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Sample records for advanced backcross progenies

  1. Improvement of hybrid yield by advanced backcross QTL analysis in elite maize.

    PubMed

    Ho, C.; McCouch, R.; Smith, E.

    2002-08-01

    We applied an advanced backcross breeding strategy to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of agronomic importance in a cross between two elite inbreds of maize, RD6502 (Mo17-type recurrent parent) and RD3013 (Iodent donor parent). Two hundred and four BC(2) families were scored at 106 SSR, 15 AFLP, and 38 Heartbreaker (MITE) loci. BC(2) testcrosses (TC) with B73 were phenotyped at six locations in the Midwest and N.Y. We detected four grain yield, six grain moisture, and three plant height QTLs at which the RD3013 allele had a favorable effect ( p < 0.05). All four yield QTLs were selected as target introgressions in the development of BC(3)TC families. As predicted by BC(2)TC analysis, BC(3)TC entries containing introgressions at yld3.1 and yld10.1 significantly outperformed non-carrier entries by 11.1% (15.6 bu/A at one location) and 6.7% (7.1 bu/A averaged across two locations), respectively, in replicated Midwestern trials ( p < 0.05). Detection of yld10.1 effects in the BC(2)TC by spatial analysis (i.e., incomplete block, response surface, autoregressive, moving average or autoregressive moving average), but not by conventional single point analysis or interval mapping, indicated the utility of local environmental control for QTL mapping in unreplicated maize progeny. This work demonstrated that the advanced backcross QTL method can be applied to identify and manipulate useful QTLs in heterotic inbreds of elite maize. Genetic gains by this approach can be coupled with the maintenance and selection of favorable epistatic gene complexes by traditional hybrid breeding for maize improvement. PMID:12582549

  2. Visualization of A- and B-genome chromosomes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) backcross progenies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z N; Hang, A; Hansen, J; Burton, C; Mallory-Smith, C A; Zemetra, R S

    2000-12-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) can cross with each other, and their self-fertile backcross progenies frequently have extra chromosomes and chromosome segments, presumably retained from wheat, raising the possibility that a herbicide resistance gene might transfer from wheat to jointed goatgrass. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to clarify the origin of these extra chromosomes. By using T. durum DNA (AABB genome) as a probe and jointed goatgrass DNA (CCDD genome) as blocking DNA, one, two, and three A- or B-genome chromosomes were identified in three BC2S2 individuals where 2n = 29, 30, and 31 chromosomes, respectively. A translocation between wheat and jointed goatgrass chromosomes was also detected in an individual with 30 chromosomes. In pollen mother cells with meiotic configuration of 14 II + 2 I, the two univalents were identified as being retained from the A or B genome of wheat. By using Ae. markgrafii DNA (CC genome) as a probe and wheat DNA (AABBDD genome) as blocking DNA. 14 C-genome chromosomes were visualized in all BC2S2 individuals. The GISH procedure provides a powerful tool to detect the A or B-genome chromatin in a jointed goatgrass background, making it possible to assess the risk of transfer of herbicide resistance genes located on the A or B genome of wheat to jointed goatgrass. PMID:11195336

  3. Mapping Blast and Sheath Blight QTL in an Advanced Backcross Bengal/O. nivara (Wild2) Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An advanced backcross mapping population was developed from a cross between ‘Bengal’, a popular southern U.S. tropical japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar, and an accession of the rice ancestral species, O. nivara Sharma & Shastry (IRGC104705). Previous studies identified this O. nivara accessi...

  4. The extent and position of homoeologous recombination in a distant hybrid of Alstroemeria: a molecular cytogenetic assessment of first generation backcross progenies.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, S A; Kuipers, A G; De Jeu, M J; Ramanna, M S; Jacobsen, E

    1999-04-01

    To estimate the extent and position of homoeologous recombination during meiosis in an interspecific hybrid between two distantly related Alstroemeria species, the chromosome constitution of six first generation backcross (BC1) plants was analysed using sequential fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Four different probes were used for the FISH analysis: two species-specific and two rDNA probes. The six BC1 plants were obtained from crosses between the hybrid A. aurea x A. inodora with its parent A. inodora. GISH clearly identified all chromosomes of both parental genomes as well as recombinant chromosomes. The sequential GISH and FISH analysis enabled the accurate identification of all individual chromosomes in the BC1 plants, resulting in the construction of detailed karyotypes of the plants. The identification of the recombinant chromosomes provided evidence which chromosomes of the two species are homoeologous. Two of the BC1 plants were aneuploid (2n=2x+1=17) and four triploid (2n=3x=24), indicating that both n and 2n gametes were functional in the F1 hybrid. Using GISH, it was possible to estimate homeologous recombination in two different types of gametes in the F1 hyrid. The positions of the crossover points ranged from highly proximal to distal and the maximum number of crossover points per chromosome arm was three. Compared with the aneuploid plants, the triploid plants (which received 2n gametes) clearly possessed fewer crossovers per chromosome, indicating reduced chromosome pairing/recombination prior to the formation of the 2n gametes. Besides homeologous recombination, evidence was found for the presence of structural rearrangements (inversion and translocation) between the chromosomes of the parental species. The presence of the ancient translocation was confirmed through FISH analysis of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. PMID:10199956

  5. Quantitative trait loci with effects on feed efficiency traits in Hereford x composite double backcross populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two half-sib families of backcross progeny were produced by mating F1 Line 1 Hereford (L1) x composite gene combination (CGC) bulls with L1 and CGC cows. Feed intake and periodic weights were measured for 218 backcross progeny. These progeny were genotyped using 232 microsatellite markers that spann...

  6. Evaluation of a M-202x Oryza nivara advanced backcross population for seedling vigor, agronomic traits, yield components, yield and grain quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza nivara, the ancestral species of cultivated rice (O. sativa) is the source of novel alleles for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress lost during domestication, including those for improved yield. Interspecific advanced backcross (ABC) populations permit both the introgression of desirable ...

  7. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm. PMID:27182953

  8. Production and characterization of interspecific somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and B. nigra and their progenies for the selection of advanced pre-breeding materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-xiang; Tang, Yu; Yan, Hong; Sheng, Xiao-guang; Hao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Li; Lu, Kun; Liu, Fan

    2011-10-01

    Somatic hybridization is a potential method for gene transfer from wild relatives to cultivated crops that can overcome sexual incompatibilities of two distantly related species. In this study, interspecific asymmetric somatic hybrids of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower) and Brassica nigra (black mustard) were obtained by protoplast fusion and their backcrossed (BC(3)) and selfed (S(3)) offspring were analyzed. Cytological analysis showed that the B. nigra chromosomes were successively eliminated in the backcrosses with cauliflower. The fertility of the hybrid progenies was quite different due to the asynchronous and abnormal chromosome behavior of pollen mother cells (PMC) during meiosis. Analysis of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) showed that all of these hybrids mainly had the DNA banding pattern from the two parents with some alterations. Genetically, the selfed generations were closer to B. nigra, while the backcrossed generations were closer to the cauliflower parent. Analysis of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) showed that all somatic hybrids in this study contained chloroplast (cp) DNA of the donor parent black mustard, while mitochondrial (mt) DNA showed evidence of recombination and variations in the regions analyzed. Furthermore, three BC(3) plants (originated from somatic hybrids 3, 4, 10) with 2-8 B. nigra-derived chromosomes shown by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) displayed a more cauliflower-like morphology and high resistance to black-rot. These plants were obtained as bridge materials for further analysis and breeding. PMID:21603996

  9. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: II. Genetic analysis of seedling and field resistance against leaf rust in a wheat advanced backcross population

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Ali Ahmad; Kunert, Antje; Lind, Volker; Léon, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to localize exotic quantitative trait locus (QTL) alleles for the improvement of leaf rust (P.triticina) resistance in an advanced backcross (AB) population, B22, which is derived from a cross between the winter wheat cultivar Batis (Triticumaestivum) and the synthetic wheat accession Syn022L. The latter was developed from hybridization of T.turgidum ssp. dicoccoides and T.tauschii. Altogether, 250 BC2F3 lines of B22 were assessed for seedling resistance against the leaf rust isolate 77WxR under controlled conditions. In addition, field resistance against leaf rust was evaluated by assessing symptom severity under natural infestation across multiple environments. Simultaneously, population B22 was genotyped with a total of 97 SSR markers, distributed over the wheat A, B and D genomes. The phenotype and genotype data were subjected to QTL analysis by applying a 3-factorial mixed model analysis of variance including the marker genotype as a fixed effect and the environments, the lines and the marker by environment interactions as random effects. The QTL analysis revealed six putative QTLs for seedling resistance and seven for field resistance. For seedling resistance, the effects of exotic QTL alleles improved resistance at all detected loci. The maximum decrease of disease symptoms (−46.3%) was associated with marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D. For field resistance, two loci had stable main effects across environments and five loci exhibited marker by environment interaction effects. The strongest effects were detected at marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D, at which the exotic allele decreased seedling symptoms by 46.3% and field symptoms by 43.6%, respectively. Some of the detected QTLs co-localized with known resistance genes, while others appear to be as novel resistance loci. Our findings indicate, that the exotic wheat accession Syn022L may be useful for the improvement of leaf rust resistance in cultivated wheat. PMID

  10. Effect of seven antibiotics on the growth and reproduction of Heliothis subflexa X H. virescens interspecific hydrids and backcross males

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, L.E.; Karpenko, C.P.

    1981-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a maternally transmitted cytoplasmic microorganism is involved in male hybrid sterility found in H. subflexa (Guenee) X H. virescens (F.) hybrid and backcross progeny, we reared H. subflexa, hybrids and backcross progeny on larval diets containing high concentrations of tetracycline, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, rifampin, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The insects tolerated relatively high concentrations (from 120 mg/liter to 6 g/liter) of antibiotics in the larval diet and showed virtually no changes in larval or pupal developmental time, adult lifespan, or fertility. Hybrid and backcross males reared on such adulterated diets were as sterile as those reared on conventional diets.

  11. Identification of QTL for Early Vigor and Stay-Green Conferring Tolerance to Drought in Two Connected Advanced Backcross Populations in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Samuel; Sun, Dapeng; SanVicente, Felix M; Zheng, Hongjian; Atlin, Gary N; Suarez, Edgar Antonio; Babu, Raman; Zhang, Xuecai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26-31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13-17; additivity: 0.1-0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop, DS

  12. Identification of QTL for Early Vigor and Stay-Green Conferring Tolerance to Drought in Two Connected Advanced Backcross Populations in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Trachsel, Samuel; Sun, Dapeng; SanVicente, Felix M.; Zheng, Hongjian; Atlin, Gary N.; Suarez, Edgar Antonio; Babu, Raman; Zhang, Xuecai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26–31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13–17; additivity: 0.1–0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop

  13. Structural assessment of backcrossing using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Backcrossing, coupled with marker or gene assisted selection, can be used to introgress a specific gene or chromosomal region from one population into another. The objective of this study was to assess the genomic structure of cattle produced by backcrossing for loci that are unlinked to a locus tha...

  14. Using advanced intercross lines for high-resolution mapping of HDL cholesterol quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosong; Le Roy, Isabelle; Nicodeme, Edwige; Li, Renhua; Wagner, Richard; Petros, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Harris, Stephen; Darvasi, Ariel; Kirilovsky, Jorge; Roubertoux, Pierre L; Paigen, Beverly

    2003-07-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with high resolution facilitates identification and positional cloning of the underlying genes. The novel approach of advanced intercross lines (AILs) generates many more recombination events and thus can potentially narrow QTLs significantly more than do conventional backcrosses and F2 intercrosses. In this study, we carried out QTL analyses in (C57BL/6J x NZB/BlNJ) x C57BL/6J backcross progeny fed either chow or an atherogenic diet to detect QTLs that regulate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)concentrations, and in (C57BL/6J x NZB/BlNJ) F11 AIL progeny to confirm and narrow those QTLs. QTLs for HDL concentrations were found on chromosomes 1, 5, and 16. AIL not only narrowed the QTLs significantly more than did a conventional backcross but also resolved a chromosome 5 QTL identified in the backcross into two QTLs, the peaks of both being outside the backcross QTL region. We tested 27 candidate genes and found significant mRNA expression differences for 12 (Nr1i3, Apoa2, Sap, Tgfb2, Fgfbp1, Prom, Ppargc1, Tcf1, Ncor2, Srb1, App, and Ifnar). Some of these underlay the same QTL, indicating that expression differences are common and not sufficient to identify QTL genes. All the major HDL QTLs in our study had homologous counterparts in humans, implying that their underlying genes regulate HDL in humans. PMID:12805272

  15. Using Advanced Intercross Lines for High-Resolution Mapping of HDL Cholesterol Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosong; Le Roy, Isabelle; Nicodeme, Edwige; Li, Renhua; Wagner, Richard; Petros, Christina; Churchill, Gary A.; Harris, Stephen; Darvasi, Ariel; Kirilovsky, Jorge; Roubertoux, Pierre L.; Paige, Beverly

    2003-01-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs)with high resolution facilitates identification and positional cloning of the underlying genes. The novel approach of advanced intercross lines (AILs) generates many more recombination events and thus can potentially narrow QTLs significantly more than do conventional backcrosses and F2 intercrosses. In this study, we carried out QTL analyses in (C57BL/6J × NZB/BlNJ)× C57BL/6J backcross progeny fed either chow or an atherogenic diet to detect QTLs that regulate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)concentrations, and in (C57BL/6J × NZB/BlNJ)F11 AIL progeny to confirm and narrow those QTLs. QTLs for HDL concentrations were found on chromosomes 1, 5, and 16. AIL not only narrowed the QTLs significantly more than did a conventional backcross but also resolved a chromosome 5 QTL identified in the backcross into two QTLs, the peaks of both being outside the backcross QTL region. We tested 27 candidate genes and found significant mRNA expression differences for 12 (Nr1i3, Apoa2, Sap, Tgfb2, Fgfbp1, Prom, Ppargc1, Tcf1, Ncor2, Srb1, App, and Ifnar). Some of these underlay the same QTL, indicating that expression differences are common and not sufficient to identify QTL genes. All the major HDL QTLs in our study had homologous counterparts in humans, implying that their underlying genes regulate HDL in humans. PMID:12805272

  16. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability. PMID:26400358

  17. Magnaporthe Grisea Genes for Pathogenicity and Virulence Identified through a Series of Backcrosses

    PubMed Central

    Valent, B.; Farrall, L.; Chumley, F. G.

    1991-01-01

    We have identified genes for pathogenicity toward rice (Oryza sativa) and genes for virulence toward specific rice cultivars in the plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea. A genetic cross was conducted between the weeping lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula) pathogen 4091-5-8, a highly fertile, hermaphroditic laboratory strain, and the rice pathogen O-135, a poorly fertile, female-sterile field isolate that infects weeping lovegrass as well as rice. A six-generation backcrossing scheme was then undertaken with the rice pathogen as the recurrent parent. One goal of these crosses was to generate rice pathogenic progeny with the high fertility characteristic of strain 4091-5-8, which would permit rigorous genetic analysis of rice pathogens. Therefore, progeny strains to be used as parents for backcross generations were chosen only on the basis of fertility. The ratios of pathogenic to nonpathogenic (and virulent to avirulent) progeny through the backcross generations suggested that the starting parent strains differ in two types of genes that control the ability to infect rice. First, they differ by polygenic factors that determine the extent of lesion development achieved by those progeny that infect rice. These genes do not appear to play a role in infection of weeping lovegrass because both parents and all progeny infect weeping lovegrass. Second, the parents differ by simple Mendelian determinants, ``avirulence genes,'' that govern virulence toward specific rice cultivars in all-or-none fashion. Several crosses confirm the segregation of three unlinked avirulence genes, Avr1-CO39, Avr1-M201 and Avr1-YAMO, alleles of which determine avirulence on rice cultivars CO39, M201, and Yashiro-mochi, respectively. Interestingly, avirulence alleles of Avr1-CO39, Avr1-M201 and Avr1-YAMO were inherited from the parent strain 4091-5-8, which is a nonpathogen of rice. Middle repetitive DNA sequences (``MGR sequences''), present in approximately 40-50 copies in the genome of the

  18. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a

  19. A GENOME-WIDE SCAN FOR QTL AFFECTING CARCASS TRAITS AT CONSTANT FAT DEPTH IN A HEREFORD X COMPOSITE DOUBLE BACKCROSS POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan for chromosomal regions influencing carcass traits was conducted spanning 2.497 Morgans on 29 bovine autosomes using 170 microsatellite markers. There were 151 progeny from a single Hereford x composite bull produced by backcross matings to both Hereford and composite dams. Cattl...

  20. Hybridization but No Evidence for Backcrossing and Introgression in a Sympatric Population of Great Reed Warblers and Clamorous Reed Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Tarka, Maja; Dawson, Deborah A.; Horsburgh, Gavin J.

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization is observed frequently in birds, but often it is not known whether the hybrids are fertile and if backcrossing occurs. The breeding ranges of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and the clamorous reed warbler (A. stentoreus) overlap in southern Kazakhstan and a previous study has documented hybridization in a sympatric population. In the present study, we first present a large set of novel microsatellite loci isolated and characterised in great reed warblers. Secondly, we evaluate whether hybridization in the sympatric breeding population has been followed by backcrossing and introgression. We isolated 181 unique microsatellite loci in great reed warblers. Of 41 loci evaluated, 40 amplified and 30 were polymorphic. Bayesian clustering analyses based on genotype data from 23 autosomal loci recognised two well-defined genetic clusters corresponding to the two species. Individuals clustered to a very high extent to either of these clusters (admixture proportions ≥0.984) with the exception of four previously suggested arundinaceus–stentoreus hybrid birds that showed mixed ancestry (admixture proportions 0.495–0.619). Analyses of simulated hybrids and backcrossed individuals showed that the sampled birds do not correspond to first–fourth-generation backcrosses, and that fifth or higher generation backcrosses to a high extent resemble ‘pure’ birds at this set of markers. We conclude that these novel microsatellite loci provide a useful molecular resource for Acrocephalus warblers. The time to reach reproductive isolation is believed to be very long in birds, approximately 5 Myrs, and with an estimated divergence time of 2 Myrs between these warblers, some backcrossing and introgression could have been expected. However, there was no evidence for backcrossing and introgression suggesting that hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. Very low levels of introgression cannot be excluded, which still may be an important

  1. A sequential quantitative trait locus fine-mapping strategy using recombinant-derived progeny.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-04-01

    A thorough understanding of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that underlie agronomically important traits in crops would greatly increase agricultural productivity. Although advances have been made in QTL cloning, the majority of QTLs remain unknown because of their low heritability and minor contributions to phenotypic performance. Here we summarize the key advantages and disadvantages of current QTL fine-mapping methodologies, and then introduce a sequential QTL fine-mapping strategy based on both genotypes and phenotypes of progeny derived from recombinants. With this mapping strategy, experimental errors could be dramatically diminished so as to reveal the authentic genetic effect of target QTLs. The number of progeny required to detect QTLs at various R2 values was calculated, and the backcross generation suitable to start QTL fine-mapping was also estimated. This mapping strategy has proved to be very powerful in narrowing down QTL regions, particularly minor-effect QTLs, as revealed by fine-mapping of various resistance QTLs in maize. Application of this sequential QTL mapping strategy should accelerate cloning of agronomically important QTLs, which is currently a substantial challenge in crops. PMID:22348858

  2. Experimental hybridization and backcrossing reveal forces of reproductive isolation in Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i.e. ecological maladaptation or genetic incompatibilities) have not yet been detected. Here, backcrossing experiments, specifically controlling for the fungal species origins of the mating compatibility factors, were used to investigate reproductive isolation in the recently-derived species Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Microbotryum silenes-dioicae. Results Assortative mating was detected during backcrossing and was manifested by the preferential conjugation of the hybrid-produced gametes with non-hybrid gametes containing mating compatibility factors from the same parental species. Patterns of post-mating performance supported either a level of extrinsic isolation mechanism, where backcross progeny with a higher proportion of the pathogen genome adapted to the particular host environment were favored, or an infection advantage attributed to greater genetic contribution to the hybrid from the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome. Conclusion The use of controlled backcrossing experiments reveals significant species-specific mating type effects on conjugations between recently-derived sister species, which are likely to play important roles in both maintaining species separation and the nature of hybrids lineages that emerge in sympatry between Microbotryum species. PMID:24112452

  3. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  4. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  5. Identifying Rare FHB-Resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anthony J.; Sarti-Dvorjak, Daniela; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Dong, Yanhong; Baik, Byung-Kee; Van Sanford, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476) with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS) and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL) to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over 2 years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7% on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012) and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an “all or nothing

  6. Identifying Rare FHB-Resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations.

    PubMed

    Clark, Anthony J; Sarti-Dvorjak, Daniela; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Dong, Yanhong; Baik, Byung-Kee; Van Sanford, David A

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476) with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS) and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL) to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over 2 years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7% on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012) and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an "all or nothing

  7. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  8. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Jugulam, M.; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K. Y.; Chen, Shu; Hall, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  9. A radon progeny deposition model

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R; Hime, Andrew; Guiseppe, Vincente E; Westerdale, S.

    2010-12-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  10. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    SciTech Connect

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K.; Westerdale, S.

    2011-04-27

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  11. Reproductive performance of backcross Holstein × Brown Swiss and their Holstein contemporaries under subtropical environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Bayoumi, Khairy M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of the Holstein (HO) and their backcross HO × Brown Swiss (BS) under Egyptian subtropical conditions. The backcrosses were HBH (HO sires crossed with F1 BS × HO cows) and HHB (HO sires crossed with F1 HO × BS cows). Several reproductive indices and health traits for different genotypes were measured, and the effect of temperature-humidity index level (THI) on reproductive performance was investigated. Reproductive indices of the HHB backcross were better than those of the HO. The conception (30.1%) and pregnancy (28.9%) rates of the HHB backcross were significantly higher than those of the HO (28.1% and 22.6%, respectively). The calving interval and the days open of the HHB backcross were significantly shorter than those of the HO. The fertility of the HHB backcross was not affected by the level of the THI. The conception and the pregnancy rate of the HO decreased from 35.8% and 29.4%, respectively, at low THI to 16.1% and 12.1%, respectively, at high THI. The HHB backcross had the significant lowest incidence of retained placenta and metritis (9.6 and 16.9, respectively). In conclusion, despite their high milk production efficiency, pure HO had retarded reproductive performance and adaptability. On the other hand, the HHB backcross had a better adaptability and fertility under Egyptian conditions. PMID:25459027

  12. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  13. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa. PMID:14653804

  14. Mitigation using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene precludes establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in hybrids and backcrosses with weedy Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Gressel, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants can interbreed with nearby weedy Brassica rapa, potentially enhancing the weediness and/or invasiveness of subsequent hybrid offspring. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mitigation effectively reduces the fitness of the transgenic dwarf and herbicide-resistant B. napus volunteers. We now report the efficacy of such a tandem construct, including a primary herbicide-resistant gene and a dwarfing mitigator gene, to preclude the risks of gene establishment in the related weed B. rapa and its backcross progeny. The transgenically mitigated and non-transgenic B. rapa x B. napus interspecific hybrids and the backcrosses (BC(1)) with B. rapa were grown alone and in competition with B. rapa weed. The reproductive fitness of hybrid offspring progressively decreased with increased B. rapa genes in the offspring, illustrating the efficacy of the concept. The fitness of F(2) interspecific non-transgenic hybrids was between 50% and 80% of the competing weedy B. rapa, whereas the fitness of the comparable T(2) interspecific transgenic hybrids was never more than 2%. The reproductive fitness of the transgenic T(2) BC(1) mixed with B. rapa was further severely suppressed to 0.9% of that of the competing weed due to dwarfism. Clearly, the mitigation technology works efficiently in a rapeseed crop-weed system under biocontainment-controlled environments, but field studies should further validate its utility for minimizing the risks of gene flow. PMID:17177782

  15. Breeding and quantitative genetics advances in sunflower Sclerotinia research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, we continued the process of backcrossing the head rot QTL from the HA 441 x RHA 439 population into confectionery and elite oilseed backgrounds. Progress is slow due to complexities in scoring of alleles in breeding progenies (dominant markers sometimes in repulsion phase, and many gel band...

  16. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    PubMed Central

    De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid banana genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated banana hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated banana hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591

  17. Nonhereditary enhancement of progeny growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Amir S.; Fiorotto, Marta L.; Hill, Leigh-Anne; Malone, P. Brandon; Cummings, Kathleen K.; Parghi, Deena; Schwartz, Robert J.; Smith, Roy G.; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2002-01-01

    The im electroporated injection of a protease-resistant GH-releasing hormone cDNA into rat dams at 16 d gestation resulted in enhanced long-term growth of the F(1) offspring. The offspring were significantly heavier by 2 wk of age, and the difference was sustained to 10 wk of age. Consistent with their augmented growth, the plasma IGF-I concentration of the F(1) progeny was increased significantly. The pituitary gland of the offspring was significantly heavier and contained an increased number of somatotrophs and PRL-secreting cells, which is indicative of modification of cell lineage differentiation. These unique findings demonstrate that enhanced GH-releasing hormone expression in pregnant dams can result in intergenerational growth promotion by altering development of the pituitary gland in the offspring.

  18. Impact from indoor air mixing on the thoron progeny concentration and attachment fraction.

    PubMed

    de With, G; de Jong, P

    2016-07-01

    Despite the considerable amount of work in the field of indoor thoron exposure, little studies have focussed on mitigation strategies to reduce exposure to thoron and its progeny. For this reason an advanced computer model has been developed that describes the dispersion and aerosol modelling from first principal using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mitigation effects from air mixing on the progeny concentration and attachment with aerosols. The findings clearly demonstrate a reduction in thoron progeny concentration due to air mixing. The reduction in thoron progeny is up to 60% when maximum air mixing is applied. In addition there is a reduction in the unattached fraction from 1.2% under regular conditions to 0.3% in case of maximum mixing. PMID:27064565

  19. Evaluation of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Resistance in BC1, BC2, and BC3 Progenies from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Wajad; Tipu, Abdul Latif; Ahmad, Saghir; Mahmood, Khalid; Mahmood, Abid; Zhou, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD) is an important constraint to cotton production. The resistance of G. arboreum to this devastating disease is well documented. In the present investigation, we explored the possibility of transferring genes for resistance to CLCuD from G. arboreum (2n = 26) cv 15-Mollisoni into G. hirsutum (2n = 52) cv CRSM-38 through conventional breeding. We investigated the cytology of the BC1 to BC3 progenies of direct and reciprocal crosses of G. arboreum and G. hirsutum and evaluated their resistance to CLCuD. The F1 progenies were completely resistant to this disease, while a decrease in resistance was observed in all backcross generations. As backcrossing progressed, the disease incidence increased in BC1 (1.7–2.0%), BC2 (1.8–4.0%), and BC3 (4.2–7.0%). However, the disease incidence was much lower than that of the check variety CIM-496, with a CLCuD incidence of 96%. Additionally, the disease incidence percentage was lower in the direct cross 2(G. arboreum)×G. hirsutum than in that of G. hirsutum×G. arboreum. Phenotypic resemblance of BC1 ∼BC3 progenies to G. arboreum confirmed the success of cross between the two species. Cytological studies of CLCuD-resistant plants revealed that the frequency of univalents and multivalents was high in BC1, with sterile or partially fertile plants, but low in BC2 (in both combinations), with shy bearing plants. In BC3, most of the plants exhibited normal bearing ability due to the high frequency of chromosome associations (bivalents). The assessment of CLCuD through grafting showed that the BC1 to BC3 progenies were highly resistant to this disease. Thus, this study successfully demonstrates the possibility of introgressing CLCuD resistance genes from G. arboreum to G. hirsutum. PMID:25372141

  20. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  1. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP`s new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential {alpha} energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP`s recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ``Normalization`` of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for {alpha} dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk.

  2. Genetic potential of common bean progenies selected for crude fiber content obtained through different breeding methods.

    PubMed

    Júnior, V A P; Melo, P G S; Pereira, H S; Bassinello, P Z; Melo, L C

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal health is of great importance due to the increasing consumption of functional foods, especially those concern-ing diets rich in fiber content. The common bean has been valorized as a nutritious food due to its appreciable fiber content and the fact that it is consumed in many countries. The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the genetic potential of common bean progenies of the carioca group, developed through different breeding methods, for crude fiber content. The progenies originated through hybridization of two advanced strains, CNFC 7812 and CNFC 7829, up to the F7 generation using three breeding methods: bulk-population, bulk within F2 families, and single seed descent. Fifteen F8 progenies were evaluated in each method, as well as two check cultivars and both parents, us-ing a 7 x 7 simple lattice design, with experimental plots comprised of two 4-m long rows. Field trials were conducted in eleven environments encompassing four Brazilian states and three different sowing times during 2009 and 2010. Estimates of genetic parameters indicate differences among the breeding methods, which seem to be related to the different processes for sampling the advanced progenies inherent to each method, given that the trait in question is not subject to natural selection. Variability amongst progenies occurred within the three breeding methods and there was also a significant effect of environment on the progeny for all methods. Progenies developed by bulk-population attained the highest estimates of genetic parameters, had less interaction with the environment, and greater variability. PMID:26125775

  3. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  4. Progeny from dedifferentiated adipocytes display protracted adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progeny of adipofibroblast cells, derived from mature bovine adipocytes, were used to determine their ability to redifferentiate into lipid-assimilating adipocytes. Traditional cell biology methods were used, including the expression of adipogenic markers such as PPAR'. When exposed to medium supple...

  5. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses. PMID:15612504

  6. Method for determining individual deposition velocities of radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Angell, C T; Pedretti, M; Norman, E B

    2015-04-01

    The deposition velocity of radon progeny is used to model the removal of progeny from the air by surfaces in assessing indoor air quality. It can also be used to assess radon-induced background in sensitive, low-background experiments. A single value of the deposition velocity is typically used for all radon progeny for modeling purposes. This paper presents a method for uniquely determining the individual deposition velocities of radon progeny. Measurements demonstrating the method were carried out. PMID:25618737

  7. Artificial introgression of a large fragment around the Pi-ta rice blast resistance gene in backcross progenies and several elite rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study of the size of genomic introgressions should lead to a better understanding of linkage disequilibrium in crop breeding. Rice presents a unique opportunity to examine the size of introgressions because of the availability of abundant simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the present study, ...

  8. Size of donor chromosome segments around introgressed loci and reduction of linkage drag in marker-assisted backcross programs.

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, F

    2001-01-01

    This article investigates the efficiency of marker-assisted selection in reducing the length of the donor chromosome segment retained around a locus held heterozygous by backcrossing. First, the efficiency of marker-assisted selection is evaluated from the length of the donor segment in backcrossed individuals that are (double) recombinants for two markers flanking the introgressed gene on each side. Analytical expressions for the probability density function, the mean, and the variance of this length are given for any number of backcross generations, as well as numerical applications. For a given marker distance, the number of backcross generations performed has little impact on the reduction of donor segment length, except for distant markers. In practical situations, the most important parameter is the distance between the introgressed gene and the flanking markers, which should be chosen to be as closely linked as possible to the introgressed gene. Second, the minimal population sizes required to obtain double recombinants for such closely linked markers are computed and optimized in the context of a multigeneration backcross program. The results indicate that it is generally more profitable to allow for three or more successive backcross generations rather than to favor recombinations in early generations. PMID:11454782

  9. Exploring sheath blight quantitative trait loci in a Lemont/O. meridionalis advanced backcross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza meridionalis is the wild Oryza species endemic to Australia. There are eight AA genome Oryza species, one of which is cultivated rice, O. sativa and O. meridionalis is the most diverged of the eight species. An O. eridionalis (IRGC105608) accession was identified as being moderately resistant...

  10. RiceCAP: Sheath blight QTLs identified in two Bengal/O. nivara advanced backcross populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most important fungal diseases worldwide. Wild relatives of rice may contain novel genes for biotic/abiotic stress resistance lost during domestication. We identified seven moderately resistant accessions from a collection of 67...

  11. The Analysis of Quantitative Traits for Simple Genetic Models from Parental, F1 and Backcross Data

    PubMed Central

    Elston, R. C.; Stewart, John

    1973-01-01

    The following models are considered for the genetic determination of quantitative traits: segregation at one locus, at two linked loci, at any number of equal and additive unlinked loci, and at one major locus and an indefinite number of equal and additive loci. In each case an appropriate likelihood is given for data on parental, F1 and backcross individuals, assuming that the environmental variation is normally distributed. Methods of testing and comparing the various models are presented, and methods are suggested for the simultaneous analysis of two or more traits. PMID:4711900

  12. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. PMID:27121752

  13. High-density mapping suggests cytoplasmic male sterility with two restorer genes in almond × peach progenies

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, José Manuel; Eduardo, Iban; Picañol, Roger; Batlle, Ignasi; Howad, Werner; Aranzana, María José; Arús, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica) and almond (Prunus dulcis) are two sexually compatible species that produce fertile offspring. Almond, a highly polymorphic species, is a potential source of new genes for peach that has a strongly eroded gene pool. Here we describe the genetics of a male sterile phenotype that segregated in two almond (‘Texas’) × peach (‘Earlygold’) progenies: an F2 (T×E) and a backcross one (T1E) to the ‘Earlygold’ parent. High-density maps were developed using a 9k peach SNP chip and 135 simple-sequence repeats. Three highly syntenic and collinear maps were obtained: one for the F2 (T×E) and two for the backcross, T1E (for the hybrid) and E (for ‘Earlygold’). A major reduction of recombination was observed in the interspecific maps (T×E and T1E) compared to the intraspecific parent (E). The E map also had extensive monomorphic genomic regions suggesting the presence of large DNA fragments identical by descent. Our data for the male sterility character were consistent with the existence of cytoplasmic male sterility, where individuals having the almond cytoplasm required the almond allele in at least one of two independent restorer genes, Rf1 and Rf2, to be fertile. The restorer genes were located in a 3.4 Mbp fragment of linkage group 2 (Rf1) and 1.4 Mbp of linkage group 6 (Rf2). Both fragments contained several genes coding for pentatricopeptide proteins, demonstrated to be responsible for restoring fertility in other species. The implications of these results for using almond as a source of novel variability in peach are discussed. PMID:26504569

  14. Neutralization of thoron progeny in gases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Yu, C C; Tung, C J; Hopke, P K

    1994-08-01

    This paper reports charge neutralization phenomena of 212Pb particles in nitrogen or oxygen atmospheres with trace amounts of other gases. Newly produced thoron or radon progeny are positively charged, stable molecular clusters that are subsequently neutralized by several mechanisms. The charged clusters have a smaller diffusion coefficient than neutral clusters of the same size due to the interaction of the charge with the surrounding gas molecules. In this study, we have found that the diffusion coefficients of 212Pb in O2, N2, NH3/O2, NH3/N2, and C6H12/N2 (IPs between 15.58 and 9.8 eV) ranged between 0.015 and 0.030 cm2 s-1. In the case of C6H12/O2, NO2/O2, NO/O2, and dimethylamine/O2 (ionization potential between 9.8 and 8.23 eV), the diffusion coefficients have increased to between 0.046 and 0.69 cm2 s-1. These results are consistent with previous results of 218Po, indicating that charged progeny are neutralized by electron transfer from a gas molecule with a lower ionization potential than lead oxide. We estimate the ionization potential of lead oxide to range between 9.8 and 10.2 eV. 212Pb was also neutralized by an electron scavenging mechanism in NO2/nitrogen. PMID:8026969

  15. Radiometric Meteorology: radon progeny as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Mark; Iwata, Atsushi; Ito, Nahoko; Kubo, Kenya; Komura, Kazu; Ishizaki, Miho

    2008-10-01

    In-situ measurement of atmospheric γ radiation from radon progeny determine rain and snow rates to better accuracy than standard rain gauges and gives a handle on how droplets are formed. The measured γ ray rates (GRR) have been shown to be proportional to a power of radiometric precipitation rates (RPR)^α, α giving a handle on the extent to which radon progeny are surface adsorbed or volume absorbed.ootnotetextM. B. Greenfield et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93, (2003) pp 5733-5741. More recently time dependent ratios of GRR from ^214Pb and ^214Bi, concentrated from collected rainwater, have been used to determine the elapsed time since activity from RPR, adhered to rain droplets, was removed from secular equilibrium. Ion exchange resins precipitate out the ^214Pb and ^214Bi ions, which are then filtered from 10s of liters of rainwater or snowmelt. A portable Ge detector is used to integrate the resulting activity over 5-10 min intervals. The measured evolution of these two activities from secular equilibrium to transient equilibrium has meteorological applications enabling both the determination of average elapsed times between the formation of raindrops and the time they reach the ground, as well as an estimate of the initial activity at the source of droplet formation.

  16. Hybrid sterility and evolution in Hawaiian Drosophila: differential gene and allele-specific expression analysis of backcross males.

    PubMed

    Brill, E; Kang, L; Michalak, K; Michalak, P; Price, D K

    2016-08-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are an iconic example of sequential colonization, adaptive radiation and speciation on islands. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of closely related species pairs that exhibit incomplete reproductive isolation can provide insights into the mechanisms of speciation. Drosophila silvestris from Hawai'i Island and Drosophila planitibia from Maui are two closely related allopatric Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila that produce sterile F1 males but fertile F1 females, a pattern consistent with Haldane's rule. Backcrossing F1 hybrid females between these two species to parental species gives rise to recombinant males with three distinct sperm phenotypes despite a similar genomic background: motile sperm, no sperm (sterile), and immotile sperm. We found that these three reproductive morphologies of backcross hybrid males produce divergent gene expression profiles in testes, as measured with RNA sequencing. There were a total of 71 genes significantly differentially expressed between backcross males with no sperm compared with those backcross males with motile sperm and immotile sperm, but no significant differential gene expression between backcross males with motile sperm and backcross males with immotile sperm. All of these genes were underexpressed in males with no sperm, including a number of genes with previously known activities in adult testis. An allele-specific expression analysis showed overwhelmingly more cis-divergent than trans-divergent genes, with no significant difference in the ratio of cis- and trans-divergent genes among the sperm phenotypes. Overall, the results indicate that the regulation of gene expression involved in sperm production likely diverged relatively rapidly between these two closely related species. PMID:27220308

  17. A comparative transcriptome analysis of two sets of backcross inbred lines differing in lint-yield derived from a Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense population.

