, or greater than, expectation based on retained heterozygosity. Heterosis effects in animals of all ages for reproductive traits in F1 dams producing F2 progeny differed among the three composite populations, as did heterosis retained in combined F2 and F3 dams producing F3 and F4 progeny. In dams of all ages, heterosis retained for reproductive traits in F2 and F3 dams producing F3 and F4 progeny did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity in two of the three composite populations, but loss of heterosis was greater (P less than .05) than expectation based on retained heterozygosity in one of the three composite populations for calf crop born percentage, calf crop weaned percentage, and 200-d calf weight per heifer or cow exposed. This reduction was the result of increased fetal loss between pregnancy diagnosis and parturition

  18. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for puberty and scrotal traits of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Lunstra, D D; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-07-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in F1, F2, and F3 generations of females and in the F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations of males in three composite populations of beef cattle. Traits included weight, height, and condition scores at different ages, percentage of females reaching puberty at 368, 410, and 452 d, adjusted age, and adjusted weight of females at puberty and scrotal circumference and paired testicular volume of males. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated. Heterosis was significant for weight, height, and condition score at all ages and for most measures of puberty in each generation of each composite and for the mean of the three composite populations. Heterosis for age at puberty was largely independent of heterosis effects on 368-d weight. Heterosis was significant for scrotal circumference and paired testicular volume in each generation of each composite and for the mean of the three composite populations. Heterosis effects on scrotal measurements are mediated both through heterosis effects on growth rate and through factors that are independent of growth rate. Correlation coefficients among breed group means and correlations of breed rank for scrotal measurements with puberty traits of females were greater than or equal to .88 (P less than .01) for all puberty traits except weight at puberty, which was not associated with scrotal measurements. There was close agreement in heterosis observed for most traits and expectation based on retained heterozygosity. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis in cattle for size, puberty, and scrotal measurement

  19. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for growth traits in both sexes of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-08-01

    Heterosis effects for birth weight, ADG from birth to weaning, 200-d weight, ADG from weaning to 368 d, 368-d weight, 368-d height, 368-d condition score, and 368-d muscling score (males only) were evaluated separately for each sex in F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations in three composite beef cattle populations. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (i.e., Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated. The large differences among breeds for growth and size traits in combined additive direct and additive maternal genetic effects (Gi + Gm) provide an opportunity to use genetic differences among breeds to achieve and maintain optimum additive genetic (breed) composition for growth and size traits to match cattle genetic resources to a wide range of production and marketing situations. Combined individual and maternal heterosis was significant in the F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations for each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations in both sexes for most of the traits evaluated. In both sexes, heterosis retained in combined F3 and F4 generations was greater (P less than .05) than expected based on retained heterozygosity for birth weight, ADG from weaning to 368 d, and for 368-d weight and did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation for other traits. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis in cattle for traits related to growth and size is due to dominance effects of genes.

  20. Association mapping for frost tolerance using multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmed; Martsch, Regina

    2015-08-01

    A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) derived from 11 founder lines in faba bean was used in this study to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for frost tolerance traits using the association mapping method with 156 SNP markers. This MAGIC population consists of a set of 189 genotypes from the Göttingen Winter Bean Population. The association panel was tested in two different experiments, i.e. a frost and a hardening experiment. Six morphological traits, leaf fatty acid composition, relative water content in shoots were scored in this study. The genotypes presented a large genetic variation for all traits that were highly heritable after frost and after hardening. High phenotypic significant correlations were established between traits. The principal coordinates analysis resulted in no clear structure in the current population. Association mapping was performed using a general linear model and mixed linear model with kinship. A False discovery rate of 0.20 (and 0.05) was used to test the significance of marker-trait association. As a result, many putative QTLs for 13 morphological and physiological traits were detected using both models. The results reveal that QTL mapping by association analysis is a powerful method of detecting the alleles associated with frost tolerance in the winter faba bean which can be used in accelerating breeding programs.

  1. Quantitative trait locus mapping for Verticillium wilt resistance in a backcross inbred line population of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense) based on RGA-AFLP analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most important diseases in cotton. Development and growing of VW resistant cultivars is the most effective and economic strategy in controlling the disease. However, little is currently known on the genetic basis of VW resistanc...

  2. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci using advanced intercross lines of mice and positional cloning of the corresponding genes.

    PubMed

    Iraqi, F

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is an essential step towards positional cloning and identification of the corresponding genes. Most QTL detection and mapping studies in mice have been carried out using F2 intercross and backcross populations. As a consequence of the limited number of recombination events in small chromosomal regions, this has generally permitted mapping to only relatively large confidence intervals of 20 to 40 cM. A number of population designs have been proposed to increase recombination level in crosses. This includes advanced intercross lines (AIL) described by Darvasi and Soller [Genomics. 1995; 141: 1199-1207]. In this report demonstration of the utility of the AIL approach for fine mapping of QTL, which previously had been mapped with 95% confidence interval to 20 to 40 cM in a F2 intercross, will be presented. The methodological approaches to go from the fine-mapped QTL to the identification of the actual genes and mutations are discussed.

  3. Breed effects and retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-04-01

    Retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate male progeny in three composite populations finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C] that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P < .01) for carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat thickness, and marbling score; for retail product, fat trim and bone percentages and weights at two levels of fat trim (8 and 0 mm); and for carcass lean, fat, and bone percentages and weights. Mean slaughter weight was 54.7 kg greater for the Simmental, Gelbvieh, and Charolais breeds than for the Limousin but did not differ (P > .05) from Limousin in retail product weight or carcass lean weight because of higher dressing percentage, lower fat trim percentage, and lower bone percentage of Limousin. The effects of dietary energy density were important (P < .01) for most traits. The interaction of breed group x dietary energy density generally was not important. Retained heterosis generally was significant for each composite population for weight of retail product, fat trim, bone, and carcass lean, fat, and bone. For percentage of retail product, fat trim, carcass lean, carcass fat, and chemical fat in the 9-10-11th rib cut, generally, heterosis was significant for composites MARC II and MARC III but not for composite MARC I (i.e., composites MARC II and MARC III had a lower percentage of retail product and carcass lean and a higher percentage of fat trim, carcass fat, and chemical fat in the 9-10-11th rib cut than

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2) in combination with 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kho, Yuhan; Jansman, Frank G A; Prins, Nicolaas H; Neef, Cees; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J

    2006-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of oxaliplatin, using a dose regimen of 85 mg/m, are lacking. A PK model may be used in future studies to investigate the relationship between pharmacokinetics and dose limiting toxicity. The purpose of this study was to construct a population PK model to describe platinum (Pt) concentrations in plasma in 33 patients with colorectal cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship between the amount of Pt in 24-hour urine and the amount of Pt in fractionated urine collection periods. Plasma and urine samples were collected from patients during their first oxaliplatin treatment course. Population PK analysis was performed with WinNonMix. The model that best described the Pt concentrations in plasma was a two-compartment PK model. The elimination clearance (CL) and the elimination clearance of the peripheral compartment (CL2) (median +/- SE) were 25.2 +/- 6.3 L/hr and 68 +/- 24.8 L/hr, respectively. The median volume of distribution (V1) was determined to be 41.6 +/- 9.4 L and the median volume of distribution of the peripheral compartment (V2) was 452.5 +/- 96.4 L. The relationship between the cumulative amount of Pt in urine in the first 12 hours compared with the amount of Pt in 24 hours urine was reflected by a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.95. The cumulative Pt concentration in urine in the first 10 hours and the first 8 hours compared with 24 hours was reflected by correlation coefficients r2 = 0.93 and r2 = 0.897, respectively. This PK model could be useful in identifying predictors for PK and pharmacodynamic variability to individualize dosing. The results of this study suggest that fractionated urine samples can replace 24-hour urine collection. PMID:16628132

  5. Rapid morphological changes in populations of hybrids between Africanized and European honey bees.

    PubMed

    Francoy, T M; Gonçalves, L S; De Jong, D

    2012-09-17

    African honey bees, introduced to Brazil in 1956, rapidly dominated the previously introduced European subspecies. To better understand how hybridization between these different types of bees proceeded, we made geometric morphometric analyses of the wing venation patterns of specimens resulting from crosses made between Africanized honey bees (predominantly Apis mellifera scutellata) and Italian honey bees (A. mellifera ligustica) from 1965 to 1967, at the beginning of the Africanization process, in an apiary about 150 km from the original introduction site. Two virgin queens reared from an Italian parental were instrumentally inseminated with semen from drones from an Africanized parental. Six F(1) queens from one of these colonies were open mated with Africanized drones. Resultant F(1) drones were backcrossed to 50 Italian and 50 Africanized parental queens. Five backcross workers were collected from each of eight randomly selected colonies of each type of backcross (N = 5 bees x 8 colonies x 2 types of backcrosses). The F1 progeny (40 workers and 30 drones) was found to be morphologically closer to the Africanized than to the European parental (N = 20 drones and 40 workers, each); Mahalanobis square distances = 21.6 versus 25.8, respectively, for the workers, and 39.9 versus 46.4, respectively, for the drones. The worker progenies of the backcrosses (N = 40, each) were placed between the respective parental and the F(1) progeny, although closer to the Africanized than to the Italian parentals (Mahalanobis square distance = 6.2 versus 12.1, respectively). Consequently, the most common crosses at the beginning of the Africanization process would have generated individuals more similar to Africanized than to Italian bees. This adds a genetic explanation for the rapid changes in the populational morphometric profile in recently colonized areas. Africanized alleles of wing venation pattern genes are apparently dominant and epistatic.

  6. Conditional survival estimates improve over time for patients with advanced melanoma: results from a population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yan; Chang, George J.; Hu, Chung-Yuan; Askew, Robert L.; Ross, Merrick I.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Lucci, Anthony; Cormier, Janice N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Conditional survival (CS) has emerged as a clinically relevant measure of prognosis for cancer survivors. The objective of this analysis was to provide melanoma-specific CS estimates to help clinicians promote more informed patient decision-making. Methods Patients with melanoma and at least 5 years of follow-up were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry (1988–2000). Using the methods of Kaplan and Meier, stage-specific 5-year CS estimates were independently calculated for survivors for each year following diagnosis. Stage-specific multivariate Cox regression models including baseline survivor functions were used to calculate adjusted melanoma-specific CS for different subgroups of patients further stratified by age, gender, race, marital status, anatomic tumor location, and tumor histology. Results Five-year CS estimates for stage I patients remained constant at 97% annually, while for patients with stages II, III and IV disease, 5-year CS estimates from time 0 (diagnosis) to 5 years improved from 72% to 86%, 51% to 87%, and 19% to 84%, respectively. Multivariate CS analysis revealed that differences in stages II through IV CS based on age, gender and race decreased over time. Conclusions Five-year melanoma-specific CS estimates improve dramatically over time for survivors with advanced stages of disease. These prognostic data are critical to patients for both treatment and non-treatment related life decisions. PMID:20187100

  7. Genome-Wide Association Studies and the Problem of Relatedness Among Advanced Intercross Lines and Other Highly Recombinant Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Riyan; Lim, Jackie E.; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Sokoloff, Greta; Abney, Mark; Skol, Andrew D.; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2010-01-01

    Model organisms offer many advantages for the genetic analysis of complex traits. However, identification of specific genes is often hampered by a lack of recombination between the genomes of inbred progenitors. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans have offered gene-level mapping resolution that is possible because of the large number of accumulated recombinations among unrelated human subjects. To obtain analogous improvements in mapping resolution in mice, we used a 34th generation advanced intercross line (AIL) derived from two inbred strains (SM/J and LG/J). We used simulations to show that familial relationships among subjects must be accounted for when analyzing these data; we then used a mixed model that included polygenic effects to address this problem in our own analysis. Using a combination of F2 and AIL mice derived from the same inbred progenitors, we identified genome-wide significant, subcentimorgan loci that were associated with methamphetamine sensitivity, (e.g., chromosome 18; LOD = 10.5) and non-drug-induced locomotor activity (e.g., chromosome 8; LOD = 18.9). The 2-LOD support interval for the former locus contains no known genes while the latter contains only one gene (Csmd1). This approach is broadly applicable in terms of phenotypes and model organisms and allows GWAS to be performed in multigenerational crosses between and among inbred strains where familial relatedness is often unavoidable. PMID:20439773

  8. Money income and poverty status in the United States: 1987 (advance data from the March 1988 Current Population Survey).

    PubMed

    Welniak, E J; Littman, M S

    1988-08-01

    This report presents 1987 data on the income and poverty status of persons and families in the US. Data were drawn from the March 1988 Current Population Survey that studied 60,000 households nationwide. Income and poverty estimates in this report are based solely on money income before taxes and exclude noncash benefits such as food stamps, Medicare, medicaid, public housing, and other employer-provided fringe benefits. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) In 1987, median family income was $30,850, a 1% increase from 1986. This is the 5th consecutive year this figure has increased. 2) Median income of families with a female householder, no husband present, increased from $14,146 in 1986 to $14,620 in 1987, a 3.4% increase; this is the 2nd significant annual increase since 1979. 3) Real per capita income increased to $12,290 in 1987, a 1.6% increase over 1986. 4) The 32.5% of persons below the poverty level stayed at about the same number from 1986 to 1987. The poverty rate also stayed at about the same level, 13.6% in 1986 and 13.5% in 1987. 5) Both the number of poor and the poverty rate have declined since 1983 but remain above their recent low-point in 1978. 6) In 1987, 10.5% of Whites were in poverty, a decrease of .5% from 1986; 33.1% of Blacks were in poverty, an increase of 2%. 7) The Hispanic poverty rate showed no significant change, while the number in poverty increased by 353,000. 8) The poverty rate among persons living on farms was 12.6% in 1987, a decline of 7%.

  9. The role of habitat-selection in restricting invasive blue mussel advancement to protect native populations in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, N.; Saarman, N. P.; Pogson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Introduced species contribute to decline of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Introduced species threaten native species by increasing competition for space and resources, changing their habitat, and disrupting species interactions. Protecting native species is crucial to preserving ecosystem services (i.e. medicinal, agricultural, ecological, and cultural benefits) for future generations. In marine communities, the number of invasive species is dramatically increasing every year, further magnifying the negative impact on native species. This research determines if habitat-specific selection can protect native species from their invasive relatives, and could allow targeted habitat restoration for native species to maintain high levels of biodiversity. Blue mussels provide an ideal system for studying the impact of an invasive species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) on native mussels (M. trossulus), because M. galloprovincialis is marked as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species. Hybridization between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus occurs wherever their distributions overlap (i.e. Japan, Puget Sound, and central California). In central California, hybrids form in a broad variety of habitats ever since M. galloprovincialis was introduced about 100 years ago. The current level of threat posed to native mussels in central California is unknown. When population growth rate of an invasive species is higher than the native within a hybrid zone, the invader's genes become more prominent in the hybrids than the native species' genes. This uneven mix of genes and decrease of pure native mussels threatens to drive M. trossulus to extinction. Therefore, it is important to research which environment fosters highest success of pure native species. We conducted a field experiment in San Francisco Bay where mussels were reared in different habitats. We then collected samples and extracted DNA from each treatment, and genotyped them by a next-generation sequencing

  10. Reproductive compatibility between mite populations previously identified as Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Noronha, Aloyséia Cristina da Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the reproductive compatibility between populations of predatory mites previously identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) based on morphological characteristics. Colonies of these mite populations were established in the lab with specimens collected from different localities and host plants. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated through crosses and backcrosses within and between populations and the subsequent observation of females' oviposition, over a period of 10 days. The levels of oviposition obtained in the crosses between individuals from the same population were higher than those obtained in the crosses between individuals from different populations. Results indicate the occurrence of post-mating reproductive incompatibility between the mite population from Petrolina and the other populations studied. Crosses and backcrosses between populations involving female mites from Petrolina did not produce offspring, although endospermatophores were present inside the spermathecas of those females. Oviposition was reduced, and only sons were obtained, in crosses between populations with males from Petrolina. Crosses of females from Pontes e Lacerda and males from Jaguariúna and vice versa produced only male progeny. Our results established that the populations originating from Arroio do Meio, Pontes e Lacerda, Jaguarúna and Viçosa, are reproductively compatible. However, the latter populations and the population from Petrolina are genetically isolated. Based on these results we suggest that more cytological and genetic studies are needed to establish if this reproductive isolation represents a species barrier.

  11. No evidence of association between variant rs2075650 in lipid metabolism-related locus APOE/TOMM40 and advanced age-related macular degeneration in Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Mengyuan; Weng, Xiaoling; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fatao; Ye, Junyi; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Mingqing; Zhou, Daizhan

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, neurodegenerative disease. Genes related to lipid metabolism are important in AMD pathogenesis. Recently, a variant rs2075650 located in lipid metabolism-related locus APOE/TOMM40 was identified to be associated with advanced AMD and early AMD, respectively, in two genome-wide association studies with European ancestry, while no association study between rs2075650 and overall advanced AMD in Chinese population has been conducted before. We evaluated the potential effect of this variant on advanced AMD in a Han Chinese cohort with 204 advanced AMD patients and 1536 healthy controls. The results suggested that rs2075650 was neither associated with advanced AMD in allele level (P = 0.348) nor in genotype level (P = 0.890 under additive model with age and sex adjusted). In conclusion, our study did not confirm the impact of rs2075650 on advanced AMD risk, indicating that rs2075650 is unlikely a superior marker for APOE/TOMM40 susceptible region with advanced AMD in Han Chinese population. PMID:25304313

  12. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D.; Hendrix, Laura H.; Chen, Ronald C.