    PubMed

    Man, Wu; Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Xihua; Xie, Xiaobing; Pei, Wenfeng; Yu, Jiwen; Yu, Shuxun; Zhang, Jinfa

    2016-08-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop, and its lint-yield improvement is impeded due to its narrow genetic base and the lack of understanding of the genetic basis of yield. Backcross inbred lines (BILs) or near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the same genetic background differing in lint yield, developed through advanced backcrossing, provide an important genomic resource to study the molecular genetic basis of lint yield. In the present study, a high-yield (HY) group and a low-yield (LY) group each with three BILs were selected from a BIL population between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Using a microarray-based comparative transcriptome analysis on developing fibers at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) between the two groups, 1486 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. A total of 212 DEGs were further mapped in the regions of 24 yield QTL and 11 yield trait QTL hotspots as reported previously, and 81 DEGs mapped with the 7 lint-yield QTL identified in the BIL population from which the two sets of BILs were selected. Gene Ontology annotations and Blast-Mapping-Annotation-KEGG analysis via Blast2GO revealed that more DEGs were associated with catalytic activity and binding, followed by transporters, nucleic acid binding transcription factors, structural molecules and molecular transducer activities. Six DEGs were chosen for a quantitative RT-PCR assay, and the results were consistent with the microarray analysis. The development of DEGs-based markers revealed that 7 single strand conformation polymorphism-based single nucleotide polymorphic (SSCP-SNP) markers were associated with yield traits, and 3 markers with lint yield. In the present study, we identified a number of yield and yield component QTL-co-localizing DEGs and developed several DEG-based SSCP-SNP markers for the traits, thereby providing a set of candidate genes for molecular breeding and genetic manipulation of lint yield in cotton. PMID:27256327

  18. Comparative analysis of radon, thoron and thoron progeny concentration measurements

    PubMed Central

    Janik, Miroslaw; Tokonami, Shinji; Kranrod, Chutima; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Hosoda, Masahiro; Mclaughlin, James; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yong Jae

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlations between radon, thoron and thoron progeny concentrations based on surveys conducted in several different countries. For this purpose, passive detectors developed or modified by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) were used. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured using passive discriminative radon-thoron detectors. Thoron progeny measurements were conducted using the NIRS-modified detector, originally developed by Zhuo and Iida. Weak correlations were found between radon and thoron as well as between thoron and thoron progeny. The statistical evaluation showed that attention should be paid to the thoron equilibrium factor for calculation of thoron progeny concentrations based on thoron measurements. In addition, this evaluation indicated that radon, thoron and thoron progeny were independent parameters, so it would be difficult to estimate the concentration of one from those of the others. PMID:23297318

  19. Registration of a rice gene-mapping population consisting of 'TeQing'-into-'Lemont' backcross introgression lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new rice (Oryza sativa L.) mapping population consisting of 123 'TeQing'-into-'Lemont' backcross introgression lines (TILs) (Reg. No. MP-5, NSL 477436 MAP) was developed by the USDA-ARS Rice Research Unit at the Texas A&M University System AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Beaumont, TX, in...

  20. Enhancement of Seedling Emergence in Sweet Corn by Marker-Assisted Backcrossing of Beneficial QTL.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Gad G.; Juvik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Seedling emergence is an important trait that can limit commercialization of sweet corn hybrids. This study was designed to test what effect beneficial QTL alleles that enhance seedling emergence exert when introgressed, using marker-assisted backcrossing, into sweet corn commercial germplasm. Three RFLP marker alleles linked to QTL that enhanced seedling emergence were identified in an F(2:3) sweet corn mapping population. A recombinant inbred line (RIL, F(8)) derived from this population was used as a donor parent to backcross the marker-QTL alleles into three elite commercial sweet corn inbreds. Plants in the three segregating BC(2) populations were crossed to the non-recurrent commercial inbreds to produce three BC(2)F(1) populations with families either segregating or lacking the marker donor allele(s). These three populations were evaluated for seedling emergence under field conditions in two successive years. Across the three populations, BC(2)F(1) families segregating for the donor QTL allele linked to the marker umc139 (on chromosome 2), bnl9.08 (on chromosome 8), or php200689 (on chromosome 1) displayed 40.8, 30.2, and 28.2% increases in seedling emergence, respectively, over the unmodified F(1)s. The introgressed QTL alleles were observed to enhance seedling emergence in the BC(2)F(1) generation as was observed in the original F(2:3) mapping population. Marker-QTL associated effects were reproducible across generations and populations indicating that QTL identified in one population can exert similar effects in different genetic backgrounds. Results suggest that using DNA marker technology can help to identify and introgress beneficial QTL alleles, shortening the time and resources required to develop improved germplasm. PMID:11756259

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci in inbred backcross lines of Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium (LA1589).

    PubMed

    Doganlar, Sami; Frary, Anne; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Tanksley, Steven D

    2002-12-01

    Although tomato has been the subject of extensive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping experiments, most of this work has been conducted on transient populations (e.g., F2 or backcross) and few homozygous, permanent mapping populations are available. To help remedy this situation, we have developed a set of inbred backcross lines (IBLs) from the interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum cv. E6203 and L. pimpinellifolium (LA1589). A total of 170 BC2F1 plants were selfed for five generations to create a set of homozygous BC2F6 lines by single-seed descent. These lines were then genotyped for 127 marker loci covering the entire tomato genome. These IBLs were evaluated for 22 quantitative traits. In all, 71 significant QTLs were identified, 15% (11/71) of which mapped to the same chromosomal positions as QTLs identified in earlier studies using the same cross. For 48% (34/71) of the detected QTLs, the wild allele was associated with improved agronomic performance. A number of new QTLs were identified including several of significant agronomic importance for tomato production: fruit shape, firmness, fruit color, scar size, seed and flower number, leaf curliness, plant growth, fertility, and flowering time. To improve the utility of the IBL population, a subset of 100 lines giving the most uniform genome coverage and map resolution was selected using a randomized greedy algorithm as implemented in the software package MapPop (http://www.bio.unc.edu/faculty/vision/lab/ mappop/). The map, phenotypic data, and seeds for the IBL population are publicly available (http://soldb.cit.cornell.edu) and will provide tomato geneticists and breeders with a genetic resource for mapping, gene discovery, and breeding. PMID:12502266

  2. Saturated Molecular Map of the Rice Genome Based on an Interspecific Backcross Population

    PubMed Central

    Causse, M. A.; Fulton, T. M.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, S. N.; Chunwongse, J.; Wu, K.; Xiao, J.; Yu, Z.; Ronald, P. C.; Harrington, S. E.; Second, G.; McCouch, S. R.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    A molecular map has been constructed for the rice genome comprised of 726 markers (mainly restriction fragment length polymorphisms; RFLPs). The mapping population was derived from a backcross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and its wild African relative, Oryza longistaminata. The very high level of polymorphism between these species, combined with the use of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA libraries, contributed to mapping efficiency. A subset of the probes used in this study was previously used to construct an RFLP map derived from an inter subspecific cross, providing a basis for comparison of the two maps and of the relative mapping efficiencies in the two crosses. In addition to the previously described PstI genomic rice library, three cDNA libraries from rice (Oryza), oat (Avena) and barley (Hordeum) were used in this mapping project. Levels of polymorphism detected by each and the frequency of identifying heterologous sequences for use in rice mapping are discussed. Though strong reproductive barriers isolate O. sativa from O. longistaminata, the percentage of markers showing distorted segregation in this backcross population was not significantly different than that observed in an intraspecific F(2) population previously used for mapping. The map contains 1491 cM with an average interval size of 4.0 cM on the framework map, and 2.0 cM overall. A total of 238 markers from the previously described PstI genomic rice library, 250 markers from a cDNA library of rice (Oryza), 112 cDNA markers from oat (Avena), and 20 cDNA markers from a barley (Hordeum) library, two genomic clones from maize (Zea), 11 microsatellite markers, three telomere markers, eleven isozymes, 26 cloned genes, six RAPD, and 47 mutant phenotypes were used in this mapping project. Applications of a molecular map for plant improvement are discussed. PMID:7896104

  3. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast. PMID:25553855

  4. Production and cytogenetic analysis of BC1, BC 2, and BC 3 progenies of an intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum (L.) Thell. and tetraploid Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Jahier, J; Cauderon, Y

    1992-08-01

    Intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum cv 'Chinese Spring' and Agropyron cristatum 4x (2n= 5x=35, ABDPP genomes) with a high level of homoeologous meiotic pairing between the wheat chromosomes were backcrossed 3 times to wheat. Pollination of the F1 hybrid with 'Chinese Spring' resulted in 22 BC1 seeds with an average seed set of 1.52%. Five BC1 plants with 39-41 chromosomes were raised using embryo rescue techniques. Chromosome pairing in the BC1 was characterized by a high frequency of multivalent associations, but in spite of this there was no evidence of homoeologous pairing between chromosomes of wheat and those of Agropyron. All of the plants were self sterile. The embryo rescue technique was again essential to produce 39 BC2 plants with chromosome numbers ranging from 37 to 67. The phenomenon of meiotic non-reduction was also observed in the BC3 progenies. In this generation male and female fertility greatly increased, and meiotic pairing was fairly regular. Some monosomic (2n=43) and double monosomic (2n=44) lines were produced. Analysis of these progenies should permit the extraction of the seven possible wheat-Agropyron disomic addition lines including those with the added chromosomes carrying the genes involved in meiotic non-reduction and in suppression of Ph activity. PMID:24201360

  5. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Variability studies for needle and wood traits of different half sib progenies of Pinus roxburghii Sargent.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sheeraz Saleem; Singh, N B; Sankhyan, H P; Sharma, K R

    2016-04-01

    Genetic variability studies for needle and wood traits were carried out for the different half sib progenies of Chir pine, raised in 1985 at the main campus of University. There existed a significant variation for these traits among the different half sib progenies, viz., needle length (18.1-24.6 cm), needle thickness (0.53-0.71 mm), number of stomata per mm of a row (7.3-12.0), specific gravity of wood (0.36-0.46), tracheid length (1.51-1.85) and moisture content of wood (47.76-58.81). This variability was found under genetic control, as all these progenies are growing under same environment, and are of same age. Traits having high heritability and genetic gain like, needle thickness, wood specific gravity, tracheid length and others, indicate high genetic control. This variability can be exploited in tree improvement programs through selection and breeding approaches for development of advanced generations. Correlation studies for different traits at genotypic and phenotypic levels provided the basic knowledge of association to chalk out efficient breeding strategy for higher productivity through indirect selection. PMID:27436914

  7. Progeny from irradiated colorectal cancer cells acquire an EMT-like phenotype and activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Lilian Gonçalves dos Reis; de Marcondes, Priscila Guimarães; de-Freitas-Junior, Julio Cesar Madureira; Leve, Fernanda; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza, Waldemir Fernandes; de Araujo, Wallace Martins; Tanaka, Marcelo Neves; Abdelhay, Eliana Saul Furquim Werneck; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés

    2014-12-01

    Radiotherapy remains a major approach to adjuvant therapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer, however, the fractionation schedules frequently allow for the repopulation of surviving tumors cells, neoplastic progression, and subsequent metastasis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the transgenerational effects induced by radiation and evaluate whether it could increase the malignant features on the progeny derived from irradiated parental colorectal cancer cells, Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT-116. The progeny of these cells displayed a differential radioresistance as seen by clonogenic and caspase activation assay and had a direct correlation with survivin expression as observed by immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence showed that the most radioresistant progenies had an aberrant morphology, disturbance of the cell-cell adhesion contacts, disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and vimentin filaments. Only the progeny derived from intermediary radioresistant cells, HT-29, reduced the E-cadherin expression and overexpressed β-catenin and vimentin with increased cell migration, invasion, and metalloprotease activation as seen by immunoblotting, wound healing, invasion, and metalloprotease activity assay. We also observed that this most aggressive progeny increased the Wnt/β-catenin-dependent TCF/LEF activity and underwent an upregulation of mesenchymal markers and downregulation of E-cadherin, as determined by qRT-PCR. Our results showed that the intermediate radioresistant cells can generate more aggressive cellular progeny with the EMT-like phenotype. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway may constitute an important target for new adjuvant treatment schedules with radiotherapy, with the goal of reducing the migratory and invasive potential of the remaining cells after treatment. PMID:25103643

  8. Hybrids between common and Antarctic minke whales are fertile and can back-cross

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Minke whales are separated into two genetically distinct species: the Antarctic minke whale found in the southern hemisphere, and the common minke whale which is cosmopolitan. The common minke whale is further divided into three allopatric sub-species found in the North Pacific, southern hemisphere, and the North Atlantic. Here, we aimed to identify the genetic ancestry of a pregnant female minke whale captured in the North Atlantic in 2010, and her fetus, using data from the mtDNA control region, 11 microsatellite loci and a sex determining marker. Results All statistical parameters demonstrated that the mother was a hybrid displaying maternal and paternal contribution from North Atlantic common and Antarctic minke whales respectively. Her female fetus displayed greater genetic similarity to North Atlantic common minke whales than herself, strongly suggesting that the hybrid mother had paired with a North Atlantic common minke whale. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrates, for the first time, that hybrids between minke whale species may be fertile, and that they can back-cross. Whether contact between these species represents a contemporary event linked with documented recent changes in the Antarctic ecosystem, or has occurred at a low frequency over many years, remains open. PMID:23586609

  9. Biokinetic models for radiocesium and its progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Over the next few years the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will publish a series of reports containing updated biokinetic and dosimetric models and dose coefficients for occupational intake of radionuclides. The biokinetic modeling scheme continues a trend in modern ICRP reports toward physiologically realistic descriptions of the time-dependent behavior of absorbed radionuclides and ingrowing chain members. This paper proposes systemic biokinetic models for cesium isotopes and their chain members for use in these ICRP reports and examines dosimetric implications of the proposed models. Comparisons of A = tissue dose per unit input to blood based on current ICRP models for workers (ICRP Publication 68, 1994) with B = corresponding values based on the proposed biokinetic models (but using dosimetry models of Publication 68) yields the following ranges of ratios B:A for tissues addressed in current ICRP documents: 0.5-25 for 130Cs (T1/2 = 29.2 min), 0.6-9.5 for 134mCs (2.9 h), 0.8-2.2 for 129Cs (32.1 h), 0.7-1.7 for 131Cs (9.69 d), 0.8-1.3 for 136Cs (13.2 d), 0.7-1.1 for 134Cs (2.06 y), 0.5-1.9 for 137Cs (30.2 y), and 0.2-3.7 for 135Cs (2.3x106 y). The large differences in estimated tissue dose for some tissues and cesium isotopes, particularly short-lived isotopes, result mainly from differences in model predictions of the time-dependent distributions of cesium in the body. For example, the proposed and current ICRP models for cesium predict peak kidney contents of ~22% and ~0.4%, respectively, following intravenous injection of stable cesium. Based on the proposed models for cesium and its progeny, the only dosimetrically significant chain members of cesium isotopes are 137mBa, which represents 32-85% of the estimated tissue doses from injected 137Cs, and 134Cs, which represents 4-53% of the estimated tissue doses from injected 134mCs.

  10. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  11. Assigning linkage haplotypes from parent and progeny genotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Nejati-Javaremi, A.; Smith, C.

    1996-04-01

    Given the genotypes of parents and progeny, their haplotypes over several or many linked loci can be easily assigned by listing the allele type at each locus along the haplotype known to be from each parent. Only a small number (5-10) of progeny per family is usually needed to assign the parental and progeny haplotypes. Any gaps left in the haplotypes may be filled in from the assigned haplotypes of relatives. The process is facilitated by having multiple alleles at the loci and by using more linked loci in the haplotype and with more progeny from the mating. Crossover haplotypes in the progeny can be identified by their being unique or uncommon, and the crossover point can often be detected if the locus linkage map order is known. The haplotyping method applies to outbreeding populations in plants, animals, and man, as well as to traditional experimental crosses of inbred lines. The method also applies to half-sib families, whether the genotype of the mates are known or unknown. The haplotyping procedure is already used in linkage analysis but does not seem to have been published. It should be useful in teaching and in genetic applications of haplotypes. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N.

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured α spectra are presented.

  13. Microdosimetry of radon progeny: Application to risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; James, A.C. ); Bond, V.P. )

    1990-01-01

    We developed methods for calculating radiation doses to individual cells and cell nuclei of human bronchial epithelium from radon and progeny for specified levels of exposure, breathing rates, equilibrium factors, unattached fraction of progeny, and other factors that are important in radon dosimetry. If we also know which cells are likely precursors for cancer, and we also know their locations in the respiratory tract, we then may calculate the statistical probability that these cells are irradiated by alpha particles, the number of single alpha-particle hits, and the spectrum of doses delivered as a probability density in specific energy.

  14. Adversity before Conception Will Affect Adult Progeny in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress…

  15. Thoron and thoron progeny measurements in German clay houses.

    PubMed

    Gierl, S; Meisenberg, O; Feistenauer, P; Tschiersch, J

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, elevated thoron concentrations were found in houses built of unfired clay. In this study experiments were carried out in 17 traditional and modern clay houses in Germany to obtain an overview of indoor thoron in such houses. Long-term measurements over an 8-week period were performed using a newly developed Unattended Battery-Operated Progeny Measurement Device (UBPM) for measuring thoron progeny. This instrument uses a high-voltage electric field to precipitate radon and thoron progeny on nuclear track detectors. Additional active and passive measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny were performed. The equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration was found to be between 2 and 10 Bq m(-3). Gas concentrations were found to be between 20 and 160 Bq m(-3) for radon and between 10 and 90 Bq m(-3) for thoron 20 cm from the wall. The thoron exposure contributes significantly to the inhalation dose of the dwellers (0.6-4 mSv a(-1)). PMID:24743764

  16. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results.

  17. Homoeologous chromosome pairing in the distant hybrid Alstroemeria aurea x A. inodora and the genome composition of its backcross derivatives determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization with species-specific probes.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, S A; Ramanna, M S; de Jeu, M J; Kuipers, A G; Jacobsen, E

    1999-01-01

    A distant hybrid between two diploid species (2n = 2x = 16), Alstroemeria aurea and A. inodora, was investigated for homoeologous chromosome pairing, crossability with A. inodora and chromosome transmission to its BC1 offspring. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with two species-specific probes, A001-I (A. aurea specific) and D32-13 (A. inodora specific), was used to analyse chromosome pairing in the hybrid and the genome constitution of its BC1 progeny plants. High frequencies of associated chromosomes were observed in both genotypes of the F1 hybrid, A1P2-2 and A1P4. In the former, both univalents and bivalents were found at metaphase I, whereas the latter plant also showed tri- and quadrivalents. Based on the hybridization sites of DNA probes on the chromosomes of both parental species, it was established that hybrid A1P4 contains a reciprocal translocation between the short arm of chromosome 1 and the long arm of chromosome 8 of A. inodora. Despite regular homoeologous chromosome pairing in 30% of the pollen mother cells, both hybrids were highly sterile. They were backcrossed reciprocally with one of the parental species, A. inodora. Two days after pollination, embryo rescue was applied and, eventually, six BC1 progeny plants were obtained. Among these, two were aneuploids (2n = 2x + 1 = 17) and four were triploids (2n = 3x = 24). The aneuploid plants had originated when the interspecific hybrid was used as a female parent, indicating that n eggs were functional in the hybrid. In addition, 2n gametes were also functional in the hybrid, resulting in the four triploid BC1 plants. Of these four plants, three had received 2n pollen grains from the hybrid and one a 2n egg. Using FISH, homoeologous crossing over between the chromosomes of the two parental species in the hybrid was clearly detected in all BC1 plants. The relevance of these results for the process of introgression and the origin of n and 2n gametes are discussed. PMID:10087627

  18. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  19. Development of introgression lines and advanced backcross QTL analysis for disease resistance, oil quality and yield component traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ploidy difference between wild Arachis species and cultivated genotypes hinder transfer of useful alleles for agronomically important traits. To overcome this genetic barrier, several synthetics have been developed at ICRISAT. Furthermore, two synthetic amphidiploids viz., ISATGR 1212 (A. duranensis...

  20. sup 222 Rn, sup 222 Rn progeny and sup 220 Rn progeny as atmospheric tracers of air masses at the Mauno Loa Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, A.R.; George, A.C.; Maiello, M.L.; Fisenne, I.M.; Larsen, R.J.; Beck, H.L.; Wilson, F.C.

    1990-03-01

    {sup 222}Rn, {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations in air were measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii during March 1989 in order to investigate the feasibility of using them as atmospheric tracers to help determine local air mass flow patterns. Charcoal traps, cooled to dry ice temperatures, were used to collect {sup 222}Rn, which was subsequently measured in pulse ionization chambers at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML). {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny for 37 samples were measured at the Observatory by sampling high volumes of air through filters, which were counted for up to 11 h in alpha scintillation counters. Individual progeny concentrations were calculated using both least squares and maximum likelihood techniques. In general, {sup 222}Rn progeny and {sup 220}Rn progeny concentrations were low when free tropospheric air was present (downslope and tradewind conditions), and consistently higher when surface air from the island broke through the trade wind inversion layer (upslope conditions). The data suggest that {sup 222}Rn, {sup 222}Rn progeny, or {sup 220}Rn progeny monitoring may provide new and useful information to help indicate the different air flow patterns present at MLO. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Molecular characterization of a population of backcross introgression lines derived from crossing the US japonia rice cultivar Lemont as the recurrent parent withthe Chinese indica cultivar TeQing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequences of both indica and japonica rice present a unique opportunity for assessing rice genes in different genomic content. A set of 269 backcross introgression lines were developed at IRRI, being derived from a cross of ‘Lemont’ by ‘TeQing’ followed by two to four backcross ...

  2. Deposition of radon progeny in nonhuman primate nasal airways

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.; Su, Y.F. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Morgan, K.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Information on aerosol deposition patterns in the human respiratory tract is needed to improve health risk estimates for exposure to airborne radon progeny. To investigate this, deposition of {sup 220}Rn progeny in Rhesus monkey nasal casts was examined. A substantial fraction of the inhaled ultrafine particles are deposited in the nasal cast. Deposition efficiency increases with decreasing particle size, reaching a maximum value of 80% for particles 1.7 nm in diameter. Breathing flow rate has a minimal effect on deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies for particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter are similar for monkey and human nasal casts. Equations based on turbulent diffusion can be fitted to these data for either inspirational or expirational flow. These mathematical expressions will be useful for modifying the inhaled particle deposition and dosimetry models. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab (MHB)

  3. Uptake rates of thorium progeny in a semiarid environment.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Yvonne; August, Robert; Gosz, James; Gann, Steve; Parmenter, Robert; Nelson, Martin; Harper, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The release rates and transformation processes that influence the mobility, biological uptake, and transfer of radionuclides are essential to the assessment of the health effects in the food chain and ecosystem. This study examined concentrations of 222Th in both soil and vegetation at a closed military training site, Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico. Brazilian sludge was intentionally introduced into the topsoil in the early 1960s to simulate nuclear weapon accidents. Soil (60) and vegetation (120) samples were collected from 1996 to 2000 and analyzed for radionuclides and progeny. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to determine radionuclide activities. The results indicate that the thorium progeny were the predominant contaminant in soil and vegetation. Concentration ratios (CRs) were calculated based on actinium levels. PMID:14535318

  4. Measurement of the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in the underground mining environment.

    PubMed

    Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Kgwadi, N D; Taole, S H; Strydom, R

    2004-04-01

    A scintillation cell and a portable radiation spectrometer for radon progeny were respectively employed to measure the concentration of radon and that of its progeny in the underground gold mine environment. The measured concentrations were subsequently used to calculate the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny. The results obtained indicate that various locations underground have different values of radon concentration and ratios of radon concentration to its progeny concentration. The differences can be ascribed to variations in grades of uranium at different locations and to some environmental factors such as ventilation, particle concentration, and the deposition of the progeny on surfaces or on the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:15057058

  5. Exposure to radon and radon progeny in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to measure experimentally the activity-weighted particle size distribution in conjunction with other relevant house parameters in occupied houses in order to improve the estimate of exposure to radon and radon progeny indoors. Our methodology requires that building construction and operation be studied and understood both experimentally and theoretically in a small number of buildings and that results of side applicability be inferred from the particular case studies. Results are discussed.

  6. [Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with rice grain shape based on an indica/japonica backcross population].

    PubMed

    Yan, Chang-Jie; Liang, Guo-Hua; Chen, Feng; Li, Xin; Tang, Shu-Zhu; Yi, Chuan-Deng; Tian, Shun; Lu, Ju-Fei; Gu, Ming-Hong

    2003-08-01

    Appearance of rice grain represents a major character of rice quality in many rice-producing areas of the world, especially in hybrid rice production in China. In this study, we conducted a molecular marker-based genetic analysis of the traits that are determinants of the appearance quality of rice grains, including grain length, grain width and grain shape (measured as grain length to grain width ratio). Two typical indica/japonica varieties Balilla and Nantehao(NTH) were selected to construct Balilla/NTH//Balilla backcross population containing 142 individuals. In the population, grain length, grain width and grain shape all conform to the normal distribution with certain transgressive segregation. It can be deduced that all of three traits were controlled by some quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In order to explore the QTLs effect, number and location, a linkage map consisting of 108 SSR markers based on the backcross population was constructed, and QTLs mapping was carried out for grain length, grain width and grain shape. A QTL, qGL-12, was detected for grain length at the interval RM101-RM270 on chromosome 12, its additive effect was 0.26 mm, and can explain 16.7% genetic variation. As for grain width trait, two QTLs were found, qGW-2 located at RM154-RM211 interval on chromosome 2, and qGW-3 at interval RM257-RM175 on chromosome 3, accounting for 11.5% and 16.6% genetic variation, respectively. The alleles at qGW-2 and qGW-3 from parent Balilla can increase grain width by 0.10 mm and 0.12 mm. For grain shape, 3 QTLs, qLW-2, qLW-6 and qLW-7 were found, located on chromosome 2, 6, and 7, respectively. qLW-2 and qLW-7 had positive effect, and they can explain 12.7% and 18.3% genetic variation, while qLW-6 had negative effect and contributed 11.5% genetic variation to the backcross population. The prospects of application of linkage relationship between SSR marker and QTLs in marker based selection (MAS) in rice breeding, and the improvement of grain shape and

  7. Cypress Surrogate Mother Produces Haploid Progeny From Alien Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Pichot, Christian; Liens, Benjamin; Nava, Juana L. Rivera; Bachelier, Julien B.; El Maâtaoui, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Although most living organisms reproduce sexually, some have developed a uniparental reproduction where the embryo usually derives from the female parent. A unique case of paternal apomixis in plants has been recently reported in Cupressus dupreziana, an endangered Mediterranean conifer. This species produces unreduced pollen that develop into all-paternal embryos within the seed tissues. We analyzed seedlings produced by open-pollinated C. dupreziana seed trees using morphological descriptors, ploidy levels assessed through flow cytometry, and AFLP genetic diversity. In situ C. dupreziana seed trees (from Algeria) produced only diploid C. dupreziana progeny. In contrast, only one-third of the progeny produced by ex situ C. dupreziana seed trees planted in French collections were similar to C. dupreziana seedlings; the other progeny were haploid or diploid C. sempervirens seedlings. These results demonstrate that C. dupreziana ovules allow for the development of all-paternal embryos from pollen produced by another species, C. sempervirens. Thus, the in planta androgenesis is achieved through the combination of the embryogenic behavior of pollen grains and the ability of seed tree ovules to act as a surrogate mother. This phenomenon offers a unique opportunity to produce, by natural means, highly valuable material for genetic studies and selection of sterile cultivars. PMID:18202380

  8. Study on peak shape fitting method in radon progeny measurement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinmin; Zhang, Lei; Abdumomin, Kadir; Tang, Yushi; Guo, Qiuju

    2015-11-01

    Alpha spectrum measurement is one of the most important methods to measure radon progeny concentration in environment. However, the accuracy of this method is affected by the peak tailing due to the energy losses of alpha particles. This article presents a peak shape fitting method that can overcome the peak tailing problem in most situations. On a typical measured alpha spectrum curve, consecutive peaks overlap even their energies are not close to each other, and it is difficult to calculate the exact count of each peak. The peak shape fitting method uses combination of Gaussian and exponential functions, which can depict features of those peaks, to fit the measured curve. It can provide net counts of each peak explicitly, which was used in the Kerr method of calculation procedure for radon progeny concentration measurement. The results show that the fitting curve fits well with the measured curve, and the influence of the peak tailing is reduced. The method was further validated by the agreement between radon equilibrium equivalent concentration based on this method and the measured values of some commercial radon monitors, such as EQF3220 and WLx. In addition, this method improves the accuracy of individual radon progeny concentration measurement. Especially for the (218)Po peak, after eliminating the peak tailing influence, the calculated result of (218)Po concentration has been reduced by 21 %. PMID:25920795

  9. Progeny Clustering: A Method to Identify Biological Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chenyue W; Kornblau, Steven M; Slater, John H; Qutub, Amina A

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the optimal number of clusters is a major challenge in applying cluster analysis to any type of dataset, especially to biomedical datasets, which are high-dimensional and complex. Here, we introduce an improved method, Progeny Clustering, which is stability-based and exceptionally efficient in computing, to find the ideal number of clusters. The algorithm employs a novel Progeny Sampling method to reconstruct cluster identity, a co-occurrence probability matrix to assess the clustering stability, and a set of reference datasets to overcome inherent biases in the algorithm and data space. Our method was shown successful and robust when applied to two synthetic datasets (datasets of two-dimensions and ten-dimensions containing eight dimensions of pure noise), two standard biological datasets (the Iris dataset and Rat CNS dataset) and two biological datasets (a cell phenotype dataset and an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reverse phase protein array (RPPA) dataset). Progeny Clustering outperformed some popular clustering evaluation methods in the ten-dimensional synthetic dataset as well as in the cell phenotype dataset, and it was the only method that successfully discovered clinically meaningful patient groupings in the AML RPPA dataset. PMID:26267476

  10. Deposition of radon progeny in nonhuman primate nasal airways

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.; Morgan, K.T.

    1992-12-31

    Radon progeny are usually associated with ultrafine particles ranging in diameter from 0.001 to 0.005 {mu}m for {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} progeny and from 0.005 to 0.2 {mu}m for those attached to indoor aerosols. To assess the health effects of inhaling indoor radon progeny, it is necessary to study the regional deposition of these inhaled ultrafine particles. Laboratory animals are often used in studies of the toxicity of inhaled particles and vapors. Information on the deposition of particles larger than 0.2 {mu}m in the nasal passages of laboratory animals is available; however, there is little information on the deposition of particles smaller than 0.2 {mu}m. In this report, we describe the use of nasal casts of a rhesus monkey to measure total deposition of ultrafine aerosols, including unattached {sup 220}Rn progeny, in a unidirectional-flow inhalation exposure system. Deposition data were obtained for monodisperse silver aerosols with particle sizes ranging from 0.005 to 0.2 {mu}m, at several inspiratory and expiratory flow rates that represented normal breathing as well as hypo- and hyperventiliation. In addition, we studied the deposition of unattached {sup 22-}Rn progeny, at particle sizes from 0.001 to 0.003 {mu}m. The deposition efficiency decreased with increasing particle size, indicating that diffusion was the dominant deposition mechanism. The effect of flow rate was essentially negligible. Based on assumptions that turbulent flow and complete mixing of aerosols occur in the nasal airways, a general equation E = 1-exp (-a D{sup b}Q{sup c}) for d{sub p} {<=} 0.2 {mu}m, was derived, where E is the deposition efficiency, d{sub p} is the particle diameter, D is the diffusion coefficient, and Q is the flow rate. Constants a, b, and c are estimated from experimental data, for either inspiration or expiration. This mathematical expression will be useful for making modifications to both deposition and dosimetry models.

  11. Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides of a hybrid mushroom (backcross mating between PfloVv12 and Volvariella volvacea).

    PubMed

    Nandan, Chanchal K; Sarkar, Ramsankar; Bhanja, Sunil K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-11-01

    Three polysaccharide fractions (PS-I, PS-II, and PS-III) were isolated from the aqueous extract of a hybrid mushroom obtained through backcross mating of a somatic hybrid mushroom PfloVv12 (Sterile line) with Volvariella volvacea. PfloVv12 was obtained through protoplast fusion of Pleurotus florida and V. volvacea. PS-I was identified as 1,6-β glucan. PS-II and PS-III were identified as mannoglucogalactan but differing in molecular weights only. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR experiment ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) the structures of these polysaccharides were established as; PMID:21924407

  12. Localization of the murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene to chromosome 3 using interspecific backcross analysis.

    PubMed

    Buchberg, A M; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G

    1989-08-01

    The chromosomal location of the murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Csfm) gene was determined by interspecific backcross analysis. We mapped Csfm to mouse chromosome 3, 2.5 cM distal to Ngfb and Nras and 1.3 cM proximal to Amy-2. CSFM maps to human chromosome 5q, while AMY2, NGFB, and NRAS map to human chromosome 1p. The chromosomal location of Csfm thus disrupts a previously identified conserved linkage group between mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. The location of Csfm also identifies yet another mouse chromosome that shares synteny with human chromosome 5q, a region involved in several different types of myeloid disease. PMID:2676841

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  14. Identification of Novel Loci Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasite Resistance in a Red Maasai x Dorper Backcross Population

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M.; Gibson, John P.; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089

  15. Compositional differences between near-isogenic GM and conventional maize hybrids are associated with backcrossing practices in conventional breeding.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Cook, Kevin; Liu, Bing; Perez, Timothy; Willse, Alan; Tichich, Ryan; Feng, Ping; Harrigan, George G

    2015-02-01

    Here, we show that differences between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM comparators cannot be attributed unequivocally to the GM trait, but arise because of minor genomic differences in near-isogenic lines. Specifically, this study contrasted the effect of three GM traits (drought tolerance, MON 87460; herbicide resistance, NK603; insect protection, MON 89034) on maize grain composition relative to the effects of residual genetic variation from backcrossing. Important features of the study included (i) marker-assisted backcrossing to generate genetically similar inbred variants for each GM line, (ii) high-resolution genotyping to evaluate the genetic similarity of GM lines to the corresponding recurrent parents and (iii) introgression of the different GM traits separately into a wide range of genetically distinct conventional inbred lines. The F1 hybrids of all lines were grown concurrently at three replicated field sites in the United States during the 2012 growing season, and harvested grain was subjected to compositional analysis. Proximates (protein, starch and oil), amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and minerals were measured. The number of statistically significant differences (α = 0.05), as well as magnitudes of difference, in mean levels of these components between corresponding GM variants was essentially identical to that between GM and non-GM controls. The largest sources of compositional variation were the genetic background of the different conventional inbred lines (males and females) used to generate the maize hybrids and location. The lack of any compositional effect attributable to GM suggests the development of modern agricultural biotechnology has been accompanied by a lack of any safety or nutritional concerns. PMID:25196222

  16. Identification of novel loci associated with gastrointestinal parasite resistance in a Red Maasai x Dorper backcross population.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M; Gibson, John P; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089

  17. Development of an integrated sampler based on direct 222Rn/ 220Rn progeny sensors in flow-mode for estimating unattached/attached progeny concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B. K.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2009-11-01

    A flow-mode integrated sampler consisting of a wire-mesh and filter-paper array along with passive solid state nuclear track detectors has been developed for estimating unattached and attached fraction of 222Rn/ 220Rn progeny concentration. The essential element of this sampler is the direct 222Rn/ 220Rn progeny sensor (DRPS/DTPS), which is an absorber-mounted-LR115 type nuclear track detector that selectively registers the alpha particles emitted from the progeny deposited on its surface. During sampling at a specified flow-rate, the unattached progeny is captured on the wire-mesh; while the attached progeny gets transmitted and is captured on the filter-paper. The alpha particles emitted by the deposited progeny atoms are registered on the sensors placed at a specified distance facing the wire-mesh and the filter-paper, respectively. The various steps involved in the development of this flow-mode direct progeny sampler such as the optimization of the sampling rate and the distance between the sensor and the deposition substrate are discussed. The sensitivity factor of the DTPS-loaded sampler for 220Rn progeny deposited on the wire-mesh and filter-paper is found to be 23.77 ± 0.64 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1 and 22.30 ± 0.18 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1, respectively; while that of DRPS-loaded sampler for 222Rn progeny deposition, is 3.03 ± 0.14 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1 and 2.08 ± 0.07 (track cm -2 h -1) (Bq m -3) -1, respectively. The highlight of this flow-mode sampler is its high sensitivity and that it utilizes the passive technique for estimating the unattached and attached progeny concentration, thus doing away with the alpha counting procedures.

  18. Variation of the unattached fraction of radon progeny and its contribution to radon exposure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Qiuju

    2016-06-01

    The unattached fraction of radon progeny is one of the most important factors for radon exposure evaluation through the dosimetric approach. To better understand its level and variation in the real environment, a series of field measurements were carried out indoors and outdoors, and radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was also measured. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny was evaluated in addition. The results show that no clear variation trend of the unattached fraction of radon progeny is observed in an indoor or outdoor environment. The average unattached fraction of radon progeny for the indoors and outdoors are (8.7  ±  1.6)% and (9.7  ±  2.1)%, respectively. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny to total radon exposure is some 38.8% in an indoor environment, suggesting the importance of the evaluation on unattached radon progeny. PMID:27171653

  19. Evaluation of indoor aerosol control devices and their effects on radon progeny concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.; Offermann, F.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles, and their concomitant effects on radon progeny concentrations have been investigated. Of the devices we examined the electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters had significant particle removal rates, while the particle removal rates for several small panel-filters, an ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans were found to be negligible. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in reducing radon progeny concentrations. Furthermore, at the low particle concentrations, plateout of the unattached radon progeny was found to be a significant removal mechanism. The overall removal rates due to deposition of attached and unattached progeny have been estimated from these data, and the equilibrium factors for total and unattached progeny concentrations have been calculated as a function of particle concentration. 7 references, 2 figures.

  20. Triazine Resistance in Senecio vulgaris Parental and Nearly Isonuclear Backcrossed Biotypes Is Correlated with Reduced Productivity 1

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, William B.; Holt, Jodie S.

    1990-01-01

    Isonuclear triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant Senecio vulgaris L. biotypes were developed by making reciprocal crosses between susceptible and resistant biotypes to obtain F1 hybrids and backcrossing the hybrids to the appropriate pollen parent. The electrophoretic isozyme patterns of the enzyme aconitase obtained from leaf extracts of triazine-susceptible parental (S) and backcrossed (S×RBC6) biotypes, and triazine-resistant parental (R) and backcrossed (R×SBC6) biotypes verified that the biotypes had the expected nuclear genomes. Atrazine inhibition of chloroplast whole chain electron transport from water to methyl viologen was measured to verify susceptibility or resistance to triazine herbicides. The photosynthetic rate and biomass accumulation of greenhouse grown susceptible and resistant S. vulgaris biotypes were measured 28, 35, 42, 50, 57, and 64 days after planting to determine the effect of altered chloroplast function. S and S×RBC6 biotypes had CO2 assimilation rates of 16.2 and 16.6 micromoles CO2 per square meter per second, respectively, and I50 values (herbicide concentration producing 50% inhibition) of about 0.49 micromolar atrazine. The corresponding values for the R and R×SBC6 biotypes were 14.7 and 14.6 micromoles CO2 per square meter per second with I50 values of 65.0 micromolar atrazine. The S biotype was larger and more productive than the R biotype at all harvests. At the harvest 57 days after planting, mean shoot dry weight was 33.2 and 8.7 grams for the S and R biotypes, respectively. The growth effect associated with chloroplast differences was shown in comparisons of the S biotype with the R×SBC6 biotype and of the S×RBC6 biotype with the R biotype. The R×SBC6 biotype had 72% of the shoot dry weight of the S biotype while the R biotype had 55% of the shoot dry weight of the S×RBC6 biotype. The R×SBC6 and R biotypes produced about 73 and 62% of the leaf area of the S and S×RBC6 biotypes, respectively. Relative growth

  1. Parental age influences developmental stability of the progeny in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Colines, Betina; Rodríguez, Nahuel Cabrera; Hasson, Esteban R; Carreira, Valeria; Frankel, Nicolás

    2015-03-22

    The stochastic nature of biochemical processes is a source of variability that influences developmental stability. Developmental instability (DI) is often estimated through fluctuating asymmetry (FA), a parameter that deals with within-individual variation in bilateral structures. A relevant goal is to shed light on how environment, physiology and genotype relate to DI, thus providing a more comprehensive view of organismal development. Using Drosophila melanogaster isogenic lines, we investigated the effect of parental age, parental diet and offspring heterozygosity on DI. In this work, we have uncovered a clear relationship between parental age and offspring asymmetry. We show that asymmetry of the progeny increases concomitantly with parental age. Moreover, we demonstrate that enriching the diet of parents mitigates the effect of age on offspring symmetry. We show as well that increasing the heterozygosity of the progeny eliminates the effect of parental age on offspring symmetry. Taken together, our results suggest that diet, genotype and age of the parents interact to determine offspring DI in wild populations. These findings provide us with an avenue to understand the mechanisms underlying DI. PMID:25673675

  2. Maternal Hypothyroxinemia-Induced Neurodevelopmental Impairments in the Progeny.

    PubMed

    Min, Hui; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Maternal hypothyroxinemia can induce neurodevelopmental impairments in the developing fetus. We here review recent studies on the epidemiology and molecular mechanisms associated with this important public health issue. In 2011, the American Thyroid Association defined maternal hypothyroxinemia as low serum free thyroxine (FT4) levels (<5th or <10th percentile) existing in conjunction with normal serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels during pregnancy. Compared to clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism, hypothyroxinemia is more commonly found in pregnant women. Hypothyroxinemia usually ensues in response to several factors, such as mild iodine deficiency, environmental endocrine disrupters, or certain thyroid diseases. Unequivocal evidence demonstrates that maternal hypothyroxinemia leads to negative effects on fetal brain development, increasing the risks for cognitive deficits and poor psychomotor development in resulting progeny. In support of this, rodent models provide direct evidence of neurodevelopmental damage induced by maternal hypothyroxinemia, including dendritic and axonal growth limitation, neural abnormal location, and synaptic function alteration. The neurodevelopmental impairments induced by hypothyroxinemia suggest an independent role of T4. Increasing evidence indicates that adequate thyroxine is required for the mothers in order to protect against the abnormal brain development in their progeny. PMID:25666160

  3. Accumulation of differentiating intestinal stem cell progenies drives tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Kondo, Shu; Ha, Nati; Boquete, Jean-Philippe; Brunner, Michael; Ueda, Ryu; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are coordinated to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent cancer. Mutations causing stem cell proliferation are traditionally the focus of cancer studies. However, the contribution of the differentiating stem cell progenies in tumorigenesis is poorly characterized. Here we report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation programme of enteroblast (EB), the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut. This results in EB accumulation and formation of tumours. Sox21a tumour initiation and growth involve stem cell proliferation induced by the unpaired 2 mitogen released from accumulating EBs generating a feed-forward loop. EBs found in the tumours are heterogeneous and grow towards the intestinal lumen. Sox21a tumours modulate their environment by secreting matrix metalloproteinase and reactive oxygen species. Enterocytes surrounding the tumours are eliminated through delamination allowing tumour progression, a process requiring JNK activation. Our data highlight the tumorigenic properties of transit differentiating cells. PMID:26690827

  4. Accumulation of differentiating intestinal stem cell progenies drives tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Kondo, Shu; Ha, Nati; Boquete, Jean-Philippe; Brunner, Michael; Ueda, Ryu; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are coordinated to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent cancer. Mutations causing stem cell proliferation are traditionally the focus of cancer studies. However, the contribution of the differentiating stem cell progenies in tumorigenesis is poorly characterized. Here we report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation programme of enteroblast (EB), the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut. This results in EB accumulation and formation of tumours. Sox21a tumour initiation and growth involve stem cell proliferation induced by the unpaired 2 mitogen released from accumulating EBs generating a feed-forward loop. EBs found in the tumours are heterogeneous and grow towards the intestinal lumen. Sox21a tumours modulate their environment by secreting matrix metalloproteinase and reactive oxygen species. Enterocytes surrounding the tumours are eliminated through delamination allowing tumour progression, a process requiring JNK activation. Our data highlight the tumorigenic properties of transit differentiating cells. PMID:26690827

  5. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

    PubMed

    Klagges, Carolina; Campoy, José Antonio; Quero-García, José; Guzmán, Alejandra; Mansur, Levi; Gratacós, Eduardo; Silva, Herman; Rosyara, Umesh R; Iezzoni, Amy; Meisel, Lee A; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K) and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L), high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1) plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs) in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8). These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family. PMID:23382953

  6. Construction and Comparative Analyses of Highly Dense Linkage Maps of Two Sweet Cherry Intra-Specific Progenies of Commercial Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Quero-García, José; Guzmán, Alejandra; Mansur, Levi; Gratacós, Eduardo; Silva, Herman; Rosyara, Umesh R.; Iezzoni, Amy; Meisel, Lee A.; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between ‘Black Tartarian’ × ‘Kordia’ (BT×K) and ‘Regina’ × ‘Lapins’(R×L), high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs) in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1–LG8). These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family. PMID:23382953

  7. Improving salt tolerance of lowland rice cultivar 'Rassi' through marker-aided backcross breeding in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bimpong, Isaac Kofi; Manneh, Baboucarr; Sock, Mamadou; Diaw, Faty; Amoah, Nana Kofi Abaka; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Wopereis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress affects about 25% of the 4.4 million ha of irrigated and lowland systems for rice cultivation in West Africa (WA). A major quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosome 1 (Saltol) that enhances tolerance to salt stress at the vegetative stage has enabled the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop salt-tolerant rice cultivar(s) in WA. We used 3 cycles of backcrossing with selection based on DNA markers and field-testing using 'FL478' as tolerant donor and the widely grown 'Rassi' as recurrent parent. In the BC3F2 stage, salt-tolerant lines with over 80% Rassi alleles except in the region around Saltol segment were selected. 429 introgression lines (Saltol-ILs) were identified as tolerant at vegetative stage, of which 116 were field-tested for four seasons at the reproductive stage. Sixteen Saltol-ILs had less yield loss (3-26% relative to control trials), and 8 Saltol-ILs showed high yield potential under stress and non-stress conditions. The 16 Saltol-ILs had been included for further African-wide testing prior to release in 6 WA countries. MAS reduced the time for germplasm improvement from at least 7 to about 4 years. Our objective is to combine different genes/QTLs conferring tolerance to stresses under one genetic background using MAS. PMID:26566846

  8. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning. PMID:25428828

  9. Studies on the electrical characteristics of thoron (220Rn) progeny.

    PubMed

    Maniyan, C G; Louiz, J; Pillai, P M B; Khan, A H

    2003-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of thoron (220Rn) progeny under various low ampere (< 1 mA) DC voltages applied to a calibration facility (CF) has been studied. About 30 y old thorium hydroxide was used as the source for the generation of thoron and its decay products. The study has revealed that under a low ventilation rate (approximately 1 air charge per hour) and at high equilibrium equivalent concentration (EER) of thoron, above 275 Bq m(-3) (> 1 WL), a considerable fraction of 212Pb nuclides are negatively charged. It was also concluded that 212Pb has lesser charge (per ion) than 212Bi and is more susceptible to an electric field. There is a linear relationship between the activity collected and the voltage applied and the activity collected is proportional to the area of the collecting surface. Under the experimental conditions, when a voltage of +/- 2500 V is simultaneously applied, the activity concentration can be reduced by a factor of 100. PMID:12862244

  10. Reduced fertility in female progeny from beef heifers on dietary restriction during development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing replacement heifers on lower energy diets does not affect fertility but may impart epigenetic effects on their progeny. Objective was to determine whether ovarian development or fertility is impeded in female progeny of replacement beef heifers developed on a lower energy diet. At 8 mo of...

  11. Evaluation of indoor aerosol control devices and their effects on radon progeny concentrations. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.; Offermann, F.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-11-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles, and their concomitant effects on radon progeny concentrations have been investigated. The experiments were conducted in a room-size chamber using cigarette smoke and radon injection from an external source. Of the devices examined the electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters had significant particle removal rates, while the particle removal rates for several small panel-filters, an ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans were found to be essentially negligible. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in reducing radon progeny concentrations. At the low particle concentrations, deposition of the unattached radon progeny on room surfaces was found to be a significant removal mechanism. Deposition rates of attached and unattached progeny have been estimated from these data, and were used to calculate the equilibrium factors for total and unattached progeny concentrations as a function of particle concentration. While particle removal reduces total airborne radon progeny concentrations, the relative alpha decay dose to the lungs appears to change very little as the particle concentration decreases due to the greater radiological importance of unattached progeny.

  12. Supplementation strategy during late gestation alters steer progeny health in the feedlot without affecting cow performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of minimal supplemental strategies during late gestation has been reported to potentially increase post-weaning progeny health in the feedlot. Therefore, to investigate the effects of nutritional management strategies during late gestation on cow and subsequent steer progeny performa...

  13. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  14. Impact of energy conservation measures on radon and radon progeny concentrations: A controlled study

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, H.E.; Koontz, M.D.; Cade, D.R.; Nagda, N.L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of retrofitting for building tightness, air-to-air heat exchangers, and HVAC circulation fans on radon and radon progeny levels were investigated using two matched test houses. One test house was retrofitted for tightness and outfitted with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The two houses were unoccupied; selected occupant-related activities were simulated in a controlled manner. Retrofit for tightness reduced the annual average air infiltration rate by 24% and increased radon and radon progeny concentrations by a similar amount. The air-to-air heat exchanger reduced radon and radon progeny concentrations commensurate with mechanical ventilation. Increased mixing from the furnace circulation fan equalized the upstairs/downstairs concentrations. Extended use of the circulation fan reduced radon progeny levels similar to those obtained with the heat exchanger (about 50% reduction). Seasons had considerable impact on indoor radon and radon progeny; higher levels were found in the summer and fall seasons.

  15. Improvement of Basmati rice varieties for resistance to blast and bacterial blight diseases using marker assisted backcross breeding.

    PubMed

    Ellur, Ranjith K; Khanna, Apurva; Yadav, Ashutosh; Pathania, Sandeep; Rajashekara, H; Singh, Vikas K; Gopala Krishnan, S; Bhowmick, Prolay K; Nagarajan, M; Vinod, K K; Prakash, G; Mondal, Kalyan K; Singh, Nagendra K; Vinod Prabhu, K; Singh, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Marker assisted backcross breeding was employed to incorporate the blast resistance genes, Pi2 and Pi54 and bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes xa13 and Xa21 into the genetic background of Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) and Pusa Basmati 6. Foreground selection for target gene(s) was followed by arduous phenotypic and background selection which fast-tracked the recovery of recurrent parent genome (RPG) to an extent of 95.8% in one of the near-isogenic lines (NILs) namely, Pusa 1728-23-33-31-56, which also showed high degree of resemblance to recurrent parent, PB6 in phenotype. The phenotypic selection prior to background selection provided an additional opportunity for identifying the novel recombinants viz., Pusa 1884-9-12-14 and Pusa 1884-3-9-175, superior to parental lines in terms of early maturity, higher yield and improved quality parameters. There was no significant difference between the RPG recovery estimated based on SSR or SNP markers, however, the panel of SNPs markers was considered as the better choice for background selection as it provided better genome coverage and included SNPs in the genic regions. Multi-location evaluation of NILs depicted their stable and high mean performance in comparison to the respective recurrent parents. The Pi2+Pi54 carrying NILs were effective in combating a pan-India panel of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates with high level of field resistance in northern, eastern and southern parts of India. Alongside, the PB1121-NILs and PB6-NILs carrying BB resistance genes xa13+Xa21 were resistant against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae races of north-western, southern and eastern parts of the country. Three of NILs developed in this study, have been promoted to final stage of testing during the ​Kharif 2015 in the Indian National Basmati Trial. PMID:26566849

  16. Identification of a hidden resistance gene in tetraploid wheat using laboratory strains of Pyricularia oryzae produced by backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Cumagun, Christian Joseph R; Anh, Vu Lan; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Asano, Hokuto; Hyon, Gang-Su; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In the process (BC3F1 generation) of backcrossing an Avena isolate of Pyricularia oryzae with a Triticum isolate, color mutants with white mycelia were obtained. These white mutants lacked virulence on all (31/31) hexaploid and most (28/32) tetraploid wheat lines tested. In a BC4F1 population, white and black cultures segregated in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is controlled by a single gene. Furthermore, the mycelial color was perfectly linked with avirulence in the BC4F1 population; white cultures were all avirulent on common wheat (Triticum aestivum) 'Norin 4' (N4) whereas black cultures were all virulent. White cultures in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generations were also avirulent on tetraploid wheat (T. dicoccoides) accession 'KU109' (Tat4), which was susceptible to all cultures derived from the parental wild isolates through the BC2F1 generation. A cross between Tat4 and a susceptible tetraploid (T. paleocolchicum) accession 'KU196' (Tat14) produced resistant and susceptible F2 seedlings in a 3:1 ratio against the white cultures. In the F3 generation homozygous resistant/segregating/homozygous susceptible lines segregated in a 1:2:1 ratio. These results suggest that the resistance of Tat4 to the white cultures is controlled by a single major gene. This gene, tentatively designated as RmgTd(t), is considered to be a hidden resistance gene because it was not detected with the Br58, F1, BC1F1, or BC2F1 cultures. Cytological analysis revealed that the moderate resistance controlled by RmgTd(t) was associated with a hypersensitive reaction of mesophyll cells. PMID:24824421

  17. Estimation of outcrossing rates in interspecific backcross plants of Jatropha curcas (L.) using AFLP and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pratima; Islam, Md Aminul; Negi, Madan Singh; Tripathi, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report the estimates of outcrossing rates using open-pollinated progeny arrays of 40 BC1 individuals of Jatropha developed as a result of interspecific hybridization between J. curcas and J. integerrima. For analysis PCR-based dominant AFLP and codominant SSR markers were used. The multilocus outcrossing rate (tm) estimated from AFLP markers (0.892 ± 0.112) are almost in the same range with SSR (0.884 ± 0.293) markers which indicate a high level of heterozygosity. A low value of inbreeding coefficient (F) also points out to the fact that outcrossing was the prevalent mode of reproduction in Jatropha and suggests maintenance of adequate genetic variability within families. PMID:26600687

  18. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  19. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. PMID:22908359

  20. Colour, composition and eating quality of beef from the progeny of two Charolais sires.

    PubMed

    Maher, S C; Mullen, A M; Moloney, A P; Drennan, M J; Buckley, D J; Kerry, J P

    2004-05-01

    Eating quality and variation within eating quality attributes of beef from young bull progeny of a Charolais sire of average conformation heritability (CF44) (n=14) and young bull progeny of a Charolais sire of good conformation heritability (IC27) (n=16) were examined. The M. longissimus dorsi (up to 12th and/or 13th ribs) was excised 24 h post-slaughter and eating quality attributes analysed at 2, 7 and 14 days postmortem. While progeny muscularity and carcass weight reflected that of each sire, in general no variation was observed in the quality attributes. In addition no significant difference in mean values was evident between sire progenies for carcass and meat quality attributes examined. Significant variation was observed in colour after 2 days ageing, but this was not evident after 7 or 14 days ageing. Average sarcomere length did differ significantly (p<0.05) between progeny of both sire types (CF44=1.87 μm and IC27=1.77 μm), but did not appear to impact on tenderness. The similarity between the progeny of the average or good conformation sires examined in this experiment suggests such sires have no effect on the eating quality of their young bull beef progeny. PMID:22061118

  1. Multi-parametric approach towards the assessment of radon and thoron progeny exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Rosaline E-mail: rosaline.mishra@gmail.com; Sapra, B. K.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Conventionally, the dosimetry is carried out using radon and thoron gas concentration measurements and doses have been assigned using assumed equilibrium factors for the progeny species, which is inadequate pertaining to the variations in equilibrium factors and possibly due to significant thoron. In fact, since the true exposures depend upon the intricate mechanisms of progeny deposition in the lung, therefore an integrated approach for the assessment of progeny is essential. In this context, the recently developed deposition based progeny concentration measurement techniques (DTPS: Direct Thoron progeny sensors and DRPS: Direct Radon progeny sensors) appear to be best suited for radiological risk assessments both among occupational workers and general study populations. DTPS and DRPS consist of aluminized mylar mounted LR115 type passive detectors, which essentially detects the alpha particles emitted from the deposited progeny atoms on the detector surface. It gives direct measure of progeny activity concentrations in air. DTPS has a lower limit of detection limit of 0.1 Bq/m{sup 3} whereas that for DRPS is 1 Bq/m{sup 3}, hence are perfectly suitable for indoor environments. These DTPS and DRPS can be capped with 200-mesh type wire-screen to measure the coarse fraction of the progeny concentration and the corresponding coarse fraction deposition velocities as well as the time integrated fine fraction. DTPS and DRPS can also be lodged in an integrated sampler wherein the wire-mesh and filter-paper are arranged in an array in flow-mode, to measure the fine and coarse fraction concentration separately and simultaneously. The details are further discussed in the paper.

  2. Adversity before conception will affect adult progeny in rats.

    PubMed

    Shachar-Dadon, Alice; Schulkin, Jay; Leshem, Micah

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether adversity in a female, before she conceives, will influence the affective and social behavior of her progeny. Virgin female rats were either undisturbed (controls) or exposed to varied, unpredictable, stressors for 7 days (preconceptual stress [PCS]) and then either mated immediately after the end of the stress (PCS0) or 2 weeks after the stress ended (PCS2). Their offspring were raised undisturbed until tested in adulthood. PCS offspring showed reduced social interaction; in the acoustic startle test, PCS males were less fearful, whereas PCS females were more fearful; in the shuttle task, PCS0 males avoided shock better; and in the elevated maze, PCS0 females were more active and anxious. The 2-week interval between stress and mating assuaged the effects on offspring activity and shock avoidance but not the changes in social behavior and fear in male and female offspring. Hence, PCS to the dam, even well before pregnancy, influences affective and social behavior in her adult offspring, depending on how long before conception it occurred, the behavior tested, and sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19209986

  3. Inference of genetic diversity in popcorn S3 progenies.

    PubMed

    Pena, G F; do Amaral, A T; Ribeiro, R M; Ramos, H C C; Boechat, M S B; Santos, J S; Mafra, G S; Kamphorst, S H; de Lima, V J; Vivas, M; de Souza Filho, G A

    2016-01-01

    Molecular markers are a useful tool for identification of complementary heterotic groups in breeding programs aimed at the production of superior hybrids, particularly for crops such as popcorn in which heterotic groups are not well-defined. The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic diversity of 47 genotypes of tropical popcorn to identify possible heterotic groups for the development of superior hybrids. Four genotypes of high genetic value were studied: hybrid IAC 125, strain P2, and varieties UENF 14 and BRS Angela. In addition, 43 endogamous S3 progenies obtained from variety UENF 14 were used. Twenty-five polymorphic SSR-EST markers were analyzed. A genetic distance matrix was obtained and the following molecular diversity parameters were estimated: number of alleles, number of effective alleles, polymorphism information content (PIC), observed and expected heterozygosities, Shannon diversity index, and coefficient of inbreeding. We found a moderate PIC and high diversity index, indicating that the studied population presents both good discriminatory ability and high informativeness for the utilized markers. The dendrogram built based on the dissimilarity matrix indicated six distinct groups. Our findings demonstrate the genetic diversity among the evaluated genotypes and provide evidence for heterotic groups in popcorn. Furthermore, the functional genetic diversity indicates that there are informative genetic markers for popcorn. PMID:27173336

  4. Cost evaluation of control measures for indoor radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Moeller, D W; Fujimoto, K

    1984-06-01

    Based on assumed conditions within a typical U.S. home, annualized costs for reducing indoor airborne radon progeny concentrations have been calculated for a variety of methods of control. These analyses were limited to methods for control in existing homes. Control through modified construction techniques was not evaluated. Methods assessed included increased air circulation, increased ventilation, particle removal using electrostatic precipitation and unipolar ion generation, and the application of sealants to room surfaces. Although surface sealants proved to be reasonably cost-effective per person- sievert dose reduction, such sealants are prone to cracking and the durability of their effectiveness is questionable. Use of ceiling fans for increased air circulation and particle deposition appears to be least cost-effective, but this method may be attractive in some cases for reasons of comfort. The use of unipolar ion generators appears to be the best approach from the standpoint of cost effectiveness. These devices are also easy to install and are esthetically readily acceptable. PMID:6427137

  5. The Scavenging of Radon Progeny by Snow and Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, G.; Greenfield, M.; Henson, W.; Peace, A.; Stow, D.

    2003-03-01

    In the previous paper Greenfield et al. show that changes in atmospheric gamma radiation rates due to radon progeny adsorbed by rain measured at 6-20 m above ground can be used as a real-time monitor of rain and snow precipitation rates in several locations around the world. In New Zealand, at the Ardmore Field Station operated by the University of Auckland, a gamma ray detection system of the sort described earlier was installed 6 m up a meteorological tower carrying the usual wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and rainfall measuring equipment and attached to a data logger. In addition, a vertically pointing X Band meteorological radar was deployed together with three rain-drop size spectrum measuring devices (disdrometers) at the ground. The microphysical data obtained, particularly from the radar and the disdrometers, allows the construction of a case by case one-dimensional cloud physics model so that the hydrometeor size spectrum, surface area and fall speeds can be depicted in a reasonably realistic way. This then allows modeling of the scavenging processes by the snow and rain in a more quantitative way thus enabling a program of detailed investigation of the microphysical processes involved in the hypothesis presented in the earlier paper: that this mechanism allows gamma ray count rates to be used as a surrogate for rainfall rates. Interesting questions related to the spatial representativeness of various rainfall data sets can also be pursued.

  6. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  7. Hybridization and Back-Crossing in Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a Summary of Hybridization in Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth M.; Techow, N. M. S. Mareile; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillips, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4–2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  8. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  9. CARCINOGENIC RISK OF NONUNIFORM ALPHA PARTICLE IRRADIATION IN THE LUNGS: RADON PROGENY EFFECTS AT BRONCHIAL BIFURCATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combined effect of enhanced deposition and reduced clearance at bronchial bifurcations leads to increased radon progeny doses within branching sites compared to uniformly distributed activity within a given airway generation. ulti-stage carcinogenesis model was used to predic...

  10. Alternatives for evaluating daughter performance of progeny-test bulls between official evaluations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2007, USDA changed from calculating official genetic evaluations quarterly to triannually to coincide with the schedule for international evaluations. Industry cooperators requested that unofficial interim evaluations be initiated between official evaluations for progeny-test (PT) bulls to...

  11. Changes to DNA methylation and homologous recombination frequency in the progeny of stressed plants.

    PubMed

    Migicovsky, Zoë; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2013-02-01

    Plants undergo changes in response to biotic and abiotic stresses that help them adjust and survive. Some of these changes may even be passed on to progeny and eventually lead to adaptive evolution. Transgenerational changes in response to stress include alterations in DNA methylation and changes in homologous recombination frequency (HRF). The progeny of plants that were stressed often show elevated HRF as well as genomic hypermethylation, although specific loci that are beneficial in times of stress may be hypomethylated. One of the possible mechanisms responsible for passing the memory to the progeny involves small interfering RNAs; Dicer-like proteins, DCL2 and DCL3, are in part required for this process. However, while epigenetic modifications are often present in the untreated progeny of stressed plants, they are not usually sustained for multiple unexposed generations. Still, transgenerational inheritance of such changes has already begun to provide evidence for an important role of epigenetics in enhancing stress resistance. PMID:23442135

  12. Control of respirable particles and radon progeny with portable air cleaners

    SciTech Connect

    Offermann, F.J.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.; Yater, J.

    1984-02-01

    Eleven portable air cleaning devices have been evaluated for control of indoor concentrations of respirable particles and radon progeny. Following injection of cigarette smoke and radon in a room-size chamber, decay rates for particles and radon progeny concentrations were measured with and without air cleaner operation. Particle concentrations were obtained for total number concentration and for number concentration by particle size. In tests with no air cleaner the natural decay rate for cigarette smoke was observed to be 0.2 hr/sup -1/. Air cleaning rates for particles were found to be negligible for several small panel-filters, a residential ion-generator, and a pair of mixing fans. The electrostatic precipitators and extended surface filters tested had significant particle removal rates, and a HEPA-type filter was the most efficient air cleaner. The evaluation of radon progeny control produced similar results; the air cleaners which were effective in removing particles were also effective in removing radon progeny. At low particle concentrations plateout of the unattached radon progeny is an important removal mechanism. Based on data from these tests, the plateout rate for unattached progeny was found to be 15 hr/sup -1/. The unattached fraction and the overall removal rate due to deposition of attached and unattached nuclides have been estimated for each radon decay product as a function of particle concentration. While air cleaning can be effective in reducing total radon progeny, concentrations of unattached radon progeny can increase with increasing air cleaning. 39 references, 26 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. PMID:26628341

  14. Limited Fitness Advantages of Crop-Weed Hybrid Progeny Containing Insect-Resistant Transgenes (Bt/CpTI) in Transgenic Rice Field

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Wang, Feng; Su, Jun; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of insect-resistance transgenes from genetically engineered (GE) rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea) populations via gene flow creates a major concern for commercial GE rice cultivation. Transgene flow to weedy rice seems unavoidable. Therefore, characterization of potential fitness effect brought by the transgenes is essential to assess environmental consequences caused by crop-weed transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Field performance of fitness-related traits was assessed in advanced hybrid progeny of F4 generation derived from a cross between an insect-resistant transgenic (Bt/CpTI) rice line and a weedy strain. The performance of transgene-positive hybrid progeny was compared with the transgene-negative progeny and weedy parent in pure and mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants under environmental conditions with natural vs. low insect pressure. Results showed that under natural insect pressure the insect-resistant transgenes could effectively suppress target insects and bring significantly increased fitness to transgenic plants in pure planting, compared with nontransgenic plants (including weedy parent). In contrast, no significant differences in fitness were detected under low insect pressure. However, such increase in fitness was not detected in the mixed planting of transgenic and nontransgenic plants due to significantly reduced insect pressure. Conclusions/Significance Insect-resistance transgenes may have limited fitness advantages to hybrid progeny resulted from crop-weed transgene flow owning to the significantly reduced ambient target insect pressure when an insect-resistant GE crop is grown. Given that the extensive cultivation of an insect-resistant GE crop will ultimately reduce the target insect pressure, the rapid spread of insect-resistance transgenes in weedy populations in commercial GE crop fields may be not likely to happen. PMID:22815975

  15. Parental age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-05-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  16. [Evaluation of Reproductive Health of Chickens and Their Progeny at a Chronic Effect of 131I].

    PubMed

    Boudarkov, V A

    2015-01-01

    A reproductive health of hens exposed to 131I in a 30-day period with daily quantities ranging from 0.11 to 4.6 MBq/kg and 6 progenies of their offspring was evaluated. We determined that 131I did not change significantly the reproductive potential of hens if administered at a dose of 0.11 MBq, while it raised at 1.1 MBq, progressively decreased after a short-time increase at 2.1 MBq and was inhabited up to its irreversible extinction at 4.6 MBq. Irrespective of the isotope quantity administered, a decline occurred in the birth rate of the progeny where hens dominated in the sex composition. The reproductive potential (i.e., laying capacity) of the offspring of three chicken progenies that had been administered 131I at 0.11 MBq/kg, progenies 3 and 5 that had been administered 1.1 MBq/kg and progeny 1 affected with 2.1 MBq/kg increased, while for chicken progenies 1, 2, 4 and 6 that had been given 131I at 1.1. MBq/kg the reproductive capacity was within the normal range or decreased. PMID:26310019

  17. Thoron ( 220Rn) progeny reduction by an air cleaner of the polarized media filter type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.

    1993-02-01

    The effect of an air cleaner on 220Rn progeny atmospheres has been studied in a Radon/Thoron Test Facility (RTTF) of the walk-in type. The air cleaner consists basically of a fan and a special filter material sandwiched between two metal screens, to which an electric field is applied. The filter is of the polarized media type and uses fibreglass as material. The fan and filter system are housed in a metal case. Air is drawn from the back of the case by means of the fan and forced through the "electrical" filter where removal of the 220Rn progeny occurs. Radon-220 progeny "depleted" air is discharged at the top of the device. Tests were conducted in 220Rn/ 220Rn progeny atmospheres when the air cleaner was operating, and when it was turned off. Very pronounced effects were observed during the operation of the device, namely: a dramatic decrease in the 220Rn progeny concentrations and the total aerosol concentration, as well as a large increase in the 220Rn progeny unattached fractions and the plate-out of these radionuclides on the walls of the RTTF. The air cleaner has potential in industrial applications, which should be explored.

  18. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  19. Evaluation of conventional resistance to European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in experimental maize lines developed from a backcross breeding program.

    PubMed

    Abel, C A; Berhow, M A; Wilson, R L; Binder, B F; Hibbard, B E

    2000-12-01

    Plant resistance is a promising control method for the two most damaging insect pests of maize, Zea mays L.: the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Fifteen experimental lines of maize, derived from a backcross breeding program designed to introgress resistance to European corn borer from Peruvian maize into two U.S. Corn Belt adapted inbred lines, were evaluated for resistance to European corn borer and western corn rootwonrm. The experimental lines were in the second generation of backcrossing. All experimental lines were resistant to leaf blade feeding by European corn borer. These lines had low levels of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, a chemical commonly associated with leaf blade feeding resistance, indicating that this was not the mechanism of resistance to leaf blade feeding in these lines. Eleven experimental lines were resistant to leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. Useful sources of European corn borer ovipositional nonpreference and root feeding resistance to western corn rootworm were not identified. Some of the lines evaluated in this study may provide useful sources of resistance to both leaf blade and leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. PMID:11142317

  20. Evaluation of virus resistance and agronomic performance of rice cultivar ASD 16 after transfer of transgene against Rice tungro bacilliform virus by backcross breeding.

    PubMed

    Valarmathi, P; Kumar, G; Robin, S; Manonmani, S; Dasgupta, I; Rabindran, R

    2016-08-01

    Severe losses of rice yield in south and southeast Asia are caused by Rice tungro disease (RTD) induced by mixed infection of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). In order to develop transgene-based resistance against RTBV, one of its genes, ORF IV, was used to generate transgenic resistance based on RNA-interference in the easily transformed rice variety Pusa Basmati-1, and the transgene was subsequently introgressed to rice variety ASD 16, a variety popular in southern India, using transgene marker-assisted selection. Here, we report the evaluation of BC3F4 and BC3F5 generation rice plants for resistance to RTBV as well as for agronomic traits under glasshouse conditions. The BC3F4 and BC3F5 generation rice plants tested showed variable levels of resistance, which was manifested by an average of twofold amelioration in height reduction, 1.5-fold decrease in the reduction in chlorophyll content, and 100- to 10,000-fold reduction in the titers of RTBV, but no reduction of RTSV titers, in three backcrossed lines when compared with the ASD 16 parent. Agronomic traits of some of the backcrossed lines recorded substantial improvements when compared with the ASD 16 parental line after inoculation by RTBV and RTSV. This work represents an important step in transferring RTD resistance to a susceptible popular rice variety, hence enhancing its yield in areas threatened by the disease. PMID:26983604

  1. Imputation of ungenotyped parental genotypes in dairy and beef cattle from progeny genotypes.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; McParland, S; Kearney, J F; Sargolzaei, M; Mullen, M P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of imputing the genotype of parents using information on the genotype of their progeny and a family-based and population-based imputation algorithm. Two separate data sets were used, one containing both dairy and beef animals (n=3122) with high-density genotypes (735 151 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) and the other containing just dairy animals (n=5489) with medium-density genotypes (51 602 SNPs). Imputation accuracy of three different genotype density panels were evaluated representing low (i.e. 6501 SNPs), medium and high density. The full genotypes of sires with genotyped half-sib progeny were masked and subsequently imputed. Genotyped half-sib progeny group sizes were altered from 4 up to 12 and the impact on imputation accuracy was quantified. Up to 157 and 258 sires were used to test the accuracy of imputation in the dairy plus beef data set and the dairy-only data set, respectively. The efficiency and accuracy of imputation was quantified as the proportion of genotypes that could not be imputed, and as both the genotype concordance rate and allele concordance rate. The median proportion of genotypes per animal that could not be imputed in the imputation process decreased as the number of genotyped half-sib progeny increased; values for the medium-density panel ranged from a median of 0.015 with a half-sib progeny group size of 4 to a median of 0.0014 to 0.0015 with a half-sib progeny group size of 8. The accuracy of imputation across different paternal half-sib progeny group sizes was similar in both data sets. Concordance rates increased considerably as the number of genotyped half-sib progeny increased from four (mean animal allele concordance rate of 0.94 in both data sets for the medium-density genotype panel) to five (mean animal allele concordance rate of 0.96 in both data sets for the medium-density genotype panel) after which it was relatively stable up to a half-sib progeny group size

  2. Study on radon and radon progeny in some living rooms.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A

    2005-01-01

    In the first part of this work, the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of radon progeny, the equilibrium factor (F), the activity concentration of 222Rn gas (Co) and the unattached fraction (fp), were determined in 15 living rooms at El-Minia City, Egypt. The activity size distribution of (214)Pb was measured by using a low pressure Berner impactor. Based on the parameters of that distribution the total effective dose through the human lung was evaluated by using a dosimetric model calculation of ICRP. An electrostatic precipitation method was used for the determination of 222Rn gas concentration. The mean activity concentration of 222Rn gas (Co) was found to be 123 +/- 22 Bq m(-3). A mean unattached fraction (fp) of 0.11 +/- 0.02 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration (Z) of (3.0 +/- 0.21) x 10(3) cm(-3). The mean equilibrium factor (F) was determined to be 0.35 +/- 0.03. The mean PAEC was found to be 37 +/- 8.1 Bq m(-3). The activity size distribution of (214)Pb shows mean activity median diameter of 290 nm with mean geometric standard deviation (sigma) of 2.45. At a total deposition fraction of approximately 23% the total effective dose to the lung was determined to be approximately 1.2 mSv. The second part of this paper deals with a study of natural radionuclide contents of samples collected from the building materials of those rooms under investigation given in part one of this paper. Analyses were performed in Marinelli beakers with a gamma multichannel analyser provided with a NaI(Tl) detector. The samples have revealed the presence of the uranium-radium and thorium radioisotopes as well as (40)K. Nine gamma-lines of the natural radioisotopes that correspond to 212Pb, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 40K and 208Tl were detected and measured. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined with mean specific activities of 65 +/- 22, 35 +/- 12 and 150 +/- 60 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These activities amount to a radium equivalent

  3. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat.

    PubMed

    An, Hongzhou; Hu, Mei; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Guangdong; Zhang, Qingqin; Zhang, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues' normally pairing. PMID:25950431

  4. Photosynthetic Effect in Selenastrum capricornutum Progeny after Carbon-Ion Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Li, Xin; Lu, Dong; Du, Yan; Ma, Liang; Li, Wenjian; Chen, Jihong; Li, Fuli; Fan, Yong; Hu, Guangrong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of mutants with altered pigment features have been obtained via exposure to heavy-ion beams, a technique that is efficient for trait improvement in the breeding of plants and algae. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which the photosynthetic pigments are altered by heavy-ion irradiation. In our study, the photosynthetic characteristics of progenies from carbon-ion irradiated Selenastrum capricornutum were investigated. Five progenies deficient in chlorophyll a were isolated after carbon-ion exposure. Photosynthetic characteristics, photoprotection capacity and gene expression of the light-harvesting complex in these progenies were further characterized by the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ФPSII, NPQ, ETR), the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, the amount of lutein and quantitative real-time PCR. High maximum quantum yield of photosystem II at day 10 and high thermal dissipation ability were observed in progenies #23 and #37 under normal culture condition. Progenies #18, #19 and #20 showed stronger resistance against high levels of light steps than the control group (612–1077 μmol photons m -2 s -1, p< 0.05). The progenies #20 and #23 exhibited strong photoprotection by thermal dissipation and quenching of 3Chl* after 24 h of high light treatment. The mRNA levels of Lhcb5, Lhcbm5 and Lhcbm1 of the light-harvesting complex revealed markedly differential expression in the five progenies irradiated by carbon-ion beams. This work indicates that photosynthetic efficiency, photoprotection ability and the expression of light-harvesting antennae in unicellular green algae can be markedly influenced by irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in the photosynthetic pigments of green algae after treatment with carbon-ion beams. PMID:26919351

  5. Photosynthetic Effect in Selenastrum capricornutum Progeny after Carbon-Ion Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Li, Xin; Lu, Dong; Du, Yan; Ma, Liang; Li, Wenjian; Chen, Jihong; Li, Fuli; Fan, Yong; Hu, Guangrong; Wang, Jufang

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of mutants with altered pigment features have been obtained via exposure to heavy-ion beams, a technique that is efficient for trait improvement in the breeding of plants and algae. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which the photosynthetic pigments are altered by heavy-ion irradiation. In our study, the photosynthetic characteristics of progenies from carbon-ion irradiated Selenastrum capricornutum were investigated. Five progenies deficient in chlorophyll a were isolated after carbon-ion exposure. Photosynthetic characteristics, photoprotection capacity and gene expression of the light-harvesting complex in these progenies were further characterized by the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ФPSII, NPQ, ETR), the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, the amount of lutein and quantitative real-time PCR. High maximum quantum yield of photosystem II at day 10 and high thermal dissipation ability were observed in progenies #23 and #37 under normal culture condition. Progenies #18, #19 and #20 showed stronger resistance against high levels of light steps than the control group (612-1077 μmol photons m -2 s -1, p< 0.05). The progenies #20 and #23 exhibited strong photoprotection by thermal dissipation and quenching of 3Chl* after 24 h of high light treatment. The mRNA levels of Lhcb5, Lhcbm5 and Lhcbm1 of the light-harvesting complex revealed markedly differential expression in the five progenies irradiated by carbon-ion beams. This work indicates that photosynthetic efficiency, photoprotection ability and the expression of light-harvesting antennae in unicellular green algae can be markedly influenced by irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in the photosynthetic pigments of green algae after treatment with carbon-ion beams. PMID:26919351

  6. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat

    PubMed Central

    An, Hongzhou; Hu, Mei; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Guangdong; Zhang, Qingqin; Zhang, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs) of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues’ normally pairing. PMID:25950431

  7. Advanced Generation Progeny from Hybrids of Hydrangea macrophylla and Dichroa febrifuga

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dichroa febrifuga is an evergreen shrub that is a member of the Hydrangeaceae. Molecular marker and hybridization data have shown D. febrifuga to be closely related to H. macrophylla. Reciprocal hybrids between H. macrophylla and D. febrifuga were previously obtained and characterized. F2 and BC1...

  8. Dose estimation derived from the exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, Mukesh; Kandari, Tushar; Pant, Preeti; Bossew, Peter; Mishra, Rosaline; Tokonami, S

    2016-01-01

    The annual exposure to indoor radon, thoron and their progeny imparts a major contribution to inhalation doses received by the public. In this study, we report results of time integrated passive measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations that were carried out in Garhwal Himalaya with the aim of investigating significant health risk to the dwellers in the region. The measurements were performed using recently developed LR-115 detector based techniques. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were used to estimate total annual inhalation dose and annual effective doses. The equilibrium factors for radon and thoron were also determined from the observed data. The estimated value of total annual inhalation dose was found to be 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv/y. The estimated values of the annual effective dose were found to be 1.2 ± 0.5 mSv/y and 0.5 ± 0.3 mSv/y, respectively. The estimated values of radiation doses suggest no important health risk due to exposure of radon, thoron and progeny in the study area. The contribution of indoor thoron and its progeny to total inhalation dose ranges between 13-52% with mean value of 30%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation doses. PMID:27499492

  9. Passive Measurements of Thoron and its Progeny in some Dwellings in Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Choncubhair, Orlaith Ni; Laughlin, James Mc; Tokonami, Shinji

    2008-08-07

    In this paper, an account is given of the development, calibration and field use of a passive alpha track detector sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Ireland exists and, as a result, the level of exposure of the Irish population to thoron and its progeny is unknown. As an initial or pilot stage in establishing such a data base measurements of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations (the latter expressed in Equilibrium Equivalent Thoron Concentration (EETC)) were made in 40 randomly chosen Irish dwellings. The EETC measurements were made using a passive thoron progeny deposition rate monitor designed and supplied by NIRS (Japan). In addition standard unmodified SSI passive radon detectors were used to measure radon in these dwellings. The measured thoron concentrations ranged from below the level of detection to 154 Bq/m{sup 3} while the radon gas ranged from 15 to 179 Bq/m{sup 3}. The thoron progeny EETC values for these dwellings ranged from 0.03 to 7.7 Bq/m{sup 3}. An account is also given of the dosimetric implications of these measurements.