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  13. Advancing paternal age at birth is associated with poorer social functioning earlier and later in life of schizophrenia patients in a founder population.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Rudolf; van Heerden, Brigitte; Ehlers, René; Du Plessis, Anna M E; Roos, J Louw

    2016-09-30

    Consistent associations have been found between advanced paternal age and an increased risk of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, in their offspring. This increase appears to be linear as paternal age increases. The present study investigates the relationship between early deviant behaviour in the first 10 years of life of patients as well as longer term functional outcome and paternal age in sporadic Afrikaner founder population cases of schizophrenia. This might improve our understanding of Paternal Age-Related Schizophrenia (PARS). Follow-up psychiatric diagnoses were confirmed by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). An early deviant childhood behaviour semi-structured questionnaire and the Specific Level of Functioning Assessment (SLOF) were completed. From the logistic regression models fitted, a significant negative relationship was found between paternal age at birth and social dysfunction as early deviant behaviour. Additionally, regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between paternal age at birth and the SLOF for interpersonal relationships later in life. Early social dysfunction may represent a phenotypic trait for PARS. Further research is required to understand the relationship between early social dysfunction and deficits in interpersonal relationships later in life. PMID:27416538

  14. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Thymidylate synthase polymorphisms in genomic DNA as clinical outcome predictors in a European population of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving pemetrexed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We studied whether thymidylate synthase (TS) genotype has an independent prognostic/predictive impact on a European population of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving pemetrexed. Methods Twenty-five patients treated with pemetrexed-based regimens were included. Genomic DNA was isolated prior to treatment. The variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms, the G > C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and the TS 6-bp insertion/deletion (6/6) in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) polymorphisms were analyzed and correlated with overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall-survival (OS) and toxicity. Results The genotype +6/+6 predicted a higher ORR among active/former smokers compared to +6/-6 genotype (100% vs. 50%; p = 0.085). Overall, the 3R/3R genotype predicted a higher ORR (100%) over the rest VNTR polymorphisms (p = 0.055). The presence of 3R/3R genotype significantly correlated with a superior ORR in patients without EGFR activating mutations (100%) compared to 2R/2R, 2R/3R and 3R/4R genotype (77.8%, 33.3% and 0% respectively; p = 0.017). After a median follow-up of 21 months, a trend towards a better PFS, although not significant, was found among subjects showing 3R/3R polymorphisms (p = 0.089). A significantly superior OS was found in patients showing 3R/3R genotype rather than other VNTR polymorphisms (p = 0.019). No significant correlation with the toxicity was observed. Conclusion In our series, 3R/3R polymorphism correlated with a superior OS. Also, this polymorphism, when associated to wild type EGFR, was related to a higher ORR to pemetrexed. Toxicity was not significantly correlated with a specific TS genotype. PMID:24726028

  16. Satisfaction with life during pregnancy and early motherhood in first-time mothers of advanced age: a population-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The trend to delay motherhood to the age of 30 and beyond is established in most high-income countries but relatively little is known about potential effects on maternal emotional well-being. This study investigates satisfaction with life during pregnancy and the first three years of motherhood in women expecting their first baby at an advanced and very advanced age. Methods The study was based on the National Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data on 18 565 nulliparous women recruited in the second trimester 1999–2008 were used. Four questionnaires were completed: at around gestational weeks 17 and 30, and at six months and three years after the birth. Medical data were retrieved from the national Medical Birth Register. Advanced age was defined as 32–37 years, very advanced age as ≥38 years and the reference group as 25–31 years. The distribution of satisfaction with life from age 25 to ≥40 years was investigated, and the mean satisfaction with life at the four time points was estimated. Logistic regression analyses based on generalised estimation equations were used to investigate associations between advanced and very advanced age and satisfaction with life when controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results Satisfaction with life decreased from around age 28 to age 40 and beyond, when measured in gestational weeks 17 and 30, and at six months and three years after the birth. When comparing women of advanced and very advanced age with the reference group, satisfaction with life was slightly reduced in the two older age groups and most of all in women of very advanced age. Women of very advanced age had the lowest scores at all time points and this was most pronounced at three years after the birth. Conclusion First-time mothers of advanced and very advanced age reported a slightly lower degree of satisfaction with life compared with the reference group of younger

  17. Study of the Contribution of Population Education to Educational Renewal and Innovation in El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines and Tunisia. Co-ordinated Action Programme for the Advancement of Population Education (CAPAPE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Population Education Section.

    Presented are four national case studies carried out by the Population Education Section of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Designed to assess the effects of population education programs on the educational process, these research projects focused on El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines,…

  18. Selection against hybrids in mixed populations of Brassica rapa and Brassica napus: model and synthesis.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Tom J; Hesse, Elze

    2012-06-01

    Pollen of the crop oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) can cross-fertilize ovules of Brassica rapa (AA), which leads to an influx of unpaired C-chromosomes into wild B. rapa populations. The presence of such extra chromosomes is thought to be an indicator of introgression. Backcrosses and F(1) hybrids were found in Danish populations but, surprisingly, only F(1) hybrids were found in the UK and the Netherlands. Here, a model tests how the level of selection and biased vs unbiased transmission affect the population frequency of C-chromosomes. In the biased-transmission scenario the experimental results of the first backcross are extrapolated to estimate survival of gametes with different numbers of C-chromosomes from all crosses in the population. With biased transmission, the frequency of C-chromosomes always rapidly declines to zero. With unbiased transmission, the continued presence of plants with extra C-chromosomes depends on selection in the adult stage and we argue that this is the most realistic option for modeling populations. We suggest that selection in the field against plants with unpaired C-chromosomes is strong in Dutch and UK populations. The model highlights what we do not know and makes suggestions for further research on introgression.

  19. Advancing the Integration of Population Medicine into Medical Curricula at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University: A New Master's Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michael J; Feller, Edward; George, Paul; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Additional knowledge, attitudes and skills are required for the next generation of medical students as they expand the traditional focus on individual patients to include population-based health and scholarly investigation. The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) is initiating a master's degree program as a key component of the new Primary Care-Population Medicine program at AMS leading to both a Doctorate in Medicine (MD) and Master of Science in Population Medicine (ScM) degrees in four years. The ScM is composed of a series of nine courses, integrated into the four-year MD curriculum, as well as a thesis. Additional attention will be given to leadership and quality improvement training. The goal is to produce graduates competent in the care of individual patients, panels, communities, and populations. PMID:26324971

  20. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  1. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  2. Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1981. (Advance Data from the March 1982 Current Population Survey). Current Population Reports, Consumer Income Series P-60, No. 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This report presents 20 tables of data on money income and poverty status of individuals and families in the United States in 1981, as derived from the 1982 Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census. The income and poverty data are shown in relation to different variables, including race/ethnicity, type of residence, geographical…

  3. An investigation into trends in Advanced Placement test taking in science and mathematics among student sub-populations using a longitudinal growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. Michael

    The lack of preparation, participation, and equal access of students in mathematics and the science education continues to afflict America's high school system (Ratliff, 2001). Additionally, gender and ethnic status have become significant factors as females and minority subgroups such as African Americans and Hispanics continue to be underrepresented in these two subject fields. Recognizing and understanding these trends is extremely important for the future of this country. As fewer minorities and females become involved in advanced mathematics and science curriculum there will be a continued lack of minorities and females in mathematics and science careers. Additionally, this insufficient representation leads to fewer numbers of females and minorities in industry and educational leadership positions in mathematics and science to promote participation and equality in these fields. According to Brainard and Carlin (2003) as trends currently stand, these two groups will be under-represented in the fields of math and science and will continue to be denied economic and social power. Thus, a better understanding of these trends in participation in mathematics and science among these groups of students is warranted. This study is intended to accomplish four objectives. The first objective is to identify the extent to which opportunities are increasing or decreasing for students in high schools taking mathematics and science Advanced Placement exams by examining six years of student testing data from the College Board. A second objective is to identify features of high schools that relate to greater expansion in Advanced Placement test taking for females and minority groups in the areas of both math and science. A third objective is to explore whether, and to what extent, any social or educational features such as economic status, regional school and living locations, and ethnic backgrounds have enhanced or reduced Advanced Placement testing in these schools. Lastly

  4. DIETARY RECONSTRUCTION OF AN EARLY TO MIDDLE HOLOCENE HUMAN POPULATION FROM THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COAST: INSIGHTS FROM ADVANCED STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inherent sampling and preservational biases of the archaeological record make it difficult
    to quantify prehistoric human diets, especially in coastal settings, where populations had access to a wide range of marine and terrestrial food sources. In certain cases, geochemica...

  5. Money income and poverty status of families and persons in the United States: 1984 (advance data from the March 1985 Current Population Survey).

    PubMed

    Welniak Ej; Winard, A I

    1985-08-01

    Estimates in this report are based on a sample that includes households from both the 1970 census-based sample design and the new 1980 census-based design. Estimates in this report for 1983 and 1984 reflect the introduction of new survey weighting procedures for the Spanish-origin population. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) For the 2nd year in a row, median family income increased faster than inflation according to results of the March 1985 Current Population Survey conducted by the US Bureau of the Census. 2) In 1984, median family income was $26,430, 7.7% higher than the 1983 median of $24,550. After adjusting for the 4.3% increase in consumer prices between 1983 and 1984, real median family income still shows a significant gain of 3.3%. Not since 1972 has family income increased at a faster rate. 3) There was a significant decline in the poverty population, reversing a trend of increases in poverty experienced in recent years. Between 1983 and 1984, the poverty population fell from 35.5 million to 33.7 million. The poverty rate in 1984 was 14.4%, significantly lower than the 1983 rate of 15.3%. The poverty threshold for a family of 4 in 1984 was $10,609.

  6. Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1985. (Advance Data from the March 1986 Current Population Survey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of information gained from the March 1986 Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census shows the following results for the year 1985: (1) median family money income continued to move ahead of inflation; (2) the median earnings of men showed no statistically significant change from 1984, but the earnings of women…

  7. Radiotherapy dose led to a substantial prolongation of survival in patients with locally advanced rectosigmoid junction cancer: a large population based study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianyi; Liu, Zheng; Hu, Hanqing; Zhao, Zhixun; Song, Dawei; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely applied for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) to improve both local control and long-term outcomes. However, the efficacy of radiotherapy for rectosigmoid junction cancer (RSC) is still undetermined. Here, we identified 10074 patients who were diagnosed with locally advanced RSC from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) cancer registry. These patients were divided into three subgroups according to different therapy strategies, including surgery alone, surgery plus preoperative radiotherapy and surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) were obtained. Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to estimate the correlations between prognostic factors and survival outcomes. The 5-year CSSs for RSC patients treated with pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were 72.3% and 72.2%, which were significantly higher than surgery alone (64.8%). The 5-year OSs for RSC patients treated with pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were 71.6% and 71.2%, which were higher than surgery alone (64.0%). In the separate analyses of stage II and III RSC patients, the similar trends were also obtained. In addition, pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were equally identified as valuable prognostic factors for better survival outcomes in RSC patients. Furthermore, the results following propensity score matching also confirmed that the long-term survivals of RSC patients were improved following radiotherapy. In conclusion, locally advanced RSCpatients could obtain potential long-term survival benefits from radiotherapy. A prospective randomized control trial should be performed to further validate the strength of evidence in current study. PMID:27070089

  8. Radiotherapy dose led to a substantial prolongation of survival in patients with locally advanced rectosigmoid junction cancer: a large population based study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xu; Jiang, Zheng; Ma, Tianyi; Liu, Zheng; Hu, Hanqing; Zhao, Zhixun; Song, Dawei; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2016-05-10

    Radiotherapy is widely applied for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) to improve both local control and long-term outcomes. However, the efficacy of radiotherapy for rectosigmoid junction cancer (RSC) is still undetermined. Here, we identified 10074 patients who were diagnosed with locally advanced RSC from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) cancer registry. These patients were divided into three subgroups according to different therapy strategies, including surgery alone, surgery plus preoperative radiotherapy and surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) were obtained. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to estimate the correlations between prognostic factors and survival outcomes.The 5-year CSSs for RSC patients treated with pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were 72.3% and 72.2%, which were significantly higher than surgery alone (64.8%). The 5-year OSs for RSC patients treated with pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were 71.6% and 71.2%, which were higher than surgery alone (64.0%). In the separate analyses of stage II and III RSC patients, the similar trends were also obtained. In addition, pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were equally identified as valuable prognostic factors for better survival outcomes in RSC patients. Furthermore, the results following propensity score matching also confirmed that the long-term survivals of RSC patients were improved following radiotherapy. In conclusion, locally advanced RSCpatients could obtain potential long-term survival benefits from radiotherapy. A prospective randomized control trial should be performed to further validate the strength of evidence in current study.

  9. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for birth weight, birth date, dystocia, and survival as traits of dam in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-09-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated as traits of the dam in F2 progeny of F1 dams and F3 and 4 progeny of F2 and 3 dams in three composite populations of beef cattle. Traits included birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth, 72 h, and weaning for calves with dams of different age classes. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/4 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Among calves with 2-yr-old dams, breed effects were significant for birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth but not at 72 h and weaning. Calf survival at weaning was lowest for smallest (less than mu - 1.5 sigma) and largest (greater than mu + 1.5 sigma) birth weight classes and did not differ among intermediate birth weight classes. Calves with difficult births with 2-yr-old dams were significantly heavier at birth (39.6 vs 35.4 kg) and had significantly lower survival at 72 h (87.1 vs 92.2%) and at weaning (77.4 vs 85.1%) than calves with 2-yr-old dams that did not experience difficult births. Among calves with dams greater than or equal to 3 yr old and from dams of all ages, breed group effects generally were significant for the traits analyzed. Important breed group effects on dystocia and survival traits were observed independent of breed group effects on birth weight. Effects of heterosis were significant for birth weight for each generation of each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations. Generally, heterosis effects for calving difficulty percentage were not significant. Effects of heterosis generally were significant for date of birth (earlier) for each composite population and for

  10. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations on actual weight, adjusted weight, hip height, and condition score of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-06-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in three composite populations in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in 1-yr-old and from 2- through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old beef cows. Traits included actual weight, weight adjusted to a common condition score, hip height, and condition score. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed group (parental breed and composite) effects were significant for all traits analyzed. The effects of heterosis were generally important (P less than .05) for all traits in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in the three composite populations. Generally, the magnitude of heterosis observed at 1 yr of age did not differ from that observed in cows from 2 through greater than or equal to 7 yr old. Adjusting weight to a common condition score resulted in an average reduction of heterosis effects on actual weight by approximately one-fourth. Thus, approximately one-fourth of the effects of heterosis on weight result from heterosis effects on condition score. Generally, retained heterosis in the F3 generation of either 1-yr-old or from 2-through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old cows of the three composite populations did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity for the traits analyzed. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis for weight, hip height, and condition score of cows of these age classes is the result of dominance effects of genes.

  11. Hybridization in natural sympatric populations of Dermacentor ticks in northwestern North America

    PubMed Central

    Araya-Anchetta, A; Scoles, G A; Giles, J; Busch, J D; Wagner, D M

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization in ticks has been described in a handful of species and mostly as a result of laboratory experiments. We used 148 AFLP loci to describe putative hybridization events between D. andersoni and D. variabilis in sympatric populations from northwestern North America. Recently, D. variabilis has expanded its range westward into the natural range of D. andersoni. Using a sample of 235 D. andersoni and 62 D. variabilis, we identified 31 individuals as putative hybrids: four F2 individuals and 27 backcrosses to D. andersoni (as defined by NewHybrids). We found no evidence of hybrids backcrossing into D. variabilis. Furthermore, all hybrids presented 16S mtDNA signatures characteristic of D. andersoni, which indicates the directionality of the hybrid crosses: female D. andersoni × male D. variabilis. We also discovered 13 species-specific AFLP fragments for D. andersoni. These loci were found to have a decreased occurrence in the putative hybrids and were absent altogether in D. variabilis samples. AFLP profiles were also used to determine the levels of genetic population structure and gene flow among nine populations of D. andersoni and three of D. variabilis. Genetic structure exists in both species (D. andersoni, ΦST = 0.110; D. variabilis, ΦST = 0.304) as well as significant estimates of isolation by distance (D. andersoni, ρ = 0.066, P = 0.001; D. variabilis, ρ = 0.729, P = 0.001). PMID:23531531

  12. A randomized double-blind study of the effect of distant healing in a population with advanced AIDS. Report of a small scale study.

    PubMed Central

    Sicher, F; Targ, E; Moore, D; Smith, H S

    1998-01-01

    Various forms of distant healing (DH), including prayer and "psychic healing," are widely practiced, but insufficient formal research has been done to indicate whether such efforts actually affect health. We report on a double-blind randomized trial of DH in 40 patients with advanced AIDS. Subjects were pair-matched for age, CD4+ count, and number of AIDS-defining illnesses and randomly selected to either 10 weeks of DH treatment or a control group. DH treatment was performed by self-identified healers representing many different healing and spiritual traditions. Healers were located throughout the United States during the study, and subjects and healers never met. Subjects were assessed by psychometric testing and blood draw at enrollment and followed for 6 months. At 6 months, a blind medical chart review found that treatment subjects acquired significantly fewer new AIDS-defining illnesses (0.1 versus 0.6 per patient, P = 0.04), had lower illness severity (severity score 0.8 versus 2.65, P = 0.03), and required significantly fewer doctor visits (9.2 versus 13.0, P = 0.01), fewer hospitalizations (0.15 versus 0.6, P = 0.04), and fewer days of hospitalization (0.5 versus 3.4, P = 0.04). Treated subjects also showed significantly improved mood compared with controls (Profile of Mood States score -26 versus 14, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in CD4+ counts. These data support the possibility of a DH effect in AIDS and suggest the value of further research. PMID:9866433

  13. Money income and poverty status of families and persons in the United States: 1986 (advance data from the March 1987 Current Population Survey).

    PubMed

    Welniak Ej; Littman, M S

    1987-07-01

    This report presents data on the income and poverty status of families and persons in the US for 1986. Data were compiled from information collected in the March 1987 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census. 60,500 households were surveyed nationwide. Highlights of the data follow. 1) In 1986, median family income was $29,460, 4.2% higher than the 1985 median of $27,740 after adjusting for inflation. 2) Since 1982, when the last economic recession ended, real median family income rose a total of 10.7%. 3) The median earnings of both men and women working year-round full-time increased significantly in real terms between 1985 and 1986. 4) In 1986, per capita income was $11,670, up 4% from 1985 in real terms. Whites averaged $12,350 per year, Blacks $7,210, and Hispanics $7000, all higher than in 1985. 5) The number of persons below the poverty level was 32.4 million in 1986. The difference between this figure and the 1985 estimate of 33.1 million is not statistically significant. 6) The poverty rate was 13.6% in 1986, compared to 14% in 1985. The 1986 poverty rate was 11% for Whites, 31% for Blacks, 27% for Hispanics, and 16% for persons of other races. 7) The number and percentage of persons in poverty have declined since the recent peak level of 1983, when the number of persons in poverty was 35.3 million and the poverty rate was 15.2%.