  10. Dose estimation derived from the exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny in the indoor environment

    PubMed Central

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, Mukesh; Kandari, Tushar; Pant, Preeti; Bossew, Peter; Mishra, Rosaline; Tokonami, S.

    2016-01-01

    The annual exposure to indoor radon, thoron and their progeny imparts a major contribution to inhalation doses received by the public. In this study, we report results of time integrated passive measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations that were carried out in Garhwal Himalaya with the aim of investigating significant health risk to the dwellers in the region. The measurements were performed using recently developed LR-115 detector based techniques. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were used to estimate total annual inhalation dose and annual effective doses. The equilibrium factors for radon and thoron were also determined from the observed data. The estimated value of total annual inhalation dose was found to be 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv/y. The estimated values of the annual effective dose were found to be 1.2 ± 0.5 mSv/y and 0.5 ± 0.3 mSv/y, respectively. The estimated values of radiation doses suggest no important health risk due to exposure of radon, thoron and progeny in the study area. The contribution of indoor thoron and its progeny to total inhalation dose ranges between 13–52% with mean value of 30%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation doses. PMID:27499492

  11. Integrated measurements of short-lived 222Rn progeny by rotating filters.

    PubMed

    Pressyanov, D S; Guelev, M G; Pentchev, O J

    1993-05-01

    The dependence of the risk from inhalation of radon progeny on their disequilibrium suggests that the measurements of the time-integrated concentrations of each of the short-lived radon progeny are necessary for complete risk estimations. This paper presents a method that, in principle, allows the determination of the integrated specific volume activities in air of each of the radionuclides 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, 212Pb, and 212Bi. The method employs thermoluminescence detectors positioned around uniformly rotating filters. Two prototypes that are suitable for practical applications are described and mathematical expressions for data processing are given. Experiments with these "rotating filter dosimeters" were conducted in atmospheres radiologically dominated by 222Rn progeny. The comparison between the results obtained by the proposed method and those given by simultaneously conducted series of instantaneous grab-sampling measurements support the conclusion that the method works for 222Rn progeny. The method can be experimentally extended for 220Rn progeny as well as for unattached fractions. PMID:8387983

  12. Dose estimation derived from the exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, Mukesh; Kandari, Tushar; Pant, Preeti; Bossew, Peter; Mishra, Rosaline; Tokonami, S.

    2016-08-01

    The annual exposure to indoor radon, thoron and their progeny imparts a major contribution to inhalation doses received by the public. In this study, we report results of time integrated passive measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations that were carried out in Garhwal Himalaya with the aim of investigating significant health risk to the dwellers in the region. The measurements were performed using recently developed LR-115 detector based techniques. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations were used to estimate total annual inhalation dose and annual effective doses. The equilibrium factors for radon and thoron were also determined from the observed data. The estimated value of total annual inhalation dose was found to be 1.8 ± 0.7 mSv/y. The estimated values of the annual effective dose were found to be 1.2 ± 0.5 mSv/y and 0.5 ± 0.3 mSv/y, respectively. The estimated values of radiation doses suggest no important health risk due to exposure of radon, thoron and progeny in the study area. The contribution of indoor thoron and its progeny to total inhalation dose ranges between 13–52% with mean value of 30%. Thus thoron cannot be neglected when assessing radiation doses.

  13. An intercomparison between gross α counting and gross β counting for grab-sampling determination of airborne radon progeny and thoron progeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Z.

    2006-03-01

    The instantaneous values of the airborne activity concentrations of radon progeny and thoron progeny have been determined 34 times in a closed and windowless room in a cellar using two independent grab-sampling methods in order to compare the performance of the methods. The activity concentration of radon ( 222Rn) was also measured and it varied between 200 and 650 Bq m -3. Two samples of radon and thoron progeny were collected simultaneously from roughly the same air volume by filtering. For the first method, the isotopes were collected on membrane filter and gross α counting was applied over several successive time intervals. This method was a slightly improved version of the methods that are applied generally for this reason for decades. For the second method, the isotopes were collected on glass-fibre filter and gross β counts were registered over several time intervals. This other method was developed a few years ago and the above series of measurements was the first opportunity to make an intercomparison between it and another similar method based on α counting. Individual radon progeny and thoron progeny activity concentrations (for the isotopes 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 212Pb) were evaluated by both methods. The detailed investigation of the results showed that the systematic deviation of the methods is small but significant and isotope-dependent. The weighted averages of the β/α activity concentration ratios for 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, EEDC 222 (Equilibrium-Equivalent Decay-product Concentration of radon progeny) and 212Pb were 0.99±0.03, 0.90±0.02, 1.03±0.02, 0.96±0.02 and 0.80±0.03, respectively. The source of the systematic deviation is probably the inaccurate knowledge of the counting efficiencies mainly in the case of the α-counting method. A significant random-type difference between the results obtained with the two methods has also been revealed. For example, the β/α ratio for EEDC 222 varied between 0.81±0.01 and 1.22±0.03, where the

  14. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  15. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny's atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  16. Evaluation of the phenotypic performance of a Red Maasai and Dorper double backcross resource population: indoor trickle challenge with Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Mugambi, J M; Audho, J O; Njomo, S; Baker, R L

    2005-02-28

    Six F(1) Dorper (D) x Red Maasai (R) rams were mated to both D and R ewes to produce backcross lambs. These six double backcross resource families are being analysed to identify quantitative trait loci that may be controlling resistance to gastro-intestinal (GI) nematode parasites, mainly Haemonchus contortus. After assessing the phenotypic performance of the lambs following exposure to natural infections, the surviving lambs were drenched and moved indoors for an artificial challenge with H. contortus along with straightbred D and R lambs. A total of 1317 lambs were included in the analyses consisting of 523 3/4D, 580 3/4R, 87 D and 127 R. The D lambs were significantly and consistently heavier than R lambs and 3/4D were significantly heavier than the 3/4R lambs. The difference between the backcrosses was about half of that between the straightbreds. Resistance was assessed in terms of faecal egg counts (FEC) and total worm counts (TWC) at necropsy while packed cell volume (PCV) was used to assess resilience to weekly oral doses of 2500 infective larvae of H. contortus. No significant breed differences were observed for log transformed FEC (LFEC). A significant breed difference in PCV was recorded. The backcrosses had the higher values and while no differences were observed between the straightbreds, 3/4D had significantly higher PCV than the 3/4R. Despite the absence of breed differences in FEC the R and the 3/4R had significantly fewer worms than the D and the 3/4D. The D had significantly longer worms than the R and the 3/4D had significantly longer worms than the 3/4R. Worms recovered from D had more eggs than those recovered from R. Similarly worms from 3/4D contained more eggs than those from 3/4R. Thus, on a breed basis the breed with more worms had longer worms. In contrast, when, in a small part of the experiment two doses of larvae were used to check for any breed by dose interactions, worms from the low dose (and hence fewer worms) animals were longer

  17. AFLP marking and polymorphism among progenies of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant of India.

    PubMed

    Osman, Magda Abbaker; Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Bahl, Janak Raj; Darokar, Mahendra P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2011-11-01

    The level of polymorphism among twelve selected progenies of Gymnema sylvestre was investigated through AFLP markers by multiplexing PCR reactions using 64 (8x8) primer combinations. Fourteen primer combinations were selected as the most suitable combination for G. sylvestre. Analysis of the 12 progenies with these 14 primer pairs produced 1689 fragments of which 972 (57.5%) were polymorphic and 485 (28.7%) were unique to a particular genotype. The number of fragments produced by individual primer pairs was in the range of 55 to 225. Out of these, polymorphic fragments were in the range of 34 (E-ACC/M-CAC) to 157 (E-AGG/M-CAG) and unique bands observed were 8 (E-ACC / M-CAC) to 69 (E-AGG/M-CAC). Different primer combinations detected different levels of polymorphism, ranging from 33% (E-AGG/ M-CAC) to 69.8% (E-AGG/ M-CAC). From the observations, it appears that the primer combinations E-AGG/M-CAC, E-AGG/CTG, E-AGG/CAG and E-ACA/CAT were the most informative for the detection of polymorphism among the progenies compared with others, since they produced a high number of unique fragments. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.212 to 0.731. High similarity was observed between progeny S8 and S9 (73%) and high divergence between progenies S3 and S11. Among the selected progeny, S9 was found to be the most similar to the parent (63%), while genotype S11 was the most distant (36.9%). PMID:22224288

  18. Reanalysis of data on particle size distribution of radon progeny in uranium mines

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, E.O.; George, A.C.

    1992-12-31

    We reanalyzed 26 samples from radon progeny particle-size measurements made in 1971 in four New Mexico uranium mines. These data were obtained with parallel disk diffusion batteries (still in use at our laboratory), together with a Mercer-type diffusion sampler. Seventeen additional samples taken with a cascade impactor were not reanalyzed. The original data analysis, reported in two separate publications, was based on the assumption that the progeny consist of distinct attached and unattached species that can be sampled and analyzed separately. In the new analysis, we treated the progeny as a continuous spectrum of particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 1000 nm, covering both attached and unattached progeny. This was achieved by combining the diffusion battery and diffusion sampler data, and making one calculation. In the new analysis, the assumption of a unimodal lognormal size distribution was dropped. The new calculations showed that 9 of the 26 distributions were unimodal, agreeing closely with the original analyses. Eleven of the new distributions had a bimodal structure, with widely separated modes evoking the classical idea of attached and unattached radon progeny. The remaining six cases had bimodal structures that were not distinct and were therefore not consistent with the classical picture. A dose conversion factor has been computed for each particle size spectrum, yielding values from 1.6 to 7.8 Gy m{sup 3} J{sup -1} h{sup -1}, generally higher than the previously cited values. The highest values correspond to mine locations with low equilibrium factors (<0.1) and severe disequilibrium among progeny nuclides.

  19. Intercomparison of active and passive instruments for radon and radon progeny in North America

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng-Wu; Knutson, E.O.

    1995-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for radon and radon progeny instruments and methods was held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) from April 22--May 2, 1994. The exercise was conducted in the new EML radon test and calibration facility in which conditions of exposure are very well controlled. The detection systems of the intercompared instruments consisted of. (1) pulse ionization chambers, (2) electret ionization chambers, (3) scintillation detectors, (4) alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, (5) registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, and (6) activated carbon collectors counted by gamma-ray spectrometry or by alpha- and beta-liquid scintillation counting. 23 private firms, government laboratories and universities participated with a 165 passive integrating devices consisting of: Activated carbon collectors, nuclear alpha track detectors and electret ionization chambers, and 11 active and passive continuous radon monitors. Five portable integrating and continuous instruments were intercompared for radon progeny. Forty grab samples for radon progeny were taken by five groups that participated in person to test and evaluate their primary instruments and methods that measure individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) in indoor air. Results indicate that more than 80% of the measurements for radon performed with a variety of instruments, are within {plus_minus}10% of actual value. The majority of the instruments that measure individual radon progeny and the PAEC gave results that are in good agreement with the EML reference value. Radon progeny measurements made with continuous and integrating instruments are satisfactory with room for improvement.

  20. Susceptibility of progeny from crosses among three stocks of coho salmon to infection by Ceratomyxa shasta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; McIntyre, J.D.; Fryer, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Crossbred coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were produced from all possible crosses among three stocks. The relative susceptibility of the progeny to infection by the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta was determined by exposure of juvenile fish to Willamette River water that contained the infective stage of the parasite. Susceptibility of coho salmon native to the Columbia River basin to the disease ceratomyxosis was relatively low whereas that of coho salmon from remote locations was relatively high. Susceptibility of crossbred progeny nearly always was intermediate between the susceptibilities of fish from the parental stocks.

  1. A family business: stem cell progeny join the niche to regulate homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Fuchs, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell niches, the discrete microenvironments in which the stem cells reside, play a dominant part in regulating stem cell activity and behaviours. Recent studies suggest that committed stem cell progeny become indispensable components of the niche in a wide range of stem cell systems. These unexpected niche inhabitants provide versatile feedback signals to their stem cell parents. Together with other heterologous cell types that constitute the niche, they contribute to the dynamics of the microenvironment. As progeny are often located in close proximity to stem cell niches, similar feedback regulations may be the underlying principles shared by different stem cell systems. PMID:22266760

  2. Predicted Gains from Inbred-Progeny Selection Is Inferior to Half-sib Selection for Two Maize Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, inbred progeny selection has been promoted as an effective means of improving both inbred and outbred performance, and in some cases superior to other methods. The predicted effectiveness of inbred-progeny selection was based on several factors, the most common being the proportion of ...

  3. Genetic variation in salt tolerance during seed germination in a backcross inbred line population and advanced breeding lines derived from upland cotton x pima cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a crucial phase of the plant life cycle that affects its establishment and productivity. However, information on salt tolerance at this phase is limited. Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) may be more salt tolerant during germination than Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) based o...

  4. Evaluation of Leymus LG3a Rhizome QTLs in Four Advanced Backcross Populations and Alignment of Leymus LG3 EST Markers and Oryza Chromosome 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Leymus comprises about 30 long-lived perennial Triticeae species, including the largest native grasses in the western U.S., distributed throughout cold and/or semiarid growing environments of North and South America, Europe, and Asia. Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides display divergent g...

  5. The progeny of Legionella pneumophila in human macrophages shows unique developmental traits.

    PubMed

    Abdelhady, Hany; Garduño, Rafael A

    2013-12-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of amoebae and an accidental human pathogen that causes a noncommunicable atypical pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease (LD). In some mammalian cells (e.g. HeLa), L. pneumophila follows a biphasic developmental cycle, differentiating between a replicative form that actively multiplies intracellularly, and a mature infectious form (MIF) that emerges as progeny. To date, it is not known whether the L. pneumophila progenies that emerge from amoebae and human macrophages reach similar developmental stages. Here, we demonstrate that in relation to the fully differentiated and highly infectious MIFs that emerge from amoebae, the L. pneumophila progeny that emerges from macrophages is morphologically undifferentiated, less resistant to antibiotics and less able to initiate infections. However, the L. pneumophila progeny from macrophages did not show any defects in intracellular growth. We thus concluded that macrophage infection with L. pneumophila yields a low number of bona fide MIFs. Because MIFs are the transmissive forms of L. pneumophila produced in vivo, our results showing that they are not efficiently produced in cultured macrophages provide an initial insight into why LD is not communicable. PMID:24206397

  6. Maternal Transfer of Vitamin C in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus) Effects Reproduction and Progeny Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two routes of maternal transfer of vitamin C in channel catfish female broodfish prior to spawning were explored as a strategy to incorporate the vitamin to determine its effect on reproduction and subsequent performance of the progeny. Accumulation of vitamin C was higher (p<0.05) in ovarian tissu...

  7. Association of sire dystocia transmitting ability with progeny linear type traits in Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Boldman, K G; Famula, T R

    1985-08-01

    Data on 13 traits of 11,260 progeny of 775 sires in the Carnation Genetics linear type appraisal program were analyzed to determine the association between sire dystocia transmitting ability and progeny linear type traits. Mean linear type scores ranged from 25.0 to 29.8 on a scale of 1 to 50. Parity, stage of lactation, and interactions of evaluator by parity and evaluator by stage were sources of variation for most traits. First quartile (easy) and fourth quartile (most difficult) sires grouped by dystocia transmitting ability differed in daughter linear type scores for stature, dairy character, rump angle, center ligament, udder depth, teat length, teat placement, and rump width. Differential use of easy calving bulls on heifers might result in progeny with lower type scores for stature, dairy character, rump angle, legs, and rump width. Average type scores differed by less than 1 unit for all traits, indicating little correlated response in linear type traits through use of bulls whose progeny are born with least difficulty. PMID:4044968

  8. Progeny Review: An Alternative Approach for Examining the Replication of Intervention Studies in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Mathews, Hannah M.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Solis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of replication for building an evidence base, there has been no formal examination to date of replication research in special education. In this review, we examined the extent and nature of replication of intervention research in special education using an "article progeny" approach and a three-pronged definition…

  9. Intercomparison of activity size distributions of thoron progeny by alpha- and gamma-counting methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y S; Yu, C C; Tu, K W

    1994-01-01

    It is difficult to calibrate sampling devices using radon or thoron progeny or particles measuring 1-4 nm; therefore, an interlaboratory comparison is important to verify the performance of graded diffusion batteries for the activity size distributions of the "unattached" progeny. This paper describes the results of an interlaboratory comparison of 220Rn progeny size distributions using graded diffusion batteries by alpha- and gamma-counting methods with different data inversion schemes. Graded diffusion batteries designed at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute and at the Environmental Measurement Laboratory were used in the study. Screens and backup filters from the Environmental Measurement Laboratory-graded diffusion batteries were counted simultaneously in alpha counters for total alpha activities, and those of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute-graded diffusion batteries were counted in a gamma detector for gamma activities from 212Pb. Because of the different counting methods and data analysis procedures used, this interlaboratory study of 220Rn progeny allows a more rigorous way of testing instrument performance. 212Pb particles generated in well-controlled environments of oxygen, nitrogen, or oxygen with 1 ppm of nitrogen oxide were measured. In general, good agreement in activity size distributions was obtained from these two methods. Some differences observed in individual size spectra were attributable to the data inversion programs used in each laboratory. When the data were analyzed by the same computer program, most differences disappeared. PMID:8253581

  10. SELECTION DIFFERENTIALS FROM NATIONAL HOLSTEIN BULL PROGENY TEST PROGRAMS ESTIMATED FROM INTERNATIONAL DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic progress in dairy cattle is largely determined by the merit of bulls used to sire the next generation. Overall bull merit is influenced by three factors: merit of parents, accuracy of progeny test (PT), and intensity of subsequent selection. The objective of this study was to calculate the p...

  11. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  12. MATERNAL GHRH PLASMID ADMINISTRATION CHANGES PITUITARY CELL LINEAGE AND IMPROVES PROGENY GROWTH OF PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that administration of a myogenic plasmid that encodes a protease-resistant growth hormone-releasing hormone (HV-GHRH) to pregnant rat dams augmented long-term growth in first-generation progeny. In the present study, gilts were injected intra-m...

  13. Reproduction and progeny growth in rats fed clinoptilolite in the presence or absence of dietary cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, W.G.; Yen, J.T.

    1983-12-01

    The purposes of the experiment reported were to determine the effects of long-term ingestion of clinoptilolite on reproduction in female rats and on the postnatal development of their progeny and to ascertain whether or not clinoptilolite offers protection against the toxic effects of long-term Cd ingestion.

  14. Behaviour of radon, radon progenies and particle levels during room depressurisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kokotti, Helmi; Kalliokoski, Pentti

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of room depressurisation (up to -28 Pa) on indoor radon, radon progenies and particle concentrations in a wooden school building (A) and in a wooden double-family house (B). The airborne concentrations of particles, radon, and radon progenies decreased with increased depressurisation. At the same time, the air exchange rates increased by a factor of 9.5 (house A) and 13 (house B). The calculated radon entry rates thus rose almost in the same ratio, 6.3 and 12, respectively. The equilibrium factors between radon progenies and radon were the same before and after the depressurisation being 0.04 in house A and 0.16 in house B. When the pressure was the lowest, radon concentrations decreased by a factor of 0.7 in house A and 0.9 in house B, and the radon progeny levels fell by a factor of 0.6 in both houses. The particle levels (particles exceeding 0.01 μm) decreased by a factor of 10 (house A) and of 1.2 (house B). The dilution by outdoor air was more effective in house A, which was less tight.

  15. Genetic variability, character association, and path analysis for economic traits in menthofuran rich half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Birendra; Mali, Himanshi; Gupta, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Menthofuran rich eight half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita (MPS-36) were studied for various genetic parameters, namely, coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path of various plant and oil attributes, namely, plant height, L:S ratio, herb yield, β -myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, neomenthone, pulegone, and menthol. Maximum genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded for pulegone, followed by menthofuran and 1,8-cineole. The genotypic correlation in general was higher than phenotypic; positive significant correlation was recorded for limonene with 1,8-cineole and menthone, β -myrcene with limonene, and 1,8-cineole and menthofuran with neomenthol. A high direct positive effect on menthofuran was of neomenthol. PMID:24963471

  16. Genetic Variability, Character Association, and Path Analysis for Economic Traits in Menthofuran Rich Half-Sib Seed Progeny of Mentha piperita L.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Birendra; Mali, Himanshi; Gupta, Ekta

    2014-01-01

    Menthofuran rich eight half-sib seed progeny of Mentha piperita (MPS-36) were studied for various genetic parameters, namely, coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, and path of various plant and oil attributes, namely, plant height, L : S ratio, herb yield, β-myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, menthofuran, neomenthone, pulegone, and menthol. Maximum genotypic coefficient of variation and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded for pulegone, followed by menthofuran and 1,8-cineole. The genotypic correlation in general was higher than phenotypic; positive significant correlation was recorded for limonene with 1,8-cineole and menthone, β-myrcene with limonene, and 1,8-cineole and menthofuran with neomenthol. A high direct positive effect on menthofuran was of neomenthol. PMID:24963471

  17. Radon progeny size distributions and enhanced deposition effects from high radon concentrations in an enclosed chamber.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Bobby E

    2004-01-01

    Prior work studying radon progeny in a small enclosed chamber found that at high (222)Rn concentrations an enhanced surface deposition was observed. Subsequent measurements for unfiltered air showed minimal charged particle mobility influence. Progeny particle size measurements reported here, performed at the US Department of Energy Environmental Measurement Laboratory (now with Home Security Department), using the EML graded screen array (GSA) system show in unfiltered air that the high (222)Rn levels causes a reduction in the attached (218)Po progeny airborne particulates and formation of additional normal sized unattached ( approximately 0.80 nm) and also even smaller (218)Po below 0.50 nm. At a (222)Rn level of 51 kBq m(-3), 73% of all (218)Po are of a mean particle diameter of about 0.40 +/- 0.02 nm. At this (222)Rn level, the ratio of (218)Po to (222)Rn airborne concentrations is reduced significantly from the concentration ratio at low (222)Rn levels. Similar reductions and size reformations were observed for the (214)Pb and (214)Bi/Po progeny. The particle size changes are further confirmed using the plateout rates and corresponding deposition velocities. The Crump and Seinfeld deposition theory provides the corresponding particle diffusion coefficients. With the diffusion coefficient to ultrafine clustered particle diameter correlation of Ramamurthi and Hopke, good agreement is obtained between EML GSA and deposition velocity data down to 0.40 nm. Strong evidence is presented that the progeny size reduction is due to, as a result of air ionization, the increased neutralization rate (primarily from electron scavenging of OH molecules) of the initially charged progeny. This is shown to increase with the (1/2) power of (222)Rn concentration and relative humidity as well as increased air change rate in the chamber. These results imply that at (222)Rn levels above 50 kBq m(-3), at relative humidity of 52%, a considerable reduction in lung dose could occur from

  18. Variability and performance evaluation of introgressed Nigerian dura x Deli dura oil palm progenies.

    PubMed

    Noh, A; Rafii, M Y; Mohd Din, A; Kushairi, A; Norziha, A; Rajanaidu, N; Latif, M A; Malek, M A

    2014-01-01

    Twelve introgressed oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies of Nigerian dura x Deli dura were evaluated for bunch yield, yield attributes, bunch quality components and vegetative characters at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, in Keratong, Pahang, Malaysia. Analysis of variance revealed significant to highly significant genotypic differences, indicating sufficient genetic variability among the progenies for bunch yield and its attributes, vegetative characters and bunch quality components, except fruit to bunch ratio. Fresh fruit bunch yield ranged from 167 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1330 to 212 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1) in PK1351, with a mean yield of 192 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1). Among the progeny, PK1313 had the highest oil to bunch ratio (19.36%), due to its high mesocarp to fruit ratio, fruit to bunch ratio and low shell to fruit ratio. Among the progenies, PK1313 produced the highest oil yield of 31.4 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1), due to a high mesocarp to fruit ratio (61.2%) and a low shell to fruit ratio (30.7%), coupled with high fruit to bunch ratio (65.6%). PK1330 was found promising for selection, as it had desirable vegetative characters, including smaller petiole cross section (27.15 cm2), short rachis length (4.83 m), short palm height (1.85 m), and the lowest leaf number (164.6), as these vegetative characters are prerequisites for selecting palms for high density planting and high yield per hectare. The genetic variability among the progenies was found to be high, indicating ample scope for further breeding, followed by selection. PMID:24781997

  19. Radon: Chemical and physical states of radon progeny. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The evolving chemical and physical form of radon progeny influence their transport to the bioreceptor and the extent to which that receptor can take up these species into various tissues. When first born following radioactive decay processes, the potentially deleterious radon progeny undergo various physical and chemical transformations as they transcend from a highly charged to a neutral state, and interact with various constituents of the environment. These transformations impact on the extent to which the radon progeny become associated with aerosol particles on the one hand, and their ultimate chemical form that is available for uptake in the biosystem, on the other. The program, which originally commenced in 1987, dealt with the basic chemistry and physics of radon progeny and hence impacted on several themes of importance to the DOE/OHER radon program. One of these is dose response, which is governed by the physical forms of the radon progeny, their transport to the bioreceptor and the chemical forms that govern their uptake. The second theme had to do with cellular responses, one of the major issues motivating the work. It is well known that various sizes of ions and molecules are selectively transported across cell membrane to differing degrees. This ultimately has to do with their chemical and physical forms, charge and size. The overall objective of the work was threefold: (1) quantifying the mechanisms and rates of the chemical and physical transformation; (2) ascertaining the ultimate chemical forms, and (3) determining the potential interactions of these chemical species with biological functional groups to ascertain their ultimate transport and incorporation within cells.

  20. Maize hybrids derived from GM positive and negative segregant inbreds are compositionally equivalent: any observed differences are associated with conventional backcrossing practices.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Bell, Erin; Bickel, Anna; Cook, Kevin; Alsop, Benjamin; van de Mortel, Martijn; Feng, Ping; Willse, Alan; Perez, Tim; Harrigan, George G

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we show that compositional differences in grain harvested from genetically modified (GM) maize hybrids derived from near-isogenic trait-positive and trait-negative segregant inbreds are more likely related to backcrossing practices than to the GM trait. To demonstrate this, four paired GM trait-positive (NK603: herbicide tolerance) and trait-negative near-isogenic inbred male lines were generated. These were crossed with two different females (testers) to create a series of trait-positive and trait-negative hybrid variants. The hypothesis was, that compositional variation within the hybrid variants would reflect differences associated with backcrossing practices and provide context to any observed differences between GM and non-GM hybrids. The F1 hybrids, as well as corresponding conventional comparator hybrids, were grown concurrently at four field sites across the United States during the 2013 season. Grain was harvested for compositional analysis; proximates (protein, starch, and oil), amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, tocopherols (α-, δ-, γ-), β-carotene, phytic acid, and raffinose were measured. Statistical analysis showed that within each hybrid tester set, there were very few significant (p < 0.05) differences between the paired trait-positive and trait-negative hybrids or between the conventional comparators and the trait-positive or trait-negative hybrids. Assessments of the magnitudes of differences and variance component analysis highlighted that growing location, and the tester used in hybrid formation, had a markedly greater effect on composition than did the GM trait. Significantly, for each tester set, compositional differences within the trait-positive and trait-negative hybrid variants were greater than differences between the GM and non-GM comparators. Overall, GM trait insertion is not intrinsically a meaningful contributor to compositional variation, and observed differences between GM and non-GM comparators typically

  1. Cytogenetic characterization of F1, F2 and backcross hybrids of the Neotropical catfish species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Fernanda Dotti; Nunes, Tatiana Leite; Senhorini, José Augusto; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2012-01-01

    The cytogenetic characteristics of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum and their F1, F2 and backcross hybrids were assessed by using chromosome banding techniques. The diploid number of 56 chromosomes was constant in all species and lineages, with a karyotypic formula containing 20 metacentric, 12 submetacentric, 12 subtelocentric and 12 acrocentric chromosomes. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were identified in two subtelocentric chromosomes in the parents and hybrids, with partial nucleolar dominance in F1 and F2 specimens. Heterochromatic blocks were detected in the terminal and centromeric regions of some chromosomes in all individuals. For parental and hybrid lineages, 18S ribosomal clusters corresponding to NORs and 5S ribosomal genes were identified in distinct pairs of chromosomes. The striking conservation in the chromosomal macrostructure of the parental species may account for the fertility of their F1 hybrids. Similarly, the lack of marked alterations in the chromosomal structure of the F1 hybrids could account for the maintenance of these features in post-F1 lineages. PMID:22481875

  2. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  3. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  4. [Assessment of the impact of GMO of plant origin on rat progeny development in 3 generations].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Zhminchenko, V M; Pashorina, V A; Seliaskin, K E; Saprykin, V P; Utembaeva, N T; Tutel'ian, V A

    2011-01-01

    The publication presents the results of assessment of impact of genetically modified (GM) maize Liberty Link on prenatal and postnatal development of progeny of 3 generations of Wistar rats. A total of 630 adult animals and 2837 pups were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into 5 groups which got the diets with inclusion of maize: the animals of the experimental group got the diet with the GM-maize, animals of the control group - with near isogenic conventional analogue of the GM-maize, animals of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd reference groups - conventional varieties of maize ROSS 144 MV, ROSS 197 MVW, Dokuchayevskaya 250 MV respectively. The maize was included in the diet at maximum possible level not violating the balance of basic nutrients. Analysis of the data obtained during the study did not reveal any impact of GM-maize on rat progeny development. PMID:21574464

  5. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling milk production in dairy cattle by exploiting progeny testing

    SciTech Connect

    Georges, M.; Nielsen, D.; Mackinnon, M.; Mishra, A.; Okimoto, R.; Sargeant, L.S.; Steele, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Pasquino, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    We have exploited {open_quotes}progeny testing{close_quotes} to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the genetic variation of milk production in a selected dairy cattle population. A total of 1,518 sires, with progeny tests based on the milking performances of >150,000 daughters jointly, was genotyped for 159 autosomal microsatellites bracketing 1645 centimorgan or approximately two thirds of the bovine genome. Using a maximum likelihood multilocus linkage analysis accounting for variance heterogeneity of the phenotypes, we identified five chromosomes giving very strong evidence (LOD score {ge} 3) for the presence of a QTL controlling milk production: chromosomes 1, 6, 9, 10 and 20. These findings demonstrate that loci with considerable effects on milk production are still segregating in highly selected populations and pave the way toward marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle breeding. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Loss of Telomeres in the Progeny of Human Lymphocytes Exposed to Energetic Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; George, K.; Durante, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have used cross-species multi-color banding (RxFISH) combined with telomere FISH probes, to measure chromosomal aberrations in the progeny of human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to ionizing radiation. Accelerated iron particles (energy 1 GeV/nucleon) induced many more terminal deletions than the same dose of gamma-rays. We found that truncated chromosomes without telomeres could be transmitted for at least three cell cycles following exposure, and represented about 10% of all aberrations observed in the progeny of cells exposed to iron ions. High energy heavy ions generate the most significant health risk for human space exploration and the results suggest that telomere loss may be the leading mechanism for their high efficiency in the induction of late effects.

  7. Transfer of toxic concentrations of selenium from parent to progeny in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.; Hermanutz, R.

    1990-01-01

    Selenium, an essential trace element, may become concentrated in aquatic ecosystems to levels that are toxic to fish. Finley (1985) and Gillespie and Baumann (1986) have shown that selenium in overflow water from coal burning power plant settling basins contributed to a decline in fish populations. The leaching of selenium from the soil into water systems used for irrigation in highly seleniferous areas of the country poses another serious problem. Studies demonstrated that female bluegill sunfish transfer selenium to their progeny. The objective of the study was to determine whether the selenium levels within fathead minnow embryos in a semi-natural ecosystem resulted from direct uptake by the embryos following spawning, from female-to-progeny transferral, or from some combination of these two occurrences.

  8. Effects of acute radon progeny exposure on rat alveolar macrophage number and function

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    Alveolar macrophages play a key role in removal and translocation of inhaled particles and have been shown to influence proliferation of Alveolar Type II cells and fibroblasts. The effect of radon progeny on alveolar macrophage number and function is not documented. Functional impairment of alveolar macrophages may be an ancillary event in the induction of pulmonary lesions and may also indicate dose to the peripheral lung. In our study, rats were exposed to 1000 working level months (WLM) of radon progeny over a 3- to 5-h period, with a vector aerosol of environmental tobacco smoke. Groups of animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were lavaged immediately after exposure and on days 2, 18, 16, 21 and 29 after exposure. The numbers and viabilities of the lavaged macrophages were determined. Cytological preparations were made to determine the number of binucleated/multinucleated macrophages and macrophages containing micronuclei. The DNA content was measured flow-cytometrically using Hoechst 33342, and phagocytosis was assayed by determining the uptake of fluorescent microspheres. The numbers and viabilities of macrophages recovered from exposed animals were similar to the values measured for control animals. There was no evidence of an inflammatory reaction during any period after radon progeny exposure. Nuclear atypia, evidenced by increases in the number of binucleated cells and cells with micronuclei, occurred in animals 8 days after exposure, and this response peaked at 21 days after exposure. The phagocytic capability of the alveolar macrophages was not significantly affected at any time point after exposure. These results show that there was little functional impairment of alveolar macrophages in rats after acute radon-progeny exposure; however, there was long-standing interference with cell division, resulting in binucleated and micronucleated macrophages.

  9. Dosimetry of localized accumulations of cigarette smoke and radon progeny at bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.

    1991-01-01

    The work focuses upon deposition and clearance processes affecting cigarette smoke particles and radon progeny within surrogate airway models, replica casts and the human lung. As shall be demonstrated, 'cloud motion' for mainstream cigarette smoke can produce locations of enhanced deposition not experienced with dilute aerosols composed of like-sized particles. These sites of concentrated deposits occur at airway bifurcations, especially at the inclusive carinal ridges.

  10. Vesicular Transport of Progeny Parvovirus Particles through ER and Golgi Regulates Maturation and Cytolysis

    PubMed Central

    Bär, Séverine; Rommelaere, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Progeny particles of non-enveloped lytic parvoviruses were previously shown to be actively transported to the cell periphery through vesicles in a gelsolin-dependent manner. This process involves rearrangement and destruction of actin filaments, while microtubules become protected throughout the infection. Here the focus is on the intracellular egress pathway, as well as its impact on the properties and release of progeny virions. By colocalization with cellular marker proteins and specific modulation of the pathways through over-expression of variant effector genes transduced by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors, we show that progeny PV particles become engulfed into COPII-vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are transported through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Besides known factors like sar1, sec24, rab1, the ERM family proteins, radixin and moesin play (an) essential role(s) in the formation/loading and targeting of virus-containing COPII-vesicles. These proteins also contribute to the transport through ER and Golgi of the well described analogue of cellular proteins, the secreted Gaussia luciferase in absence of virus infection. It is therefore likely that radixin and moesin also serve for a more general function in cellular exocytosis. Finally, parvovirus egress via ER and Golgi appears to be necessary for virions to gain full infectivity through post-assembly modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). While not being absolutely required for cytolysis and progeny virus release, vesicular transport of parvoviruses through ER and Golgi significantly accelerates these processes pointing to a regulatory role of this transport pathway. PMID:24068925

  11. Single worm genotyping demonstrates that Onchocerca ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Julia C; Eisenbarth, Albert; Renz, Alfons; Streit, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Onchocerca ochengi is a filarial nematode parasite of African cattle and most closely related to Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness. O. ochengi females induce the formation of a nodule in the dermis of the host, in which they remain sedentary in very close association with the host's tissue. Males, which do not adhere to the host's tissue, are also found within the nodules at an average number of about one male per nodule. Young O. ochengi females tend to avoid the immediate proximity of existing nodules. Therefore, O. ochengi nodules are dispersed in the ventral inguinal skin at considerable distances from each other. It has been speculated that males avoid the risk of leaving a female once they have found one and remain in the nodule as territorial males rendering the reproductive strategy of O. ochengi essentially monogamous. We developed a protocol that allows reliable PCR amplification of single copy loci from different developmental stages of O. ochengi including embryos and microfilariae. From 32 O. ochengi nodules, we genotyped the female worms and the 67 adult male worms, found in these nodules, together with a fraction of the progeny from within the uteri of females. In 18 of 32 gravid females progeny derived from multiple males were found. In five nodules, the males isolated from the same nodule as the female were not sufficient to explain the genotypes of the entire progeny. We conclude that frequently O. ochengi females simultaneously produce progeny sired by different males and that most but not all males are still present in the nodule when their offspring is ready to hatch. PMID:22706958

  12. Impact of the 235U series on doses from intakes of natural uranium and decay progeny.

    PubMed

    Lowe, L M

    1997-10-01

    The doses from 235U series radionuclides have often been ignored in dose assessments involving natural uranium and progeny. This is due to the relatively low abundance of 235U in natural uranium (less than 5% on an activity basis). However, inclusion of the 235U series radionuclides, especially 227Ac and 231Pa, in dose calculations can have a substantial impact on estimated inhalation doses. PMID:9314233

  13. Morphological and physiological responses of two coffee progenies to soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Paulo C; Araujo, Wagner L; Moraes, Gustavo A B K; Barros, Raimundo S; DaMatta, Fábio M

    2007-12-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and production of coffee. The effects of water supply on growth, biomass allocation, water relations, and gas exchange in two coffee progenies representing drought-tolerant (Siriema) and drought-sensitive (Catucaí) genotypes were compared. They were grown in 12-L pots until 4-months old, when they were submitted to two watering treatments for 60 d: plants receiving either 100% transpired water (control plants) or a fraction (about 40%) of the amount of water transpired by control plants (drought-stressed plants). Under control conditions, Siriema grew faster than Catucaí. Regardless of the watering regimes and progenies, relative growth rate (RGR) was positively correlated both with net assimilation rate (NAR) and long-term water-use efficiency (WUE), but not with differences in biomass allocation. Both progenies responded to drought stress through (i) similar decreases in both RGR and NAR with marginal, if any, changes in allocation; (ii) decreases in leaf water potential, which occurred to a greater extent in Catucaí than in Siriema, even though they have showed similar abilities to adjust osmotically and elastically; (iii) similar reductions in net photosynthesis due mainly to nonstomatal factors; and (iv) decreases in transpiration rate coupled with increased long-term WUE. However, the lower transpiration rate and the higher long-term WUE as found in Siriema relative to Catucaí under control conditions persisted under drought conditions. Overall, the major differences between these progenies were largely associated with differences in plant water use, which was likely related to the improved water status of Siriema. The possible implications of selecting coffee genotypes for high WUE are discussed. PMID:17291628

  14. Inheritance of nitrogen use efficiency in inbred progenies of tropical maize based on multivariate diallel analysis.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  15. Morphology of respiratory tract lesions in rats exposed to radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T.; Gies, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    We will discuss the morphologic features of lesions in the respiratory tract of rats exposed to radon and radon progeny. Groups of male Wister rats were exposed to from 10 to 1000 working levels (WL) of radon progeny in the presence of less than 1 to about 15 mg m{sup {minus}3} uranium ore dust. Cumulative exposures ranged from 20 to approximately 10,000 working level months (WLM). Higher exposure levels produced radiation pneumonitis characterized by interstitial fibrosis, associated with alveolar epithelial cell hyperplasia and accumulations of alveolar macrophages containing phagocytosed uranium ore dust. Nodular fibrosis and alveolar proteinosis were correlated with deposits of uranium ore dust. Vesicular emphysema also occurred at higher exposure levels. Pulmonary adenomatosis appeared to be a preneoplastic lesion; it was composed of nodular proliferation of bronchioloalveolar epithelium without disruption of the general architecture of the parenchyma. At exposure levels where rats lived longer than 1 y, lung tumors and a few tumors of the nasal cavity developed. The principal lung tumors were pulmonary adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and adenosquamous carcinomas. Occasionally, malignant mesotheliomas and sarcomas were also present. The malignant lung tumors were characterized by invasion and occasionally metastasized to regional lymph nodes. Lower exposure rates produced more tumors, generally of different histologic types, and more fatal tumors than higher exposure rates. The similarity to relationships of human radon progeny exposure as far as incidence and types of lung tumors establish the validity of this animal model for studying radon carcinogenesis in humans.

  16. Use of expected progeny differences for marbling in beef: I. Production traits.

    PubMed

    Vieselmeyer, B A; Rasby, R J; Gwartney, B L; Calkins, C R; Stock, R A; Gosey, J A

    1996-05-01

    Six Angus bulls with HIGH ( > .4) and six bulls with LOW ( < -.16) expected progeny differences (EPD) for marbling were used to evaluate the impact of marbling on progeny production and carcass traits. Bulls were randomly bred to MARC II (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Simmental, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Gelbvieh) composite cows in each of 2 yr to calve in the spring. At weaning, steers and heifers were separated and managed in different production systems. Steers (n = 131) were fed a growing diet (1.1 Mcal of NEg/kg) for 48 d followed by adaptation to a 93% concentrate finishing diet. Heifers (n = 125) were fed a growing diet (.79 Mcal of NEg/kg) for 191 d followed by adaptation to the same 93% concentrate diet. Steers and heifers from each treatment were slaughtered at two times spaced about 60 d apart within both years. Marbling EPD class had no effect on fat thickness, USDA yield grade, carcass weight, finishing daily gain, finishing DMI, or finishing efficiency (P > .18). More (P < .05) carcasses of calves from sires with HIGH EPD for marbling graded USDA Choice than from LOW EPD sires, 74% vs 47%, respectively. Angus sires can be selected to produce progeny that have increased ability to grade Choice without increasing yield grade or decreasing animal growth or feed efficiency. PMID:8726732

  17. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important. PMID:26143065

  18. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F., A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H.

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that radon daughters up to 214Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  19. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fernando Lisboa; Diniz, Rafael Parreira; Balestre, Marcio; Ribeiro, Camila Bastos; Camargos, Renato Barbosa; Souza, João Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:25587575

  20. Optimization of the Timepix chip to measurement of radon, thoron and their progenies.

    PubMed

    Janik, Miroslaw; Ploc, Ondrej; Fiederle, Michael; Procz, Simon; Kavasi, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Radon and thoron as well as their short-lived progenies are decay products of the radium and thorium series decays. They are the most important radionuclide elements with respect to public exposure. To utilize the semiconductor pixel radiation Timepix chip for the measurement of active and real-time alpha particles from radon, thoron and their progenies, it is necessary to check the registration and visualization of the chip. An energy check for radon, thoron and their progenies, as well as for (241)Am and(210)Po sources, was performed using the radon and thoron chambers at NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). The check found an energy resolution of 200 keV with a 14% efficiency as well as a linear dependency between the channel number (cluster volume) and the energy. The coefficient of determination r(2) of 0.99 for the range of 5 to 9 MeV was calculated. In addition, an offset for specific Timepix configurations between pre-calibration for low energy from 6 to 60 keV, and the actual calibration for alpha particles with energies from 4000 to 9000 keV, was detected. PMID:26547560

  1. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F, A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H.

    2014-11-11

    It is well known that radon daughters up to {sup 214}Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of Rn and its progeny in cave air by liquid scintillation techniques and. cap alpha. -ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H.; Kasai, A.; Matsunaga, T.

    1985-09-01

    To estimate the internal dose from Rn and its progeny, the working level month which is defined as exposure at one working level concentration for 170 h has been used traditionally. But concerning dose calculated for the inhalation of Rn and its progeny to the public, dose factors from individual nuclides were recommended. The approach using individual dose factors requires determination of the concentration of these individual nuclides. Thus a simultaneous measurement of Rn and its progeny was made in an enclosed cave, which is used for seismological observation, since the problem is most acute in an enclosed environment and the situation is not so complicated under such circumstances. Radon sampling by adsorption in organic solvent and in-situ ..cap alpha..-ray spectrometry of Rn progeny have been carried out in this cave. The internal dose by inhalation is estimated for the workers in this cave.

  3. Development of a new thoron progeny detector based on SSNTD and the collection by an electric field.

    PubMed

    Bi, L; Tschiersch, J; Meisenberg, O; Wielunski, M; Li, J L; Shang, B

    2011-05-01

    The importance of (220)Rn (thoron) progeny for human exposure has been widely recognised in the past decades. Since no stable equilibrium factor was found between indoor thoron and its progeny, and the concentration of thoron progeny varies with time, it is necessary to develop detectors for long-term measurement that directly sample and detect thoron progeny. However, power supply of this kind of detectors has always been a problem. In this study, a set of device that is suitable for long-term measurement is introduced. A high-voltage electric field was formed for the collection of charged aerosols attached by (222)Rn (radon) and thoron progenies on solid-state nuclear track detector. Impact from radon progeny could be eliminated with a shield of Al foil of appropriate thickness. Tests were made both in an experimental house and in a thoron chamber in Helmholtz Zentrum München to determine the parameters and to verify the universality under different conditions. PMID:21493610

  4. Is thoron a problem in Swedish dwellings? Results of measurements of concentrations of thoron and its progeny.

    PubMed

    Skeppström, K; Wåhlin, E

    2015-11-01

    Long-term measurements of thoron progeny concentrations (equilibrium-equivalent thoron concentration) have been carried out in Swedish dwellings with the aim of investigating if thoron and its progeny pose a health risk. Measurements were performed in 93 houses and 25 apartments. In addition to thoron progeny concentration, thoron gas concentration near the wall surface, ambient dose equivalent rate of gamma radiation and radon gas concentration were also measured. The results show that the mean value of thoron progeny was 2.2 Bq m(-3) in houses and 1.6 Bq m(-3) in apartments. Ten per cent of the dwellings (both houses and apartments) had thoron progeny concentrations exceeding 10 Bq m(-3). Thoron progeny concentration is not significantly different in dwellings built of alum shale-based aerated concrete ('blue concrete') than dwellings built of other construction materials. For the dwellings in this study (not representative of the Swedish population), the mean dose estimated due to exposure to thoron was found to be 0.4 mSv y(-1). PMID:25904697

  5. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, M V B; Sonstegard, T S; Hanotte, O; Mugambi, J M; Garcia, J F; Nagda, S; Gibson, J P; Iraqi, F A; McClintock, A E; Kemp, S J; Boettcher, P J; Malek, M; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L

    2012-02-01

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F(1) rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AVPCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cm) were scored and corrected by Genoprob prior to qxpak analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL. PMID:22221026

  6. Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in F1 and F2 Progenies of Somatic Cell-Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Noritaka; YAMAGUCHI, Daisuke; WATANABE, Akiyuki; MIURA, Narumi; SUNAGA, Seiji; OISHI, Hitoshi; HASHIMOTO, Michiko; OISHI, Takatsugu; IWAMOTO, Masaki; HANADA, Hirofumi; KUBO, Masanori; ONISHI, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production. PMID:24492641

  7. A review of lung-to-blood absorption rates for radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J W; Bailey, M R

    2013-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance of materials from the respiratory tract as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the alimentary tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommended default absorption rates for lead and polonium (Type M) in ICRP Publication 71 but stated that the values were not appropriate for short-lived radon progeny. This paper reviews and evaluates published data from volunteer and laboratory animal experiments to estimate the HRTM absorption parameter values for short-lived radon progeny. Animal studies showed that lead ions have two phases of absorption: ∼10 % absorbed with a half-time of ∼15 min, the rest with a half-time of ∼10 h. The studies also indicated that some of the lead ions were bound to respiratory tract components. Bound fractions, f(b), for lead were estimated from volunteer and animal studies and ranged from 0.2 to 0.8. Based on the evaluations of published data, the following HRTM absorption parameter values were derived for lead as a decay product of radon: f(r) = 0.1, s(r) = 100 d(-1), s(s) = 1.7 d(-1), f(b) = 0.5 and s(b) = 1.7 d(-1). Effective doses calculated assuming these absorption parameter values instead of a single absorption half-time of 10 h with no binding (as has generally been assumed) are only a few per cent higher. However, as there is some conflicting evidence on the absorption kinetics for radon progeny, dose calculations have been carried out for different sets of absorption parameter values derived from different studies. The results of these calculations are discussed. PMID:23887272

  8. An historical overview of radon and its progeny: applications and health effects.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, J

    2012-11-01

    Since its discovery by Dorn in 1900, studies of radon and its progeny have contributed to such diverse scientific fields as meteorology, geophysics, mineral exploration and radiation health effects. In addition to terrestrial scientific studies of radon, NASA missions in recent decades have yielded data on the behaviour of radon and its progeny on the Moon and on Mars. Radon has been used therapeutically for ∼100 y in the form of radon seeds for the irradiation of malignant tumours. It is, however, for its negative health effects that radon is better and more justifiably known. The causal role of radon and, in particular, its progeny in the elevated incidence of lung cancer in underground uranium miners was established in the 1950s. It is of historical interest to note that the fatal lung disease of silver miners in Saxony and Bohemia in the 16th century, was undoubtedly lung cancer caused by the high levels of radon in the mines. In recent decades there has been an ever-growing interest in the public health effects of exposure to radon in homes. Extensive radon epidemiological studies both of underground miners and of the general public in recent decades have quantified the lung cancer risks from radon exposure. Radon was classified in 1988 by International Agency for Research on Cancer as a human carcinogen and in 2009 the World Health Organization identified radon as the second cause of lung cancer globally after smoking. Radon control strategies are used by many governments to control and reduce the risk to public health from radon. PMID:22914338

  9. Differentiated fibroblastic progenies of human embryonic stem cells for toxicology screening.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tong; Lu, Kai; Fu, Xin; Heng, Boon Chin

    2008-03-01

    Immortalized cell lines and live animal models are commonly used for cytotoxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials. However, these assays poorly reflect human physiology and have numerous other disadvantages. An alternative may be to utilize differentiated fibroblastic progenies of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for in vitro toxicology screening. These were generated through random spontaneous differentiation within standard culture media, over several passages. The cytotoxic response of the differentiated hESC fibroblastic progenies (pH9) to mitomycin C was observed to be not only very similar to the L929 cell line, but was, in fact, more sensitive. At an initial seeding density of 1000 cells/well (0.33 cm(2)), the proliferation index was observed to decrease 19.0% from 1.638 to 1.326 for the L929 cell line, as the dosage of mitomycin C was gradually increased from 0 to 1.54 microg/mL. By contrast, pH9 displayed a corresponding 40.5% drop in proliferation index from 3.713 to 2.209. At a higher seeding density of 2000 cells/well (0.33 cm(2)), the proliferation index was observed to decrease 27.0% from 1.213 to 0.885 for the L929 cell line, whereas pH9 displayed a corresponding 43.7% drop in proliferation index from 3.711 to 2.091. Hence, it is apparent that pH9 exhibited a more sensitive dose-response to mitomycin C compared to L929, which could be advantageous for cytotoxicity screening assays. Additionally, this study also demonstrated that a highly purified and well-defined phenotypic population of differentiated hESC progenies is not necessary for high reproducibility and accuracy in cytotoxic response. PMID:18241121

  10. Segregation and Heritability of Male Sterility in Populations Derived from Progeny of Satsuma Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shingo; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kita, Masayuki; Hamada, Hiroko; Shimizu, Tokurou

    2016-01-01

    Male sterility derived from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) has been used in Japanese citrus breeding programs to obtain seedless cultivars, which is a desirable trait for consumers. Male sterility has often been evaluated by anther development or pollen fertility; however, the inheritance and heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of inheritance and broad-sense heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma. Initially, we evaluated the total number of pollen grains per anther and apparent pollen fertility, as indicated by lactophenol blue staining, in 15 citrus cultivars and selections to understand the male sterility of Satsuma. The results indicated that male sterility was primarily caused by decreased number of pollen grains per anther in progeny of Satsuma. We also evaluated these traits in three F1 populations (hyuganatsu × 'Okitsu No. 56', 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara'), of which the parents are derived from Satsuma. Individuals in these populations showed strong segregation for number of pollen grains per anther. The apparent fertility of pollen also showed segregation but was almost constant at 70%-90%. The estimated broad-sense heritability for the number of pollen grains per anther was as high as 0.898 in the 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' populations. These results indicated that the number of pollen grains per anther primarily determined male sterility among progeny of Satsuma, and this trait was inherited by the progeny. Development of DNA markers closely linked to male sterility using the F1 populations of 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Okitsu No. 56' and 'Okitsu No. 46' × 'Kara' is expected to contribute to the breeding of novel seedless citrus cultivars. PMID:27589237

  11. Determination of rain age via {gamma} rays from accreted radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M. B.; Ito, N.; Iwata, A.; Kubo, K.; Ishigaki, M.; Komura, K.

    2008-10-01

    The relative {gamma} ray activities from {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi condensed from precipitation are used to determine its 'age', the average time the accreted activity has been removed from secular equilibrium. A verifiable assumption that radon progeny on/in the surface/volume of droplets mostly remains in secular equilibrium until they begin their descent, enables estimates of their transit times to ground of typically a few tens of minutes. This agrees well with the time expected for the activity on the surface of droplets to reach the ground from heights of a few kilometers. The half lives of {gamma} activities from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb, 19.7 and 26.9 min, respectively, are on the same scale as transit time to ground and close enough to each other to measure ratios of activities from secular equilibrium (1.00) to transient equilibrium (3.88) within a few hundreds of minutes. The ratio of {gamma} count rates is independent of knowledge of either initial activity or any systematic errors and thus limited only by the uncertainty from counting statistics, which from condensates of 5-30 l of rain viewed with 2{pi} solid angle by a 50% efficient, high-resolution Ge detector is only a few percent. These ratios fit extremely well to known theoretical curves, which cannot only be used to date rain but can also be extrapolated backward to determine radon progeny activities in rain prior to its descent, knowledge of which may facilitate further studies using radon progeny as tracers.

  12. Parental Optimism and Progeny Choice: When is Screening for Offspring Quality Affordable.

    PubMed

    Forbes; Mock

    1998-05-01

    Three general classes of fitness incentives have been proposed for parental overproduction of offspring: (1) tracking environmental variation; (2) developmental facilitation; and (3) replacements for failed or defective members of the core brood. In one version of this last category, called the progeny choice hypothesis, parents are seen as creating an enlarged array of offspring from which a genetically superior subset is chosen for full investment. In the selection process, parents may eliminate the victims either through personal effort (filial infanticide) or by proxy (by allowing or even encouraging fatal sibling rivalry). Because the culling process is non-random, it can elevate average offspring quality. Progeny choice, however, is only cost-effective if the expenses of early overproduction (including elevated levels of sibling competition) do not outweigh the eventual upgrade in offspring quality. A fair competition within the offspring "arena" offers the greatest potential for discriminating on the basis of intrinsic quality, but may be overwhelmed by high costs of sibling rivalry. Conversely, while parentally managed competition (conferring handicaps to some and advantages to others) can discount those rivalry costs, it simultaneously diminishes the system's capacity for distinguishing good offspring from bad. Ceteris paribus, one would expect to find progeny choice mechanisms in species with cheap sibling rivalry, large cohorts of evenly matched offspring, and exaggerated variation in offspring genetic quality. Conversely, this class of incentives of parental overproduction seems least suited to taxa in which parents dole out marked advantages or handicaps to various concurrent offspring (e.g. asynchronously hatching birds).Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited PMID:9628835

  13. Development of a Progeny Marker for Steelhead; A Thesis submitted to Oregon State University.

    SciTech Connect

    Shippentower, Gene E.

    2009-04-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if strontium chloride could be used to create a trans-generational otolith mark in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I completed two strontium injection trials and a survey of juvenile steelhead from various steelhead hatcheries. The two trials measured Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths in response to injections and the survey measured the natural variation in Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths of juvenile hatchery steelhead in response to the natural variation. In 2003, adult female Wallowa River, Oregon O. mykiss, were captured at the hatchery and evenly divided between a control group and two treatment groups. These females received an intraperitoneal injection of 1cc/500 g of body weight of a physiologically isotonic solution (0.9% saline) containing concentrations of 0 (control), 1000, or 5000 parts per million (ppm) of strontium chloride hexahydrate (SrCl2* 6H2O). Females were housed in a single outdoor tank until spawned artificially, and a distinct external tag identified each female within each treatment group. In 2004, female steelhead were captured throughout the duration of the adult returns to the Umatilla River basin and injected with 0, 1000, 5000, or 20,000-ppm strontium. In both trials, progeny of fish treated with strontium had significantly higher Sr:Ca ratios in the primordial region of their otoliths as measured using an electron wavelength dispersive microprobe. There was no difference in fertilization rates of eggs and survival rates of fry among treatment groups. Progeny from treated mothers were on average larger than progeny of untreated mothers. The Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths collected from various populations of steelhead were greater than the control values measured in both injections studies. This study suggests that the marking technique works and the utility for such a technique could be used for empirical observations in determining the relative fitness of progeny of adult hatchery origin fish

  14. Exposure to radon and radon progeny in the indoor environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses the work done by the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies at Princeton University as part of the radon research program. It involves radon measurements in various buildings, as well as the use of natural ventilation to mitigate radon levels. The report is divided into four chapters: The use of radon entry rate measurements to understand radon concentration in buildings; Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings; The effect of natural ventilation on radon and radon progeny levels in houses; and Comparison of natural and forced ventilation for radon mitigation in houses.

  15. Age-dependent inhalation doses to members of the public from indoor short-lived radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Brudecki, K; Li, W B; Meisenberg, O; Tschiersch, J; Hoeschen, C; Oeh, U

    2014-08-01

    The main contribution of radiation dose to the human lungs from natural exposure originates from short-lived radon progeny. In the present work, the inhalation doses from indoor short-lived radon progeny, i.e., (218)Po, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, and (214)Po, to different age groups of members of the public were calculated. In the calculations, the age-dependent systemic biokinetic models of polonium, bismuth, and lead published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were adopted. In addition, the ICRP human respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract models were applied to determine the deposition fractions in different regions of the lungs during inhalation and exhalation, and the absorption fractions of radon progeny in the alimentary tract. Based on the calculated contribution of each progeny to equivalent dose and effective dose, the dose conversion factor was estimated, taking into account the unattached fraction of aerosols, attached aerosols in the nucleation, accumulation and coarse modes, and the potential alpha energy concentration fraction in indoor air. It turned out that for each progeny, the equivalent doses to extrathoracic airways and the lungs are greater than those to other organs. The contribution of (214)Po to effective dose is much smaller compared to that of the other short-lived radon progeny and can thus be neglected in the dose assessment. In fact, 90 % of the effective dose from short-lived radon progeny arises from (214)Pb and (214)Bi, while the rest is from (218)Po. The dose conversion factors obtained in the present study are 17 and 18 mSv per working level month (WLM) for adult female and male, respectively. This compares to values ranging from 6 to 20 mSv WLM(-1) calculated by other investigators. The dose coefficients of each radon progeny calculated in the present study can be used to estimate the radiation doses for the population, especially for small children and women, in specific regions of the world

  16. Immunosuppression in progeny of chinook salmon infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum: re-analysis of a brood stock segregation experiment.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Owen S

    2005-06-14

    Female spawner infection level and temperature variation through rearing are sufficient to explain in-hatchery mortality rates and infection levels and smolt to adult return ratios (SARs) of progeny of Renibacterium salmoninarum infected spring chinook salmon. Data from published reports and manuscripts regarding a 1988 brood stock segregation experiment that held progeny of highly infected female spring chinook salmon spawners separate from progeny of other spawners during 16 mo of hatchery rearing are analyzed to test the hypothesis that immunosuppression could account for differences in survival and infection levels between the 2 segregates. Immunosuppression, caused by the presence of the p57 antigen of R. salmoninarum in sufficient concentration within the salmon egg before spawning, can account for differences in infection levels, mortality rates, and SARs for each hatchery raceway in that study. This immunosuppression may be characterized by immunotolerance, or might only affect cell mediated immunity, which appears the most effective defense mechanism against R. salmoninarum infection, as antibody production can result in tissue damaging antibody-antigen complexes. Low-temperature mediated immunosuppression can account for the nearly identical trajectories of infection and mortality between the 2 segregates during the first 8 mo of hatchery rearing. There is no evidence of widespread vertical infection from spawner to progeny, nor is there evidence that brood stock segregation reduces overall mortality. Rather, the suppression of cell-mediated immune mechanisms may condemn progeny of highly infected female spawners to an almost certain eventual premature demise. PMID:16042041

  17. International intercalibration and intercomparison measurements of radon progeny particle size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Keng-Wu

    1997-07-01

    Because there is no standard method for {sup 222}Rn progeny size measurements, verifying the performance of various measurement techniques is important. This report describes results of an international intercomparison and calibration of {sup 222}Rn progeny size measurements involving low pressure impactors (MOUDI and Berner) and diffusion battery systems, as well as both alpha- and gamma- counting methods. The intercomparison was at EML on June 12-15, 1995. 5 different particle sizes (80, 90, 165, 395, 1200 nm) of near monodisperse condensation Carbauba wax aerosol and 2 bimodal size spectra (160 and 365 nm, and 70 and 400 nm) were used. 20 tests were completed, covering both low and high concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and test aerosols. For the single-mode test aerosol, the measurements agreed within the size range. Best agreement was found between the two low pressure impactors. Some differences between the impactor and diffusion battery methods were observed in the specific peak locations and the resultant geometric mean diameters. For the two bimodal size distribution aerosols, the MOUDI measurements showed two modes, while the other 3 devices showed a single mode size distribution.

  18. Polyploid Titan Cells Produce Haploid and Aneuploid Progeny To Promote Stress Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Gerstein, Aleeza C.; Fu, Man Shun; Mukaremera, Liliane; Li, Zhongming; Ormerod, Kate L.; Fraser, James A.; Berman, Judith

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a major life-threatening fungal pathogen. In response to the stress of the host environment, C. neoformans produces large polyploid titan cells. Titan cell production enhances the virulence of C. neoformans, yet whether the polyploid aspect of titan cells is specifically influential remains unknown. We show that titan cells were more likely to survive and produce offspring under multiple stress conditions than typical cells and that even their normally sized daughters maintained an advantage over typical cells in continued exposure to stress. Although polyploid titan cells generated haploid daughter cell progeny upon in vitro replication under nutrient-replete conditions, titan cells treated with the antifungal drug fluconazole produced fluconazole-resistant diploid and aneuploid daughter cells. Interestingly, a single titan mother cell was capable of generating multiple types of aneuploid daughter cells. The increased survival and genomic diversity of titan cell progeny promote rapid adaptation to new or high-stress conditions. PMID:26463162

  19. A Gateway recombination herpesvirus cloning system with negative selection that produces vectorless progeny.

    PubMed

    Kunec, Dusan; van Haren, Sandra; Burgess, Shane C; Hanson, Larry A

    2009-01-01

    Crossover recombination based on the lambda phage integration/excision functions enables insertion of a gene of interest into a specific locus by a simple one-step in vitro recombination reaction. Recently, a highly efficient recombination system for targeted mutagenesis, which utilizes lambda phage crossover recombination cloning, has been described for a human herpesvirus 2 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The disadvantages of the system are that it allows only neutral selection (loss of green fluorescent protein) of desired recombinants and that it regenerates herpesvirus progeny containing the BAC sequence inserted in the herpesvirus genome. In this study, the existing channel catfish herpesvirus (CCV) infectious clone (in the form of overlapping fragments) was modified to allow introduction of foreign genes by modified lambda phage crossover recombination cloning. This novel system enables negative and neutral selection and regenerates vectorless herpesvirus progeny. Construction of two CCV mutants expressing lacZ, one from the native CCV ORF5 promoter and the other from the immediate-early cytomegalovirus promoter, demonstrated the efficiency and reliability of this system. This novel cloning system enables rapid incorporation, direct delivery and high-level expression of foreign genes by a herpesvirus. This system has broad utility and could be used to facilitate development of recombinant viruses, viral vectors and better vaccines. PMID:18948138

  20. RADON AND PROGENY ALPHA-PARTICLE ENERGY ANALYSIS USING NUCLEAR TRACK METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo; Golzarri y Moreno, Dr. Jose Ignacio; Bogard, James S

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary procedure for alpha energy analysis of radon and progeny using Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) is described in this paper. The method is based on the relationship between alpha-particle energies deposited in polycarbonate material (CR-39) and the track size developed after a well-established chemical etching process. Track geometry, defined by parameters such as major or minor diameters, track area and overall track length, is shown to correlate with alpha-particle energy over the range 6.00 MeV (218Po) to 7.69 MeV (214Po). Track features are measured and the data analyzed automatically using a digital imaging system and commercial PC software. Examination of particle track diameters in CR-39 exposed to environmental radon reveals a multi-modal distribution. Locations of the maxima in this distribution are highly correlated with alpha particle energies of radon daughters, and the distributions are sufficiently resolved to identify the radioisotopes. This method can be useful for estimating the radiation dose from indoor exposure to radon and its progeny.

  1. Hematopoietic Fingerprints: an expression database of stem cells and their progeny

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Stuart M; Boles, Nathan C; Lin, Kuan-Yin K; Tierney, Megan P; Bowman, Teresa V; Bradfute, Steven B; Chen, Alice J; Merchant, Akil A; Sirin, Olga; Weksberg, David C; Merchant, Mehveen G; Fisk, C Joseph; Shaw, Chad A; Goodell, Margaret A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) continuously regenerate the hematologic system, yet few genes regulating this process have been defined. To identify candidate factors involved in differentiation and self-renewal, we have generated an expression database of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiated progeny, including erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, NK cells, activated and naïve T-cells, and B-cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed HSC were more transcriptionally active than their progeny and shared a common activation mechanism with T-cells. Each cell type also displayed unique biases in the regulation of particular genetic pathways, with Wnt signaling particularly enhanced in HSCs. We identified ∼100 to 400 genes uniquely expressed in each cell type, termed lineage “fingerprints.” In overexpression studies, two of these genes, Zfp105 from the NK cell lineage, and Ets2 from the monocyte lineage, were able to significantly influence differentiation toward their respective lineages, demonstrating the utility of the fingerprints for identifying genes that regulate differentiation. PMID:18371395

  2. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J.; Gu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications. PMID:26639836

  3. Infectious Progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza Virus Replicated in and Released from Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Feiyuan; Liu, Xingmu; Zhao, Conghui; Chen, Xueling; Kelvin, David J; Gu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Various reports have indicated that a number of viruses could infect neutrophils, but the multiplication of viruses in neutrophils was abortive. Based on our previous finding that avian influenza viral RNA and proteins were present in the nucleus of infected human neutrophils in vivo, we investigated the possibility of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza viral synthesis in infected neutrophils and possible release of infectious progeny from host cells. In this study we found that human neutrophils in vitro without detectable level of sialic acid expression could be infected by this virus strain. We also show that the infected neutrophils can not only synthesize 2009 A (H1N1) viral mRNA and proteins, but also produce infectious progeny. These findings suggest that infectious progeny of 2009 A (H1N1) influenza virus could be replicated in and released from human neutrophils with possible clinical implications. PMID:26639836

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A E; Rodrigueiro, R J B; Santos, T C; Ospina-Rojas, I C; Rademacher, M

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of meat-type quail breeders with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on their reproductive parameters and progeny performance. Two hundred forty meat-type quails at 25 wk of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 8 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 5 dietary levels of GAA (0.00, 0.06, 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24%). The progenies from quail breeders were housed according to breeder treatments and fed a conventional diet based on corn and soybean meal without GAA supplementation. Dietary GAA levels did not affect (P > 0.05) the productivity of meat-type quail breeders, although the concentration of guanidinic compounds (creatine, GAA, and creatinine) in the eggs from the breeders increased linearly (P < 0.05) according to the increase in dietary GAA levels. The number of spermatozoa present in the vitelline membrane was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments, but there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of GAA on fertility, embryonic mortality, and egg hatchability, with the best results estimated at 0.13, 0.15, and 0.14% GAA, respectively. The creatine levels of the pectoral muscle in newborn quails showed a quadratic effect (P ≤ 0.07), and the dietary GAA level of 0.11% was estimated to maximize the muscular creatine level in the progeny. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of GAA levels on weight gain and feed conversion of progeny at 35 d of age with an optimization point of 0.14% GAA for these variables. Dietary GAA supplementation of meat-type quail breeders increases the availability of creatine in eggs and muscle of progeny, which results in better reproductive parameters and better postnatal progeny performance. PMID:24974392

  5. Ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of progeny of alcohol-addicted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, E.N.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of the progeny of alcohol-addicted rats. Experiments were carried out on 12 female and four male albino rats; they were given alcohol solutions for 4 months and then mated. The female rats continued to ingest alcohol until the young rats acquired vision. The sensomotor cortex of experimental young rats aged 21 and 30 days and of intact animals of the same age was investigated; the sections were stained with uranyl acetate and studied. It is shown that alcoholic intoxication of females and males causes significant disturbances of the structural organization of the sensomotor cortex in the progeny.

  6. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  7. Bronchial dysplasia induced by radiation in miners exposed to 222Rn progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Michaylov, M A; Pressyanov, D S; Kalinov, K B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate whether sputum cytology can be used to monitor epithelial cell changes in groups at high risk of lung cancer from exposure to radiation. METHODS--Dysplasia of bronchial cells was investigated by means of sputum cytology in a group of 434 underground miners. 100 of them were not exposed, and 334 were exposed to 222Rn progeny at cumulative exposures < 450 working level months. RESULTS--The frequency of dysplasia in the exposed group was significantly higher than that in the not exposed group (P < 0.0001), and an exposure-response relation was found. This relation was different for smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS--Possibly the frequencies of dysplasia could be used to assess past exposures of groups of miners. This approach could be applied to cases where data on radiation monitoring are not available or are very scarce. Images p82-a PMID:7757171

  8. Enhancement of exposure to radon progeny as a consequence of passive smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Moghissi, A.A.; Seiler, M.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Among indoor air pollutants, radon and tobacco smoke take dominant positions. Because radon decay products have a relatively short residence time in air, the extent of the equilibrium between radon and its daughter products is linearly proportional to the carcinogenic risk, at least at low exposure levels. The relevant factor is the equilibrium factor F. This paper discusses the enhancement of radon exposure as a result of the presence of particulate matter originating from tobacco smoke. The presence of tobacco smoke provides a mechanism for radon progeny to be attached to inhalable particles and to remain in indoor air for a prolonged time. The results of our study indicate a significant increase in F as a consequence of passive smoking. These modeling efforts are consistent with the experimental data reported previously.

  9. In vivo generated Citrus exocortis viroid progeny variants display a range of phenotypes with altered levels of replication, systemic accumulation and pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) exists as heterogeneous variants in plant hosts. We inoculated RNA transcripts from a CEVd cDNA clone into protoplasts, seedlings and mature plants of citrus and sequenced 240 in vivo generated progeny variants. Selected progeny variants were further used to evaluate t...

  10. A Truncated Nef Peptide from SIVcpz Inhibits the Production of HIV-1 Infectious Progeny.

    PubMed

    Sabino Cunha, Marcela; Lima Sampaio, Thatiane; Peterlin, B Matija; Jesus da Costa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Nef proteins from all primate Lentiviruses, including the simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), increase viral progeny infectivity. However, the function of Nef involved with the increase in viral infectivity is still not completely understood. Nonetheless, until now, studies investigating the functions of Nef from SIVcpz have been conducted in the context of the HIV-1 proviruses. In an attempt to investigate the role played by Nef during the replication cycle of an SIVcpz, a Nef-defective derivative was obtained from the SIVcpzWTGab2 clone by introducing a frame shift mutation at a unique restriction site within the nef sequence. This nef-deleted clone expresses an N-terminal 74-amino acid truncated peptide of Nef and was named SIVcpz-tNef. We found that the SIVcpz-tNef does not behave as a classic nef-deleted HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques SIVmac. Markedly, SIVcpz-tNef progeny from both Hek-293T and Molt producer cells were completely non-infectious. Moreover, the loss in infectivity of SIVcpz-tNef correlated with the inhibition of Gag and GagPol processing. A marked accumulation of Gag and very low levels of reverse transcriptase were detected in viral lysates. Furthermore, these observations were reproduced once the tNef peptide was expressed in trans both in SIVcpzΔNef and HIV-1WT expressing cells, demonstrating that the truncated peptide is a dominant negative for viral processing and infectivity for both SIVcpz and HIV-1. We demonstrated that the truncated Nef peptide binds to GagPol outside the protease region and by doing so probably blocks processing of both GagPol and Gag precursors at a very early stage. This study demonstrates for the first time that naturally-occurring Nef peptides can potently block lentiviral processing and infectivity. PMID:27399760

  11. Variations in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) progeny response to high aluminium concentrations in solution culture.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, R J A; Hanafi, M M; Omar, S R Syed; Rafii, M Y

    2011-03-01

    Aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity is an important soil constraint that limits crop yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate how growth, physiology, nutrient content and organic acid concentration is affected by Al, and to assess the degree of Al tolerance in different oil palm progeny (OPP). Four OPPs ['A' (Angola dura × Angola dura), 'B' (Nigerian dura × Nigerian dura), 'C' (Deli dura × AVROS pisifera) and 'D' (Deli dura × Dumpy AVROS pisifera)] were grown in different Al concentrations (0, 100 and 200 μm) in aerated Hoagland solution, pH 4.4, for 80 days. We observed a severe reduction (57.5%) in shoot dry weight, and root tips were reduced by 46.5% in 200 μm Al. In 'B' and 'C', the majority of macro- and micronutrients in plants were reduced significantly by 200 μm Al, with Mg being lowered by more than 50% in roots and shoots. The 200 μm Al treatment resulted in a 56.50% reduction in total leaf area, a 20% reduction in net photosynthesis and a 17% reduction in SPAD chlorophyll value in the third leaf. Root tips (0-5 mm) showed a significant increase in oxalic acid content with increasing Al concentration (∼ 5.86-fold); progeny 'A' had the highest concentration of oxalic acid. There was a significant interaction between Al concentration × OPP on total leaf number, root volume, lateral root length, Mg and K in root and shoot tissues, and Ca and N in shoots. The OPPs could be ranked in their tolerance to Al as: 'A' > 'D' > 'B' > 'C'. PMID:21309980

  12. CuO Nanoparticle Interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana: Toxicity, Parent-Progeny Transfer, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Lina; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Xiangke; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 50 mg L(-1)) inhibited seedling growth of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col-0, Bay-0, and Ws-2), as well as the germination of their pollens and harvested seeds. For most of growth parameters (e.g., biomass, relative growth rate, root morphology change), Col-0 was the more sensitive ecotype to CuO NPs compared to Bay-0 and Ws-2. Equivalent Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no effect on Arabidopsis growth. After CuO NPs (50 mg L(-1)) exposure, Cu was detected in the roots, leaves, flowers and harvested seeds of Arabidopsis, and its contents were significantly higher than that in CuO bulk particles (50 mg L(-1)) and Cu(2+) ions (0.15 mg L(-1)) treatments. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis (XANES), Cu in the harvested seeds was confirmed as being mainly in the form of CuO (88.8%), which is the first observation on the presence of CuO NPs in the plant progeny. Moreover, after CuO NPs exposure, two differentially expressed genes (C-1 and C-3) that regulated root growth and reactive oxygen species generation were identified, which correlated well with the physiological root inhibition and oxidative stress data. This current study provides direct evidence for the negative effects of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis, including accumulation and parent-progeny transfer of the particles, which may have significant implications with regard to the risk of NPs to food safety and security. PMID:27226046

  13. Effects of soil contamination by trace elements on white poplar progeny: seed germination and seedling vigour.

    PubMed

    Madejón, Paula; Cantos, Manuel; Jiménez-Ramos, María C; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José M

    2015-11-01

    Seed germination is considered a critical phase in plant development and relatively sensitive to heavy metals. White poplar (Populus alba) trees tend to accumulate Cd and Zn in their tissues. We tested if soil contamination can affect P. alba progeny, reduced seed germination and explored the distribution of mineral elements in the seed. For this purpose, fruits and seeds from female P. alba trees were selected from two contaminated and one non-contaminated areas. Seeds from all the sites were germinated using only water or a nutritive solution (in vitro). Concentrations of nutrients and trace elements in the fruits and seeds were analysed. Seedling growth in vitro was also analysed. Finally, a mapping of different elements within the poplar seed was obtained by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Germination was similar between different progenies, refuting our hypothesis that seeds from a contaminated origin would have reduced germination capacity compared to those from a non-contaminated site. Seedling growth was not affected by the contaminated origin. Cadmium and Zn concentrations in fruits produced by P. alba trees in the contaminated sites were higher than by those from the non-contaminated site. However, the nutritional status of the trees was adequate in both cases. Cd in seedlings was higher in those from contaminated soils although lower than in fruits, indicating a certain exclusion from seeds. Preliminary results of the PIXE technique showed that Al and Zn were distributed uniformly in the seeds (Cd was not detected with this technique), while the nutrients P and S were concentrated in the cotyledons. PMID:26433900

  14. Oncolytic reovirus induces intracellular redistribution of Ras to promote apoptosis and progeny virus release.

    PubMed

    Garant, K A; Shmulevitz, M; Pan, L; Daigle, R M; Ahn, D-G; Gujar, S A; Lee, P W K

    2016-02-11

    Reovirus is a naturally oncolytic virus that preferentially replicates in Ras-transformed cells and is currently undergoing clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic. Ras transformation promotes reovirus oncolysis by enhancing virion disassembly during entry, viral progeny production, and virus release through apoptosis; however, the mechanism behind the latter is not well understood. Here, we show that reovirus alters the intracellular location of oncogenic Ras to induce apoptosis of H-RasV12-transformed fibroblasts. Reovirus infection decreases Ras palmitoylation levels and causes accumulation of Ras in the Golgi through Golgi fragmentation. With the Golgi being the site of Ras palmitoylation, treatment of target cells with the palmitoylation inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate (2BP), prompts a greater accumulation of H-RasV12 in the Golgi, and a dose-dependent increase in progeny virus release and subsequent spread. Conversely, tethering H-RasV12 to the plasma membrane (thereby preventing its movement to the Golgi) allows for efficient virus production, but results in basal levels of reovirus-induced cell death. Analysis of Ras downstream signaling reveals that cells expressing cycling H-RasV12 have elevated levels of phosphorylated JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and that Ras retained at the Golgi body by 2BP increases activation of the MEKK1/MKK4/JNK signaling pathway to promote cell death. Collectively, our data suggest that reovirus induces Golgi fragmentation of target cells, and the subsequent accumulation of oncogenic Ras in the Golgi body initiates apoptotic signaling events required for virus release and spread. PMID:25961930

  15. Effects of selection for scrotal circumference in Limousin bulls on reproductive and growth traits of progeny.

    PubMed

    Moser, D W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; McCann, M A; Kiser, T E

    1996-09-01

    Nine pairs of Limousin bulls from nine contemporary groups were acquired, with each pair consisting of one large scrotal circumference (SC) bull and one small SC bull. Average adjusted yearling scrotal circumferences were 36.3 cm (SD 1.6 cm) and 28.5 cm (SD .9 cm) for large SC (LP) and small SC (SP) bulls, respectively. In addition to the phenotypic grouping, non-parent SC EPD were used to group bulls into high (HE, > .53 cm), average (AE), and low (LE, < -.61 cm) lines. Each bull was mated to a randomly assigned group of 15 to 20 Brangus x Hereford cows each yr for 1 to 3 yr. Birth weights, weaning and yearling weights and heights, and ultrasound measurements for backfat and ribeye measurements were taken on 407 progeny. Blood samples were collected on 210 heifer progeny when they averaged 11, 13, and 15 mo of age to determine whether they had reached puberty. When subjected to a breeding soundness exam (BSE), LP bulls scored higher (P < .01) for motility as well as total BSE score. The LP calves had heavier birth weights (P < .05) and greater testicular mass at weaning (P < .01) than SP calves. The HE and AE bull calves had greater (P < .02) testicular mass than did the LE bull calves. A greater (P < .05) percentage of HE heifers had reached puberty by the 11- and 13-mo measurements than either the AE or LE heifers. The HE heifers reached puberty at a younger age than AE (P < .01) or LE (P < .001) heifers. Selection using SC EPD was more effective than phenotypic selection in reducing age at puberty in daughters. PMID:8880405

  16. Maternal heterozygosity and progeny fitness association in an inbred Scots pine population.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, S; Ahlinder, J; Waldmann, P; García-Gil, M R

    2013-03-01

    Associations between heterozygosity and fitness traits have typically been investigated in populations characterized by low levels of inbreeding. We investigated the associations between standardized multilocus heterozygosity (stMLH) in mother trees (obtained from12 nuclear microsatellite markers) and five fitness traits measured in progenies from an inbred Scots pine population. The traits studied were proportion of sound seed, mean seed weight, germination rate, mean family height of one-year old seedlings under greenhouse conditions (GH) and mean family height of three-year old seedlings under field conditions (FH). The relatively high average inbreeding coefficient (F) in the population under study corresponds to a mixture of trees with different levels of co-ancestry, potentially resulting from a recent bottleneck. We used both frequentist and Bayesian methods of polynomial regression to investigate the presence of linear and non-linear relations between stMLH and each of the fitness traits. No significant associations were found for any of the traits except for GH, which displayed negative linear effect with stMLH. Negative HFC for GH could potentially be explained by the effect of heterosis caused by mating of two inbred mother trees (Lippman and Zamir 2006), or outbreeding depression at the most heterozygote trees and its negative impact on the fitness of the progeny, while their simultaneous action is also possible (Lynch. 1991). However,since this effect wasn't detected for FH, we cannot either rule out that the greenhouse conditions introduce artificial effects that disappear under more realistic field conditions. PMID:23400838

  17. Responses of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ying; Zhang, Ningzhe; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Davalos, Albert R.; Zeng, Xianmin; Campisi, Judith; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer hESCs and their progeny, NSCs and neurons, were exposed to ionizing radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, most hESCs died within 5-7 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs underwent senescence and displayed features of astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surviving NSCs did not display the secretory phenotype expressed by pure astrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is to better understand the stress-responses of hESCs and their progeny. -- Abstract: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many human pathologies. For example, hESCs and the neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and neurons derived from them have significant potential as transplantation therapies for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Two concerns about the use of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives are their ability to function and their ability to resist neoplastic transformation in response to stresses that inevitably arise during their preparation for transplantation. To begin to understand how these cells handle genotoxic stress, we examined the responses of hESCs and derived NSCs and neurons to ionizing radiation (IR). Undifferentiated hESCs were extremely sensitive to IR, with nearly all the cells undergoing cell death within 5-7 h. NSCs and neurons were substantially more resistant to IR, with neurons showing the most resistant. Of interest, NSCs that survived IR underwent cellular senescence and acquired astrocytic characteristics. Unlike IR-treated astrocytes, however, the NSC-derived astrocytic cells that survived IR did not display the typical pro-inflammatory, pro-carcinogenic senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These findings suggest distinct genotoxic stress-responses of hESCs and derived NSC and neuronal populations, and suggest that damaged NSCs, while failing to function, may not cause local inflammation.