  14. Effects of breed and retained heterosis on milk yield and 200-day weight in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-08-01

    Retained heterosis in F2 cows nursing F3 progeny was evaluated in 3-, 4-, and greater than or equal to 5-yr-old cows. Traits evaluated included milk yield at three stages of lactation and 200-d weight of progeny. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for 12-h milk yield, estimated 200-d milk yield, and 200-d weight of progeny. Herefords were lowest (P less than .05) for 12-h milk yield and estimated 200-d milk yield, and Braunvieh produced significantly more milk than all breed groups except Pinzgauer and Simmental, for which the difference approached significance. The correlation among breed group means (nine parental breeds and three composites) for 12-h milk yield with 200-d weight of progeny was .91. When 200-d weight was adjusted to a common estimated 200-d milk yield, Hereford, Angus, Red Poll, and Limousin did not differ (P greater than .05); all were significantly lighter than Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, and Charolais, which did not differ (P greater than .05) from each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Hybridization following population collapse in a critically endangered antelope.

    PubMed

    Vaz Pinto, Pedro; Beja, Pedro; Ferrand, Nuno; Godinho, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Population declines may promote interspecific hybridization due to the shortage of conspecific mates (Hubb's 'desperation' hypothesis), thus greatly increasing the risk of species extinction. Yet, confirming this process in the wild has proved elusive. Here we combine camera-trapping and molecular surveys over seven years to document demographic processes associated with introgressive hybridization between the critically endangered giant sable antelope (Hippotragus niger variani), and the naturally sympatric roan antelope (H. equinus). Hybrids with intermediate phenotypes, including backcrosses with roan, were confirmed in one of the two remnant giant sable populations. Hybridization followed population depletion of both species due to severe wartime poaching. In the absence of mature sable males, a mixed herd of sable females and hybrids formed and grew progressively over time. To prevent further hybridization and recover this small population, all sable females were confined to a large enclosure, to which sables from the other remnant population were translocated. Given the large scale declines in many animal populations, hybridization and introgression associated with the scarcity of conspecific mates may be an increasing cause of biodiversity conservation concern. In these circumstances, the early detection of hybrids should be a priority in the conservation management of small populations. PMID:26732144

  16. Hybridization following population collapse in a critically endangered antelope

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Pinto, Pedro; Beja, Pedro; Ferrand, Nuno; Godinho, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Population declines may promote interspecific hybridization due to the shortage of conspecific mates (Hubb’s ‘desperation’ hypothesis), thus greatly increasing the risk of species extinction. Yet, confirming this process in the wild has proved elusive. Here we combine camera-trapping and molecular surveys over seven years to document demographic processes associated with introgressive hybridization between the critically endangered giant sable antelope (Hippotragus niger variani), and the naturally sympatric roan antelope (H. equinus). Hybrids with intermediate phenotypes, including backcrosses with roan, were confirmed in one of the two remnant giant sable populations. Hybridization followed population depletion of both species due to severe wartime poaching. In the absence of mature sable males, a mixed herd of sable females and hybrids formed and grew progressively over time. To prevent further hybridization and recover this small population, all sable females were confined to a large enclosure, to which sables from the other remnant population were translocated. Given the large scale declines in many animal populations, hybridization and introgression associated with the scarcity of conspecific mates may be an increasing cause of biodiversity conservation concern. In these circumstances, the early detection of hybrids should be a priority in the conservation management of small populations. PMID:26732144

  17. Positional Gene Cloning in Experimental Populations.

    PubMed

    Jagodic, Maja; Stridh, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Positional cloning is a technique that identifies a trait-associated gene based on its location in the genome and involves methods such as linkage analysis, association mapping, and bioinformatics. This approach can be used for gene identification even when little is known about the molecular basis of the trait. Vast majority of traits are regulated by multiple genomic loci called quantitative trait loci (QTL). We describe experimental populations and designs that can be used for positional cloning, including backcrosses, intercrosses, and heterogeneous stocks, and advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. Once the phenotype and genotype of each individual in an experimental population have been determined, QTL identification can be accomplished. We describe the statistical tools used to identify the existence, location, and significance of QTLs. These different methods have advantages and disadvantages to consider when selecting the appropriate model to be used, which is briefly discussed.Although the objective of QTL mapping is to identify genomic regions associated with a trait, the ultimate goal is to identify the gene and the genetic variation (which is often quantitative trait nucleotide, QTN) or haplotype that is responsible for the phenotype. By discovering the function of causative variants or haplotypes we can understand the molecular changes that lead to the phenotype. We briefly describe how the genomic sequences can be exploited to identify QTNs and how these can be validated in congenic strains and functionally tested to understand their influence on phenotype expression. PMID:25103675

  18. Current advance methods for the identification of blast resistance genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, Fatah A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A; Ahmed, Fahim; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-05-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating diseases of rice around the world and crop losses due to blast are considerably high. Many blast resistant rice varieties have been developed by classical plant breeding and adopted by farmers in various rice-growing countries. However, the variability in the pathogenicity of the blast fungus according to environment made blast disease a major concern for farmers, which remains a threat to the rice industry. With the utilization of molecular techniques, plant breeders have improved rice production systems and minimized yield losses. In this article, we have summarized the current advanced molecular techniques used for controlling blast disease. With the advent of new technologies like marker-assisted selection, molecular mapping, map-based cloning, marker-assisted backcrossing and allele mining, breeders have identified more than 100 Pi loci and 350 QTL in rice genome responsible for blast disease. These Pi genes and QTLs can be introgressed into a blast-susceptible cultivar through marker-assisted backcross breeding. These molecular techniques provide timesaving, environment friendly and labour-cost-saving ways to control blast disease. The knowledge of host-plant interactions in the frame of blast disease will lead to develop resistant varieties in the future.

  19. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal. Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former. Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC ('backcross'). Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between-population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability (for the clones originating from diapausing eggs), initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones. Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness. Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1 generation reverted to outbreeding

  20. Fine-Mapping the Wheat Snn1 Locus Conferring Sensitivity to the Parastagonospora nodorum Necrotrophic Effector SnTox1 Using an Eight Founder Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross Population

    PubMed Central

    Cockram, James; Scuderi, Alice; Barber, Toby; Furuki, Eiko; Gardner, Keith A.; Gosman, Nick; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Phan, Huyen P.; Rose, Gemma A.; Tan, Kar-Chun; Oliver, Richard P.; Mackay, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of one of the world’s most economically important cereal crops, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). P. nodorum produces necrotrophic protein effectors that mediate host cell death, providing nutrients for continuation of the infection process. The recent discovery of pathogen effectors has revolutionized disease resistance breeding for necrotrophic diseases in crop species, allowing often complex genetic resistance mechanisms to be broken down into constituent parts. To date, three effectors have been identified in P. nodorum. Here we use the effector, SnTox1, to screen 642 progeny from an eight-parent multiparent advanced generation inter-cross (i.e., MAGIC) population, genotyped with a 90,000-feature single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The MAGIC founders showed a range of sensitivity to SnTox1, with transgressive segregation evident in the progeny. SnTox1 sensitivity showed high heritability, with quantitative trait locus analyses fine-mapping the Snn1 locus to the short arm of chromosome 1B. In addition, a previously undescribed SnTox1 sensitivity locus was identified on the long arm of chromosome 5A, termed here QSnn.niab-5A.1. The peak single-nucleotide polymorphism for the Snn1 locus was converted to the KASP genotyping platform, providing breeders and researchers a simple and cheap diagnostic marker for allelic state at Snn1. PMID:26416667

  1. Populations of weedy crop-wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop-wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop-wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop-wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management.

  2. Populations of weedy crop-wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop-wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop-wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop-wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management. PMID:25567926

  3. Populations of weedy crop–wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop–wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop–wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop–wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management. PMID:25567926

  4. Advance care directives

    MedlinePlus

    ... advance directive; Do-not-resuscitate - advance directive; Durable power of attorney - advance care directive; POA - advance care directive; Health care agent - advance care directive; Health care proxy - ...

  5. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  6. Population Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  7. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  8. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  9. Advanced Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarantos, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This is an excerpt from a course for advanced students, designed to teach proficiency in English composition by providing activities specifically geared to the elimination of native language interference. (LG)

  10. Reduction of multiple pregnancies in the advanced maternal age population after implementation of an elective single embryo transfer policy coupled with enhanced embryo selection: pre- and post-intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Capalbo, Antonio; Colamaria, Silvia; Ferrero, Susanna; Maggiulli, Roberta; Vajta, Gábor; Sapienza, Fabio; Cimadomo, Danilo; Giuliani, Maddalena; Gravotta, Enrica; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Rienzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is an elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) policy an efficient approach for women aged >35 years when embryo selection is enhanced via blastocyst culture and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)? SUMMARY ANSWER Elective SET coupled with enhanced embryo selection using PGS in women older than 35 years reduced the multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining the cumulative success rate of the IVF programme. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Multiple pregnancies mean an increased risk of premature birth and perinatal death and occur mainly in older patients when multiple embryos are transferred to increase the chance of pregnancy. A SET policy is usually recommended in cases of good prognosis patients, but no general consensus has been reached for SET application in the advanced maternal age (AMA) population, defined as women older than 35 years. Our objective was to evaluate the results in terms of efficacy, efficiency and safety of an eSET policy coupled with increased application of blastocyst culture and PGS for this population of patients in our IVF programme. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In January 2013, a multidisciplinary intervention involving optimization of embryo selection procedure and introduction of an eSET policy in an AMA population of women was implemented. This is a retrospective 4-year (January 2010–December 2013) pre- and post-intervention analysis, including 1161 and 499 patients in the pre- and post-intervention period, respectively. The primary outcome measures were the cumulative delivery rate (DR) per oocyte retrieval cycle and multiple DR. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Surplus oocytes and/or embryos were vitrified during the entire study period. In the post-intervention period, all couples with good quality embryos and less than two previous implantation failures were offered eSET. Embryo selection was enhanced by blastocyst culture and PGS (blastocyst stage biopsy and 24-chromosomal screening). Elective SET was also

  11. Variation in Y chromosome segregation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Functional variation among Y chromosomes in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster was assayed by a segregation study. A total of 36 Y chromosomes was extracted and ten generations of replacement backcrossing yielded stocks with Y chromosomes in two different genetic backgrounds. Eleven of the Y chromosomes were from diverse geographic origins, and the remaining 25 were from locally captured flies. Segregation of sexes in adult offspring was scored for the four possible crosses among the two backgrounds with each Y chromosome. Although the design confounds meiotic drive and effects on viability, statistical partitioning of these effects reveals significant variation among lines in Y chromosome segregation. Results are discussed in regards to models of Y-linked segregation and viability effects, which suggest that Y-linked adaptive polymorphism is unlikely.

  12. Allozyme and RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity and geographic variation in wild populations of the American chestnut (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Dane, F; Kubisiak, T

    1998-07-01

    Genetic variation among 12 populations of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was investigated. Population genetic parameters estimated from allozyme variation suggest that C. dentata at both the population and species level has narrow genetic diversity as compared to other species in the genus. Average expected heterozygosity was relatively low for the population collected in the Black Rock Mountain State Park, Georgia (He = 0.096 +/- 0.035), and high for the population in east central Alabama (He = 0.196 +/- 0.048). Partitioning of the genetic diversity based on 18 isozyme loci showed that ~10% of the allozyme diversity resided among populations. Cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method using arithmetric averages of Rogers' genetic distance and principal components analysis based on allele frequencies of both isozyme and RAPD loci revealed four groups: the southernmost population, south-central Appalachian populations, north-central Appalachian populations, and northern Appalachian populations. Based on results presented in this study, a conservation strategy and several recommendations related to the backcross breeding aimed at restoring C. dentata are discussed.

  13. Population imaging in neuroepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, M W; de Groot, M; Bos, D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroepidemiologic studies have traditionally focused on studying associations between determinants and neurologic outcomes, while treating the pathway in between both as a "black box." With the rise of noninvasive, advanced neuroimaging techniques, it has become possible to directly study brain changes occurring in this "black box." This importantly aids to unravel disease pathways, find new markers of disease, or identify subjects at risk of disease. Imaging in neuroepidemiologic studies is also called population neuroimaging. This chapter discusses the rationale of population neuroimaging, the different imaging modalities that can be applied, and the various ways to extract visual or quantitative information from these images. Population neuroimaging is a fast-progressing field, partly due to new techniques and partly due to the growing need for collaboration, harmonization, and standardization among studies. Considerations for future applications of imaging in neuroepidemiology are discussed against this background. PMID:27637953

  14. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  15. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  16. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  17. Rapid population growth.

    PubMed

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year. PMID:12261450

  18. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  19. Population neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  20. Sequence-based introgression mapping identifies candidate white mold tolerance genes in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). More than 20 QTL were reported using multiple bi-parental populations. To study the disease in more detail, advanced back-cross populations seg...

  1. Advances in genetics. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Caspari, E.W.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents articles on genetics and the advances made in this field. Topics covered include the following: recovery, repair, and mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe; gene transfer in fungi; Y chromosome function and spermatogenesis in Drosophila hydei; recent developments in population genetics; and genetics, cytology and evolution of Gossypium.

  2. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  3. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  4. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  5. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  6. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism predicts response and time to progression to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese Han population*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-ping; Kou, Jun-yan; Hong, Dan; Su, Dan; Mao, Wei-min; Yu, Xin-min; Xie, Fa-jun; Wang, Xiao-jian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) genetic polymorphisms and the clinical efficacy of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 135 chemonaive patients with unresectable advanced NSCLC were treated with gemcitabine/platinum regimens. The polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T, ERCC1 C8092A, and ERCC1 C118T were genotyped using the TaqMan methods. Results: The overall response rate was 28.9%. Patients with MTHFR CC genotype had a higher rate of objective response than patients with variant genotype (TT or CT) (41.2% versus 19.1%, P=0.01). Median time to progression (TTP) of patients with MTHFR CC genotype was longer than that of patients with variant genotype (7.6 months versus 5.0 months, P=0.003). No significant associations were obtained between ERCC1 C118T and C8092A polymorphisms and both response and survival. Conclusions: Our data suggest the value of MTHFR C677T polymorphism as a possible predictive marker of response and TTP in advanced NSCLC patients treated with gemcitabine/platinum. PMID:23463763

  7. Nutrition, Development, and Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Alan

    1973-01-01

    Focuses on the problem of malnutrition in developing countries through a description of its interrelationships with human development, national economies, economic growth and income, agricultural advances, the crisis in infant feeding practices, new foods, and the population dilemma. Outlines possible future policy directions to significantly…

  8. Population update.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    According to Population Reference Bureau estimates, the world's population stood at 5,062,000,000 in November 1987, with an annual growth of 87,000,000. The US population was estimated to be 243,571,000 as of June 1, 1987 compared with 241,403,000 1 year earlier. In 1987 in the US, there were 3,767,000 live births (15.5 rate), 2,103,000 deaths (8.7), a natural increase of 1,664,000 (6.8), 2,438,000 marriages (10.1), 1,166,000 divorces (4.8), and 38,100 infant deaths (10.1). Compared with 1984, 1986 rates have declined in the US for natural increase, marriages, divorces and infant mortality. The mortality rate has increased slightly, while the live birth rate was the same in 1984 and 1987. PMID:12268743

  9. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  10. Predicting Epileptic Seizures in Advance

    PubMed Central

    Moghim, Negin; Corne, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6–0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG) data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling), is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity) of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance. PMID:24911316

  11. Treatment Patterns, Costs, and Survival among Medicare-Enrolled Elderly Patients Diagnosed with Advanced Stage Gastric Cancer: Analysis of a Linked Population-Based Cancer Registry and Administrative Claims Database

    PubMed Central

    Karve, Sudeep; Liepa, Astra M; Hess, Lisa M; Kaye, James A; Calingaert, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess real-world treatment patterns, health care utilization, costs, and survival among Medicare enrollees with locally advanced/unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer receiving standard first-line chemotherapy. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database (2000~2009). The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) first diagnosed with locally advanced/unresectable or metastatic gastric cancer between July 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 (first diagnosis defined the index date); (2) ≥65 years of age at index; (3) continuously enrolled in Medicare Part A and B from 6 months before index through the end of follow-up, defined by death or the database end date (December 31, 2009), whichever occurred first; and (4) received first-line treatment with fluoropyrimidine and/or a platinum chemo-therapy agent. Results In total, 2,583 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at index was 74.8±6.0 years. Over 90% of patients died during follow-up, with a median survival of 361 days for the overall post-index period and 167 days for the period after the completion of first-line chemotherapy. The mean total gastric cancer-related cost per patient over the entire post-index follow-up period was United States dollar (USD) 70,808±56,620. Following the completion of first-line chemotherapy, patients receiving further cancer-directed treatment had USD 25,216 additional disease-related costs versus patients receiving supportive care only (P<0.001). Conclusions The economic burden of advanced gastric cancer is substantial. Extrapolating based on published incidence estimates and staging distributions, the estimated total disease-related lifetime cost to Medicare for the roughly 22,200 patients expected to be diagnosed with this disease in 2014 approaches USD 300 millions. PMID:26161282

  12. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  13. Microsatellite data analysis for population genetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Theories and analytical tools of population genetics have been widely applied for addressing various questions in the fields of ecological genetics, conservation biology, and any context where the role of dispersal or gene flow is important. Underlying much of population genetics is the analysis of variation at selectively neutral marker loci, and microsatellites continue to be a popular choice of marker. In recent decades, software programs to estimate population genetics parameters have been developed at an increasing pace as computational science and theoretical knowledge advance. Numerous population genetics software programs are presently available to analyze microsatellite genotype data, but only a handful are commonly employed for calculating parameters such as genetic variation, genetic structure, patterns of spatial and temporal gene flow, population demography, individual population assignment, and genetic relationships within and between populations. In this chapter, we introduce statistical analyses and relevant population genetic software programs that are commonly employed in the field of population genetics and molecular ecology.

  14. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  15. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  16. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  17. NexGen PVAs: Incorporating Eco-Evolutionary Processes into Population Viability Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine how the integration of evolutionary and ecological processes in population dynamics – an emerging framework in ecology – could be incorporated into population viability analysis (PVA). Driven by parallel, complementary advances in population genomics and computational ...