  18. A Truncated Nef Peptide from SIVcpz Inhibits the Production of HIV-1 Infectious Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sabino Cunha, Marcela; Lima Sampaio, Thatiane; Peterlin, B. Matija; Jesus da Costa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Nef proteins from all primate Lentiviruses, including the simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), increase viral progeny infectivity. However, the function of Nef involved with the increase in viral infectivity is still not completely understood. Nonetheless, until now, studies investigating the functions of Nef from SIVcpz have been conducted in the context of the HIV-1 proviruses. In an attempt to investigate the role played by Nef during the replication cycle of an SIVcpz, a Nef-defective derivative was obtained from the SIVcpzWTGab2 clone by introducing a frame shift mutation at a unique restriction site within the nef sequence. This nef-deleted clone expresses an N-terminal 74-amino acid truncated peptide of Nef and was named SIVcpz-tNef. We found that the SIVcpz-tNef does not behave as a classic nef-deleted HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques SIVmac. Markedly, SIVcpz-tNef progeny from both Hek-293T and Molt producer cells were completely non-infectious. Moreover, the loss in infectivity of SIVcpz-tNef correlated with the inhibition of Gag and GagPol processing. A marked accumulation of Gag and very low levels of reverse transcriptase were detected in viral lysates. Furthermore, these observations were reproduced once the tNef peptide was expressed in trans both in SIVcpzΔNef and HIV-1WT expressing cells, demonstrating that the truncated peptide is a dominant negative for viral processing and infectivity for both SIVcpz and HIV-1. We demonstrated that the truncated Nef peptide binds to GagPol outside the protease region and by doing so probably blocks processing of both GagPol and Gag precursors at a very early stage. This study demonstrates for the first time that naturally-occurring Nef peptides can potently block lentiviral processing and infectivity. PMID:27399760

  19. Reprogramming chick RPE progeny cells to differentiate towards retinal neurons by ash1

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weiming; Yan, Run-Tao

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Harnessing a cell culture of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to give rise to retinal neurons may offer a source of developing neurons for cell-replacement studies. This study explores the possibility of reprogramming RPE progeny cells to differentiate toward retinal neurons with achaete-scute homolog 1 (ash1), a proneural gene that is expressed in progenitor cells in the developing retina and promotes amacrine cell production when overexpressed in the chick retina. Methods Replication Competent Avian Splice (RCAS) retrovirus was used to drive the ectopic expression of ash1 in cell cultures of dissociated RPE isolated from day 6 chick embryos. RCAS expressing green fluorescent protein (RCAS-GFP) was used as control. The cultures were examined for de novo generation of neuron-like cells by molecular, cellular, and physiologic criteria. Results In control cultures infected with RCAS-GFP, RPE cells appeared cobblestone-like and often darkly pigmented. In cultures infected with RCAS-ash1, however, cells remained de-pigmented and frequently formed clusters. Further examination at the morphological and molecular levels showed the development of elaborate processes characteristic of neurons and the expression of genes/markers that identify different types of retinal neurons. The most prevalently expressed neural marker was calretinin, which in the chick retina identifies amacrine, ganglion, and horizontal cells. As an assay for functional maturation, the reprogrammed cells were analyzed for the presence of functional, ionotropic glutamate receptors that lead to a rise in the cytosolic free calcium (Ca2+) concentration. Calcium imaging showed that reprogrammed cells responded to glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) by increasing their Ca2+ concentrations, which, after reaching a peak level, returned to the basal level. The response curves of reprogrammed cells resembled those of cultured retinal neurons. Conclusions These results suggest that RPE progeny cells

  20. RADON AND PROGENY SOURCED DOSE ASSESSMENT OF SPA EMPLOYEES IN BALNEOLOGICAL SITES.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted in the scope of IAEA project with the name 'Establishing a Systematic Radioactivity Survey and Total Effective Dose Assessment in Natural Balneological Sites' (TUR/9/018), at the Health Physics department of Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). The aim of this study is estimation of radon and progeny sourced effective dose for the people who are working at the spa facilities by measuring radon activity concentration (RAC) at the ambient air of indoor spa pools and dressing rooms. As it is known, the source of the radon gas is the radium content of the earth crust. Therefore, thermal waters coming from ground may contain dissolved radon and the radon can diffuse water to air. So the ambient air of spa pools can contain serious RAC that depends on a lot of parameters. In this regard, RAC measurements were executed at the 70 spa facilities in Turkey. The measurements were done with both active and passive methods at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms. Thus, active measurements were carried out by using the Alphaguard(®) with diffusion mode during half an hour, and passive measurements were carried out by using the humidity resistive CR-39 radon detectors during 2 months. Results show that RAC values at ambient air of spa pools varies between 13 Bq m(-3) and 10 kBq m(-3) Because long-term measurements are more reliable, if it is available, for dose calculations passive radon measurements (with CR-39 detectors) at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms were used, otherwise active measurement results were used. With the measurement by the conversion coefficients of ICRP 65 and occupational data of the employees has got from questionary forms, effective dose values were calculated. According to the calculations, spa employees are exposed to annual average dose between 0.05 and 29 mSv because of radon and progeny. PMID:26424134

  1. Infrared Microspectroscopy Detects Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA)-induced Conformational Alterations in Hamster Scrapie Progeny Seeds*

    PubMed Central

    Daus, Martin L.; Wagenführ, Katja; Thomzig, Achim; Boerner, Susann; Hermann, Peter; Hermelink, Antje; Beekes, Michael; Lasch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The self-replicative conformation of misfolded prion proteins (PrP) is considered a major determinant for the seeding activity, infectiousness, and strain characteristics of prions in different host species. Prion-associated seeding activity, which converts cellular prion protein (PrPC) into Proteinase K-resistant, infectious PrP particles (PrPTSE), can be monitored in vitro by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Thus, PMCA has been established as a valuable analytical tool in prion research. Currently, however, it is under discussion whether prion strain characteristics are preserved during PMCA when parent seeds are amplified in PrPC substrate from the identical host species. Here, we report on the comparative structural analysis of parent and progeny (PMCA-derived) PrP seeds by an improved approach of sensitive infrared microspectroscopy. Infrared microspectroscopy revealed that PMCA of native hamster 263K scrapie seeds in hamster PrPC substrate caused conformational alterations in progeny seeds that were accompanied by an altered resistance to Proteinase K, higher sedimentation velocities in gradient ultracentrifugations, and a longer incubation time in animal bioassays. When these progeny seeds were propagated in hamsters, misfolded PrP from brain extracts of these animals showed mixed spectroscopic and biochemical properties from both parental and progeny seeds. Thus, strain modifications of 263K prions induced by PMCA seem to have been partially reversed when PMCA products were reinoculated into the original host species. PMID:24163371

  2. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  3. Progeny analysis of the interspecific somatic hybrids: Nicotiana tabacum (CMS) + Nicotiana sylvestris with respect to nuclear and chloroplast markers.

    PubMed

    Aviv, D; Fluhr, R; Edelman, M; Galun, E

    1980-07-01

    The progeny of a fusion experiment involving N. sylvestris protoplasts and X-irradiated protoplasts of the cytoplasmic male sterile 'Line 92' (N. tabacum nucleus and alien, male-sterility inducing, cytoplasm) were analyzed. Three groups of somatic hybrid plants resulted: Type A, Type B-1 and Type B-2. These as well as their androgenic progenies and the progenies resulting from their pollination with N. tabacum or N. sylvestris were followed with respect to several nuclear and cytoplasmic traits. Those controlled by the nuclear genome were plant and flower morphologies; those controlled by genetic information in the cytoplasm were tentoxin sensitivity (affecting the coupling factor of chloroplast ATPase), the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and the restriction endonuclease pattern of plastid DNA. A further cytoplasmic trait investigated (exact site of genetic control not known) was male sterility. The examinations of the somatic-hybrid groups and their respective progenies indicated that: Type A plants have N. sylvestris nuclei and 'Line 92' plastids; Type B-1 plants also have 'Line 92' plastids but their genome is composed of N. sylvestris and N. tabacum nuclei; Type B-2 plants with impaired male fertility had N. sylvestris plastids and N. sylvestris nuclei. PMID:24305792

  4. Vernalization response of domesticated× wild chickpea progeny is subject to strong genotype by environment interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vernalization insensitivity is a key feature of domesticated chickpea and its genetic basis is not well understood. We studied vernalization response among hybrid progeny derived from two domesticated x wild crosses. The wild parents are vernalization sensitive, late flowering genotypes while both d...

  5. Progeny of Osmia lignaria from distinct regions differ in developmental phenology and survival under a common thermal regime.

    PubMed

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H; Trostle, Glen

    2014-08-01

    Many insects, including some bees, have extensive subcontinental distributions that can differ in climatic conditions. Within and beyond these distributions, humans intentionally transport beneficial insects, including bees, to non-natal geographic locations. Insects also are experiencing unprecedented climatic change in their resident localities. For solitary bees, we know very little about the adaptive plasticity and geographic variation in developmental physiology that accommodates the different climates experienced within distributional ranges. Osmia lignaria Say (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) is a widely distributed North American spring-emerging bee being developed as a managed pollinator for tree fruit crops, including almonds. We examined the development and survival of O. lignaria progeny that were descended from populations sourced from southern California, western Washington, and northern Utah, and then were reared together under an hourly and weekly temperature regime simulating those of a California almond-growing region. We found that developmental physiologies of Washington and Utah progeny were generally similar. However, California progeny developed slower, were more metabolically active, and survived better under California conditions than did populations native to regions at higher latitudes. Regardless of geographic origin, cocooned adults managed under prescribed thermal regimes emerged faster and lived longer after wintering. Progeny of parents from different regions exhibited some acclimatory plasticity in developmental phenologies to a novel climatic regime, but overall their responses reflected their geographic origins. This outcome is consistent with their developmental phenologies being largely heritable adaptations to regional climates. PMID:24879969

  6. Characterization of Chromosome Inheritance of the Intergeneric BC2 and BC3 Progeny between Saccharum spp. and Erianthus arundinaceus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Lin, Yanquan; Fu, Cheng; Deng, Zuhu; Wang, Qinnan; Li, Qiwei; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Erianthus arundinaceus (E. arundinaceus) has many desirable agronomic traits for sugarcane improvement, such as high biomass, vigor, rationing ability, tolerance to drought, and water logging, as well as resistance to pests and disease. To investigate the introgression of the E. arundinaceus genome into sugarcane in the higher generations, intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny generated between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus were studied using the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. The results showed that the BC2 and BC3 generations resulted from n + n chromosome transmission. Furthermore, chromosome translocation occurred at terminal fragments from the E. arundinaceus chromosome in some progeny of Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. Notably, the translocated chromosomes could be stably transmitted to their progeny. This study illustrates the characterization of chromosome inheritance of the intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. This work could provide more useful molecular cytogenetic information for the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus, and may promote further understanding of the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus for sugarcane breeders to accelerate its progress in sugarcane commercial breeding. PMID:26196281

  7. Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

  8. Cold storage of the adult stage of Gonatocerus ashmeadi girault: the impact on maternal and progeny quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of storage of adult G. ashmeadi at 2, 5 and 10°C on maternal and the unstored progeny fitness qualities was examined. The maternal generation did not survive 5 d exposure to 2°C and those stored at 10°C survived longer than those held at 5°C. Oviposition of the maternal generation conti...

  9. Characterization of Chromosome Inheritance of the Intergeneric BC2 and BC3 Progeny between Saccharum spp. and Erianthus arundinaceus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongji; Wu, Jiayun; Wang, Ping; Lin, Yanquan; Fu, Cheng; Deng, Zuhu; Wang, Qinnan; Li, Qiwei; Chen, Rukai; Zhang, Muqing

    2015-01-01

    Erianthus arundinaceus (E. arundinaceus) has many desirable agronomic traits for sugarcane improvement, such as high biomass, vigor, rationing ability, tolerance to drought, and water logging, as well as resistance to pests and disease. To investigate the introgression of the E. arundinaceus genome into sugarcane in the higher generations, intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny generated between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus were studied using the genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technique. The results showed that the BC2 and BC3 generations resulted from n + n chromosome transmission. Furthermore, chromosome translocation occurred at terminal fragments from the E. arundinaceus chromosome in some progeny of Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. Notably, the translocated chromosomes could be stably transmitted to their progeny. This study illustrates the characterization of chromosome inheritance of the intergeneric BC2 and BC3 progeny between Saccharum spp. and E. arundinaceus. This work could provide more useful molecular cytogenetic information for the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus, and may promote further understanding of the germplasm resources of E. arundinaceus for sugarcane breeders to accelerate its progress in sugarcane commercial breeding. PMID:26196281

  10. Simultaneous Visualization of Parental and Progeny Viruses by a Capsid-Specific HaloTag Labeling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-An; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Sun, En-Ze; Zheng, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-01-26

    Real-time, long-term, single-particle tracking (SPT) provides us an opportunity to explore the fate of individual viruses toward understanding the mechanisms underlying virus infection, which in turn could lead to the development of therapeutics against viral diseases. However, the research focusing on the virus assembly and egress by SPT remains a challenge because established labeling strategies could neither specifically label progeny viruses nor make them distinguishable from the parental viruses. Herein, we have established a temporally controllable capsid-specific HaloTag labeling strategy based on reverse genetic technology. VP26, the smallest pseudorabies virus (PrV) capsid protein, was fused with HaloTag protein and labeled with the HaloTag ligand during virus replication. The labeled replication-competent recombinant PrV harvested from medium can be applied directly in SPT experiments without further modification. Thus, virus infectivity, which is critical for the visualization and analysis of viral motion, is retained to the largest extent. Moreover, progeny viruses can be distinguished from parental viruses using diverse HaloTag ligands. Consequently, the entire course of virus infection and replication can be visualized continuously, including virus attachment and capsid entry, transportation of capsids to the nucleus along microtubules, docking of capsids on the nucleus, endonuclear assembly of progeny capsids, and the egress of progeny viruses. In combination with SPT, the established strategy represents a versatile means to reveal the mechanisms and dynamic global picture of the life cycle of a virus. PMID:26720596

  11. Identification of steelhead and resident rainbow trout progeny in the Deschutes River, Oregon, revealed with otolith microchemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Reeves, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Comparisons of strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios in otolith primordia and freshwater growth regions were used to identify the progeny of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (anadromous rainbow trout) and resident rainbow trout in the Deschutes River, Oregon. We cultured progeny of known adult steelhead and resident rainbow trout to confirm the relationship between Sr:Ca ratios in otolith primordia and the life history of the maternal parent. The mean (??SD) Sr:Ca ratio was significantly higher in the otolith primordia of the progeny of steelhead (0.001461 ?? 0.00029; n = 100) than in those of the progeny of resident rainbow trout (0.000829 ?? 0.000012; n = 100). We used comparisons of Sr:Ca ratios in the primordia and first-summer growth regions of otoliths to determine the maternal origin of unknown O. mykiss juveniles (n = 272) collected from rearing habitats within the main-stem Deschutes River and tributary rearing habitats and thus to ascertain the relative proportion of each life history morph in each rearing habitat. Resident rainbow trout fry dominated the bi-monthly samples collected from main-stem rearing habitats between May and November 1995. Steelhead fry dominated samples collected from below waterfalls on two tributaries in 1996 and 1998.

  12. Cytogenetic Behavior of Trigeneric Hybrid Progeny Involving Wheat, Rye and Psathyrostachys huashanica.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Dai-Yan; Diao, Cheng-Dou; Tang, Lin; Wang, Yi; Xu, Li-Li; Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zheng, You-Liang; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Trigeneric hybrids are commonly used as bridges to transfer genes from some wild species to cultivated wheat and to measure the genomic interaction between donor species. We previously reported that trigeneric germplasms were produced by crossing wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploids (PHW-SA, 2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs) with hexaploid triticale (Zhongsi 828, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR). In the present study, chromosome pairing behavior and the genome constitution of the F4 progenies of wheat-rye-P. huashanica trigeneric hybrids were studied. Cytological analysis showed that the chromosome number of F4 progenies ranged from 39 to 46, and 57.5% of them had 42 chromosomes. The mean meiotic configuration of F4 lines was 1.71 univalents, 20.26 bivalents, 0.04 trivalents, and 0.001 quadrivalents per pollen mother cell. Among the lines with 2n = 42, the average pairing configuration was 1.21 univalents, 16.22 ring bivalents, 4.16 rod bivalents, and 0.01 trivalents. This result indicated that these lines were cytologically stable. Other lines with 2n = 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 45, and 46, bearing a high number of univalents or multivalents, showed abnormal meiotic behavior. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) revealed that all F4 lines had 11-14 rye chromosomes, but no P. huashanica chromosomes. The complete set of 14 rye chromosomes was found in 19 lines. At meiosis, GISH detected 1-6 univalents with hybridization signals of rye in 13 lines. Bivalents with fluorescence signals were identified in each line, ranging from 3 to 7. A quadrivalent with hybridization signals was observed in only 1 line, K13-714-8. Lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, and chromosome fragments hybridizing with the probe were not discovered in any of the lines. These results inferred that the behavior of rye chromosomes was normal during meiosis. In addition, 21 lines of 2n = 42 (91.3%) with 12 or 14 rye chromosomes, always contained 6 or 7 bivalents bearing fluorescence signals. This

  13. Effects of breeder feeding restriction programs and incubation temperatures on progeny footpad development.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Wilson, J; Montiel, E

    2014-08-01

    Footpad dermatitis begins early in life, and there is evidence of individual susceptibility. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the carryover effects of breeder feed restriction programs and incubation temperatures (TEM) on progeny footpad development at hatch, and 7 and 22 d. Cobb 500 fast feathering breeders were subjected to 2 dietary feed restriction programs during rearing: skip-a-day (SAD) and every-day feeding (EDF). At 60 wk of age, eggs from each group were collected and incubated according to 2 TEM, standard (S) eggshell temperature (38.1°C) and early-low late-high (LH). This second profile had low (36.9°C) eggshell temperature for the first 3 d, and standard temperature until the last 3 d when eggs were subjected to elevated (38.9°C) eggshell temperature. At hatch, 15 chicks from each treatment combination were sampled to obtain footpads for histological analysis. Seventy-two chicks per treatment were placed in 48 cages (6/cage), and raised to 22 d. At 7 and 22 d, 1 and 2 chickens, respectively, were sampled for footpads. The BW and group feed intake were recorded to obtain BW gain and feed conversion ratio at 7 and 21 d. Histological analysis assessed thickness and total area of stratus corneum (SC), epidermis, and dermis, and total papillae height. Data were analyzed as randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There was a negative effect of LH TEM on performance at both ages. An interaction effect on SC area and papillae height was observed at hatch. Additionally, SAD treatment increased thickness and area of footpad dermis. At 7 d, the SC parameters of the SAD progeny were increased. Epidermis thickness was affected by treatment interaction. Furthermore, LH TEM decreased epidermis thickness and dermis area. At 22 d, interaction effects were observed in thickness and area of SC and epidermis. Incubation S TEM increased thickness and area of dermis. It was concluded that breeder feed restriction programs

  14. Effects of pollen selection on progeny vigor in a Cucurbita pepo x C. texana hybrid.

    PubMed

    Quesada, M; Winsor, J A; Stephenson, A G

    1996-05-01

    We examined the effects of pollen selection for rapid pollen-tube growth on progeny vigor. First, we crossed a wild gourd (Cucurbita texana) to a cultivated zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Black Beauty') to produce an F1 and then an F2 generation. Half of the F1 seeds were produced by depositing small loads of C. texana pollen onto the stigmas of C. pepo. These small pollen loads were insufficient to produce a full complement of seeds and, consequently, both the fast- and the slow-growing pollen tubes were permitted to achieve fertilization. An F2 generation was then produced by depositing small loads of F1 pollen onto stigmas of F1 plants. The F2 seeds resulting from two generations of small pollen loads are termed the non-selected line because there was little or no selection for pollen-tube growth rate on these plants. The other half of the F1 and F2 seeds were produced by depositing large pollen loads (>10 000 pollen grains) onto stigmas and then allowing only the first 1% or so of the pollen tubes that entered the ovary to fertilize the ovules. We did this by excising the styles at the ovary at 12-15 h after pollination. The resulting F2 seeds are termed 'the selected line' because they were produced by two generations of selection for only the fastest growing pollen tubes. Small pollen loads from the F2plants, both the selected and the non-selected lines, were then deposited onto stigmas of different C. pepo flowers, and the vigor of the resulting seeds was compared under greenhouse and field conditions. The results showed that the seeds fertilized by pollen from the selected line had greater vegetative vigor as seedlings and greater flower and fruit production as mature plants than the seeds fertilized by pollen from the non-selected line. This study demonstrates that selection for fast pollen-tube growth (selection on the microgametophyte) leads to a correlated increase in sporophyte (progeny) vigor. PMID:24166555

  15. The Effect of Pollen Source vs. Flower Type on Progeny Performance and Seed Predation under Contrasting Light Environments in a Cleistogamous Herb

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Campos-Navarrete, María J.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphic cleistogamy is a specialized form of mixed mating system where a single plant produces both open, potentially outcrossed chasmogamous (CH) and closed, obligately self-pollinated cleistogamous (CL) flowers. Typically, CH flowers and seeds are bigger and energetically more costly than those of CL. Although the effects of inbreeding and floral dimorphism are critical to understanding the evolution and maintenance of cleistogamy, these effects have been repeatedly confounded. In an attempt to separate these effects, we compared the performance of progeny derived from the two floral morphs while controlling for the source of pollen. That is, flower type and pollen source effects were assessed by comparing the performance of progeny derived from selfed CH vs. CL and outcrossed CH vs. selfed CH flowers, respectively. The experiment was carried out with the herb Ruellia nudiflora under two contrasting light environments. Outcrossed progeny generally performed better than selfed progeny. However, inbreeding depression ranges from low (1%) to moderate (36%), with the greatest value detected under shaded conditions when cumulative fitness was used. Although flower type generally had less of an effect on progeny performance than pollen source did, the progeny derived from selfed CH flowers largely outperformed the progeny from CL flowers, but only under shaded conditions and when cumulative fitness was taken into account. On the other hand, the source of pollen and flower type influenced seed predation, with selfed CH progeny the most heavily attacked by predators. Therefore, the effects of pollen source and flower type are environment-dependant and seed predators may increase the genetic differences between progeny derived from CH and CL flowers. Inbreeding depression alone cannot account for the maintenance of a mixed mating system in R. nudiflora and other unidentified mechanisms must thus be involved. PMID:24260515

  16. The effect of pollen source vs. flower type on progeny performance and seed predation under contrasting light environments in a cleistogamous herb.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Campos-Navarrete, María J; Parra-Tabla, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Dimorphic cleistogamy is a specialized form of mixed mating system where a single plant produces both open, potentially outcrossed chasmogamous (CH) and closed, obligately self-pollinated cleistogamous (CL) flowers. Typically, CH flowers and seeds are bigger and energetically more costly than those of CL. Although the effects of inbreeding and floral dimorphism are critical to understanding the evolution and maintenance of cleistogamy, these effects have been repeatedly confounded. In an attempt to separate these effects, we compared the performance of progeny derived from the two floral morphs while controlling for the source of pollen. That is, flower type and pollen source effects were assessed by comparing the performance of progeny derived from selfed CH vs. CL and outcrossed CH vs. selfed CH flowers, respectively. The experiment was carried out with the herb Ruellia nudiflora under two contrasting light environments. Outcrossed progeny generally performed better than selfed progeny. However, inbreeding depression ranges from low (1%) to moderate (36%), with the greatest value detected under shaded conditions when cumulative fitness was used. Although flower type generally had less of an effect on progeny performance than pollen source did, the progeny derived from selfed CH flowers largely outperformed the progeny from CL flowers, but only under shaded conditions and when cumulative fitness was taken into account. On the other hand, the source of pollen and flower type influenced seed predation, with selfed CH progeny the most heavily attacked by predators. Therefore, the effects of pollen source and flower type are environment-dependant and seed predators may increase the genetic differences between progeny derived from CH and CL flowers. Inbreeding depression alone cannot account for the maintenance of a mixed mating system in R. nudiflora and other unidentified mechanisms must thus be involved. PMID:24260515

  17. Regional deposition of thoron progeny in models of the human tracheobronchial tree

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1995-12-01

    Models of the human tracheobronchial tree have been used to determine total and regional aerosol deposition of inhaled particles. Particle sizes measured in these studies have all been > 40 nm in diameter. The deposition of aerosols < 40 nm in diameter has not been measured. Particles in the ultrafine aerosol size range include some combustion aerosols and indoor radon progeny. Also, the influence of reduced lung size and airflow rates on particle deposition in young children has not been determined. With their smaller lung size and smaller minute volumes, children may be at increased risk from ultrafine pollutants. In order to accurately determine dose of inhaled aerosols, the effects of particle size, minute volume, and age at exposure must be quantified. The purpose of this study was to determine the deposition efficiency of ultrafine aerosols smaller than 40 nm in diameter in models of the human tracheobronchia tree. This study demonstrates that the deposition efficiency of aerosols in the model of the child`s tracheobronchial tree may be slightly higher than in the adult models.

  18. Maternal methyl-enriched diet in rat reduced the audiogenic seizure proneness in progeny.

    PubMed

    Poletaeva, I I; Surina, N M; Ashapkin, V V; Fedotova, I B; Merzalov, I B; Perepelkina, O V; Pavlova, G V

    2014-12-01

    Audiogenic epilepsy proneness was analyzed in the progeny of rats from two strains (audiogenic seizure prone-strain "4"-and audiogenic seizure non-prone, strain "0"). Females were fed by a diet which contained substances enriched with methyl-groups during 1week before mating (MED), during pregnancy period and 1week after the delivery. This MED treatment resulted in a decrease of audiogenic seizure fit intensity, which was more evident in rats of strain "0". Control rats of strain "4" displayed intense seizures (tonic seizure, 3.85 arbitrary units). Med "4" rats seizures were less intense (3.23, tonic seizure of lower intensity), control "0" strain rats demonstrated the seizure with mean 3.09 arbitrary units, "0" MED rats only 2.03 arbitrary unit intensity (only clonic seizures, significantly, p<0.05, different from controls). Methyl-enriched diet resulted in the significant changes in methylation status of several genes (Cpne6, Gtf2i, Sctr,1 Sfmbt, Phe2). These genes among others were chosen for analysis as their expression was analyzed in other methylation study. These genes were hypermethylated after "epileptic tolerance". Due to this procedure, the intensity of status epilepticus, produced by kainate in mice, decreased (Miller-Delaney et al., 2012). The modulation of audiogenic seizure intensity as the result of methyl-enriched diet during prenatal and early postnatal ontogeny was demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25285618

  19. Effects of immobilization by electricity and MS-222 on brown trout broodstock and their progeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, S.D.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects of electrically and chemically induced immobilization on postspawn broodstock and their progeny, age-2 and age-3 female broodstock and age-2 male broodstock of brown trout Salmo trutta were immobilized with electricity or tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), stripped of their eggs or milt, and weighed. Eggs taken from electrically immobilized females were fertilized with milt taken from age-2 males that were immobilized with electricity, and eggs taken from females immobilized with MS-222 were fertilized with milt taken from age-2 males that were immobilized with MS-222. After spawning, the mortality and weight of broodstock were compared twice over a 6-month period. Egg viability and growth of offspring fry from each treatment group were also compared. Electricity induced complete and consistent immobilization in brown trout broodstock. Electrically immobilized fish were more easily handled than fish immobilized with MS-222; however, electrically immobilized fish survival (70%) was significantly less than fish immobilized with MS-222 (83%). Broodstock growth differences were only noted at 6 months postexposure, when the mean weight of electrically immobilized fish was slightly less than the weight of fish immobilized with MS-222. Broodstock immobilization by electricity did not reduce egg viability or fry growth.

  20. Effect of indoor-generated airborne particles on radon progeny dynamics.

    PubMed

    Trassierra, C Vargas; Stabile, L; Cardellini, F; Morawska, L; Buonanno, G

    2016-08-15

    In order to investigate the interaction between radon progeny and particles, an experimental campaign was carried out in a radon chamber at the Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology, quantifying the amount of attached and unattached radon daughters present in air, as well as the equilibrium factor in the presence of particles generated through indoor sources. A fixed radon concentration was maintained, while particles were generated using incense sticks, mosquito coils and gas combustion. Aerosols were characterized in terms of particle concentrations and size distributions. Simultaneously, radon concentration and attached/unattached potential alpha energy concentration in the air were continuously monitored by two different devices, based on alpha spectroscopy techniques. The presence of particles was found to affect the attached fraction of radon decay products, in such a way that the particles acted as a sink for radionuclides. In terms of sources which emit large particles (e.g. incense, mosquito coils), which greatly increase particle surface area concentrations, the Equilibrium Factor was found to double with respect to the background level before particle generation sessions. On the contrary, the radon decay product dynamics were not influenced by gas combustion processes, mainly due to the small surface area of the particles emitted. PMID:27131455

  1. Characterization of Radon Progeny in EXO-200 Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Erica

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0nubetabeta) is a rare, second-order process that occurs in certain isotopes for which beta decay is energetically forbidden. EXO-200 is a 0nubetabeta experiment with 110 kg of active liquid xenon (LXe) isotopically enriched in 136Xe. EXO-200 detects events using a combination of scintillation and ionization signals, which allows for excellent particle discrimination. However, events with a low ionization signal cannot be fully characterized with the current analysis framework. To fill in these gaps, we introduce a boosted decision tree regressor as a new tool to characterize events in the detector. We focus on alpha decays of 222Rn and its progeny, which have low ionization signals that often fall below the threshold for position reconstruction. Using information gained from this technique, we confirm previous results for the 218Po ion velocity and improve previous results for the 218Po ionization fraction. We also investigate events that occur near the walls of the vessel. These events have no ionization signal and therefore cannot be characterized with any existing technique in the analysis framework. By investigating these events we determine that they are not distributed uniformly throughout the detector, which may point to charging up of the plastics inside the LXe vessel or a "hot spot'' on the plastic due to contamination during cleaning and installation.

  2. Residence times of fine tropospheric aerosols as determined by {sup 210}Pb progeny.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.; Cunningham, M. M.; Mielcarek, C.; Ravelo, R.; Wagner, C.

    1999-10-05

    Fine tropospheric aerosols can play important roles in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. The fine aerosols can act directly to cool the atmosphere by scattering incoming solar radiation, as well as indirectly by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Fine aerosols, particularly carbonaceous soots, can also warm the atmosphere by absorbing incoming solar radiation. In addition, aerosols smaller than 2.5 {micro}m have recently been implicated in the health effects of air pollution. Aerosol-active radioisotopes are ideal tracers for the study of atmospheric transport processes. The source terms of these radioisotopes are relatively well known, and they are removed from the atmosphere only by radioactive decay or by wet or dry deposition of the host aerosol. The progeny of the primordial radionuclide {sup 238}U are of particular importance to atmospheric studies. Uranium-238 is common throughout Earth's crust and decays to the inert gas {sup 222}Rn, which escapes into the atmosphere. Radon-222 decays by the series of alpha and beta emissions shown in Figure 1 to the long-lived {sup 210}Pb. Once formed, {sup 210}Pb becomes attached to aerosol particles with average attachment times of 40 s to 3 min.

  3. BABA-primed defense responses to Phytophthora infestans in the next vegetative progeny of potato

    PubMed Central

    Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Abramowski, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The transcript of the PR1 gene accumulation as an informative marker of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) was analyzed in β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) primed potato in the short-lasting (3 days) and long-lasting (28 days) time periods after induction and in the vegetative descendants of primed plants derived from tubers and from in vitro seedlings. BABA pretreatment resulted either in minimal or no PR1 gene expression, but sequential treatment with BABA followed by virulent Phytophthora infestans provided data on the imprint of post-stress information and its duration until fertilization, in the form of an enhanced PR1 transcript accumulation and a transient increase of basal resistance to the late blight disease. The primed state for defense of the susceptible potato cultivar was transmitted to its vegetative progeny as a potentiated PR1 mRNA accumulation following challenge inoculation. However, variation was observed between vegetative accessions of the BABA-primed potato genotype in responsiveness to disease. In contrast to plants derived from tubers, potato propagated through in vitro seedlings largely lost inducible resistance traits, although itretained primed PR1 gene expression. PMID:26528308

  4. A feedback amplification loop between stem cells and their progeny promotes tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Na; Huang, Huanwei; Cai, Tao; Xi, Rongwen

    2016-01-01

    Homeostatic renewal of many adult tissues requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of local stem cells, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we identified a novel feedback mechanism in controlling intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Sox21a, a group B Sox protein, is preferentially expressed in the committed progenitor named enteroblast (EB) to promote enterocyte differentiation. In Sox21a mutants, EBs do not divide, but cannot differentiate properly and have increased expression of mitogens, which then act as paracrine signals to promote intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. This leads to a feedback amplification loop for rapid production of differentiation-defective EBs and tumorigenesis. Notably, in normal intestine following damage, Sox21a is temporally downregulated in EBs to allow the activation of the ISC-EB amplification loop for epithelial repair. We propose that executing a feedback amplification loop between stem cells and their progeny could be a common mechanism underlying tissue regeneration and tumorigenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14330.001 PMID:27187149

  5. Deposition of ultrafine aerosols and thoron progeny in replicas of nasal airways of children

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.S.; Smith, S.M.; Yeh, H.C.; Kim, D.B.; Cheng, K.H.; Swift, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The deposition efficiencies of ultrafine aerosols and thoron progeny were measured in youth nasal replicas. Clear polyester-resin casts of the upper airways of 1.5-yr-old (Cast G), 2.5-yr-old (Cast H), and 4-yr-old (Cast I) children were used. These casts were constructed from series of coronal magnetic resonance images of healthy children. Total deposition was measured for monodisperse NaCl or Ag aerosols between 0.0046 and 0.20 {mu}m in diameter at inspiratory and expiratory flow rates of 3, 7, and 16 L min{sup -1} (covering a near normal range of breathing rates for children of different ages). Deposition efficiency decreased with increasing particle size and flow rate, indicating that diffusion was the main deposition mechanism. Deposition efficiency also decreased with increasing age at a given flow rate and particle size. Based on information obtained and information on minute volumes for different age groups, we predicted nasal deposition in age groups ranging from 1.5- to 20-yr-old at resting breathing rates. Our results showed that the nasal deposition increases with decreasing age for a given particle size between 0.001 to 0.2 {mu}m. This information will be useful in deriving future population-wide models of respiratory tract dosimetry. 24 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Techniques for analysing pattern formation in populations of stem cells and their progeny

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate how patterns of cell differentiation are related to underlying intra- and inter-cellular signalling pathways, we use a stochastic individual-based model to simulate pattern formation when stem cells and their progeny are cultured as a monolayer. We assume that the fate of an individual cell is regulated by the signals it receives from neighbouring cells via either diffusive or juxtacrine signalling. We analyse simulated patterns using two different spatial statistical measures that are suited to planar multicellular systems: pair correlation functions (PCFs) and quadrat histograms (QHs). Results With a diffusive signalling mechanism, pattern size (revealed by PCFs) is determined by both morphogen decay rate and a sensitivity parameter that determines the degree to which morphogen biases differentiation; high sensitivity and slow decay give rise to large-scale patterns. In contrast, with juxtacrine signalling, high sensitivity produces well-defined patterns over shorter lengthscales. QHs are simpler to compute than PCFs and allow us to distinguish between random differentiation at low sensitivities and patterned states generated at higher sensitivities. Conclusions PCFs and QHs together provide an effective means of characterising emergent patterns of differentiation in planar multicellular aggregates. PMID:21991994

  7. Selection of cowpea progenies with enhanced drought-tolerance traits using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sousa, C C; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Bastos, E A; Rocha, M M

    2015-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea) is a food crop with high nutritional value that is cultivated throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The main constraint on high productivity of cowpea is water deficit, caused by the long periods of drought that occur in these regions. The aim of the present study was to select elite cowpea genotypes with enhanced drought tolerance, by applying principal component analysis to 219 first-cycle progenies obtained in a recurrent selection program. The experimental design comprised a simple 15 x 15 lattice with 450 plots, each of two rows of 10 plants. Plants were grown under water-deficit conditions by applying a water depth of 205 mm representing one-half of that required by cowpea. Variables assessed were flowering, maturation, pod length, number and mass of beans/pod, mass of 100 beans, and productivity/plot. Ten elite cowpea genotypes were selected, in which principal components 1 and 2 encompassed variables related to yield (pod length, beans/pod, and productivity/plot) and life precocity (flowering and maturation), respectively. PMID:26662390

  8. Transplantation of Defined Populations of Differentiated Human Neural Stem Cell Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Jeff M.; Azari, Hassan; Zheng, Tong; Darioosh, Roya P.; Schmoll, Michael E.; Vedam-Mai, Vinata; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Reynolds, Brent A.