  18. Heterosis and outbreeding depression in crosses between natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, C G; Ågren, J; Schemske, D W

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the causes and architecture of genetic differentiation between natural populations is of central importance in evolutionary biology. Crosses between natural populations can result in heterosis if recessive or nearly recessive deleterious mutations have become fixed within populations because of genetic drift. Divergence between populations can also result in outbreeding depression because of genetic incompatibilities. The net fitness consequences of between-population crosses will be a balance between heterosis and outbreeding depression. We estimated the magnitude of heterosis and outbreeding depression in the highly selfing model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, by crossing replicate line pairs from two sets of natural populations (C↔R, B↔S) separated by similar geographic distances (Italy↔Sweden). We examined the contribution of different modes of gene action to overall differences in estimates of lifetime fitness and fitness components using joint scaling tests with parental, reciprocal F1 and F2, and backcross lines. One of these population pairs (C↔R) was previously demonstrated to be locally adapted, but locally maladaptive quantitative trait loci were also found, suggesting a role for genetic drift in shaping adaptive variation. We found markedly different genetic architectures for fitness and fitness components in the two sets of populations. In one (C↔R), there were consistently positive effects of dominance, indicating the masking of recessive or nearly recessive deleterious mutations that had become fixed by genetic drift. The other set (B↔S) exhibited outbreeding depression because of negative dominance effects. Additional studies are needed to explore the molecular genetic basis of heterosis and outbreeding depression, and how their magnitudes vary across environments. PMID:26059971

  19. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Prem P; Peterson, Terrance S

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid-an allotetraploid between 2 wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). Even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal imbalance, for example, addition of alien chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum. Therefore, one way to broaden its genetic base is to add a desirable chromosome(s) from diploid wild relatives. We attempted chromosomal engineering with chromosomes of a diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum bessarabicum-a source of resistance to some diseases including Fusarium head blight. Several advanced hybrids and alien addition lines were studied using traditional cytology, multicolor fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers. Hybrid derivatives varied in chromosome number from F1 to F8 generations and in backcross generations. In advanced generations, we exercised selection against 28-chromosome plants and in favor of 30-chromosome plants that helped recover 14 addition lines in the F8 generation, as indicated by the absence of segregation for 29-chromosome plants. Disomic additions showed regular meiosis with 15 bivalents, 14 of durum wheat, and 1 of Th. bessarabicum. The addition lines will facilitate further chromosome engineering work on durum wheat for broadening its genetic base. PMID:23396879

  20. Advances in Male Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  1. Gene flow from an adaptively divergent source causes rescue through genetic and demographic factors in two wild populations of Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Gerberich, Jill C; Angeloni, Lisa M; Bailey, Larissa L; Broder, Emily D; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Handelsman, Corey A; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Reznick, David N; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Chris Funk, W

    2016-08-01

    Genetic rescue, an increase in population growth owing to the infusion of new alleles, can aid the persistence of small populations. Its use as a management tool is limited by a lack of empirical data geared toward predicting effects of gene flow on local adaptation and demography. Experimental translocations provide an ideal opportunity to monitor the demographic consequences of gene flow. In this study we take advantage of two experimental introductions of Trinidadian guppies to test the effects of gene flow on downstream native populations. We individually marked guppies from the native populations to monitor population dynamics for 3 months before and 26 months after gene flow. We genotyped all individuals caught during the first 17 months at microsatellite loci to classify individuals by their genetic ancestry: native, immigrant, F1 hybrid, F2 hybrid, or backcross. Our study documents a combination of demographic and genetic rescue over multiple generations under fully natural conditions. Within both recipient populations, we found substantial and long-term increases in population size that could be attributed to high survival and recruitment caused by immigration and gene flow from the introduction sites. Our results suggest that low levels of gene flow, even from a divergent ecotype, can provide a substantial demographic boost to small populations, which may allow them to withstand environmental stochasticity. PMID:27468306

  2. Dissecting the genetic diversity in African rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African cultivated rice, Oryza glaberrima, and its progenitor, O. barthii are excellent sources of important genes for rice improvement because they exhibit tolerance to several abiotic and biotic stresses. Development of advance backcross (ABC) populations between an unadapted donor parent and ada...

  3. Exploring the power of rice (O. sativa x O. rufipogon) chromosome segment substitution line libraries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgressive variation was reported as an increase in grain yield for several rice (Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon) advanced backcross mapping populations. The objective of this study was to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) libraries to further dissect the reported transgressive var...

  4. THROUGH THE GENETIC BOTTLENECK: O. RUFIPOGON AS A SOURCE OF TRAIT-ENHANCING ALLELES FOR O. SATIVA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes results from a decade of collaborative research using advanced backcross (AB) populations to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with improved performance in rice and to clone genes underlying key QTLs of interest. We demonstrate taht AB-QTL analysis is capable o...

  5. Population databases in development analysis.

    PubMed

    Chamie, J

    1994-01-01

    Population databases are very important in formulating analyses of social and economic change and development. Since such analyses are often the basis for policy making and program formulation, it is important to have a sound understanding of their strengths and limitations. This paper focuses upon databases which deal with population size, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Considerable progress has been made in producing population databases over the last several decades, but many problems remain with regard to their comparability, completeness of coverage, and accuracy. Governmental and political circumstances greatly influence the availability and quality of population databases. Globally, the comparability of data remains a serious concern due to deviations from standard definitions. The completeness of coverage of databases among less developed countries varies widely by region, while the data for preparing estimates and assessing demographic trends are deficient and problematic. Technological advances and the repackaging of population databases have greatly advanced their production and availability, but confusion and ignorance have become widespread regarding the original source and nature of the data. Database users therefore too often undertake faulty analyses which lead to false conclusions.

  6. Population studies.

    PubMed

    Heenan, B

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have been published about the population change in New Zealand between 1936 and 1986. During this time an intellectual and demographic revolution also took place simultaneously. From 1961 and 1986 the population increased from 2.4 million to 3.3 million mainly because of Polynesian immigration, and the elderly and females also increased. The Maoris became urban. Mortality stayed stable, but fertility declined to below replacement level in the 1980's. Murray Wilson (1988) analyzed the relationship of fertility and mortality in terms of a post-transitional (developed) society like Australia or the European norm of a 2-children family. In his view the youth culture, television, and female aspirations greatly influenced childrearing. Daniel Noin (1988) examined the current state of geographical research on mortality from a methodological point of view finding wide differences in mortality in Quebec, Brussels, Paris, and London attributable to culture. Mosley and Chen (1984) argued that social, cultural, and economic factors to mortality are mediated by individual, household, and community variables. Jones and Moon (1987) dealt with medical geography in the context of the consumption of health care and disease ecology. Momsen and Townsend (1987) addressed the role of women in developing countries stating that gender is socially created and it examined the worldwide subordination of women. In the 1980's a host of other authors have also touched on the subject of the demography of gender analyzing discrimination against female children, unmarried American women, and single parent families. Yet Fahey (1988) stated that gender was only regarded relevant by Australian geographers as a demographic variable. PMID:12283966

  7. Population screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    Each year in the UK, around 16,000 people die from colorectal cancer. At disease presentation, around 55% of people have advanced cancer that has spread to lymph nodes, metastasised to other organs or is so locally advanced that surgery is unlikely to be curative (Dukes' stage C or D). Overall 5-year survival for colorectal cancer in the UK is around 47-51% (compared to 64% in the USA), but only 7% at most in those presenting with metastatic disease. These facts underlie the current introduction of national bowel screening programmes in the UK. Here we assess the role of screening of the general population in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. We do not consider the screening arrangements needed for high-risk populations, including those with inflammatory bowel disease or a strong family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:17009566

  8. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  9. Population problems and population research in a market economy.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1994-01-01

    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  10. Genetic variation in locomotor activity rhythm among populations of Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae), a larval parasitoid of Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Fleury, F; Allemand, R; Fouillet, P; Boulétreau, M

    1995-01-01

    The locomotor activity rhythm of Leptopilina heterotoma, a parasitoid insect of Drosophila larvae, was investigated under laboratory conditions. Under LD 12:12, the locomotor activity of females shows a clear rhythm which persists under continuous darkness (circadian rhythm). However, comparative study of five populations indicates that both the rate of activity and the profile of the rhythm vary according to the origin of females. The Mediterranean populations (Tunisia and Antibes) show two peaks of activity, at the beginning and at the end of the photophase, whereas more northern populations (Lyon and the Netherlands) are mostly active during the afternoon. Females originating from the area of Lyon have a very low level of activity. Reciprocal crosses (F1 hybrids and backcrosses) between the French and the Tunisian strains demonstrated the genetic basis of these variations and the biparental inheritance of the trait. This genetic variability is interpreted as a consequence of selective pressures and suggests a local adaptation of natural populations in host foraging behavior. The selective factors which could act on the daily organization of parasitoid behaviors are discussed. PMID:7755522

  11. Evolution in Stage-Structured Populations

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, stage is a better predictor of demographic rates than age. Yet no general theoretical framework exists for understanding or predicting evolution in stage-structured populations. Here, we provide a general modeling approach that can be used to predict evolution and demography of stage-structured populations. This advances our ability to understand evolution in stage-structured populations to a level previously available only for populations structured by age. We use this framework to provide the first rigorous proof that Lande’s theorem, which relates adaptive evolution to population growth, applies to stage-classified populations, assuming only normality and that evolution is slow relative to population dynamics. We extend this theorem to allow for different means or variances among stages. Our next major result is the formulation of Price’s theorem, a fundamental law of evolution, for stage-structured populations. In addition, we use data from Trillium grandiflorum to demonstrate how our models can be applied to a real-world population and thereby show their practical potential to generate accurate projections of evolutionary and population dynamics. Finally, we use our framework to compare rates of evolution in age- versus stage-structured populations, which shows how our methods can yield biological insights about evolution in stage-structured populations. PMID:21460563

  12. Genetic architecture of differences between populations of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) evolved in the same environment.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Jonas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the genetic architecture underlying differentiation in fitness-related traits between two pairs of populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). These populations had geographically distant (> 2000 km) origins but evolved in a uniform laboratory environment for 120 generations. For each pair of populations (Nigeria x Yemen and Cameroon x Uganda) we estimated the means of five fitness-related characters and a measure of fitness (net reproductive rate R0) in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F1 and two F2 lines and eight backcrosses). Models containing up to nine composite genetic parameters were fitted to the means of the 14 lines. The patterns of line means for all traits in the Nigeria x Yemen cross and for four traits (larval survival, developmental rate, female body weight, and fecundity) in the Cameroon x Uganda cross were best explained by models including additive, dominance, and maternal effects, but excluding epistasis. We did not find any evidence for outbreeding depression for any trait. An epistatic component of divergence was detected for egg hatching success and R0 in the Cameroon x Uganda cross, but its sign was opposite to that expected under outbreeding depression, that is, additive x additive epistasis had a positive effect on the performance of F2 hybrids. All traits except fecundity showed a pattern of heterosis. A large difference of egg-hatching success between the two reciprocal F1 lines in that cross was best explained as fertilization incompatibility between Cameroon females and sperm carrying Uganda genes. The results suggest that these populations have not converged to the same life-history phenotype and genetic architecture, despite 120 generations of uniform natural selection. However, the absence of outbreeding depression implies that they did not evolve toward different adaptive peaks.

  13. Advanced hydrologic prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Brian A.; Braatz, Dean T.; Halquist, John B.; Deweese, Michael M.; Larson, Lee; Ingram, John J.

    1999-08-01

    As our Nation's population and infrastructure grow, natural disasters are becoming a greater threat to our society's stability. In an average year, inland flooding claims 133 lives and resulting property losses exceed 4.0 billion. Last year, 1997, these losses totaled 8.7 billion. Because of this blossoming threat, the National Weather Service (NWS) has requested funding within its 2000 budget to begin national implementation of the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS). With this system in place the NWS will be able to utilize precipitation and climate predictions to provide extended probabilistic river forecasts for risk-based decisions. In addition to flood and drought mitigation benefits, extended river forecasts will benefit water resource managers in decision making regarding water supply, agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and ecosystems. It's estimated that AHPS, if implemented nationwide, would save lives and provide $677 million per year in economic benefits. AHPS is used currently on the Des Moines River basin in Iowa and will be implemented soon on the Minnesota River basin in Minnesota. Experience gained from user interaction is leading to refined and enhanced product formats and displays. This discussion will elaborate on the technical requirements associated with AHPS implementation, its enhanced products and informational displays, and further refinements based on customer feedback.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Qtls Affecting Plant Height and Maturity across the Poaceae, in Reference to an Interspecific Sorghum Population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Y. R.; Schertz, K. F.; Paterson, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    Correspondence among QTLs affecting height and/or flowering was investigated across the five races of sorghum, an interspecific sorghum F(2) population, and 32 previously published sorghum, maize, rice, wheat, and barley populations revealing 185 QTLs or discrete mutants. Among nine QTLs mapped in the interspecific sorghum population (six affecting height and three affecting flowering), at least seven (78%) are associated with ``conversion,'' backcross-introgression of alleles imparting reduced height or earlier flowering from cultivated sorghums into one or more exotic Sorghum bicolor races. One chromosomal region was ``converted'' in all S. bicolor races--in the interspecific F(2), this region explined 54.8% of height variation (putatively the Dw2 gene) and 85.7% of flowering time variation (putatively Ma1). Comparative data suggest that Ma1 and Dw2 orthologs influence height and flowering of other Poaceae taxa and support classical dogma that the sorghum phenotypes attributed to Ma1 and Dw2 (respectively) are due to different genetic loci. Other sorghum QTLs also showed correspondence with those in other Poaceae, more frequently than would be expected by chance. Possible homoeologous QTLs were found within both the maize and sorghum genomes. Comparative QTL mapping provides a means to unify, and thereby simplify, molecular analysis of complex phenotypes. PMID:8536986

  15. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Bekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation.

  16. Measuring up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John; Albro, Elizabeth; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the science of reading acquisition, processes, and individual differences in general and special populations has been continuously advancing through interdisciplinary research in cognitive, psycholinguistic, developmental, genetic, neuroscience, cross-language studies, and experimental comparison studies of effective…

  17. Effective population size and population subdivision in demographically structured populations.

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Valérie; Charlesworth, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A fast-timescale approximation is applied to the coalescent process in a single population, which is demographically structured by sex and/or age. This provides a general expression for the probability that a pair of alleles sampled from the population coalesce in the previous time interval. The effective population size is defined as the reciprocal of twice the product of generation time and the coalescence probability. Biologically explicit formulas for effective population size with discrete generations and separate sexes are derived for a variety of different modes of inheritance. The method is also applied to a nuclear gene in a population of partially self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. The effects of population subdivision on a demographically structured population are analyzed, using a matrix of net rates of movement of genes between different local populations. This involves weighting the migration probabilities of individuals of a given age/sex class by the contribution of this class to the leading left eigenvector of the matrix describing the movements of genes between age/sex classes. The effects of sex-specific migration and nonrandom distributions of offspring number on levels of genetic variability and among-population differentiation are described for different modes of inheritance in an island model. Data on DNA sequence variability in human and plant populations are discussed in the light of the results. PMID:12242257

  18. Education of Advanced Practice Nurses Serving Vulnerable Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezeau, Toni M.; Peterson, Jane W.; Nakao, Constance; Ersek, Mary

    1998-01-01

    The master's of science in nursing curriculum at Seattle University leads to the designation Community Health Clinical Nurse Specialist. The School of Nursing's goal is to educate leaders in nursing who advocate for those least able to speak for themselves and least able to access resources available to the majority of people. (Author/JOW)

  19. Advancing the Pain Agenda in the Veteran Population.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Rollin M

    2016-06-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides medical care for Veterans after leaving the military. The combination of multiple deployments and battlefield exposures to physical and psychological trauma results in a higher prevalence and complexity of chronic pain in Veterans than in the general public. The VHA and the Department of Defense work together to develop a single standard of stepped pain management appropriate for all settings from moment of injury or disease onset. This article describes the education, academic detailing, and clinical programs and policies that are transforming pain care in the VHA.

  20. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  1. Recent advances in echocardiography for valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of patients with valvular heart disease. Echocardiographic advancements may have particular impact on the assessment and management of patients with valvular heart disease. This review will summarize the current literature on advancements, such as three-dimensional echocardiography, strain imaging, intracardiac echocardiography, and fusion imaging, in this patient population. PMID:26594349

  2. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate.

  3. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  4. The population genetics of structural variation

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Donald F; Hurles, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Population genetics is central to our understanding of human variation, and by linking medical and evolutionary themes, it enables us to understand the origins and impacts of our genomic differences. Despite current limitations in our knowledge of the locations, sizes and mutational origins of structural variants, our characterization of their population genetics is developing apace, bringing new insights into recent human adaptation, genome biology and disease. We summarize recent dramatic advances, describe the diverse mutational origins of chromosomal rearrangements and argue that their complexity necessitates a re-evaluation of existing population genetic methods. PMID:17597779

  5. Estimating population diversity with CatchAll

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The massive quantity of data produced by next-generation sequencing has created a pressing need for advanced statistical tools, in particular for analysis of bacterial and phage communities. Here we address estimating the total diversity in a population – the species richness. This is an important s...

  6. Assessing the "Agedness" of a Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaraj, D.; Subramanian, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we follow a lead provided by Basu and Basu ["The Greying of Populations: Concepts and Measurement," Demography India 16, pp. 79-89], in order to advance a class of "agedness" indices which, because they have been motivated by analogous considerations in the poverty measurement literature, can find application in that area of enquiry…

  7. Predicting Population Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Uses graphs to involve students in inquiry-based population investigations on the Wisconsin gray wolf. Requires students to predict future changes in the wolf population, carrying capacity, and deer population. (YDS)

  8. Simulating Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  9. In vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in a crossbred cattle population.