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological injuries are likely too extensive for the limited repair capacity of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs). An alternative is to isolate NSCs from a donor, and expand them in vitro as transplantation material. Numerous groups have already transplanted neural stem and precursor cells. A caveat to this approach is the undefined phenotypic distribution of the donor cells, which has three principle drawbacks: (1) Stem-like cells retain the capacity to proliferate in vivo. (2) There is little control over the cells’ terminal differentiation, e.g., a graft intended to replace neurons might choose a predominantly glial fate. (3) There is limited ability of researchers to alter the combination of cell types in pursuit of a precise treatment. We demonstrate a procedure for differentiating human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) in vitro, followed by isolation of the neuronal progeny. We transplanted undifferentiated hNPCs or a defined concentration of hNPC-derived neurons into mice, then compared these two groups with regard to their survival, proliferation and phenotypic fate. We present evidence suggesting that in vitro-differentiated-and-purified neurons survive as well in vivo as their undifferentiated progenitors, and undergo less proliferation and less astrocytic differentiation. We also describe techniques for optimizing low-temperature cell preservation and portability. PMID:27030542

  9. Aggregate formation and suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells and differentiated progeny.

    PubMed

    Hookway, Tracy A; Butts, Jessica C; Lee, Emily; Tang, Hengli; McDevitt, Todd C

    2016-05-15

    Culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) as in vitro multicellular aggregates has been increasingly used as a method to model early embryonic development. Three-dimensional assemblies of hPSCs facilitate interactions between cells and their microenvironment to promote morphogenesis, analogous to the multicellular organization that accompanies embryogenesis. In this paper, we describe a method for reproducibly generating and maintaining populations of homogeneous three-dimensional hPSC aggregates using forced aggregation and rotary orbital suspension culture. We propose solutions to several challenges associated with the consistent formation and extended culture of cell spheroids generated from hPSCs and their differentiated progeny. Further, we provide examples to demonstrate how aggregation can be used as a tool to select specific subpopulations of cells to create homotypic spheroids, or as a means to introduce multiple cell types to create heterotypic tissue constructs. Finally, we demonstrate that the aggregation and rotary suspension method can be used to support culture and maintenance of hPSC-derived cell populations representing each of the three germ layers, underscoring the utility of this platform for culturing many different cell types. PMID:26658353

  10. Carcinogenic risk of non-uniform alpha-particle irradiation in the lungs: Radon progeny effects at bronchial bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Menache, M.G.; Martonen, T.B.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effect of enhanced deposition and reduced clearance at bronchial bifurcations leads to increased radon progeny doses within branching sites compared to uniformly distributed activity within a given airway generation. A multi-stage carcinogenesis model was used to predict the probability of lung cancer induction at different sites of the bronchial region. For relatively low radon progeny exposures, lung cancer risk is significantly higher in bifurcation zones, particularly at carinal ridges, than along tubular segments. At sufficiently high exposures, however, lung cancer risk is highest in the tubular portions of a generation. This suggests that the common assumption of a uniform dose distribution provides realistic risk estimates for high uranium miner exposures, but may underestimate lung cancer risk at low, environmental exposures. If concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke is factored into the risk analysis in a multiplicative fashion, then the effect related to risk inhomogeneity becomes even more pronounced.

  11. Quantitative Interpretation of Air Radon Progeny Fluctuations in Terms of Stability Conditions in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzano, Roberto; Pasini, Antonello; Casasanta, Giampietro; Cacciani, Marco; Perrino, Cinzia

    2016-03-01

    Determining the mixing height using a tracer can improve the information obtained using traditional techniques. Here we provide an improved box model based on radon progeny measurements, which considers the vertical entrainment of residual layers and the variability in the soil radon exhalation rate. The potential issues in using progeny instead of radon have been solved from both a theoretical and experimental perspective; furthermore, the instrumental efficiency and the counting scheme have been included in the model. The applicability range of the box model has been defined by comparing radon-derived estimates with sodar and lidar data. Three intervals have been analyzed ("near-stable", "transition" and "turbulent"), and different processes have been characterized. We describe a preliminary application case performed in Rome, Italy, while case studies will be required to determine the range limits that can be applied in any circumstances.

  12. Intercomparison and intercalibration of passive/active radon and active radon progeny instruments and methods in North America

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng W.

    1993-06-01

    An intercomparison and intercalibration exercise for radon and radon progeny measurements made with active and passive instruments was held at EML from October 22--30,1992. Twenty-five participants submitted 96 passive integrating devices, eight active devices for radon, and seven integrating devices for potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). In addition, 40 grab samples for radon progeny analysis were taken by five groups that participated in person during the intercomparison. The results reported to EML indicate that the majority of the participants (70%) obtained mean results within 10% of the EML reference value. Although the instruments used in this exercise are based on different principles of collection and detection, they all appear reliable. However, in some instances there seemed to be some minor problems with quality control and calibration bias. Also, the large counting errors for the PAEC experienced by some of the participants can be minimized by using higher sampling air flow rates without sacrificing instrument portability.

  13. Differential segregation of nodaviral coat protein and RNA into progeny virions during mixed infection with FHV and NoV

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Radhika; Venter, P. Arno; Schneemann, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Nodaviruses are icosahedral viruses with a bipartite, positive-sense RNA genome. The two RNAs are packaged into a single virion by a poorly understood mechanism. We chose two distantly related nodaviruses, Flock House virus and Nodamura virus, to explore formation of viral reassortants as a means to further understand genome recognition and encapsidation. In mixed infections, the viruses were incompatible at the level of RNA replication and their coat proteins segregated into separate populations of progeny particles. RNA packaging, on the other hand, was indiscriminate as all four viral RNAs were detectable in each progeny population. Consistent with the trans-encapsidation phenotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization of viral RNA revealed that the genomes of the two viruses co-localized throughout the cytoplasm. Our results imply that nodaviral RNAs lack rigorously defined packaging signals and that coencapsidation of the viral RNAs does not require a pair of cognate RNA1 and RNA2. PMID:24725955

  14. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes. PMID:25858073

  15. Genetic variability of oil palm parental genotypes and performance of its' progenies as revealed by molecular markers and quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norziha; Rafii Yusop, Mohd; Ithnin, Maizura; Saleh, Ghizan; Latif, M A

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the genetic relationships between the parental palms (dura and pisifera) and performance of their progenies based on nine microsatellite markers and 29 quantitative traits. Correlation analyses between genetic distances and hybrids performance were estimated. The coefficients of correlation values of genetic distances with hybrid performance were non-significant, except for mean nut weight and leaf number. However, the correlation coefficient of genetic distances with these characters was low to be used as predicted value. These results indicated that genetic distances based on the microsatellite markers may not be useful for predicting hybrid performance. The genetic distance analysis using UPGMA clustering system generated 5 genetic clusters with coefficient of 1.26 based on quantitative traits of progenies. The genotypes, DP16, DP14, DP4, DP13, DP12, DP15, DP8, DP1 and DP2 belonging to distant clusters and greater genetic distances could be selected for further breeding programs. PMID:21513898

  16. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    This report completes Clarkson University`s study of the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. In order to pursue this general goal, two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical processes that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. Thus, two sets of specific goals have been established for this project. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are (1) Determine the formation rates of {circ}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay; (2) Examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2}, ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size; (3) Measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and (4) Measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}PoO{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations.

  17. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10(-6) and 3.6 x 10(-5) M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals. PMID:26125595

  18. Comparison of sire breed solutions for growth traits adjusted by mean expected progeny differences to a 1993 base.

    PubMed

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Buchanan, D S; Marshall, D M

    1998-09-01

    Records on growth traits were obtained from five Midwestern agricultural experiment stations as part of a beef cattle crossbreeding project (NC-196). Records on birth weight (BWT, n =3,490), weaning weight (WWT, n = 3,237), and yearling weight (YWT, n = 1,372) were analyzed within locations and pooled across locations to obtain estimates of breed of sire differences. Solutions for breed of sire differences were adjusted to the common base year of 1993. Then, factors to use with within-breed expected progeny differences (EPD) to obtain across-breed EPD were calculated. These factors were compared with factors obtained from similar analyses of records from the U. S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Progeny of Brahman sires mated to Bos taurus cows were heaviest at birth and among the lightest at weaning. Simmental and Gelbvieh sires produced the heaviest progeny at weaning. Estimates of heritability pooled across locations were .34, .19, and .07 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Regression coefficients of progeny performance on EPD of sire were 1.25+/-.09, .98+/-.13, and .62+/-.18 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Rankings of breeds of sire generally did not change when adjusted for sire sampling. Rankings were generally similar to those previously reported for MARC data, except for Limousin and Charolais sires, which ranked lower for BWT and WWT at NC-196 locations than at MARC. Adjustment factors used to obtain across-breed EPD were largest for Brahman for BWT and for Gelbvieh for WWT. The data for YWT allow only comparison of Angus with Simmental and of Gelbvieh with Limousin. PMID:9781484

  19. COP9-Hedgehog axis regulates the function of the germline stem cell progeny differentiation niche in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tinglin; Wang, Su; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhihao; Liu, Luping; Song, Xiaoqing; Ni, Jianquan; Xie, Ting

    2015-12-15

    Both stem cell self-renewal and lineage differentiation are controlled extrinsically as well as intrinsically. Germline stem cells (GSCs) in the Drosophila ovary provide an attractive model in which to study both stem cell self-renewal and lineage differentiation at the molecular and cellular level. Recently, we have proposed that escort cells (ECs) form a differentiation niche to control GSC lineage specification extrinsically. However, it remains poorly understood how the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche are regulated at the molecular level. Here, this study reveals a new role of COP9 in the differentiation niche to modulate autocrine Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, thereby promoting GSC lineage differentiation. COP9, which is a highly conserved protein complex composed of eight CSN subunits, catalyzes the removal of Nedd8 protein modification from target proteins. Our genetic results have demonstrated that all the COP9 components and the hh pathway components, including hh itself, are required in ECs to promote GSC progeny differentiation. Interestingly, COP9 is required in ECs to maintain Hh signaling activity, and activating Hh signaling in ECs can partially bypass the requirement for COP9 in GSC progeny differentiation. Finally, both COP9 and Hh signaling in ECs promote GSC progeny differentiation partly by preventing BMP signaling and maintaining cellular processes. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that the COP9-Hh signaling axis operates in the differentiation niche to promote GSC progeny differentiation partly by maintaining EC cellular processes and preventing BMP signaling. This provides new insight into how the function of the differentiation niche is regulated at the molecular level. PMID:26672093

  20. Exposure to radon and radon progeny in the indoor environment. Technical progress report, January 1, 1990--December 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this work is to measure experimentally the activity-weighted particle size distribution in conjunction with other relevant house parameters in occupied houses in order to improve the estimate of exposure to radon and radon progeny indoors. Our methodology requires that building construction and operation be studied and understood both experimentally and theoretically in a small number of buildings and that results of side applicability be inferred from the particular case studies. Results are discussed.

  1. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10-6 and 3.6 x 10-5 M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals. PMID:26125595

  2. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres-2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen-and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332

  3. Hypoxia Treatment of Callosobruchus maculatus Females and Its Effects on Reproductive Output and Development of Progeny Following Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Williams, Scott B.; Baributsa, Dieudonne; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Modified atmospheres present a residue-free alternative to fumigants for controlling postharvest pests of grain during storage. How sub-lethal applications of this method affects the reproductive fitness of target pests, however, is still not fully understood. We examined how low levels of ambient oxygen influence the reproduction of the female cowpea bruchid (Callosobruchus maculatus), a pest of cowpea. We used three low-oxygen atmospheres—2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) oxygen—and observed their effects on: (1) the number of eggs laid by bruchids compared to insects held in normoxic (~20% oxygen) conditions; (2) the total number of eggs laid; and (3) the number of progeny that reached maturity. Low oxygen did not significantly affect the number of eggs laid during 48 or 72 h of exposure, but 2% and 5% oxygen did negatively affected total egg production. Increasing the exposure time from 48 to 72 h further depressed lifetime reproductive output. Maternal and egg exposure to hypoxia reduced the number of progeny that reached adulthood. Lower adult emergence was observed from eggs laid under low oxygen and longer exposure times. These data demonstrate that hermetic conditions depress the egg-laying behavior of cowpea bruchids and the successful development of their progeny. PMID:27322332

  4. Increased Frequency of Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation in Progeny of Bystander Cells from Cultures Exposed to Densely Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Buonanno, Manuela; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2011-01-01

    An increased risk of carcinogenesis caused by exposure to space radiation during prolonged space travel is a limiting factor for human space exploration. Typically, astronauts are exposed to low fluences of ionizing particles that target only a few cells in a tissue at any one time. The propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to neighboring bystander cells and their transmission to progeny cells would be of importance in estimates of the health risks of exposure to space radiation. With relevance to the risk of carcinogenesis, we investigated, in model C3H 10T½ mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), modulation of the spontaneous frequency of neoplastic transformation in the progeny of bystander MEFs that had been in co-culture 10 population doublings earlier with MEFs exposed to moderate doses of densely ionizing iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon) or sparsely ionizing protons (1 GeV). An increase (P<0.05) in neoplastic transformation frequency, likely mediated by intercellular communication through gap junctions, was observed in the progeny of bystander cells that had been in co-culture with cells irradiated with iron ions, but not with protons. PMID:21738697

  5. Increased frequency of spontaneous neoplastic transformation in progeny of bystander cells from cultures exposed to densely ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Manuela; de Toledo, Sonia M; Azzam, Edouard I

    2011-01-01

    An increased risk of carcinogenesis caused by exposure to space radiation during prolonged space travel is a limiting factor for human space exploration. Typically, astronauts are exposed to low fluences of ionizing particles that target only a few cells in a tissue at any one time. The propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to neighboring bystander cells and their transmission to progeny cells would be of importance in estimates of the health risks of exposure to space radiation. With relevance to the risk of carcinogenesis, we investigated, in model C3H 10T½ mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), modulation of the spontaneous frequency of neoplastic transformation in the progeny of bystander MEFs that had been in co-culture 10 population doublings earlier with MEFs exposed to moderate doses of densely ionizing iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon) or sparsely ionizing protons (1 GeV). An increase (P<0.05) in neoplastic transformation frequency, likely mediated by intercellular communication through gap junctions, was observed in the progeny of bystander cells that had been in co-culture with cells irradiated with iron ions, but not with protons. PMID:21738697

  6. An experimental analysis of the contribution of 224Ra and 226Ra and progeny to the gross alpha-particle activity of water samples.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Michael F; West, Lynn E

    2008-05-01

    The gross alpha-particle activity of water samples analyzed by EPA Method 900.0 is investigated as a function of residue mass and geometry, time between sample collection and analysis, and time between sample preparation and analysis for samples containing 224Ra, 212Pb, and 226Ra. It is shown that the gross alpha-particle activity due to 224Ra and its progeny can be up to 10 times the 224Ra activity at collection time and that due to 212Pb progeny can be up to 3 times the 212Pb activity at collection time. In samples with roughly equal activities of 224Ra and 226Ra analyzed soon after collection, it is shown that the gross alpha-particle activity is approximately constant with time because the decay of 224Ra and its progeny is offset by the ingrowth of 226Ra progeny. PMID:18403967

  7. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report covers the second year of the 28 month grant current grant to Clarkson University to study the chemical and physical behavior of the polonium 218 atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical process that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. This report describes the progress toward achieving these objectives.

  8. Influence of excessive dietary protein intake during late gestation on drylot beef cow performance and progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Long, N M; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2016-05-01

    Spring-calving cows ( = 49) were used to investigate the effects of excessive prepartum dietary protein intake on late gestation cow performance as well as subsequent progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and provide 100% (REQ) or 129% (HP) of CP requirement. Treatments were limit-fed 78 ± 12 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at initiation of treatments and within 48 h post-calving. Milk production was estimated via the weigh-suckle-weigh technique 69 ± 11 d postpartum. Calf BW was measured at birth and at weaning (121 ± 11 d of age). Progeny ( = 42) were weaned as a group and placed into a feedlot and fed a common finishing diet. Glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed on a subset of progeny (12 per treatment) 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min post-feeding, 2 d before slaughter (342 ± 11 d of age). Treatment had no effect ( ≥ 0.22) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, and subsequent reproduction or progeny preweaning growth. Progeny finishing growth and marbling scores were not affected ( ≥ 0.24) by treatment, yet 12th rib fat thickness ( < 0.01), KPH ( = 0.04), and YG ( = 0.01) were greater for progeny born to HP dams. Progeny born to HP dams had decreased ( ≤ 0.01) glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin to glucose ratios, indicating greater insulin sensitivity. Although feeding cows 129% of CP requirement during late gestation did not affect cow performance or progeny preweaning or finishing period growth; carcass adiposity was increased by maternal treatment. PMID:27285701

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture.

    PubMed

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species. PMID:26973682

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture

    PubMed Central

    González-Plaza, Juan J.; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species. PMID:26973682

  11. Properties of 220Rn progeny (212Pb) in the presence of trace gases.

    PubMed

    Wang, M Y; Phillips, C R

    1992-03-01

    The charge neutralization of 220Rn progeny (212Pb) was studied in nitrogen and argon environments containing trace concentrations of ethylene, propylene and propane. The diffusion coefficient of 212Pb atoms in the presence and in the absence of oxygen and hydrocarbons was determined using a diffusion tube method which measured the penetration fraction of the 220Rn decay products. The results are explained in terms of the formation of lead dioxide with an ionization potential in the range of 10.5-11.1 eV. The ionization potential of 212PbO2 was found to be higher than that of 218PoO2. Charge neutralization was found to occur in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen containing 600 ppm ethylene (C2H4) and also in a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing 600 ppm propylene (C3H6). Charge neutralization was not found to occur in a mixture of argon and oxygen containing up to 5000 ppm propane (C3H8) and in a mixture of argon and nitrogen containing 600 ppm ethylene. In pure oxygen, nitrogen, argon, dry air and a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen, no neutralization was observed to occur through charge transfer from neutral molecules. The 220Rn concentration was found to influence the neutralization mechanism. Diffusion coefficients for partially neutralized and neutralized 212Pb ranged from 0.050 to 0.067 cm2 s-1 at a 220Rn concentration of 3.7 x 10(4) atoms cm-3 and a relative humidity of less than 5%. PMID:1566046

  12. Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in irradiated mouse thymic lobes. Kinetics and phenotype of progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Spangrude, G.J.; Scollay, R. )

    1990-12-01

    To define cell populations which participate in the very early stages of T cell development in the mouse thymus, we enriched hematopoietic stem cells from mouse bone marrow and injected them into thymic lobes of irradiated Ly-5 congenic recipients. The progeny of the stem cells were identified and their phenotypes were determined by two-color flow cytometry for the expression of various cell surface differentiation Ag during the course of their subsequent intrathymic development. The majority of the differentiation which occurred in the first 10 days after intrathymic cell transfer was myeloid in nature; hence, this study demonstrates that the irradiated thymus is not strictly selective for T cell development. Further, the maximum rate of T cell development was observed after intrathymic injection of 200 stem cells. Donor-derived cells which did not express Ag characteristic of the myeloid lineage could be detected and their phenotypes could be determined by flow cytometry as early as 7 days after intrathymic injection. At this time, the cells were still very similar phenotypically to the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Exceptions to this were the expression of stem cell Ag 2 and a decrease in the level of MHC class I Ag expression. After 9 days, the donor-derived cells expressed high levels of the Thy-1 Ag and proceeded to change in cell surface phenotype as differentiation continued. These cell phenotypes are described for the time frame ending 18 days after injection, when most donor-derived cells were phenotypically small CD4+ CD8+ (double-positive) thymocytes.

  13. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes studies on the chemical and physical behavior of the [sup 218]Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and its dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are to determine the formation rates of [center dot]OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay, to examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO[sub 2] ethylene, and H[sub 2]S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H[sub 2]O and NH[sub 3] in determining the particle size, to measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and to measure the neutralization rate of [sup 218]Po[sub x][sup +] in O[sub 2] at low radon concentrations. Tasks of the exposure studies in occupied indoor spaces are to initiate measurements of the activity size distributions in actual homes with occupants present so that the variability of the indoor activity size distributions can be assessed with respect to indoor aerosol sources and general lifestyle variations of the occupants, to initiate a prospective study of the utility of measurement of deposited [sup 210]Pb embedded in glass surfaces as a measure of the long-term, integrated exposure of the population to radon, and to develop the methodology to determine the hygroscopicity of the indoor aerosol so that the changes in deposition efficiency of the radioactive indoor aerosol with hygroscopic growth in the respiratory tract can be assessed.

  14. Feeding distiller’s grains as an energy source to gestating and lactating beef heifers: Impact on female progeny growth, puberty attainment, and reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Gunn, P J; Schoonmaker, J P; Lemenager, R P; Bridges, G A

    2015-02-01

    This study compared postweaning growth, puberty attainment, and reproductive processes of female progeny (n = 33) born to Angus-Simmental beef heifers treated with either a control diet or a diet in which dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) were fed as an energy source during late gestation and early lactation. From 192 d of gestation through 118 ± 4 d in lactation, dams were fed either a corn silage–based control diet (CON) orcorn residue with DDGS, where DDGS were supplemented as an energy source (DG). Diets were formulated to provide similar daily NEg between diets, but CP requirements were drastically exceeded in the DG treatment. Heifer progeny (n = 33) were weaned, commingled at 191 ± 4 d of age, and similarly managed for the remainder of the project. Heifer BW and blood samples for progesterone assessment to determine onset of puberty were collected weekly beginning at weaning. At 255 ± 4 d of age, a single follicular wave was mapped via ultrasonography in 10 prepubertal heifers per treatment. Prepubertal antral follicle count and ovarian size were determined at 253 ± 4 d of age. Hip height was recorded at 213,297, and 437 ± 4 d of age. Estrous synchronization and AI was initiated at 447 ± 4 d of age. Binary data were analyzed with the GLIMMIX procedures of SAS and all other data were analyzed with the MIXED procedures of SAS. Progeny from DG-treated dams tended to be heavier (P = 0.08) than progeny from CON-treated dams from weaning until breeding. In addition, DG progeny had a greater (P < 0.01) frame score than CON throughout the developmental period. Ovarian size, antral follicle count, and follicular growth parameters did not differ between treatments. Age at puberty did not differ between CON (303 ± 10 d) and DG (320 ± 10 d) progeny; however, BW at puberty was greater (P = 0.01) for DG (326 ± 7 kg) than CON (298 ± 8 kg) progeny. Pregnancy rates to AI were greater (P = 0.05) in DG progeny (70.6%) than CON (33.3%), but overall

  15. Quantitative genomics of 30 complex phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F₁ progeny.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J; O'Fallon, James V; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T; Reeves, Jerry J; Busboom, Jan R; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V; Jiang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F(1) progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid

  16. Quantitative Genomics of 30 Complex Phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F1 Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J.; O'Fallon, James V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T.; Reeves, Jerry J.; Busboom, Jan R.; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F1 progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid

  17. On the interaction between radon progeny and particles generated by electronic and traditional cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Trassierra, C.; Cardellini, F.; Buonanno, G.; De Felice, P.

    2015-04-01

    During their entire lives, people are exposed to the pollutants present in indoor air. Recently, Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems, mainly known as electronic cigarettes, have been widely commercialized: they deliver particles into the lungs of the users but a "second-hand smoke" has yet to be associated to this indoor source. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring radioactive gas, i.e. radon, represents a significant risk for lung cancer, and the cumulative action of these two agents could be worse than the agents separately would. In order to deepen the interaction between radon progeny and second-hand aerosol from different types of cigarettes, a designed experimental study was carried out by generating aerosol from e-cigarette vaping as well as from second-hand traditional smoke inside a walk-in radon chamber at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI) of Italy. In this chamber, the radon present in air comes naturally from the floor and ambient conditions are controlled. To characterize the sidestream smoke emitted by cigarettes, condensation particle counters and scanning mobility particle sizer were used. Radon concentration in the air was measured through an Alphaguard ionization chamber, whereas the measurement of radon decay product in the air was performed with the Tracelab BWLM Plus-2S Radon daughter Monitor. It was found an increase of the Potential Alpha-Energy Concentration (PAEC) due to the radon decay products attached to aerosol for higher particle number concentrations. This varied from 7.47 ± 0.34 MeV L-1 to 12.6 ± 0.26 MeV L-1 (69%) for the e-cigarette. In the case of traditional cigarette and at the same radon concentration, the increase was from 14.1 ± 0.43 MeV L-1 to 18.6 ± 0.19 MeV L-1 (31%). The equilibrium factor increases, varying from 23.4% ± 1.11% to 29.5% ± 0.26% and from 30.9% ± 1.0% to 38.1 ± 0.88 for the e-cigarette and traditional cigarette, respectively. These growths still continue for long

  18. Consanguineous Marital Union Resulting in a Progeny of Whistling-face Syndrome and Hemophilia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gurjar, Vivek; Gurjar, Minal

    2015-04-01

    Many different types of genetic disorders are noted to be prevalent among consanguineous progeny. Although the most common type of consanguineous union in all major societies is between first cousins, the importance of customary influences is apparent from variations in the specific types of first-cousin marriages contracted. Epidemiological data for the prevalence of whistling-face syndrome (WFS) are not available, but less than a hundred cases reported in the literature are noted. We are presenting a case where a consanguineous marriage resulted in two of their children presenting with WFS and one with hemophilia. PMID:25954077

  19. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and product quality of progeny from Red Angus sires divergent for maintenance energy EPD.

    PubMed

    Welch, C M; Ahola, J K; Hall, J B; Murdoch, G K; Crews, D H; Davis, L C; Doumit, M E; Price, W J; Keenan, L D; Hill, R A

    2012-12-01

    Energy expenditure is a physiological process that may be closely associated with residual feed intake (RFI). The maintenance energy (ME(M)) EPD was developed by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) and is used as an indicator of energy expenditure. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and quantify the following relationships using progeny of Red Angus (RA) sires divergent for ME(M) EPD: 1) postweaning RFI and finishing phase feed efficiency (FE), 2) postweaning RFI and end-product quality, and 3) postweaning RFI and sire ME(M) EPD. A total of 12 RA sires divergent for ME(M) EPD were chosen using the RAAA-generated ME(M) EPD values and were partitioned into 2 groups: high ME(M) EPD (≥4 Mcal/mo) and low ME(M) EPD (<4 Mcal/mo), based on the breed average of 4 Mcal/mo. Commercial crossbred cows were inseminated to produce 3 cohorts of progeny, which were tested for postweaning RFI (cohorts 1, 2, and 3) and finishing phase FE (cohorts 1 and 3). Results indicate that postweaning RFI and finishing phase FE of steer progeny tended to be positively correlated (r = 0.38; P = 0.06) in cohort 1 and were positively correlated (r = 0.50; P = 0.001) in cohort 3. In addition, postweaning RFI was not phenotypically correlated (P > 0.05) with any carcass traits or end-product quality measurements. Sire ME(M) EPD was phenotypically correlated (P < 0.05) with carcass traits in cohort 1 (HCW, LM area, KPH, fat thickness, and yield grade) and cohort 2 (KPH and fat thickness). Since variation in measured LM area was not explained by the genetic potential of rib eye area EPD, and therefore, the observed correlation between sire ME(M) EPD and measured LM area may suggest an association between ME(M) EPD and LM area. A correlation (r = 0.24; P = 0.02) was observed between postweaning RFI and ultrasound intramuscular fat percentage in cohort 2 but was not detected in cohorts 1 or 3. In addition, no phenotypic relationship was observed (P > 0.05) between progeny postweaning

  20. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  1. Altered Mating-Type Identity in the Fungus Podospora Anserina Leads to Selfish Nuclei, Uniparental Progeny, and Haploid Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zickler, D.; Arnaise, S.; Coppin, E.; Debuchy, R.; Picard, M.

    1995-01-01

    In wild-type crosses of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina, after fertilization, only nuclei of opposite mating type can form dikaryons that undergo karyogamy and meiosis, producing biparental progeny. To determine the role played by the mating type in these steps, the four mat genes were mutagenized in vitro and introduced into a strain deleted for its mat locus. Genetic and cytological analyses of these mutant strains, crossed to each other and to wild type, showed that mating-type information is required for recognition of nuclear identity during the early steps of sexual reproduction. In crosses with strains carrying a mating-type mutation, two unusual developmental patterns were observed: monokaryotic cells, resulting in haploid meiosis, and uniparental dikaryotic cells providing, after karyogamy and meiosis, a uniparental progeny. Altered mating-type identity leads to selfish behavior of the mutant nucleus: it migrates alone or paired, ignoring its wild-type partner in all mutant X wild-type crosses. This behavior is nucleus-autonomous because, in the same cytoplasm, the wild-type nuclei form only biparental dikaryons. In P. anserina, mat genes are thus required to ensure a biparental dikaryotic state but appear dispensable for later stages, such as meiosis and sporulation. PMID:7498731

  2. Environmental levels of oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds feminize digit ratios in male rats and their unexposed male progeny

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques; Le Denmat, Dominique; Berges, Raymond; Doridot, Ludivine; Salmon, Benjamin; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Eustache, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Digit length ratios, especially the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), are associated with various pathological and behavioural conditions in many species including humans and are dependent upon prenatal androgen to oestrogen balance. It is unknown whether digit ratios are modified by environmental exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disruptors. We studied the effect on adult male Wistar rat digit ratios of a gestational exposure to the oestrogenic and antiandrogenic compounds bisphenol A (BPA), genistein and vinclozolin, in low doses, and in combination with investigating in parallel a possible sexual dimorphism of this trait. We also investigated the effects on the male progeny not exposed during gestation. X-rays were taken of the left and right forepaws, and 2D–5D proximal to distal phalanx distances were measured by a standardized procedure based on semi-automatic image analysis. We provide evidence that there is a sexual dimorphism of digit ratios in the Wistar rat, and we found that BPA alone or in combination with genistein and vinclozolin significantly feminized digit ratios in male rats. Intriguingly, significant feminization of digit ratios was also found in the unexposed male progeny of males that had been exposed to compound mixtures. In conclusion, prenatal environmental levels of endocrine-active substances permanently disrupt digit ratios. Digit ratio measurement in adults is thus a promising biomarker of prenatal exposure to low-dose endocrine disruptors in rodents, with potential implications for future studies in humans. PMID:23926155

  3. Search for major genes with progeny test data to accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine

    SciTech Connect

    NCSU

    2003-12-30

    This research project is to develop a novel approach that fully utilized the current breeding materials and genetic test information available from the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program to identify major genes that are segregating for growth and disease resistance in loblolly pine. If major genes can be identified in the existing breeding population, they can be utilized directly in the conventional loblolly pine breeding program. With the putative genotypes of parents identified, tree breeders can make effective decisions on management of breeding populations and operational deployment of genetically superior trees. Forest productivity will be significantly enhanced if genetically superior genotypes with major genes for economically important traits could be deployed in an operational plantation program. The overall objective of the project is to develop genetic model and analytical methods for major gene detection with progeny test data and accelerate the development of genetically superior loblolly pine. Specifically, there are three main tasks: (1) Develop genetic models for major gene detection and implement statistical methods and develop computer software for screening progeny test data; (2) Confirm major gene segregation with molecular markers; and (3) Develop strategies for using major genes for tree breeding.

  4. Estimating the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate APOBEC3G for suppression of productive HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Pulari U.; Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M.

    2014-01-20

    The contest between the host factor APOBEC3G (A3G) and the HIV-1 protein Vif presents an attractive target of intervention. The extent to which the A3G–Vif interaction must be suppressed to tilt the balance in favor of A3G remains unknown. We employed stochastic simulations and mathematical modeling of the within-host dynamics and evolution of HIV-1 to estimate the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate A3G to render productive infection unsustainable. Using three different approaches, we found consistently that a transition from sustained infection to suppression of productive infection occurred when the latter fraction exceeded ∼0.8. The transition was triggered by A3G-induced hypermutations that led to premature stop codons compromising viral production and was consistent with driving the basic reproductive number, R{sub 0}, below unity. The fraction identified may serve as a quantitative guideline for strategies targeting the A3G–Vif axis. - Highlights: • We perform simulations and mathematical modeling of the role of APOBEC3G in suppressing HIV-1 infection. • In three distinct ways, we estimate that when over 80% of progeny virions carry APOBEC3G, productive HIV-1 infection would be suppressed. • Our estimate of this critical fraction presents quantitative guidelines for strategies targeting the APOBEC3G–Vif axis.

  5. Analysis of radon and radon progeny in residences: factors that affect their amounts and methods of reduction. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.R.

    1985-03-01

    The effectiveness of using an electrostatic precipitator as a means for reducing harmful levels of radon progeny in the home was evaluated. A commercially available precipitator, manufactured by the Honeywell Corporation, was used during the course of the study. The specific model used was the Honeywell Electronic Air Cleaner model number F50A1009. Daughter concentrations were measured by the modified Tsivoglou method. Samples were collected on a 2-inch millipore filter and alpha emissions were measured with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator. A sample collection time of 5 minutes was used. Sample counting intervals of 2-5, 6-20, and 21-30 minutes after sample collection were used. During this study air samples were made using the blower fan and filters alone with no power to the electrostatic precipitator, and with the electrostatic precipitator energized. The reduction in the working level as a result of using the blower fans and filters only was 75%. With the electrostatic precipitator energized, the reduction level rose to 90%. It is therefore concluded that the electrostatic precipitator is an effective means for reducing radon progeny concentrations in the home.

  6. A review of maternal and embryonic control of phase-dependent progeny characteristics in the desert locust.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Maeno, Koutaro

    2010-08-01

    Hatchlings of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, display phase polyphenism in body coloration and size. This phenomenon has been found to be maternally controlled and two different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the underlying process. One mechanism claims that a water-soluble pheromonal factor secreted by gregarious female adults into the foam plugs of egg pods induces darkening in their progeny. The other mechanism states that hatchling body coloration is pre-determined in the ovaries and that no foam factor is involved in this phenomenon. This mechanism was supported by the observation that hatchling melanization was not prevented by the early washing or separation of eggs, which should have removed the pheromonal factor from the eggs and produced green hatchlings according to the other mechanism. This paper reviews the latest findings related to this phenomenon with special reference to reproductive cycles and genetic differences. The close relationships between egg size and the degree of melanization in hatchlings may provide strong evidence against the possible involvement of the pheromonal factor, because egg size is determined in the ovarioles. Furthermore, the absence of "solitarizing" effects of early washing and separation on hatchling melanization was also confirmed in different genetic strains. A hypothesis proposed by others that such effects occur only in eggs from the first reproductive cycle was tested and rejected. Based on these and other results, a model to explain the mechanisms underlying the maternal control of progeny characteristics and embryonic control of melanization in the hatchling was proposed. PMID:20493874

  7. Effects of ractopamine and arginine dietary supplementation for sows on growth performance and carcass quality of their progenies.

    PubMed

    Garbossa, C A P; Carvalho Júnior, F M; Silveira, H; Faria, P B; Schinckel, A P; Abreu, M L T; Cantarelli, V S

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ractopamine (Rac) and Arg fed to pregnant sows from d 25 to 53 of gestation on fetal muscle development as well as the performance and carcass characteristics of the progeny. One hundred sows were divided into 4 treatments including a control diet, the control plus 1% Arg, the control plus 20 mg/kg Rac, and the control diet supplemented with both additives at the same levels as those used separately. During the farrowing process the data evaluated were the weight of placenta to calculate the placental efficiency and the number of piglets born alive, stillborn, and mummified. To evaluate the fiber number and area, 12 male piglets from each treatment were euthanized to harvest semitendinosus muscle. During the lactation, the preweaning mortality, weaned weights, and number of piglets weaned per litter were evaluated. After weaning, the pig performance was evaluated until the slaughter following the sow treatment. At end of finishing phase, 1 male pig of each treatment replicate was selected to evaluation the carcass and pork quality. All variables measured were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and least squares means were compared using the Tukey test with P < 0.05. The control diet + supplementation of 1.0% of L-Arg + 20 mg/kg of ractopamine HCl from d 25 to 53 of gestation (Arg+Rac) treatment had a greater number of stillborn piglets (P = 0.014) than the control group. Piglet birth weights from sows fed Rac were 11% greater (P = 0.031) than those of piglets of the control treatment. The semitendinosus muscle fiber diameters of piglets at birth from sows that received Arg, Rac, and Arg+Rac were greater (P < 0.0001) than those of control piglets, and as consequence, the fiber number per square millimeter decreased (P < 0.0001). The final nursery BW of progeny from sows fed Arg and Rac individually were greater (P = 0.010) than those of progeny of the control group. At 110 d of age, in the beginning

  8. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: II. Effects on progeny postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Relling, A E; Felix, T L; Shoup, L M; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2012-12-01

    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2-yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed as a single group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was less for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than in calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than in calves from cows fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade did not differ (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate that prepartum maternal dietary energy source can alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin

  9. Responses to two-way selection on growth in mass-spawned F1 progeny of Argopecten irradians concentricus (Say)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Jin; Li, Yanhong; Zhu, Xiaowen; Liu, Zhigang

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of one-generation divergent selection on the growth and survival of the bay scallop ( Argopecten irradians concentricus) was examined to evaluate the efficacy of a selection program currently being carried out in Beibu Bay in the South China Sea. A total of 146 adult scallops were randomly selected from the same cultured population of A. i. concentricus, and divided into two groups in shell length (anterior-posterior measurement): large (4.91-6.02 cm, n=74) and small (3.31-4.18 cm, n=72). At the same time, a control group was also randomly sampled (4.21-4.88 cm, n =80). Mass-spawned F 1 progenies from the three size groups were obtained and reared under identical conditions at all growth phases. The effects of two-way (or upward-downward) selection on fertilization rate, hatching rate, survival rate, daily growth in shell length and body weight were assessed in the three size groups. Results show that significant differences ( P<0.01) were found in hatching rate, survival rate and daily growth of F1 progenies, but not in fertilization rate ( P>0.05), among the three groups. The hatching rate, survival rate and daily growth of the progeny of large-sized parents were greater than those of the control group ( P<0.05), which in turn were larger than those of small-sized group ( P<0.05). Responses to selection by shell length and body weight were 0.32 ± 0.04 cm and 2.18 ± 0.05 g, respectively, for the upward selection, and -0.14 ± 0.03 cm and -2.77 ± 0.06 g, respectively, for the downward selection. The realized heritability estimates of shell length and body weight were 0.38 ± 0.06 cm and 0.22 ± 0.07 g for the upward selection, and 0.24 ± 0.06 cm and 0.37 ± 0.09 g for the downward selection, respectively. The change in growth by bidirectional selection suggests that high genetic variation may be present in the cultured bay scallop population in China.