    PubMed

    Young, F J; Woolliams, J A; Williams, J L; Glass, E J; O'Neill, R G; Fitzpatrick, J L

    2005-07-01

    Immune function measured by Staphylococcus aureus- and phytohemagglutinin- (PHA-) induced cell proliferation was assessed in a population of 445 genetically defined, F2 and backcross Charolais-Holstein crossbred cattle when the animals were approximately 5 mo of age. Variation in Staph. aureus-induced, PHA-induced, and control proliferation [peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and media only] was observed at d 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10 of in vitro culture. The levels of Staph. aureus-induced, PHA-induced, and control proliferation were strongly positively correlated between days of culture within-assay (e.g., between d 2 and d 3 or between d 4 and d 5). Responses were also positively correlated when the same individuals were resampled and the assay repeated within 3 mo. Analyses fitting linear mixed models using REML showed that Staph. aureus-induced and PHA-induced proliferation was significantly associated with control proliferation and the year of birth. The age of the animal at sampling influenced only Staph. aureus-induced proliferation, with Staph. aureus-induced proliferation increasing with the age of the animal. Control proliferation was influenced by a sex x cross interaction, although in this study, sex was confounded by management, as female cattle were housed and reared differently from male cattle. All 3 measures of immune function were influenced by sire, demonstrating that these traits are partially under genetic control, and indicating that it may ultimately be possible to identify quantitative trait loci for these measures of immunity.

  10. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G

    2015-06-01

    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence.

  11. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution.

  12. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    the exponential growth of population as the source of several complications for economic growth and human welfare. Stabilization of population by reducing fertility is conducive for improving the quality of population and also advances the longterm management of the population growth and work force utilization. The perspective of longterm economic management involves populatio n planning, control of environmental pollution, conservation of scarce resources, exploration of resources, realization of technological possibilities in agriculture and industry and in farm and factory, and achievement of economic growth and its equitable distribution. PMID:12314595

  13. Identification of QTL with effects on fatty acid composition of meat in a Charolais x Holstein cross population.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Richardson, R I; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

    2010-08-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing beef fatty acid composition using a CharolaisxHolstein population established using a balanced F2 and Backcross breeding design. The phenotypes considered in this study included a total of 24 fatty acid related traits determined in loin muscle samples of the 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of the herd. The QTL regression analysis performed, based on 165 microsatellite markers distributed across the 29 bovine autosomes, identified 34 QTL with F-ratios exceeding the 5% chromosome-wide significance threshold. Three of these QTL, one located on chromosome 1 (for the content on linoleic acid, C18:2n-6) and two on chromosome 10 (for the content of gamma-linoleic DPA-docosapentaenoic and DPA-docosapentaenoic, C20:3n-6 and C22:5n-3), also exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance level. A follow-up analysis correcting for intramuscular fat content showed that some of the QTL detected initially (e.g. those localised on chromosome 22) were influenced by fat deposition differences between the founder breeds. The coincident location of some of the linkage associations identified and QTL previously reported for beef fatty acid composition and other meat quality traits, in the same or other cattle populations, provides supporting evidence for the results reported here. PMID:20416790

  14. Identification of QTL with effects on fatty acid composition of meat in a Charolais x Holstein cross population.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Richardson, R I; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

    2010-08-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing beef fatty acid composition using a CharolaisxHolstein population established using a balanced F2 and Backcross breeding design. The phenotypes considered in this study included a total of 24 fatty acid related traits determined in loin muscle samples of the 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of the herd. The QTL regression analysis performed, based on 165 microsatellite markers distributed across the 29 bovine autosomes, identified 34 QTL with F-ratios exceeding the 5% chromosome-wide significance threshold. Three of these QTL, one located on chromosome 1 (for the content on linoleic acid, C18:2n-6) and two on chromosome 10 (for the content of gamma-linoleic DPA-docosapentaenoic and DPA-docosapentaenoic, C20:3n-6 and C22:5n-3), also exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance level. A follow-up analysis correcting for intramuscular fat content showed that some of the QTL detected initially (e.g. those localised on chromosome 22) were influenced by fat deposition differences between the founder breeds. The coincident location of some of the linkage associations identified and QTL previously reported for beef fatty acid composition and other meat quality traits, in the same or other cattle populations, provides supporting evidence for the results reported here.

  15. Mechanisms of population differentiation in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Burg, T M; McCoy, K D

    2007-05-01

    Despite recent advances in population genetic theory and empirical research, the extent of genetic differentiation among natural populations of animals remains difficult to predict. We reviewed studies of geographic variation in mitochondrial DNA in seabirds to test the importance of various factors in generating population genetic and phylogeographic structure. The extent of population genetic and phylogeographic structure varies extensively among species. Species fragmented by land or ice invariably exhibit population genetic structure and most also have phylogeographic structure. However, many populations (26 of 37) display genetic structure in the absence of land, suggesting that other barriers to gene flow exist. In these populations, the extent of genetic structure is best explained by nonbreeding distribution: almost all species with two or more population-specific nonbreeding areas (or seasons) have phylogeographic structure, and all species that are resident at or near breeding colonies year-round have population genetic structure. Geographic distance between colonies and foraging range appeared to have a weak influence on the extent of population genetic structure, but little evidence was found for an effect of colony dispersion or population bottlenecks. In two species (Galapagos petrel, Pterodroma phaeopygia, and Xantus's murrelet, Synthliboramphus hypoleucus), population genetic structure, and even phylogeographic structure, exist in the absence of any recognizable physical or nonphysical barrier, suggesting that other selective or behavioural processes such as philopatry may limit gene flow. Retained ancestral variation may be masking barriers to dispersal in some species, especially at high latitudes. Allopatric speciation undoubtedly occurs in this group, but reproductive isolation also appears to have evolved through founder-induced speciation, and there is strong evidence that parapatric and sympatric speciation occur. While many questions remain

  16. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  18. Advance care planning.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Advance directives allow patients to have some control over decisions even when they are no longer able to make decisions themselves. All states authorize written advance directives, such as the appointment of a health care proxy, but commonly impose procedural requirements. Some states have restricted the use of oral advance directives, although they are frequently used in everyday practice. Advance directives are limited because they are infrequently used, may not be informed, and may conflict with the patient's current best interests. Moreover, surrogates often cannot state patients' preferences accurately. Furthermore, discussions among physicians and patients about advance directives are flawed. Physicians can improve discussions about advance directives by asking the patient who should serve as proxy and by ascertaining the patient's values and general preferences before discussing specific clinical situations. PMID:15538068

  19. WHAT IS A POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "population" has several meanings, a situation that can lead to confusion in risk assessments. A management goal "to protect wildlife populations," for example, might relate to populations as defined by population biologists, or it might mean simply to protect animals in...

  20. Some Current Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  1. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes population programs in Afghanistan (nonformal, population education literacy program), India (problems in planning/managing population education in higher education), Indonesia (training for secondary/out-of-school inspectors), and Pakistan (integration of population education into school curricula). Programs in China, Korea, Vietnam,…

  2. Human Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  3. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  4. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  5. Advancing the educational agenda.

    PubMed

    Baker, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    This timely paper provides a thought-provoking analysis of current advanced practice nursing education in Canada. It comes at a critical juncture in the evolution of Canadian healthcare services and the redefinition of nursing roles. Increasingly, multiple sectors of society are calling for more nurses with advanced practice preparation and for a wider range of advanced practice nursing specialties. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are being proposed as a solution to a financially overburdened national healthcare system, the increasing complexity of healthcare services, and a crisis in access to primary healthcare. Thus, governments seeking greater fiscal efficiency, medical specialists needing sophisticated collaborative support, and healthcare consumers see APNs as the way forward.

  6. [Population structure and dynamics: the population matrix].

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Gorter, D

    1990-08-01

    "This article shows an alternative way of presenting population data. The population matrix, constructed as an important part in the process of compiling socio-demographic accounts, demonstrates the close connection between stock and flow data, bringing both types of data consistently together." Official data for the Netherlands are used to illustrate the concept. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342861

  7. Population Biology, Conservation Biology, and the Future of Humanity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    Recounts some of the progress that has been made in the field of population biology. Presents some of the important advances made in the field, along with some of their applications to societal problems. Calls for more cooperation between population scientists and social scientists, and more environmental education for the public. (TW)

  8. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect’s egg laying and feeding. RÉSUMÉ. La comestibilité de différents matériels végétaux d’Elaeis sp. présents au Bénin est testée pour Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), important ravageur du palmier à huile en Afrique. Des expérimentations en manchons ont permis de déterminer les capacités d’oviposition des femelles et les taux de mortalité des différents stades de d

  9. The challenge of population growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W

    1984-03-01

    A precarious balance exists on earth between food and people, and at this time 800 million people are starving or close to starvation. When agriculture began, say 10,000 years ago, human populations were low. They stayed roughly in balance with the food supply. After agriculture, food supplies increased as did populations. The discovery of the New World opened vast resources, more land. Human numbers began to climb. Inventions and machines increased the ability to exploit resources. With modern medicine came a decline in death rates while birthrates remained high. The result is the 20th century population now totals 4.7 billion. By 2000, it will probably reach 6.1 billion and 7.8 billion by 2020. There will be insufficient cropland to produce the food all these people will need. People have been moving into sprawling urban centers of the poor countries. They come in search of jobs because there is not enough land to support them in rural areas. They increase the numbers of the unemployed and live in squalid shanty towns. Each agricultural or industrial advance that has occurred has been overwhelmed by ever increasing numbers of people in many less developed nations. There appears to be no "catching up" with the world's soaring rate of population. About 40 years ago this dilemma began to alarm some people. Fairfield Osborn and William Vogt believed that food and economic aid should continue but would be only a stopgap until developing countries were able to control their population growth. This meant cutting the birthrate. They reasoned that the best way to accomplish this was to educate people about contraceptives and other methods of limiting fertility. Private foundations funded educational programs, and many governments began giving out contraceptives at little or no cost. Despite such efforts, populations continued to increase in places that could least support more people. Already controversial, population control programs began to offer various incentives to

  10. ADVANCES IN PRECISION CONSERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population growth is expected to increase, and the world population is projected to reach ten billion by 2050, which decreases the per capita arable land. More intensive agricultural production will have to meet the increasing food demands for this increasing population, especially because of an inc...

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  12. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  13. ADVANCED PLACEMENT IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Council on Advanced Placement, Columbus.

    THE DOCUMENT PRESENTS A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN OHIO. ANSWERS ARE GIVEN TO KEY QUESTIONS ON THE FUNCTION OF ADVANCED PLACEMENT, ACADEMIC AREAS COVERED, PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, COSTS, BENEFITS, VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS, STUDENT PARTICIPANTS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN OHIO AND REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS…

  14. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  15. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  16. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  17. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  18. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  19. China's Tibetan population and population in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Guo, D

    1996-04-01

    This article addresses the Tibetan population distribution in Tibet and neighboring provinces of China. Tibet is one of China's autonomous regions that is ethnic-inhabited. In 1994 there were 2.36 million people living in Tibet, most of whom were of Tibetan nationality. The total Tibetan population living in China numbered 4,593,072 people, who lived mostly in Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, and Yunnan, in descending order of population size. The Tibetan population in 1953 numbered 2,775,622. The total increase during 1975-90 was 65.48% and the annual growth rate was 13.71%. The annual growth rate among Tibetans during 1982-90 was 21.79% in Tibet, 20.88% in Sichuan, 24.10% in Qinghai, 23.58% in Gansu, and 18.79% in Yunnan. The regional distribution of Tibetans and the ratio of Tibetan population to Han population was highest in Tibet Autonomous Region (a ratio of 25.94:1), followed by Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (30.52:1). Other Tibet concentrations of population were in Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (8.71:1), Hunagnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (5.78:1), and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan (3.53:1). The population size of Tibetans living in Tibetan prefectures of neighboring provinces was higher than in Tibet in 1990. The rapid growth of the Tibetan population is attributed to the end to the serf system and the improvement in living conditions.

  20. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  1. Investigating Population History Using Temporal Genetic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Pontus; Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Tobias; Lascoux, Martin; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The rapid advance of sequencing technology, coupled with improvements in molecular methods for obtaining genetic data from ancient sources, holds the promise of producing a wealth of genomic data from time-separated individuals. However, the population-genetic properties of time-structured samples have not been extensively explored. Here, we consider the implications of temporal sampling for analyses of genetic differentiation and use a temporal coalescent framework to show that complex historical events such as size reductions, population replacements, and transient genetic barriers between populations leave a footprint of genetic differentiation that can be traced through history using temporal samples. Our results emphasize explicit consideration of the temporal structure when making inferences and indicate that genomic data from ancient individuals will greatly increase our ability to reconstruct population history. PMID:24939468

  2. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  3. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  4. Expanding Advanced Civilizations in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, C.

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  5. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  6. Advanced electron microscopy for advanced materials.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara; Van Aert, Sandra; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2012-11-01

    The idea of this Review is to introduce newly developed possibilities of advanced electron microscopy to the materials science community. Over the last decade, electron microscopy has evolved into a full analytical tool, able to provide atomic scale information on the position, nature, and even the valency atoms. This information is classically obtained in two dimensions (2D), but can now also be obtained in 3D. We show examples of applications in the field of nanoparticles and interfaces.

  7. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  8. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    Alternative population scenarios to the year 2000 are presented and policy implications of the various scenarios are discussed. Population models are described. Projections are made based on different sets of assumptions regarding changes in birth, death, marriage and migration rates. A "high" series, "medium" series and "low" series of projections are made for total population. Projections are also made regarding urban and rural population, families and households, and the labor force.

  9. Advanced biostack experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Biostack Experiment is described. The objectives are: (1) to confirm, complement, and enlarge the information obtained from the previous experiments by applying improved and advanced methods of localization and physical and biological evaluation, performing advanced experiments based on these data, and including additional biological specimens and additional radiation detectors; (2) to determine the biological importance of nuclear disintegration stars; (3) to determine the interference of HZE particle induced effects with those of other space flight factors (e.g., weightlessness); and (4) to determine the distribution of HZE particles and of disintegration stars at different locations inside the module and on the pallet.

  10. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  11. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  12. Teaching about Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

    This teaching guide contains 20 activities on population growth for students in grades 6-12. The purpose is to help students gain the skills, knowledge, and understanding of population dynamics so that they can make rational decisions and take responsible action regarding population matters and public policy. Activities are organized around the…

  13. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses population education programs in China, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Sri Lanka is developing audio-visual materials and integrating population education into secondary science and social studies curricula. Nepal is transmitting nonformal population education messages to adults through…

  14. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  15. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  16. Population Education in Baltimore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Caroline S.; McCrea, Lester C.

    First in a series of six documents, this report describes the Urban Life-Population Education Institute (ULPEI) program which was designed to demonstrate population realities to Baltimore public schools so that teachers can introduce population studies into the school curriculum. The first part of the paper presents background information on the…

  17. [Population Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Rapid population growth as a central development problem, the proper domain of government in reducing population growth, and effective measures which can be taken to reduce fertility are examined. Rapid population growth puts a brake on development because it exacerbates the difficult choice between higher consumption now and the investment needed…

  18. Advances in cancer control

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.N. ); Engstrom, P.F. ); Mortenson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the sixth annual meeting on Advances in Cancer Control. Included are the following articles: Barriers and facilitators to compliance with routine mammographic screening, Preliminary report of an intervention to improve mammography skills of radiologists.

  19. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem.

  20. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  1. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  2. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  3. Recent Advances in Vibroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Numerous vibroacoustics advances and impacts in the aerospace industry have occurred over the last 15 years. This article addresses some of these that developed from engineering programmatic task-work at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field.

  4. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  5. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  6. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  7. A BIL Population Derived from G. hirsutum and G. barbadense Provides a Resource for Cotton Genetics and Breeding.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xinhui; Tu, Jianli; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    To provide a resource for cotton genetics and breeding, an interspecific hybridization between Gossypium hirsutum cv. Emian22 and G. barbadense acc. 3-79 was made. A population of 54 BILs (backcross inbred lines, BC1F8) was developed with the aim of transferring G. barbadense genes into G. hirsutum in order to genetically analyze these genes' function in a G. hirsutum background and create new germplasms for breeding. Preliminary investigation of the morphological traits showed that the BILs had diverse variations in plant architecture, seed size, and fuzz color; the related traits of yield and fiber quality evaluated in 4 environments also showed abundant phenotypic variation. In order to explore the molecular diversity of the BIL population, 446 SSR markers selected at an average genetic distance of 10 cM from our interspecific linkage map were used to genotype the BIL population. A total of 393 polymorphic loci accounting for 84.4% MAF (major allele frequency) > 0.05 and 922 allele loci were detected, and the Shannon diversity index (I) was 0.417 per locus. The average introgression segment length was 16.24 cM, and an average of 29.53 segments were introgressed in each BIL line with an average background recovery of 79.8%. QTL mapping revealed 58 QTL associated with fiber quality and yield traits, and 47 favored alleles derived from the donor parent were discovered. This study demonstrated that the interspecific BIL population was enriched with much phenotypic and molecular variation which could be a resource for cotton genetics and breeding.

  8. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  9. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  10. [Advances in hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Egan, Luis Alberto; Pichardo Cuevas, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    This review provides an update regarding newer options in hormonal contraception that include the progestin-releasing intrauterine system, the contraceptive patch and ring, the single rod progestin-releasing implant, extended and emergency oral contraception and recent advances in hormonal male contraception. These methods represent a major advancement in this field, allowing for the development of more acceptable, safety and effective birth control regimens.

  11. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  12. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  13. A review of extinction in experimental populations.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Drake, John M

    2008-11-01

    1. Population extinction is a fundamental ecological process. Recent experimental work has begun to test the large body of theory that predicts how demographic, genetic and environmental factors influence extinction risk. We review empirical studies of extinction conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Our synthesis highlights four findings. First, extinction theory largely considers individual, isolated populations. However, species interactions frequently altered or even reversed the influence of environmental factors on population extinction as compared to single-species conditions, highlighting the need to integrate community ecology into population theory. 2. While most single-species studies qualitatively agree with theoretical predictions, studies are needed that quantitatively compare observed and predicted extinction rates. A quantitative understanding of extinction processes is needed to further advance theory and to predict population extinction resulting from human activities. 3. Many stresses leading to population extinction can be assuaged by migration between subpopulations. However, too much migration increases synchrony between subpopulations and thus increases extinction risk. Research is needed to determine how to strike a balance that maximizes the benefit of migration. 4. Results from laboratory experiments often conflict with field studies. Understanding these inconsistencies is crucial for extending extinction theory to natural populations.

  14. The population growth and desertification crisis.

    PubMed

    Milas, S

    1985-01-01

    Desertification is a result of overexploitation of the land through overcultivation, overgrazing, deforestation, and poor irrigation practices. This process is a result of the growing imbalance between population, resources, environment, and development. The principle problem causing desertification is not population increase per se; rather, it is due to mismanagement of the land. However, rapidly increasing population densities in the drylands of Africa, Asia, and Latin America have upset the former balance upon which subsistence agriculture depended, including long fallow periods to allow the land to regain its fertility. Arable land for the world as a whole is projected to decrease from its 1975 level of .31 ha/person to .15 ha/person by the year 2000. Population increases in the remaining croplands are expected to produce further encroachment on rangelands and forests and increased ecologic degradation, in turn producing further population pressure, poverty, land degradation, and desertification. The basic need is for better resource utilization. Halting desertification requires the restoration of the balance between man and land. Development, good resource management, and use of appropriate technologic advances are key factors. There is also a crucial need for each country to relate its population policy to its resource base and development plans. Population increase cannot continue indefinitely without regard for the realities of resources, development, and the environment.

  15. Population and Environment

    PubMed Central

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Carr, David; Cassels, Susan; Jiang, Leiwen

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics (e.g., population size, growth, density, age and sex composition, migration, urbanization, vital rates) and environmental changes. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems. PMID:20011237

  16. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  17. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    PubMed

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    Although relatively little has been known about the Chinese population in recent centuries, figures are available for more remote times. In the year 2 the Chinese population was recorded at 60 million. In 1928, when the last pre-Revolution census was conducted, China had a population of 475 million. The population was not believed to have grown very much due to internal disorders, war, and foreigh invasion, but the 1953 census counted 582 million to which were added 18 million to include Taiwan and overseas Chinese. The figure of 600 million appears to mark the beginning of concern over demographic problems. The crude birth rate was estimated at 37/1000 and the death rate at 17/1000. The 1953 census was conducted with Soviet aid and was given some publicity. The period 1953-58 was marked by a mortality decline and a steady fertility rate, but the population is believed to have declined from 647 million in 1958 to 643 million in 1962, the end of the Great Leap Forward. A census suppressed until recently gave a total of 694 million for 1964. Population growth was considerable from 1961-66. In the 1st part of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-70, no effort was made to control population growth; in 1971, the crude birth rate was estimated at 30-35/1000, the mortality rate was 8/1000, and the growth rate was 2.6%. 1971-79 marked the 1st phase of birth limitation, which became more pressing with time. The population was counted at 1 billion 8 million in 1982, with a birth rate of 21/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and a growth rate of 1.5%. Because of China's comprehensive system of population registration, the results of the 1982 census were not completely unexpected. Wide differences in growth rates were noted between provinces, and the minorities grew at a faster rate than the Han majority. Immediately after the Revolution, population was relatively neglected in China in favor of greater attention to economic growth. The 1st warnings about the consequences of overly

  18. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  19. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations. PMID:12341769

  20. Peru: population and policy.

    PubMed

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  1. [Population programme of China].

    PubMed

    Lui, Z

    1982-01-29

    Results of population programs started in China during the last decade have attracted worldwide attention. The Chinese population issues are important due to the following characteristics: 1) China is the most populated country in the world, with over 1 billion people (22% of world population), by the end of 1980; 2) its population is 80% rural; 3) despite improved living conditions that have helped lower the mortality rate from over 20/1000 before Liberation to 10/1000 in the 1960s and finally 6-8/1000 during the last decade, the Chinese population has increased from 540 million soon after Liberation to the current 1 billion, with an average yearly growth rate of 2%; 4) China has a young population, with 36.8% under 14 years old and less than 5% over 65, hence education and employment are big issues; and 5) due to longterm backward economy resulting from feudal and colonial influence before Liberation, efforts in developing a strong Chinese economy have met with many obstacles. The above 5 features of the Chinese population have important bearing on solving China's population problems and in building its economy, developing its society, and realizing its 4 modernizations. Although China is self-sufficient despite its large population, it faces many problems and challenges especially in the areas of educating its young population and subsequent employment. To achieve a strong economy and to improve the welfare of its people, China has put efforts into controlling the size and improving the quality of its population during the past decade. Programs in population control will continue to take priority in China. PMID:12338284

  2. Population education country programmes.

    PubMed

    1980-12-01

    Population education country programs in the countries of India, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka are reviewed. In India the machinery is beginning to roll for the nationwide implementation of a 3-year national population education project. A variety of strategies will be used at the national and state levels using existing facilities and infrastructure for implementing various aspects of the program. Recommendations and proposed project activities arrived at during 2 workshop/training programs are outlined. The Malaysian population education program recently developed a working draft of the scope, content, and objectives of population education at the primary and lower and upper secondary levels. This working draft is being pretested among teachers and curriculum developers, and, once revised, it will serve as the overall guiding framework for those responsible for preparing curriculum and instructional materials on population education. The population education program in Nepal will be implemented by 3 units: Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision, and Development Center; Tribhuvan University; and Division of Adult Education. The longterm objective is to institutionalize population education in the formal and nonformal education programs including the university. The Population Education Program of the Philippines has prepared a reader in Filipino for grade 3 pupils. Population education in the country has been promoted to a lesser degree in private than in public schools. the Institutional Development Program of the Population Center Foundation conducted a Summer Institute in Instructional Product Development for the primary purpose of institutionalizing population in the social science curriculum at the tertiary level. The population education program of Sri Lanka will undergo a revival in the recently approved 2-year project agreement between Sri Lanka's government and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

  3. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity.

  4. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  5. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  6. Population information resources.

    PubMed

    Pasquariella, S K

    1984-12-01

    This article describes print and computerized services that are dedicated to bibliographic coverage of 1 or more areas of population studies. Major printed bibliographic information resources for population material include: ADOPT, DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina, PIDSA Abstracts, Population Index and Review of Population Reviews. ADOPT is an annotated computer-aided current-awareness bibliographic journal which has been published monthly since January 1975 by the Regional Population Information Center of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). DOCPAL Resumenes is a computer-produced biannual collection of abstracts containing indexes and between 600 and 700 summaries of both published and unpublished population documents. PIDSA is intended to make available documentary information about population matters in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 1 of the oldest and most definitive bibliographies in the demography field, is international in scope and is arranged as a classified and annotated bibliography of monographs, journal articles and 2ndary source material relevant to all aspects of demography. Review of Population Reviews, published 4 times a year, are annotated bibliographies containing summaries of articles that have been published in 83 periodicals in 37 countries. Cited articles are assigned subject-heading descriptors from the Population Multilingual Thesaurus. Major computerized information resources are: DOCPAL, DOCPOP, EBIS/POPFILE, MANPINS, POPLINE and POPULATION BIBLIOGRAPHY. DOCPAL was established to assist Latin Ameran countries in the collection, storage, processing and retrieval of population documents about Latin America. DOCPAL contains over 19,000 bibliographic citations. DOCPOP was established as the 1st Latin American national computerized population documentation system for Brazilian material. POPLINE is a computerized retrieval service cooperatively produced in the US which covers the

  7. Principles of Motor Unit Physiology Evolve With Advances in Technology.

    PubMed

    Farina, Dario; Negro, Francesco; Muceli, Silvia; Enoka, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    Movements are generated by the coordinated activation of motor units. Recent technological advances have made it possible to identify the concurrent activity of several tens of motor units, in contrast with much smaller samples available in classic studies. We discuss how these advances in technology have enabled the development of a population perspective of how the central nervous system controls motor unit activity and thereby the forces exerted by muscles.

  8. Diversity of Poissonian populations.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Sokolov, Igor M

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations-Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson's index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon's entropy and Rényi's entropy, and Gini's index.

  9. Critical Mutation Rate Has an Exponential Dependence on Population Size in Haploid and Diploid Populations

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth; Channon, Alastair; Day, Charles; Knight, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effect of population size on the key parameters of evolution is particularly important for populations nearing extinction. There are evolutionary pressures to evolve sequences that are both fit and robust. At high mutation rates, individuals with greater mutational robustness can outcompete those with higher fitness. This is survival-of-the-flattest, and has been observed in digital organisms, theoretically, in simulated RNA evolution, and in RNA viruses. We introduce an algorithmic method capable of determining the relationship between population size, the critical mutation rate at which individuals with greater robustness to mutation are favoured over individuals with greater fitness, and the error threshold. Verification for this method is provided against analytical models for the error threshold. We show that the critical mutation rate for increasing haploid population sizes can be approximated by an exponential function, with much lower mutation rates tolerated by small populations. This is in contrast to previous studies which identified that critical mutation rate was independent of population size. The algorithm is extended to diploid populations in a system modelled on the biological process of meiosis. The results confirm that the relationship remains exponential, but show that both the critical mutation rate and error threshold are lower for diploids, rather than higher as might have been expected. Analyzing the transition from critical mutation rate to error threshold provides an improved definition of critical mutation rate. Natural populations with their numbers in decline can be expected to lose genetic material in line with the exponential model, accelerating and potentially irreversibly advancing their decline, and this could potentially affect extinction, recovery and population management strategy. The effect of population size is particularly strong in small populations with 100 individuals or less; the exponential model has

  10. Population genetic studies in the genomic sequencing era

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of population genetics. Data now routinely contain genomic level polymorphism information, and the low cost of DNA sequencing enables researchers to investigate tens of thousands of subjects at a time. This provides an unprecedented opportunity to address fundamental evolutionary questions, while posing challenges on traditional population genetic theories and methods. This review provides an overview of the recent methodological developments in the field of population genetics, specifically methods used to infer ancient population history and investigate natural selection using large-sample, large-scale genetic data. Several open questions are also discussed at the end of the review. PMID:26228473

  11. Population policies in perspective.

    PubMed

    Duden, B

    1992-01-01

    This paper consists of excerpts of the author's population chapter in The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. The author opens by noting the general tendency for people to fear and connote overpopulation when exposed to the term population. Population evokes emotional, value-laden paranoia among populations of industrialized countries, who fear that the rapid population growth of developing countries will lead to a world dominated by individuals of yellow and brown skin complexion. Populations grow, consume, pollute, need, demand, and are entitled. They are objects which can be acted upon, controlled, developed, and limited. As such, the author presents her view of how population has been transformed over 40 years of development discourse and the social realities engendered by its use. She contends that the term has become a tool for the verbal extermination of people. The discussion is presented in brief sections under the following headings: how people became populations, birth control for development, and population control for survival.

  12. Technological advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Rehder, Kyle J; Turner, David A; Bonadonna, Desiree; Walczak, Richard J; Rudder, Robert J; Cheifetz, Ira M

    2012-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for neonatal and pediatric cardiac and/or respiratory failure is well established, and its use for adult respiratory failure is rapidly increasing. Management strategies developed over the past 30 years coupled with significant recent technological advances have led to improved ECMO survival. These new technologies are expanding the potential applications for ECMO in exciting ways, including new patient populations and the ability to make ECMO mobile for both intra- and inter-hospital transport. In this article, we highlight some of the recent technological advances and their impact on the utilization of ECMO in increasingly diverse patient populations.

  13. The Plant Population Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Results achieved by researchers in the field of genetic plant engineering are described. However, it is believed that if their efforts were more decentralized, more farmers, especially in developing countries, could benefit and substantial advances made in production. (BL)

  14. Population change, resources and environment.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of crisis proportions in today's world, presently more visible in technologically advanced than in the developing countries. Progress and affluence in the technologically developed countries has been achieved at the expense of depletion of natural resources and deterioration of the environment at the global level. Each of the 3 important factors responsible for environmental pollution--population growth, increase in affluence, and industrialization--are reviewed. There are direct and indirect effects of population growth on the environment. Other things being equal, the greater the population, the more significant are the changes brought about in the environment. More people increases demands on food, energy, housing, clothing, and transportation, all of which lead to environmental pollution. Poor quality or insufficiency of food supply, sanitation, water supply, housing, employment, and health and other services are common problems in countries with high rates of population increase. Problems of domestic sewage and solid waste disposal are directly related to the number of people. Economic growth means more consumption of resources. The effect of affluence can possibly be better understood in the context of the problem of food. With the improved economic status of the peole in many countries, the composition of their diet has been changing. Examining the grain requirements in different countries is a way to understand the effect of increased affluence on the demand for food. During 1969-70 the high income countries with 30% of the world population accounting for 51% of the total consumption of cereals. The higher rate of consumption of cereals in the developed countries is due to indirect utilization. Cereals which can be directly consumed by humans are fed to cattle. The per capita amount of direct and indirect grain consumption continues to increase as per capita income climbs. Developing countries, in their anxiety to

  15. Fitness reduction and potential extinction of wild populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, as a result of interactions with escaped farm salmon.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, Philip; Prodöhl, Paulo; Ferguson, Andy; Hynes, Rosaleen; Maoiléidigh, Niall O; Baker, Natalie; Cotter, Deirdre; O'Hea, Brendan; Cooke, Declan; Rogan, Ger; Taggart, John; Cross, Tom

    2003-12-01

    The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm salmon. Offspring of farm and "hybrids" (i.e. all F(1), F(2) and BC(1) groups) showed reduced survival compared with wild salmon but grew faster as juveniles and displaced wild parr, which as a group were significantly smaller. Where suitable habitat for these emigrant parr is absent, this competition would result in reduced wild smolt production. In the experimental conditions, where emigrants survived downstream, the relative estimated lifetime success ranged from 2% (farm) to 89% (BC(1) wild) of that of wild salmon, indicating additive genetic variation for survival. Wild salmon primarily returned to fresh water after one sea winter (1SW) but farm and 'hybrids' produced proportionately more 2SW salmon. However, lower overall survival means that this would result in reduced recruitment despite increased 2SW fecundity. We thus demonstrate that interaction of farm with wild salmon results in lowered fitness, with repeated escapes causing cumulative fitness depression and potentially an extinction vortex in vulnerable populations.

  16. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  17. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  18. Advances in craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Sherard A; Losquadro, William D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have witnessed many advances in craniofacial surgery. Advances in surgical techniques, such as distraction osteogenesis and endoscopic procedures, combined with refinements in surgical equipment, such as resorbable plating and distractors, have improved surgical outcomes, while minimizing morbidity. Technological advances in 3-dimensional imaging, computer simulation, and intraoperative navigation facilitate diagnosis, preoperative planning, and surgical execution. Rising cases of deformational plagiocephaly owing to increased supine infant sleep positioning necessitated the development of appropriate diagnosis and treatment and the avoidance of unnecessary surgery. A greater understanding of the genetic basis of craniofacial disorders has allowed better preoperative assessment and counseling. Finally, efforts to develop better bone graft substitutes with gene therapy and nanotechnology are ongoing. PMID:19018057

  19. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  20. Advanced servomanipulator development

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller (DAMC) or master, and the control system. The ASM is remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world.

  1. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  2. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  3. Advanced quantum noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Ulrich; Glasser, Ryan T.; Clark, Jeremy B.; Glorieux, Quentin; Li, Tian; Corzo, Neil V.; Lett, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We use the quantum correlations of twin beams of light to investigate the fundamental addition of noise when one of the beams propagates through a fast-light medium based on phase-insensitive gain. The experiment is based on two successive four-wave mixing processes in rubidium vapor, which allow for the generation of bright two-mode-squeezed twin beams followed by a controlled advancement while maintaining the shared quantum correlations between the beams. The demonstrated effect allows the study of irreversible decoherence in a medium exhibiting anomalous dispersion, and for the first time shows the advancement of a bright nonclassical state of light. The advancement and corresponding degradation of the quantum correlations are found to be operating near the fundamental quantum limit imposed by using a phase-insensitive amplifier.

  4. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  5. Wildlife population assessment: past developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Buckland, S T; Goudie, I B; Borchers, D L

    2000-03-01

    We review the major developments in wildlife population assessment in the past century. Three major areas are considered: mark-recapture, distance sampling, and harvest models. We speculate on how these fields will develop in the next century. Topics for which we expect to see methodological advances include integration of modeling with Geographic Information Systems, automated survey design algorithms, advances in model-based inference from sample survey data, a common inferential framework for wildlife population assessment methods, improved methods for estimating population trends, the embedding of biological process models into inference, substantially improved models for conservation management, advanced spatiotemporal models of ecosystems, and greater emphasis on incorporating model selection uncertainty into inference. We discuss the kind of developments that might be anticipated in these topics.

  6. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  7. Cultural hitchhiking on the wave of advance of beneficial technologies.

    PubMed

    Ackland, Graeme J; Signitzer, Markus; Stratford, Kevin; Cohen, Morrel H

    2007-05-22

    The wave-of-advance model was introduced to describe the spread of advantageous genes in a population. It can be adapted to model the uptake of any advantageous technology through a population, such as the arrival of neolithic farmers in Europe, the domestication of the horse, and the development of the wheel, iron tools, political organization, or advanced weaponry. Any trait that preexists alongside the advantageous one could be carried along with it, such as genetics or language, regardless of any intrinsic superiority. Decoupling of the advantageous trait from other "hitchhiking" traits depends on its adoption by the preexisting population. Here, we adopt a similar wave-of-advance model based on food production on a heterogeneous landscape with multiple populations. Two key results arise from geographic inhomogeneity: the "subsistence boundary," land so poor that the wave of advance is halted, and the temporary "diffusion boundary" where the wave cannot move into poorer areas until its gradient becomes sufficiently large. At diffusion boundaries, farming technology may pass to indigenous people already in those poorer lands, allowing their population to grow and resist encroachment by farmers. Ultimately, this adoption of technology leads to the halt in spread of the hitchhiking trait and establishment of a permanent "cultural boundary" between distinct cultures with equivalent technology. PMID:17517663

  8. Advanced solar dynamic technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, James

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on Advanced Solar Dynamic Technology Program are presented. Topics covered include: advanced solar dynamic technology program; advanced concentrators; advanced heat receivers; power conversion systems; dished all metal honeycomb sandwich panels; Stirling cavity heat pipe receiver; Brayton solar receiver; and thermal energy storage technology.

  9. Extensive mitochondrial heteroplasmy in hybrid water frog (Pelophylax spp.) populations from Southeast Europe.

    PubMed

    Radojičić, Jelena M; Krizmanić, Imre; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Zouros, Eleftherios

    2015-10-01

    fertilizes eggs of another. In this case, the mechanisms that protect the egg from heterospecific fertilization and further from the presence of sperm mtDNA could become compromised due to their differences and divergence at both, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. The heteroplasmy once retained in the fertilized egg could be transmitted by hybrid backcrossing to the progeny and maintained in a population over generations. The role of interspecies and heteroplasmic hybrid animals due to their genomic diversity and better fitness compare to the parental species might be of the special importance in adaptations to miscellaneous and isolated environments at the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26668720

  10. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  11. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  12. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  13. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-06-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  14. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  15. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  16. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  17. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  18. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  19. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  20. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  1. Advanced subsonic transport propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Ciepluch, C. C.; Chamberlain, R.; Meleason, E. T.; Kraft, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of the current NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)) Project is presented. Included in this review are the factors that influenced the design of these turbofan engines and the advanced technology incorporated in them to reduce fuel consumption and improve environmental characteristics. In addition, factors such as the continuing spiral in fuel cost, that could influence future aircraft propulsion systems beyond those represented by the E(3) engines, are also discussed. Advanced technologies that will address these influencing factors and provide viable future propulsion systems are described. The potential importance of other propulsion system types, such as geared fans and turboshaft engines, is presented.

  2. Advances in surgery.

    PubMed

    Weder, W

    2012-09-01

    In the last decade, technological advances, new staging tools, better understanding the role of surgery within multimodal treatment concepts in advanced stages and progress in the functional assessment of surgical candidates improved the quality of surgery in the management of patients with lung cancer. Lung resection with video-assisted thoracoscopic access gained wide acceptance, the indication for lobectomy or sublobar resection in early stages was applied based on new data and selection for multimodal treatment in stage III is better understood based on the data. a major impact on the outcome of patients with lung cancer has the treatment in specialized high-volume centers.

  3. Advances in ecological research

    SciTech Connect

    Macfadyen, A.

    1988-01-01

    A Theory of Gradient Analysis. Sunflecks and Their Importance to Forest Understorey Plants. Geochemical Monitoring of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution - Theory and Applications. Population Cycles in Forest Lepidoptera. Mycorrhizal Links Between Plants: Their Functioning and Ecological Significance.

  4. Le fort I maxillary advancement using distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Combs, Patrick D; Harshbarger, Raymond J

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of maxillary hypoplasia has traditionally involved conventional Le Fort I osteotomies and advancement. Advancements of greater than 10 mm risk significant relapse. This risk is greater in the cleft lip and palate population, whose anatomy and soft tissue scarring from prior procedures contributes to instability of conventional maxillary advancement. Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis has emerged as viable, stable treatment modality correction of severe maxillary hypoplasia in cleft, syndromic, and noncleft patients. In this article, the authors provide a review of current data and recommendations concerning Le Fort I advancement with distraction osteogenesis. In addition, they outline their technique for treating severe maxillary hypoplasia with distraction osteogenesis using internal devices.

  5. Why is timing of bird migration advancing when individuals are not?

    PubMed

    Gill, Jennifer A; Alves, José A; Sutherland, William J; Appleton, Graham F; Potts, Peter M; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in spring arrival dates have been reported in many migratory species but the mechanism driving these advances is unknown. As population declines are most widely reported in species that are not advancing migration, there is an urgent need to identify the mechanisms facilitating and constraining these advances. Individual plasticity in timing of migration in response to changing climatic conditions is commonly proposed to drive these advances but plasticity in individual migratory timings is rarely observed. For a shorebird population that has significantly advanced migration in recent decades, we show that individual arrival dates are highly consistent between years, but that the arrival dates of new recruits to the population are significantly earlier now than in previous years. Several mechanisms could drive advances in recruit arrival, none of which require individual plasticity or rapid evolution of migration timings. In particular, advances in nest-laying dates could result in advanced recruit arrival, if benefits of early hatching facilitate early subsequent spring migration. This mechanism could also explain why arrival dates of short-distance migrants, which generally return to breeding sites earlier and have greater scope for advance laying, are advancing more rapidly than long-distance migrants. PMID:24225454

  6. Why is timing of bird migration advancing when individuals are not?

    PubMed

    Gill, Jennifer A; Alves, José A; Sutherland, William J; Appleton, Graham F; Potts, Peter M; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in spring arrival dates have been reported in many migratory species but the mechanism driving these advances is unknown. As population declines are most widely reported in species that are not advancing migration, there is an urgent need to identify the mechanisms facilitating and constraining these advances. Individual plasticity in timing of migration in response to changing climatic conditions is commonly proposed to drive these advances but plasticity in individual migratory timings is rarely observed. For a shorebird population that has significantly advanced migration in recent decades, we show that individual arrival dates are highly consistent between years, but that the arrival dates of new recruits to the population are significantly earlier now than in previous years. Several mechanisms could drive advances in recruit arrival, none of which require individual plasticity or rapid evolution of migration timings. In particular, advances in nest-laying dates could result in advanced recruit arrival, if benefits of early hatching facilitate early subsequent spring migration. This mechanism could also explain why arrival dates of short-distance migrants, which generally return to breeding sites earlier and have greater scope for advance laying, are advancing more rapidly than long-distance migrants.

  7. Why Teach Population Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Fuller, Charlotte; And Others

    Population education can help students develop coping skills and make responsible decisions as members of a family, a community, a nation, and a world. For example, by studying and understanding the impact of changes in population growth rates, compositional characteristics, and migration shifts, students, as future citizens, will be better able…

  8. The Population Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Robert S.

    1969-01-01

    In an address delivered at the University of Notre Dame, May 1969, Secretary McNamara discussed the threat of unmanageable population pressure which is undervalued and misunderstood by the general public. Unrestricted population growth will have catastrophic consequences unless it is dealt with rapidly and rationally. Copies from: Office of…

  9. Population. Headline Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Valerie K.

    Useful as background reading or secondary classroom material, this pamphlet reviews several dimensions of world population growth and control. The first of seven chapters, World Population Growth: Past, Present and Future, discusses some of the reasons for the greatly accelerated growth since 1950, and points out that even significantly rapid…

  10. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  11. Population Education Regional News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) a comparative study on managing population education programs; (2) a South Pacific workshop in which training materials on sex education, family life education, and nutrition-oriented mixed gardening were developed; and (3) a workshop on evaluative research, the focus of national population education programs in Asia. (JN)

  12. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  13. Teaching Notes on Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Center for International Programs and Cooperative Services.

    This newsletter is designed to serve as a clearinghouse for the exchange of ideas and information on new strategies of teaching and instructional resources about population in colleges and universities. The first article discusses some of the contemporary problems faced in teaching population studies to undergraduates. The second article outlines…

  14. Populations, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "Populations," the third part of a six-unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and ecosystems; and they make use of scientific and…

  15. World Population Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid population growth, rising competition for resources, and increasing environmental deterioration are intertwined factors in the human predicament that feed political tensions and conflicts of the late twentieth century. Outlines dimensions of this predicament (including data on population, growth, military spending, quality of life, and…

  16. The World Population Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This book is the third in a series published by the Population Reference Bureau aimed at illuminating the facts and consequences of human population dynamics for secondary and college-age students. Many illustrations, charts and graphs are included in this volume to help the reader grasp a number of the current ideas and concepts that are used in…

  17. Why Population Matters, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Action International, Washington, DC.

    Population growth around the world affects Americans through its impact on economy, environment, safety, and health, and the condition of the world children will inherit. The cumulative evidence is strong that current rates of population growth pose significant and interacting risks to human well-being and are a legitimate concern for Americans.…

  18. Dimensions of Philippine population.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    Major findings of a 2 1/2 year research program on Philippine population are presented. The population situation is described with respect to fertility, mortality, life expectancy, migration, labor force, and family formation. Policy recommendations addressing problems in each of these areas are made.

  19. Cairo: repackaging population control.

    PubMed

    Simons, H

    1995-01-01

    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day. PMID:7591381

  20. Cairo: repackaging population control.

    PubMed

    Simons, H

    1995-01-01

    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day.

  1. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  2. Mexico's population policy turnaround.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J S

    1978-12-01

    Until 1972 Mexico's officials seemed to believe that the annual population growth rate of 3.5% was not really a problem as long as the economic development rate could be kept ahead of the population growth rate. The General Law of Population of 1947 was actually promoting population growth. It was only during the 1960s that elite opinion shifted, and privately funded family planning programs became increasingly active. By 1972 the population had reached 54 million, from 20 million in 1940. President Echevarria, till then a traditional pronatalist, announced in 1972 the creation of a national family planning program, and, in 1974, the creation of a national population council. Since then the Mexican government has embarked on ambitious programs of mass communication and sex education to make the population receptive to its new attitudes. The plans have worked: by mid-1979 estimates put the population growth rate at 2.9%, within sight of the 2.5% target set for 1982 by new president Lopez Portillo. According to a survey conducted by the National Fertility Survey, by late 1976 41.50% of Mexican women of childbearing age were practicing contraception. Within the 41.50% of active contraceptors, 14.9% use the pill, and 7.8% the IUD. New channels of information and of contraceptive delivery are being explored to reach Mexico's widely scattered rural population, and to bring the average family size down to 2 children from the average of 6.5 children per woman for 1973-1975. The government goal is of a 1% population increase by the year 2000.

  3. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-10-26

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput.

  4. Advanced geometries and regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.

    2013-07-26

    We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

  5. Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, William M

    2007-03-01

    Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (OTCBB: ACTC) is a biotechnology company applying novel human embryonic stem cell technologies in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. We believe that regenerative medicine has the potential to revolutionize the field by enabling scientists to produce human cells of any kind for use in a wide array of therapies.

  6. Advanced Combustion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center (ACERC), which is a cooperative project of Brigham Young University, the University of Utah, and 25 governmental and industrial research laboratories. Discusses the research objectives, the academic program, the industrial relations and technology transfer program,…

  7. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  8. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  9. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  10. Advances in Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on advances in distance learning. "The Adoption of Computer Technology and Telecommunications: A Case Study" (Larry M. Dooley, Teri Metcalf, Ann Martinez) reports on a study of the possible applications of two theoretical models (Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model and the Concerns-Based Adoption…

  11. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  12. Advances in Helium Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciver, S. W. Van

    This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature helium, driven mostly by new applications. However, to keep the review from being too broad, this presentation focuses mainly on three of the most significant advances. These are: (1) the development of large-scale recuperative refrigeration systems mainly for superconducting magnet applications in accelerators and other research facilities; (2) the use of stored superfluid helium (He II) as a coolant for spacebased astrophysics experiments; and (3) the application of regenerative cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperatures primarily for cooling superconducting devices. In each case, the reader should observe that critical technologies were developed to facilitate these applications. In addition to these three primary advances, other significant helium cryogenic technologies are briefly reviewed at the end of this chapter, along with some vision for future developments in these areas.

  13. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  14. The Advancement Checkup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that an external audit of a college advancement program is analogous to a periodic physical examination that offers objectivity and expertise. Audits are appropriate at the time of administrative transitions, performance difficulties, and even periods of sustained success. Guidelines and expectations are discussed. (MSE)

  15. Advanced intrarenal ureteroscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manoj; Beeman, William W

    2004-02-01

    The role of flexible ureteroscopy in the management of intrarenal pathology has undergone a dramatic evolution, powered by improvements in flexible ureteroscope design; deflection and image quality; diversification of small, disposable instrumentation; and the use of holmium laser lithotripsy. This article reviews the application of flexible ureteroscopy for advanced intrarenal procedures.

  16. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  17. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  18. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  19. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  20. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  1. The Teacher Advancement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Tamara W.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains two essays discussing the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) and a criticism of merit pay for teachers. Today's schools are larger, often overcrowded, and frequently staffed by temporary or inexperienced teachers. TAP was created in response to the need for teacher-quality reform. It addresses challenges of teacher quality…

  2. Interfaces for Advanced Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, James D.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the coming generation of supercomputers that will have the power to make elaborate "artificial realities" that facilitate user-computer communication. Illustrates these technological advancements with examples of the use of head-mounted monitors which are connected to position and orientation sensors, and gloves that track finger and…

  3. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  4. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  5. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  6. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  7. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  8. Infant Development: Recent Advances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Gavin, Ed.; Slater, Alan, Ed.; Butterworth, George, Ed.

    Noting that the last 30 years have seen enormous increases in the understanding of infancy, this book examines the current state of knowledge regarding infant development. The book's contents stem from meetings of the British Infancy Research Group. Although the book was intended for advanced undergraduates, it would also be useful for advanced…

  9. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  10. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  11. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Advanced radiator concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem-Kirsop, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The liquid droplet radiator and the liquid belt radiator currently under study by the NASA LeRC are discussed. These advanced concepts offer benefits in reduced mass, compact stowage, and ease of deployment. Operation and components of the radiators are described, heat transfer characteristics are discussed, and critical technologies are identified. The impact of the radiators on large power systems is also assessed.

  13. Preferences for Advance Directives in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Sun; Lee, Won-Hee; Cheon, JooYoung; Lee, Jung-Eun; Yeo, KiSun; Lee, JuHee

    2012-01-01

    Background. The goal of advance directives is to help patients retain their dignity and autonomy by making their own decisions regarding end-stage medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine preferences of advance directives among general population in Korea. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed from October 2007 to June 2008 in Seoul, Korea. A total of 336 city-dwelling adults self-administered the questionnaire and returned it via mail. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. Results. Subjects reported the need for healthcare providers' detailed explanations and recommendations regarding end-of-life care. When there is no hope of recovery and death is imminent, most subjects did not want to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation nor an IV or tube feeding. However, most of the subjects wanted pain management care. Conclusions. The present study showed that many Korean people have an interest in advance directives. The results show that the autonomy and dignity of patient have increased in importance. To provide better end-of-life care, there is a need to educate patients on the definition and intent of an advance directive. Additional proactive communication between patients and their caregivers should be educated to healthcare providers. PMID:22229087

  14. Characteristics of the population studies in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a brief historical sketch of the origins of Chinese population studies and provides 8 characteristics of the post-1978 advances made in population science. Chinese scholars were among the 1st to research population issues but ceased their work in the 18th century. In the late 19th century scholars used the theories of Thomas Malthus to explain population growth. This research peaked in the 1st half of the 20th century and continued in the Malthusian tradition and sociological point of view. Soviet theories on population were popular in the 1930's and 40's, and adopted by the administration with the founding of New China in 1949. Sociologically oriented scholars were criticized, even for Marxist views. The 1978 3rd plenary session of the 11th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party adopted a policy which emphasized the quest for truth from facts, future planning, and unification. Between 1978-88 huge advances were made in population studies which attracted world attention and contributed to solving China's population problems. Demographic societies were founded at the national, provincial, and municipal levels. Institutions of higher education formed professional departments. Training centers were formed for government family planning officers, and exchanges of students and scholars were made with other countries. An extensive network of party schools and FP departments contributed to population studies. The 8 characteristics which contributed to the originality of the effort were as follows: 1) A blend of Western and Marxist theory was developed. 2) Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted, which surpassed the boring and abstract Soviet research and the Western research short on sociological analyses. 3) Theoretical research was combined with practical research, which lead to the publication of a 30 volume series. 4) Population studies have utilized the theories and methodologies of other related sciences such as economics

  15. Population post-Rio.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1993-01-01

    The June 1993 Rio Earth Summit barely recognized population growth as an issue, despite the evidence that rapid population growth is harming both the environment and development efforts. One reason given for brushing the population issue to the sidelines was that the UN had a major population conference scheduled for 1994. This overlooked the fact that in the interim between the two conferences, the population problem would be compounded by an additional 200 million people. Any delay now will increase the number of potential parents in the future and create an ever-increasing problem. The male participants at Rio who were willing to procrastinate on population issues were joined by feminists who claimed that men should leave this issue to women. These women ignore the fact that men need to be more, not less, involved in family planning. Women need support in increasing their status and in improving educational opportunities for girls. Providing girls with as much education as boys receive in low-income nations would cost less than a quarter of a percent of the collective gross national product of these nations, and this education would provide a solid boast to their economies and to their family planning campaigns. Procrastinators on population issues must stop acting as though a spare planet is available when we overload the earth.

  16. Elderly people's interaction with advanced technology.

    PubMed

    Blažun, Helena; Vošner, Janez; Kokol, Peter; Saranto, Kaija; Rissanen, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Aging of population is an inevitable process by which the number of elderly people is increasing. Rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing basic needs of elderly people; therefore society should ensure opportunities for elderly to learn and use ICT in a way to manage their daily life activities and in this way enable them participation in the information and knowledge society. The purpose of the study was to find out whether elderly are acquainted with the advanced technology and to what extent they use it or they desire to use it. Within the single point study we interviewed 100 randomly selected elderly people from different geographical regions in Slovenia. Results showed the differences in the use of advanced technology by Slovenian regions; therefore in the future activities should be focused on organizing promotional and demonstrational activities including ICT courses to increase elderly's motivation for ICT interaction.

  17. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  18. Population program doing fine.

    PubMed

    De Leon, B

    1979-09-01

    In appraising the current status, problems and approaches of the Philippines population program, initial focus is on providing a brief account of the program's development. A national family planning program that respected the religions beliefs and values of individuals was the 1st step. These early family planning efforts were physician oriented, clinic-based, and female-oriented, and the acceptance rates continued to be low. In response to this, population and family planning was made an integral part of the socioeconomic development of the country. This new orientation paved the way for the birth of the national population and family planning project which is currently the program's core project. The outreach project was intended to stregthen the programs' capability to reach out to the remote areas through its Full-Time Outreach Workers (FTOW) and Barangay supply points. This program is being implemented throughout the Philippines. About 2596 full-time outreach workers, 31,592 barangay supply points, and 3612 family planning clinics are making family planning information and services available to the population. Based on outreach reports, current users increased from 780,183 to 815,061 by March 1979. These accomplishments contributed greatly to the decline in the population growth rate from 3.01 in 1960-1970 to 2.78% in 1970-1975. Greater concerted efforts still need to be exerted to achieve target populations by the year 2000. The special committee to review the Philippine population program has recommended that the concept of family planning be redefined to include family welfare. The program continues to implement complementary and supplementary sets of projects which are termed phase 1 project, population planning 2 projects, and population loan 1 and 2.

  19. Global population growth.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors.

  20. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  1. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  2. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  3. PN populations in the local group and distant stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Warren

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of galactic structure and evolution is far from complete. Within the past twelve months we have learnt that the Milky Way is about 50% wider than was previously thought. As a consequence, new models are being developed that force us to reassess the kinematic structure of our Galaxy. Similarly, we need to take a fresh look at the halo structure of external galaxies in our Local Group. Studies of stellar populations, star-forming regions, clusters, the interstellar medium, elemental abundances and late stellar evolution are all required in order to understand how galactic assembly has occurred as we see it. PNe play an important role in this investigation by providing a measure of stellar age, mass, abundances, morphology, kinematics and synthesized matter that is returned to the interstellar medium (ISM). Through a method of chemical tagging, halo PNe can reveal evidence of stellar migration and galactic mergers. This is an outline of the advances that have been made towards uncovering the full number of PNe in our Local Group galaxies and beyond. Current numbers are presented and compared to total population estimates based on galactic mass and luminosity. A near complete census of PNe is crucial to understanding the initial-to-final mass relation for stars with mass >1 to <8 times the mass of the sun. It also allows us to extract more evolutionary information from luminosity functions and compare dust-to-gas ratios from PNe in different galactic locations. With new data provided by the Gaia satellite, space-based telescopes and the rise of giant and extra-large telescopes, we are on the verge of observing and understanding objects such as PNe in distant galaxies with the same detail we expected from Galactic observations only a decade ago.

  4. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Micali, Giuseppe; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Chosidow, Olivier; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites' identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa. PMID:27311065

  5. Recent advances in understanding psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Franziska C.; Brück, Jürgen; Holstein, Julia; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Ghoreschi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    T helper (Th) cells producing interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) form the key T cell population driving psoriasis pathogenesis. They orchestrate the inflammation in the skin that results in the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Besides Th17 cells, other immune cells that are capable of producing IL-17-associated cytokines participate in psoriatic inflammation. Recent advances in psoriasis research improved our understanding of the cellular and molecular players that are involved in Th17 pathology and inflammatory pathways in the skin. The inflammation-driving actions of TNF in psoriasis are already well known and antibodies against TNF are successful in the treatment of Th17-mediated psoriatic skin inflammation. A further key cytokine with potent IL-17-/IL-22-promoting properties is IL-23. Therapeutics directly neutralizing IL-23 or IL-17 itself are now extending the therapeutic spectrum of antipsoriatic agents and further developments are on the way. The enormous progress in psoriasis research allows us to control this Th17-mediated inflammatory skin disease in many patients. PMID:27158469

  6. Scabies: Advances in Noninvasive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Chosidow, Olivier; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Scabies is a common, highly contagious skin parasitosis caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Early identification and prompt treatment of infested subjects is essential, as missed diagnosis may result in outbreaks, considerable morbidity, and significantly increased economic burden. The standard diagnostic technique consists of mites’ identification by microscopic examination of scales obtained by skin scraping. This is a time-consuming and risk-associated procedure that is also not suitable to a busy practice. In recent years, some advanced and noninvasive techniques such as videodermatoscopy, dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated improved efficacy in the diagnosis of scabies. Their advantages include rapid, noninvasive mass screening and post-therapeutic follow-up, with no physical risk. A greater knowledge of these techniques among general practitioners and other specialists involved in the intake care of overcrowded populations vulnerable to scabies infestations is now viewed as urgent and important in the management of outbreaks, as well as in consideration of the recent growing inflow of migrants in Europe from North Africa. PMID:27311065

  7. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  8. Population genetics of Lithuanians.

    PubMed

    Ku inskas, V

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to overview the present-day knowledge on genetic features of the Lithuanian population. Genetic differentiation within the Lithuanian population and the relationship between Lithuanians and other European populations was analysed by means of blood groups, serum protein polymorphisms and DNA markers including mtDNA. The results of the research have shown small differences between present-day Lithuanian ethnolinguistic groups, which probably go back to the prehistoric Baltic tribal structure. The Baltic peoples show a mixture of eastern and western genetic traits, e.g. a high frequency of the blood group B combined with a very high frequency of the Rh-negative blood group. Studies of the Baltic 'tribal gene' LWb indicate the presence of a considerable Baltic admixture in the neighbouring Finno-Ugric and Slavic populations.

  9. Parallel grid population

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  10. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  11. AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture has contributed to loss of vertebrate biodiversity in many regions, including the U.S. Corn Belt. Amphibian populations, in particular, have experienced widespread and often inexplicable declines, range reductions, and extinctions. However, few attempts have been made...

  12. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  13. Hanford Area 2000 Population

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Scott, Michael J.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Rhoads, Kathleen

    2004-05-28

    This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project, to provide demographic data required for ongoing environmental assessments and safety analyses at the DOE Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This document includes 2000 Census estimates for the resident population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the Hanford Site. Population distributions are reported relative to five reference points centered on meteorological stations within major operating areas of the Hanford Site - the 100 F, 100 K, 200, 300, and 400 Areas. These data are presented in both graphical and tabular format, and are provided for total populations residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the reference points, as well as for Native American, Hispanic and Latino, total minority, and low-income populations.

  14. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  15. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Bone disorders are of significant concern due to increase in the median age of our population. Traditionally, bone grafts have been used to restore damaged bone. Synthetic biomaterials are now being used as bone graft substitutes. These biomaterials were initially selected for structural restoration based on their biomechanical properties. Later scaffolds were engineered to be bioactive or bioresorbable to enhance tissue growth. Now scaffolds are designed to induce bone formation and vascularization. These scaffolds are often porous, biodegradable materials that harbor different growth factors, drugs, genes or stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in bone scaffolds and discuss aspects that still need to be improved. PMID:22939815

  16. Food for tomorrow's population.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  17. Food for tomorrow's population.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  18. Therapeutic advances in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M; Calandrella, Daniela

    2015-09-15

    Knowledge on dystonia has greatly improved recently, because of a renewed effort in understanding its cause, pathophysiology, and clinical characterization. Different drug classes traditionally have been used for the symptomatic treatment of dystonia, more recently surpassed by the introduction of botulinum neurotoxins and deep brain stimulation. No curative or disease-modifying treatments are available. Recent knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of inherited dystonias is highlighting new potential treatment strategies. We review therapeutic advances in dystonia that have been published over the last 3 years, particularly regarding oral medications, local injections of botulinum neurotoxins, deep brain stimulation, and transcranial or epidural brain stimulations. We discuss evidence of efficacy, highlight recent advances, and focus on key areas under development. PMID:26301801

  19. Advances in Estuarine Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccready, Parker; Geyer, W. Rockwell

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of estuarine circulation and salinity structure are reviewed. We focus on well- and partially mixed systems that are long relative to the tidal excursion. Dynamics of the coupled system of width- and tidally averaged momentum and salt equations are now better understood owing to the development of simple numerical solution techniques. These have led to a greater appreciation of the key role played by the time dependency of the length of the salt intrusion. Improved realism in simplified tidally averaged physics has been driven by simultaneous advances in our understanding of the detailed dynamics within the tidal cycle and across irregular channel cross-sections. The complex interactions of turbulence, stratification, and advection are now understood well enough to motivate a new generation of physically plausible mixing parameterizations for the tidally averaged equations.

  20. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  1. Advanced CCD camera developments

    SciTech Connect

    Condor, A.

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  2. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation.

  3. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  4. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  5. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  6. [Research advances in dendrochronology].

    PubMed

    Fang, Ke-Yan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Chang-Zhi; Cao, Chun-Fu; Chen, Ya-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    Tree-ring studies in China have achieved great advances since the 1990s, particularly for the dendroclimatological studies which have made some influence around the world. However, because of the uneven development, limited attention has been currently paid on the other branches of dendrochronology. We herein briefly compared the advances of dendrochronology in China and of the world and presented suggestions on future dendrochronological studies. Large-scale tree-ring based climate reconstructions in China are highly needed by employing mathematical methods and a high quality tree-ring network of the ring-width, density, stable isotope and wood anatomy. Tree-ring based field climate reconstructions provide potentials on explorations of climate forcings during the reconstructed periods via climate diagnosis and process simulation. PMID:25345035

  7. Therapeutic advances in dystonia.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi M; Calandrella, Daniela

    2015-09-15

    Knowledge on dystonia has greatly improved recently, because of a renewed effort in understanding its cause, pathophysiology, and clinical characterization. Different drug classes traditionally have been used for the symptomatic treatment of dystonia, more recently surpassed by the introduction of botulinum neurotoxins and deep brain stimulation. No curative or disease-modifying treatments are available. Recent knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of inherited dystonias is highlighting new potential treatment strategies. We review therapeutic advances in dystonia that have been published over the last 3 years, particularly regarding oral medications, local injections of botulinum neurotoxins, deep brain stimulation, and transcranial or epidural brain stimulations. We discuss evidence of efficacy, highlight recent advances, and focus on key areas under development.

  8. Recent Advances in Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler–Volmer and Marcus–Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of ‘nano-impacts’. PMID:26246984

  9. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  10. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  11. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  12. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  13. Recent Advances in Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Kätelhön, Enno; Barnes, Edward O; Compton, Richard G; Laborda, Eduardo; Molina, Angela

    2015-06-01

    Recent progress in the theory and practice of voltammetry is surveyed and evaluated. The transformation over the last decade of the level of modelling and simulation of experiments has realised major advances such that electrochemical techniques can be fully developed and applied to real chemical problems of distinct complexity. This review focuses on the topic areas of: multistep electrochemical processes, voltammetry in ionic liquids, the development and interpretation of theories of electron transfer (Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush), advances in voltammetric pulse techniques, stochastic random walk models of diffusion, the influence of migration under conditions of low support, voltammetry at rough and porous electrodes, and nanoparticle electrochemistry. The review of the latter field encompasses both the study of nanoparticle-modified electrodes, including stripping voltammetry and the new technique of 'nano-impacts'. PMID:26246984

  14. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  15. Repackaging population control.

    PubMed

    Simons, H

    1994-01-01

    "While the abortion controversy captured the world's headlines, the real significance of the UN's [1994 International Conference on Population and Development] went largely unnoticed.... After decades of failure, the UN has finally pushed the issue of population control center stage by repackaging it in a blurry concern for the rights of women." The author argues that the conference's strategy was to target women as both the cause of overpopulation and the locus of the problem's solution.

  16. Promoting perioperative advance care planning: a systematic review of advance care planning decision aids.

    PubMed

    Aslakson, Rebecca A; Schuster, Anne L R; Reardon, Jessica; Lynch, Thomas; Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina; Miller, Judith A; Moldovan, Rita; Johnston, Fabian; Anton, Blair; Weiss, Matthew; Bridges, John F P

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review identifies possible decision aids that promote perioperative advance care planning (ACP) and synthesizes the available evidence regarding their use. Using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, SCOPUS, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Sociological Abstracts, researchers identified and screened articles for eligibility. Data were abstracted and risk of bias assessed for included articles. Thirty-nine of 5327 articles satisfied the eligibility criteria. Primarily completed in outpatient ambulatory populations, studies evaluated a variety of ACP decision aids. None were evaluated in a perioperative population. Fifty unique outcomes were reported with no head-to-head comparisons conducted. Findings are likely generalizable to a perioperative population and can inform development of a perioperative ACP decision aid. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of ACP decision aids.

  17. Advances in Oral Coagulants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews current and future treatment practices concerning oral anticoagulants. In the second decade of the 21st millennium clinicians can finally treat thrombotic disease with long-awaited new oral anticoagulant medications. In addition, improvements have been made in managing warfarin, the traditional but far from obsolete medication. The first part of this review will cover current advances with warfarin treatment. The second portion will discuss specific active coagulation factor inhibitors, the new oral anticoagulants.

  18. Advanced composites for windmills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquardez, G.

    A development status assessment is conducted for advanced composite construction techniques for windmill blade structures which, as in the case of composite helicopter rotors, promise greater reliability, longer service life, superior performance, and lower costs. Composites in wind turbine applications must bear aerodynamic, inertial and gravitational loads in complex interaction cycles. Attention is given to large Darrieus-type vertical axis windmills, to which composite construction methods may offer highly effective pitch-control mechanisms, especially in the 'umbrella' configuration.

  19. Advanced Triangulation Displacement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poteet, Wade M.; Cauthen, Harold K.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced optoelectronic triangulation displacement sensors undergoing development. Highly miniaturized, more stable, more accurate, and relatively easy to use. Incorporate wideband electronic circuits suitable for real-time monitoring and control of displacements. Measurements expected to be accurate to within nanometers. In principle, sensors mass-produced at relatively low unit cost. Potential applications numerous. Possible industrial application in measuring runout of rotating shaft or other moving part during fabrication in "zero-defect" manufacturing system, in which measured runout automatically corrected.

  20. Advances in photovoltaic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, G. A.; Bailey, S. G.

    1992-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost in the last 10 years are presented. The potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space is examined, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the needs of satellite solar power systems. Attention is given to single-crystal cells, concentrator and cascade cells, and thin-film solar cells.

  1. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  2. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  3. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  4. Advanced proteomic liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fang; Smith, Richard D.; Shen, Yufeng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the predominant platform used to analyze proteomics samples consisting of large numbers of proteins and their proteolytic products (e.g., truncated polypeptides) and spanning a wide range of relative concentrations. This review provides an overview of advanced capillary liquid chromatography techniques and methodologies that greatly improve separation resolving power and proteomics analysis coverage, sensitivity, and throughput. PMID:22840822

  5. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  6. Therapeutic advances in immunosuppression.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A W; Forrester, J V

    1994-01-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy is appropriate for the prevention or reversal of allograft rejection, and for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and allergic disease. Recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate immune responses have paralleled elucidation of the modes of action of a variety of therapeutic immunosuppressive agents, both 'old' and new. These developments have identified potential targets for more refined and specific intervention strategies that are now being tested in the clinic. PMID:7994898

  7. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  8. Recent advances in dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Teresa; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Lallas, Aimilios; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The use of dermoscopy has offered a new morphological dimension of skin lesions and has provided an effective diagnostic tool to differentiate melanoma from other benign or malignant skin tumors but also to support the clinical diagnosis in general dermatology. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent and important advances in the rising world of dermoscopy. PMID:26949523

  9. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  10. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  11. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  12. Advances in Laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made airway management safer. Because difficult intubation remains challenging to predict, having tools readily available that can be used to manage a difficult airway in any setting is critical. Fortunately, video technology has resulted in improvements for intubation performance while using laryngoscopy by various means. These technologies have been applied to rigid optical stylets, flexible intubation scopes, and, most notably, rigid laryngoscopes. These tools have proven effective for the anticipated difficult airway as well as the unanticipated difficult airway.

  13. Normative population theory.

    PubMed

    Cowen, T

    1989-01-01

    This article finds utilitarian and contractarian approaches to solving the problem of optimal population unacceptable. The principles of utility refer to the best population as the one which contains the greatest sum of utility or the one with the highest average utility. Yet Parfits's repugnant conclusion states that these can imply a very large population at a very low standard of living. Cowen's Methuselah's Paradox says that for any possible happy and meaningful life, we can imagine another, much longer life which demonstrates the absurdity of the utility principles. Lewis argues for a conception of well being based upon choices over whole irreducible states of affairs, i.e., an ordinal concept of value. The contractarian approach assumes that we would rationally choose what type of life we were to live if the choice were made without anyone knowing his particular standing in the world--the veil of ignorance. This requires the individuals to choose on the basis of self interest, but gives too much weight to the individuals actually being born. The most promising population theory appears to be the ideal participant method. Simply stated the optimal population is what an individual would prefer if he had to sequentially live out each life in his choice. Further, this method may be able to reduce the difficulties with evaluating alternate populations to the common problem of aggregating disparate preferences.

  14. Extinction of oscillating populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation.

  15. Extinction of oscillating populations.

    PubMed

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation. PMID:27078294

  16. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  17. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  18. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chi-Ming

    1998-01-01

    Researchers from the NASA Lewis Research Center have obtained the first combustion/emissions data under extreme future engine operating conditions. In Lewis' new world-class 60-atm combustor research facility--the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR)--a flametube was used to conduct combustion experiments in environments as extreme as 900 psia and 3400 F. The greatest challenge for combustion researchers is the uncertainty of the effects of pressure on the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Consequently, U.S. engine manufacturers are using these data to guide their future combustor designs. The flametube's metal housing has an inside diameter of 12 in. and a length of 10.5 in. The flametube can be used with a variety of different flow paths. Each flow path is lined with a high-temperature, castable refractory material (alumina) to minimize heat loss. Upstream of the flametube is the injector section, which has an inside diameter of 13 in. and a length of 0.5-in. It was designed to provide for quick changeovers. This flametube is being used to provide all U.S. engine manufacturers early assessments of advanced combustion concepts at full power conditions prior to engine production. To date, seven concepts from engine manufacturers have been evaluated and improved. This collaborated development can potentially give U.S. engine manufacturers the competitive advantage of being first in the market with advanced low-emission technologies.

  19. [Advanced sleep phase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ondzé, B; Espa, F; Ming, L C; Chakkar, B; Besset, A; Billiard, M

    2001-11-01

    The Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome (ASPS) is a sleep disorder characterized by an early sleep onset and early awakening without any disturbance of the sleep structure. The management of this disease requires clinical and laboratory investigations in an attempt to confirm the phase advance of body core temperature and melatonin rhythm. The use of light therapy, possibly associated with chronotherapy or melatonin intake has been proposed. The evolution is variable. Seven subjects, aged 15 to 72 were diagnosed in our sleep disorders unit by mean of sleep log, actigraphy, sleep and temperature recording. The sleep onset and sleep offset times were approximately the same according to sleep log, actigraphy and night polysomnography. The nadir of body core temperature was at 01:38 +/- 01:03. Two familial cases were identified of which 1 was investigated in constant routine condition with hourly blood sampling. An advanced phase of melatonin and cortisol was evidenced. The disease temporarily improved in 3 cases with light therapy and in one case with the association of light therapy and chronotherapy. These data show the difficulties of the management and the treatment of this rarely diagnosed disease. PMID:11924025

  20. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.