  10. Engraftment of embryonic stem cells and differentiated progeny by host conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuqiong; Leveson-Gower, Dennis B; de Almeida, Patricia E; Pierini, Antonio; Baker, Jeanette; Florek, Mareike; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Kim, Byung-Su; Ke, Rong; Wu, Joseph C; Negrin, Robert S

    2015-03-24

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many medical conditions; however, their utility is limited by immune rejection. The objective of our study is to establish tolerance or promote engraftment of transplanted ESCs as well as mature cell populations derived from ESCs. Luciferase (luc(+))-expressing ESCs were utilized to monitor the survival of the ESCs and differentiated progeny in living recipients. Allogeneic recipients conditioned with fractioned total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) or TLI plus regulatory T cells (T(reg)) promoted engraftment of ESC allografts after transplantation. Following these treatments, the engraftment of transplanted terminally differentiated endothelial cells derived from ESCs was also significantly enhanced. Our findings provide clinically translatable strategies of inducing tolerance to adoptively transferred ESCs for cell replacement therapy of medical disorders. PMID:25801020

  11. Clinical and laboratorial findings in pregnant ewes and their progeny infected with Border disease virus (BDV-4 genotype).

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, A L; Minguijón, E; Estévez, L; Barandika, J F; Aduriz, G; Juste, R A; Hurtado, A

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the pathogenicity of local isolates of ovine pestiviruses (BDV-4 genotype), 13 virus- and antibody-negative, artificially inseminated pregnant ewes were challenged on days 108 (5 ewes), 76 (5 ewes) and 55 of pregnancy (3 ewes) with 2 ml of ovine pestivirus containing 10(6) TCID(50). Viraemia was detected by RT-PCR from 2 to 15 days pi in most ewes. No abortion due to the infection was observed but the number of stillbirths was high (32%), and bodyweight at lambing was significantly reduced compared to the experimental flock of origin used as control. Clinical symptoms in live lambs consisted on tremors, gait anomalies and inability to stand unaided. Skeletal abnormalities (brachygnathia, prognathia, arthrogryposis) were present in 44% of the lambs. Only 20% of the lambs were clinically normal. RT-PCR was a very sensitive technique compared to antigen ELISA in detecting viral presence in experimentally infected ewes and their progeny. PMID:18755485

  12. Genetic damage and the expression of behavioral abnormalities in the progeny of male rats exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the possible genetic nature of behavioral anomalies, an identifiable genetic endpoint, inherited chromosome translocations in the offspring, was selected to evaluate the relationship to behavior. Young adult male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 50-300 rads of ionizing radiation. Two weeks following their irradiation, the males were mated with four virgin females for one week. During this time, fertilizing sperm were derived from post-meiotic spermatids, the stage of the spermatogenic cycle most sensitive to the mutagenic effects of radiation. Behavioral analyses of the resulting 390 offspring consisted of both motor reflex and motor coordination measurements as well as learning and retention parameters. Significant differences in performance were seen in several of the motor reflex measurements in progeny of males exposed to some of the higher doses of irradiation. A similar phenomenon was observed in the performance of a single learned behavior.

  13. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Mepham, Kathryn; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5-14.5. At 3months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. PMID:23142472

  14. Long-term measurements of radon, thoron and their airborne progeny in 25 schools in Republic of Srpska.

    PubMed

    Ćurguz, Z; Stojanovska, Z; Žunić, Z S; Kolarž, P; Ischikawa, T; Omori, Y; Mishra, R; Sapra, B K; Vaupotič, J; Ujić, P; Bossew, P

    2015-10-01

    This article reports results of the first investigations on indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentration in 25 primary schools of Banja Luka, capital city of Republic Srpska. The measurements have been carried out in the period from May 2011 to April 2012 using 3 types of commercially available nuclear track detectors, named: long-term radon monitor (GAMMA 1)- for radon concentration measurements (C(Rn)); radon-thoron discriminative monitor (RADUET) for thoron concentration measurements (C(Tn)); while equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EERC) and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentrations (EETC) measured by Direct Radon Progeny Sensors/Direct Thoron Progeny Sensors (DRPS/DTPS) were exposed in the period November 2011 to April 2012. In each school the detectors were deployed at 10 cm distance from the wall. The obtained geometric mean concentrations were C(Rn) = 99 Bq m(-3) and C(Tn) = 51 Bq m(-3) for radon and thoron gases respectively. Those for equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EERC) and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentrations (EETC) were 11.2 Bq m(-3) and 0.4 Bq m(-3), respectively. The correlation analyses showed weak relation only between C(Rn) and C(Tn) as well as between C(Tn) and EETC. The influence of the school geographical locations and factors linked to buildings characteristic in relation to measured concentrations were tested. The geographical location and floor level significantly influence C(Rn) while C(Tn) depend only from building materials (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05). The obtained geometric mean values of the equilibrium factors were 0.123 for radon and 0.008 for thoron. PMID:26171822

  15. Modulatory Role of Sensory Innervation on Hair Follicle Stem Cell Progeny during Wound Healing of the Rat Skin

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Eduardo; Galván-Hernández, Claudio I.; Toscano-Márquez, Brenda; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background The bulge region of the hair follicle contains resident epithelial stem cells (SCs) that are activated and mobilized during hair growth and after epidermal wounding. However, little is known about the signals that modulate these processes. Clinical and experimental observations show that a reduced supply of sensory innervation is associated with delayed wound healing. Since axon terminals of sensory neurons are among the components of the bulge SC niche, we investigated whether these neurons are involved in the activation and mobilization of the hair stem cells during wound healing. Methodology/Principal Findings We used neonatal capsaicin treatment to reduce sensory terminals in the rat skin and performed morphometric analyses using design-based stereological methods. Epithelial proliferation was analyzed by quantifying the number of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled (BrdU+) nuclei in the epidermis and hair follicles. After wounding, the epidermis of capsaicin-treated rats presented fewer BrdU+ nuclei than in control rats. To assess SC progeny migration, we employed a double labeling protocol with iododeoxyuridine and chlorodeoxyuridine (IdU+/CldU+). The proportion of double-labeled cells was similar in the hair follicles of both groups at 32 h postwounding. IdU+/CldU+ cell proportion increased in the epidermis of control rats and decreased in treated rats at 61 h postwounding. The epidermal volume immunostained for keratin 6 was greater in treated rats at 61 h. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor immunoreactivity were both present in CD34+ and BrdU-retaining cells of the hair follicles. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that capsaicin denervation impairs SC progeny egress from the hair follicles, a circumstance associated with a greater epidermal activation. Altogether, these phenomena would explain the longer times for healing in denervated skin. Thus, sensory innervation

  16. Maternal immunization with vaccines containing recombinant NetB toxin partially protects progeny chickens from necrotic enteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Avian necrotic enteritis is a major economic and welfare issue throughout the global poultry industry and is caused by isolates of Clostridium perfringens that produce NetB toxin. Previously we have shown that birds directly vaccinated with inactivated C. perfringens type A culture supernatant (toxoid) combined with recombinant NetB (rNetB) protein were significantly protected from homologous and heterologous challenge. In the present study the protective effect of maternal immunization was examined. Broiler breeder hens were injected subcutaneously with genetically toxoided rNetB(S254L) alone, C. perfringens type A toxoid and toxoid combined with rNetB(S254L). Vaccination resulted in a strong serum immunoglobulin Y response to NetB in hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) formulations. Anti-NetB antibodies were transferred to the eggs and on into the hatched progeny. Subclinical necrotic enteritis was induced experimentally in the progeny and the occurrence of specific necrotic enteritis lesions evaluated. Birds derived from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) combined with toxoid and challenged with a homologous strain (EHE-NE18) at either 14 or 21 days post-hatch had significantly lower levels of disease compared to birds from adjuvant only vaccinated hens. In addition, birds from hens immunized with rNetB(S254L) alone were significantly protected when challenged at 14 days post-hatch. These results demonstrate that maternal immunization with a NetB-enhanced toxoid vaccine is a promising method for the control of necrotic enteritis in young broiler chickens. PMID:24219318

  17. Glutathione Depletion and Carbon Ion Radiation Potentiate Clustered DNA Lesions, Cell Death and Prevent Chromosomal Changes in Cancer Cells Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Hanot, Maïté; Boivin, Anthony; Malésys, Céline; Beuve, Michaël; Colliaux, Anthony; Foray, Nicolas; Douki, Thierry; Ardail, Dominique; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Poor local control and tumor escape are of major concern in head-and-neck cancers treated by conventional radiotherapy or hadrontherapy. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is suspected of playing an important role in mechanisms leading to radioresistance, and its depletion should enable oxidative stress insult, thereby modifying the nature of DNA lesions and the subsequent chromosomal changes that potentially lead to tumor escape. This study aimed to highlight the impact of a GSH-depletion strategy (dimethylfumarate, and l-buthionine sulfoximine association) combined with carbon ion or X-ray irradiation on types of DNA lesions (sparse or clustered) and the subsequent transmission of chromosomal changes to the progeny in a radioresistant cell line (SQ20B) expressing a high endogenous GSH content. Results are compared with those of a radiosensitive cell line (SCC61) displaying a low endogenous GSH level. DNA damage measurements (γH2AX/comet assay) demonstrated that a transient GSH depletion in resistant SQ20B cells potentiated the effects of irradiation by initially increasing sparse DNA breaks and oxidative lesions after X-ray irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation enhanced the complexity of clustered oxidative damage. Moreover, residual DNA double-strand breaks were measured whatever the radiation qualities. The nature of the initial DNA lesions and amount of residual DNA damage were similar to those observed in sensitive SCC61 cells after both types of irradiation. Misrepaired or unrepaired lesions may lead to chromosomal changes, estimated in cell progeny by the cytome assay. Both types of irradiation induced aberrations in nondepleted resistant SQ20B and sensitive SCC61 cells. The GSH-depletion strategy prevented the transmission of aberrations (complex rearrangements and chromosome break or loss) in radioresistant SQ20B only when associated with carbon ion irradiation. A GSH-depleting strategy combined with hadrontherapy may thus have considerable advantage in the

  18. Potential gene flow of two herbicide-tolerant transgenes from oilseed rape to wild B. juncea var. gracilis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhou; Zuo, Jiao; Huangfu, Chaohe; Qiang, Sheng

    2010-05-01

    Four successive reciprocal backcrosses between F(1) (obtained from wild Brassica juncea as maternal plants and transgenic glyphosate- or glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape, B. napus, as paternal plants) or subsequent herbicide-tolerant backcross progenies and wild B. juncea were achieved by hand pollination to assess potential transgene flow. The third and forth reciprocal backcrosses produced a number of seeds per silique similar to that of self-pollinated wild B. juncea, except in plants with glufosinate-tolerant backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants, which produced fewer seeds per silique than did self-pollinated wild B. juncea. Germination percentages of reciprocal backcross progenies were high and equivalent to those of wild B. juncea. The herbicide-tolerant first reciprocal backcross progenies produced fewer siliques per plant than did wild B. juncea, but the herbicide-tolerant second or third reciprocal backcross progenies did not differ from the wild B. juncea in siliques per plant. The herbicide-tolerant second and third reciprocal backcross progenies produced an amount of seeds per silique similar to that of wild B. juncea except for with the glufosinate-tolerant first and second backcross progeny used as maternal plants and wild B. juncea as paternal plants. In the presence of herbicide selection pressure, inheritance of the glyphosate-tolerant transgene was stable across the second and third backcross generation, whereas the glufosinate-tolerant transgene was maintained, despite a lack of stabilized introgression. The occurrence of fertile, transgenic weed-like plants after only three crosses (F(1), first backcross, second backcross) suggests a potential rapid spread of transgenes from oilseed rape into its wild relative wild B. juncea. Transgene flow from glyphosate-tolerant oilseed rape might be easier than that from glufosinate-tolerant oilseed rape to wild B. juncea. The original insertion site of the

  19. Modeling forage legume polycross pollen-parent gamete contributions to progeny based on empirical measurements with implications for effective polycross size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Random mating is a fundamental assumption in quantitative genetic theory and assumes pollen-parents contribute uniform gamete numbers to the progeny generation; polycross-size-expected-inbreeding rests on this assumption. This study empirically determined polycross pollen-parent gamete frequency con...

  20. Analysis of the 'A72' peach tree growth habit and its inheritance in progeny obtained from crosses of 'A72' with columnar peach trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first report of the 'A72' semi-dwarf peach tree (Nn) by Monet and Salesses (1975), little information has become available on this genotype. We evaluated the growth habit and verified the inheritance of 'A72' in a population of 220 progeny derived from self-pollination. Detailed tree and ...

  1. Segregation among test-cross progeny suggests that two complementary dominant genes explain the difference between ascites-resistant and ascites-susceptible broiler lines.

    PubMed

    Druyan, S; Cahaner, A

    2007-11-01

    Ascites syndrome (AS) is a major cause of economic losses to the broiler industry. The tendency of broilers to develop AS was found to be heritable, suggesting that selective breeding could provide a solution to this problem. To further elucidate the genetic control of AS, AS-susceptible (AS-S) and AS-resistant (AS-R) lines were established by 3 cycles of divergent selection on pedigree data of AS mortality under AS-inducing conditions. The rapid divergence between the lines suggested the involvement of a major gene with dominance for AS resistance. It was hypothesized that the difference between the lines is controlled by a single dominant gene, denoted A, with AA (and some Aa) individuals in the AS-R line, and aa individuals in the AS-S line. The current study was designed to test this hypothesis by test-crossing heterozygous (Aa) sires from the AS-R line and F(1) from the AS-R x AS-S cross, with recessive homozygous (aa) dams from the AS-S line. A ratio of 1:1 was expected between progeny with AS vs. healthy progeny when reared under AS-inducing conditions. Test-cross progeny of 5 sires from the AS-R line segregated 1:1, indicating that these sires were heterozygous (Aa) in the suggested major gene and thus supporting the hypothesis of a single major gene with dominance of AS resistance. There was segregation among test-cross progeny of 8 F(1) sires, but with a 3:1 ratio of AS progeny to healthy progeny. The 3:1 ratio is expected if the F(1) sires are heterozygous (AaBb) with complementary interaction between the dominant alleles in 2 unlinked major genes. The segregation among test-cross progeny of the 9 heterozygous AS-R sires could also be explained by the same model. These results suggested that 2 major genes are responsible for the difference between the AS-R and AS-S lines. Resource populations derived from these lines will facilitate an efficient genomic search for these 2 genes. Once the alleles of these genes are identified and genotyping tests are

  2. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    PubMed

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  3. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    PubMed

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  4. Mitotic and meiotic behavior of rye chromosomes in wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid x triticale progeny.

    PubMed

    Xie, Q; Kang, H; Sparkes, D L; Tao, S; Fan, X M; Xu, L; Fan, X; Sha, L; Zhang, H; Wang, Y; Zeng, J; Zhou, Y

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of rye chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis was analyzed in a subset comprising 33 F3 lines from the cross of wheat, Psathyrostachys huashanica amphiploid (AABBDDNsNs) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR), as visualized by genomic in situ hybridization. The results indicated that 31 of the total lines contained 4-14 rye chromosomes. Twenty-eight combinations had more rye chromosomes than the F1 hybrids, suggesting the occurrence of spontaneous quantitative increment. No P. huashanica chromosomes were detected in all of the combinations tested. Mitotic analysis showed that rye chromosomes progressed normally with the wheat counterparts without loss. However, abnormal meiosis was found in almost all lines. Similar progression between wheat and rye genomes appeared from interphase to metaphase I. It was at anaphase I that many rye univalents lagged behind those of wheat, followed by equational division. This resulted in the formation of chromosomal segments and micronuclei at telophase I or II. Micronuclei could also be generated from the immobilized univalents in the periphery of cells. Synapsis and translocations between wheat and rye genomes, chromosome bridges, and unreduced gametes were detected. Therefore, it is proposed that rye chromosome elimination may involve chromatid lagging, fragmentation and micronucleation, or the immobilization of certain univalents during meiosis instead of mitosis in the relatively advanced generations. This mechanism, together with spontaneous incremental increase of rye chromosome number, permitted the generation of various germplasms for wheat improvement. PMID:23315875

  5. Gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters cardiac structure/function, protein expression and DNA methylation in adult male mice progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Mepham, Kathryn; Sebag, Igal A.; and others

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women, and thus their fetuses, are exposed to many endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs). Fetal cardiomyocytes express sex hormone receptors making them potentially susceptible to re-programming by estrogenizing EDCs. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a proto-typical, non-steroidal estrogen. We hypothesized that changes in adult cardiac structure/function after gestational exposure to the test compound DES would be a proof in principle for the possibility of estrogenizing environmental EDCs to also alter the fetal heart. Vehicle (peanut oil) or DES (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg/da.) was orally delivered to pregnant C57bl/6n dams on gestation days 11.5–14.5. At 3 months, male progeny were left sedentary or were swim trained for 4 weeks. Echocardiography of isoflurane anesthetized mice revealed similar cardiac structure/function in all sedentary mice, but evidence of systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation after swim training at higher DES doses. The calcium homeostasis proteins, SERCA2a, phospholamban, phospho-serine 16 phospholamban and calsequestrin 2, are important for cardiac contraction and relaxation. Immunoblot analyses of ventricle homogenates showed increased expression of SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 in DES mice and greater molecular remodeling of these proteins and phospho-serine 16 phospholamban in swim trained DES mice. DES increased cardiac DNA methyltransferase 3a expression and DNA methylation in the CpG island within the calsequestrin 2 promoter in heart. Thus, gestational DES epigenetically altered ventricular DNA, altered cardiac function and expression, and reduced the ability of adult progeny to cardiac remodel when physically challenged. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing EDCs may impact cardiac structure/function in adult males. -- Highlights: ► Gestational DES changes cardiac SERCA2a and CASQ2 expression. ► Echocardiography identified systolic dysfunction and increased diastolic relaxation. ► DES

  6. Radon progeny monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility and a potential earthquake precursory signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Mendes, Virgilio B.; Azevedo, Eduardo B.

    2016-04-01

    Radon has been considered a promising earthquake precursor, the main rationale being an expected increase in radon exhalation in soil and rocks due to stress associated with the preparatory stages of an earthquake. However, the precursory nature of radon is far from being convincingly demonstrated so far. A major hindrance is the many meteorological and geophysical factors diving radon temporal variability, including the geophysical parameters influencing its emanation (grain size, moisture content, temperature), as well as the meteorological factors (atmospheric pressure, moisture, temperature, winds) influencing its mobility. Despite the challenges, radon remains one of the strongest candidates as a potential earthquake precursor, and it is of crucial importance to investigate the many factors driving its variability and its potential association with seismic events. Continuous monitoring of radon progeny is performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The Azores archipelago is associated with a complex geodynamic setting on the Azores triple junction where the American, Eurasian and African litospheric plates meet, resulting in significant seismic and volcanic activity. A considerable advantage of the monitoring site is the availability of a comprehensive dataset of concurrent meteorological observations performed at the ENA facility and freely available from the ARM data archive, enabling a detailed analysis of the environmental factors influencing the temporal variability of radon's progeny. Gamma radiation is being measured continuously every 15 minutes since May 2015. The time series of gamma radiation counts is dominated by sharp peaks lasting a few hours and

  7. Advance directives

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Rory; Mailo, Kevin; Angeles, Ricardo; Agarwal, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of patients with advance directives in a family practice, and to describe patients’ perspectives on a family doctor’s role in initiating discussions about advance directives. Design A self-administered patient questionnaire. Setting A busy urban family medicine teaching clinic in Hamilton, Ont. Participants A convenience sample of adult patients attending the clinic over the course of a typical business week. Main outcome measures The prevalence of advance directives in the patient population was determined, and the patients’ expectations regarding the role of their family doctors were elucidated. Results The survey population consisted of 800 participants (a response rate of 72.5%) well distributed across age groups; 19.7% had written advance directives and 43.8% had previously discussed the topic of advance directives, but only 4.3% of these discussions had occurred with family doctors. In 5.7% of cases, a family physician had raised the issue; 72.3% of respondents believed patients should initiate the discussion. Patients who considered advance directives extremely important were significantly more likely to want their family doctors to start the conversation (odds ratio 3.98; P < .05). Conclusion Advance directives were not routinely addressed in the family practice. Most patients preferred to initiate the discussion of advance directives. However, patients who considered the subject extremely important wanted their family doctors to initiate the discussion. PMID:25873704

  8. Detection of 210Po on filter papers 16 years after use for the collection of short-lived radon progeny in a room.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jarad, F; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Radon gas was allowed to accumulate in its radium source and then injected into a 36 m(3) test room, resulting in an initial radon concentration of 15 kBq m(-3). Filter papers were used to collect the short-lived radon progeny and thus to measure the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) in-situ in the year 1984 at different times and conditions according to the experimental design. The radon progeny collected on the filter papers were studied as a function of aerosol particle concentration ranging from 10(2)-10(5) particles cm(-3) in three different experiments. The highest aerosol particle concentration was generated by indoor cigarette smoking. Those filters were stored after the experiment, and were used after 16 years to study the activity of the radon long-lived alpha emitter progeny, (210)Po (T(1/2)=138 days). This isotope is separated from the short-lived progeny by (210)Pb beta emitter with 22.3 years half-life. After 16 years' storage of these filters, each filter paper was sandwiched and wrapped between two CR-39 nuclear track detectors, to put the detectors in contact with the surfaces of different filters, for 337 days. Correlation between the PAEC measured using filter papers in the year 1984 and the activity of long-lived alpha emitter (210)Po on the same filter papers measured in the year 2000 were studied. The results of the (210)Po activity showed a very good correlation of 0.92 with the PAEC 16 years ago. The results also depict that the PAEC and (210)Po activity in indoor air increased with the increase of aerosol particle concentration, which shows the attachment of short-lived radon progeny with the aerosol particles. The experiment proves that indoor cigarette smoking is a major source of aerosol particles carrying radon progeny and, thus, indoor cigarette smoking is an additional source of internal radiation hazard to the occupants whether smoker or non-smoker. PMID:12633999

  9. Genome Reshuffling for Advanced Intercross Permutation (GRAIP): Simulation and permutation for advanced intercross population analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Jeremy; Broman, Karl; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Zhou, Guomin; Airey, David; Birmingham, Amanda; Williams, Robert

    2008-04-01

    Background: Advanced intercross lines (AIL) are segregating populations created using a multi-generation breeding protocol for fine mapping complex trait loci (QTL) in mice and other organisms. Applying QTL mapping methods for intercross and backcross populations, often followed by na ve permutation of individuals and phenotypes, does not account for the effect of AIL family structure in which final generations have been expanded and leads to inappropriately low significance thresholds. The critical problem with na ve mapping approaches in AIL populations is that the individual is not an exchangeable unit. Methodology/Principal Findings: The effect of family structure has immediate implications for the optimal AIL creation (many crosses, few animals per cross, and population expansion before the final generation) and we discuss these and the utility of AIL populations for QTL fine mapping. We also describe Genome Reshuffling for Advanced Intercross Permutation, (GRAIP) a method for analyzing AIL data that accounts for family structure. GRAIP permutes a more interchangeable unit in the final generation crosses - the parental genome - and simulating regeneration of a permuted AIL population based on exchanged parental identities. GRAIP determines appropriate genome-wide significance thresholds and locus-specific Pvalues for AILs and other populations with similar family structures. We contrast GRAIP with na ve permutation using a large densely genotyped mouse AIL population (1333 individuals from 32 crosses). A na ve permutation using coat color as a model phenotype demonstrates high false-positive locus identification and uncertain significance levels, which are corrected using GRAIP. GRAIP also detects an established hippocampus weight locus and a new locus, Hipp9a. Conclusions and Significance: GRAIP determines appropriate genome-wide significance thresholds and locus-specific Pvalues for AILs and other populations with similar family structures. The effect of

  10. Electrical capacitance as a predictor of root dry weight in shrub willow (Salix; Salicaceae) parents and progeny1

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Craig H.; Smart, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Root biomass is an important trait often disregarded in woody perennial selection due to the challenge and expense of accurately and efficiently measuring large populations. In this study, we aim to develop a simple method that can predict root dry weight within a diverse shrub willow (Salix) breeding population representing species hybrids and their parents using root electrical capacitance (REC). Methods: The REC method was tested on plants started from cuttings and grown in pots with potting mix in the greenhouse for 11 wk to assess the relationship of REC with 24 biomass traits and its usefulness in allometric models for root and stem dry biomass. Results: Strong linear and positive correlations were found between REC and root dry biomass (r = 0.88). The total proportion of variance of root and stem dry biomass explained by predictors in multiple regression was 85% and 69%, respectively. The relative importance of predictor variables in allometric models was dominated by the contribution of REC. Discussion: This work provides an efficient and nondestructive technique to indirectly quantify root biomass of genetically diverse shrub willow progeny, which has great promise for selection of genotypes with varying root biomass and for the accurate estimation of belowground carbon sequestration. PMID:27610275

  11. Zinc distribution and speciation in Arabidopsis halleri x Arabidops is lyrata progenies presenting various zinc accumulation capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Sarret, Geraldine; Willems, Glenda; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Frerot, Helene; Pairis, Sebastien; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Manceau, Alain; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre

    2010-04-08

    - The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the chemical form and localization of zinc (Zn) in plant leaves and their Zn accumulationcapacity. - An interspecific cross between Arabidopsis halleri sp. halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata sp. petrea segregating for Zn accumulation was used. Zinc (Zn) speciation and Zn distribution in the leaves of the parent plants and of selected F1 and F2 progenies were investigated by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques and chemical analyses. - A correlation was observed between the proportion of Zn being in octahedral coordination complexed to organic acids and free in solution (Zn?OAs + Znaq) and Zn content in the leaves. This pool varied between 40percent and 80percent of total leaf Zn depending on the plant studied. Elemental mapping of the leaves revealed different Zn partitioning between the veins and the leaf tissue. The vein : tissue fluorescence ratio was negatively correlated with Zn accumulation. - The higher proportion of Zn?OAs + Znaq and the depletion of the veins in the stronger accumulators are attributed to a higher xylem unloading and vacuolar sequestration in the leaf cells. Elemental distributions in the trichomes were also investigated, and results support the role of carboxyl and⁄ or hydroxyl groups as major Zn ligands in these cells.

  12. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiating progenies by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stringari, Chiara; Sierra, Robert; Donovan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a label-free optical technique to image and discriminate undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from their differentiating progenies in vitro. Using intrinsic cellular fluorophores, we perform fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) and phasor analysis to obtain hESC metabolic signatures. We identify two optical biomarkers to define the differentiation status of hESCs: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lipid droplet-associated granules (LDAGs). These granules have a unique lifetime signature and could be formed by the interaction of reactive oxygen species and unsaturated metabolic precursor that are known to be abundant in hESC. Changes in the relative concentrations of these two intrinsic biomarkers allow for the discrimination of undifferentiated hESCs from differentiating hESCs. During early hESC differentiation we show that NADH concentrations increase, while the concentration of LDAGs decrease. These results are in agreement with a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation rate. Single-cell phasor FLIM signatures reveal an increased heterogeneity in the metabolic states of differentiating H9 and H1 hESC colonies. This technique is a promising noninvasive tool to monitor hESC metabolism during differentiation, which can have applications in high throughput analysis, drug screening, functional metabolomics and induced pluripotent stem cell generation. PMID:22559690

  13. Production and genetic analysis of partial hybrids from intertribal sexual crosses between Brassica napus and Isatis indigotica and progenies.

    PubMed

    Tu, Y Q; Sun, J; Ge, X H; Li, Z Y

    2010-02-01

    With the dye and medicinal plant Isatis indigotica (2n = 14) as pollen parent, intertribal sexual hybrids with Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) were obtained and characterized. Among a lot of F1 plants produced, only five hybrids (H1-H5) were distinguished morphologically from female B. napus parents by showing low fertility and some characters of I. indigotica, and also by having different chromosome numbers. H1-H4 had similar but variable chromosome numbers in their somatic and meiotic cells (2n = 25-30), and H5 had 2n = 19, the same number as the haploid of B. napus. GISH analysis of the cells from H1 and H5 detected one I. indigotica chromosome and one or two chromosome terminal fragments. New B. napus types with phenotypic and genomic alterations were produced by H1 after pollination by B. napus and selfing for several generations, and by H5 after selfing. A progeny plant (2n = 20) was derived from H1 after pollination by I. indigotica twice and had a phenotype similar to a certain type of B. rapa, showing that hybrid H1 likely retained all chromosomes of the A genome and lost some of the C genome in parental B. napus. The reasons for the formation of the partial hybrids with unexpected chromosomal complements and for the chromosome elimination are discussed. PMID:20140033

  14. Identification of full-length transmitted/founder viruses and their progeny in primary HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette; Hraber, Peter; Giorgi, Elena; Bhattacharya, T

    2009-01-01

    Identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and their progeny by is a novel strategy for probing the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and for evaluating the genetic imprint of viral and host factors that act to constrain or facilitate virus replication. Here, we show in a cohort of twelve acutely infected subjects (9 clade B; 3 clade C), that complete genomic sequences of transmitted/founder viruses could be inferred using single genome amplification of plasma viral RNA, direct amplicon sequencing, and a model of random virus evolution. This allowed for the precise identification, chemical synthesis, molecular cloning, and biological analysis of those viruses actually responsible for productive clinical infection and for a comprehensive mapping of sequential viral genomes and proteomes for mutations that are necessary or incidental to the establishment of HIV-1 persistence. Transmitted/founder viruses were CD4 and CCR5 tropic, replicated preferentially in activated primary T-Iymphocytes but not monocyte-derived macrophages, and were effectively shielded from most heterologous or broadly neutralizing antibodies. By 3 months of infection, the evolving viral quasispecies in three subjects showed mutational fixation at only 2-5 discreet genomic loci. By 6-12 months, mutational fixation was evident at 18-27 genomic loci. Some, but not all, of these mutations were attributable to virus escape from cytotoxic Tlymphocytes or neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that other viral or host factors may influence early HIV -1 fitness.

  15. Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities of (223)Ra and decay progeny in equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-08-01

    Precise measurements of the absolute γ-ray emission probabilities have been made of radiochemically pure solutions of (223)Ra in equilibrium with its decay progeny, which had been previously standardised by 4π(liquid scintillation)-γ digital coincidence counting techniques. Two high-purity germanium γ-ray spectrometers were used which had been accurately calibrated using a suite of primary and secondary radioactive standards. Comparison of the activity concentration determined by the primary technique against γ-ray spectrometry measurements using the nuclear data evaluations of the Decay Data Evaluation Project exhibited a range of ~18% in the most intense γ-ray emissions (>1% probability) of the (223)Ra decay series. Absolute γ-ray emission probabilities and standard uncertainties have been determined for the decay of (223)Ra, (219)Rn, (215)Po, (211)Pb, (211)Bi and (207)Tl in equilibrium. The standard uncertainties of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities quoted in this work show a significant improvement over previously reported γ-ray emission probabilities. Correlation coefficients for pairs of the measured γ-ray emission probabilities from the decays of the radionuclides (223)Ra, (219)Rn and (211)Pb have been determined and are presented. The α-transition probabilities of the (223)Ra have been deduced from P(γ+ce) balance using the γ-ray emission probabilities determined in this work with some agreement observed with the published experimental values of the α-emission probabilities. PMID:25933406

  16. Label-free separation of human embryonic stem cells and their differentiating progenies by phasor fluorescence lifetime microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringari, Chiara; Sierra, Robert; Donovan, Peter J.; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-04-01

    We develop a label-free optical technique to image and discriminate undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from their differentiating progenies in vitro. Using intrinsic cellular fluorophores, we perform fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) and phasor analysis to obtain hESC metabolic signatures. We identify two optical biomarkers to define the differentiation status of hESCs: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and lipid droplet-associated granules (LDAGs). These granules have a unique lifetime signature and could be formed by the interaction of reactive oxygen species and unsaturated metabolic precursor that are known to be abundant in hESC. Changes in the relative concentrations of these two intrinsic biomarkers allow for the discrimination of undifferentiated hESCs from differentiating hESCs. During early hESC differentiation we show that NADH concentrations increase, while the concentration of LDAGs decrease. These results are in agreement with a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation rate. Single-cell phasor FLIM signatures reveal an increased heterogeneity in the metabolic states of differentiating H9 and H1 hESC colonies. This technique is a promising noninvasive tool to monitor hESC metabolism during differentiation, which can have applications in high throughput analysis, drug screening, functional metabolomics and induced pluripotent stem cell generation.

  17. Infectious cDNA clones of four viroids in Coleus blumei and molecular characterization of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongmei; Gao, Rui; Qin, Lv; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui; Hou, Wanying; Li, Shifang

    2014-02-13

    Four viroid species infecting Coleus blumei, named Coleus blumei viroid 1-4 (CbVd-1-CbVd-4), and two tentative new viroid species, named CbVd-5 and CbVd-6, have been characterized, for two of which (CbVd-5 and CbVd-6, first reported in 2009), there is no established bioassay. Here, infectious clones were used as inoculums sources and the biological properties of CbVd-1, -3, -5 and -6 were assessed. When dimeric CbVd (+) RNAs synthesized in vitro were bioassayed, the first detection time for the four CbVds was different, ranging from 45 to 300 days. In addition, we confirmed that CbVd-5 and CbVd-6 can be transmitted via seeds. Molecular characterization of their progeny from slash-inoculated plants one year after inoculation demonstrated that the genetic diversity of CbVd populations may depend on the infected coleus plants and on the viroid genotype. PMID:24291215

  18. A qNMR approach for bitterness phenotyping and QTL identification in an F1 apricot progeny.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Claudia; Paetz, Christian; Dondini, Luca; Tartarini, Stefano; Bassi, Daniele; Schneider, Bernd; Masia, Andrea

    2012-06-30

    In apricot the bitter flavor of seeds is determined by the amount of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glucoside whose cleavage by endogenous enzymes, upon seed crushing, releases toxic hydrogen cyanide. The presence of such a poisonous compound is an obstacle to the use and commercialization of apricot seeds for human or animal nutrition. To investigate the genetic loci involved in the determination of the bitter phenotype a combined genetic and biochemical approach was used, involving a candidate gene analysis and a fine phenotyping via quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance, on an F1 apricot progeny. Seven functional markers were developed and positioned on the genetic maps of the parental lines Lito and BO81604311 and seven putative QTLs for the bitterness level were determined. In conclusion, this analysis has revealed some loci involved in the shaping of the bitterness degree; has proven the complexity of the bitter trait in apricot, reporting an high variance of the QTLs found over the years; has showed the critical importance of the phenotyping step, whose precision and accuracy is a pre-requisite when studying such a multifactorial character. PMID:21939695

  19. Incest versus abstinence: reproductive trade-offs between mate limitation and progeny fitness in a self-incompatible invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Swain, Stephen M; Young, Andrew G

    2013-12-01

    Plant mating systems represent an evolutionary and ecological trade-off between reproductive assurance through selfing and maximizing progeny fitness through outbreeding. However, many plants with sporophytic self-incompatibility systems exhibit dominance interactions at the S-locus that allow biparental inbreeding, thereby facilitating mating between individuals that share alleles at the S-locus. We investigated this trade-off by estimating mate availability and biparental inbreeding depression in wild radish from five different populations across Australia. We found dominance interactions among S-alleles increased mate availability relative to estimates based on individuals that did not share S-alleles. Twelve of the sixteen fitness variables were significantly reduced by inbreeding. For all the three life-history phases evaluated, self-fertilized offspring suffered a greater than 50% reduction in fitness, while full-sib and half-sib offspring suffered a less than 50% reduction in fitness. Theory indicates that fitness costs greater than 50% can result in an evolutionary trajectory toward a stable state of self-incompatibility (SI). This study suggests that dominance interactions at the S-locus provide a possible third stable state between SI and SC where biparental inbreeding increases mate availability with relatively minor fitness costs. This strategy allows weeds to establish in new environments while maintaining a functional SI system. PMID:24455137

  20. Comparison of milk production of the progeny of BLAD-carrier and healthy Holstein bulls in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Jánosa, A; Baranyai, B; Dohy, J

    1999-01-01

    'Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency' (BLAD) is a recessive monofactorial, lethal inheritable defect occurring in Holstein-Friesian cattle and often passed on by well-known top bulls. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between the BLAD genotype of bulls, their genetic evaluation for milk and their daughters' milk production. BLAD-carrier and healthy bulls were compared on the basis of their breeding value published in November 1997. The first 100 bulls ranked according to the Total Production Index (TPI) were used, including nine BLAD carriers with 2,835 daughters and 77 healthy sires with 21,950 female progenies. For 14 bulls the BLAD genotype was not indicated. The healthy animals significantly outperformed the BLAD carriers, which result contradicts our earlier findings (Dohy et al., 1996; Jánosa and Dohy, 1997). In a BLAD elimination programme, the identification of BLAD carriers and properly planned mating are of great importance in order to avoid 'inter se' mating of BLAD-carrier top animals which can be of significant influence in Holstein breeding. PMID:10497821

  1. Ha-VP39 binding to actin and the influence of F-actin on assembly of progeny virions.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Ge, G; Qi, Y

    2004-11-01

    We present evidence that actin is necessary for the successful assembly of HaNPV virions. Purified nucleocapsid protein Ha-VP39 of Heliothis armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus (HaNPV) was found to be able to bind to actin in vitro without assistance, as demonstrated by Western blot and isothermal titration calorimeter. DeltaH and binding constants (K) detected by isothermal titration calorimeter strongly suggested that Ha-VP39 first binds actin to seed the formation of hexamer complex of actin, and the hexamers then link to each other to form filaments, and the filaments finally twist into cable structures. The proliferation of HaNPV was completely inhibited in Hz-AM1 cells cultivated in the medium containing 0.5 microg/ml cytochalasin D (CD) to prevent polymerization of actin, while its yield was reduced to 10(-4) in the presence of 0.1 microg/ml CD. Actin concentration and the viral DNA synthesis were not significantly affected by CD even though the progeny virions assembled in the CD treated cells were morphologically different from normal ones and resulted in fewer plaques in plaque assay. PMID:15503206

  2. Modes of inheritance of two apomixis components, diplospory and parthenogenesis, in Chinese chive (Allium ramosum) revealed by analysis of the segregating population generated by back-crossing between amphimictic and apomictic diploids.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ken-Ichiro; Nakazawa, Yoshiko; Namai, Kiyoshi; Amagai, Masayuki; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Wako, Tadayuki; Kojima, Akio

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the mode of inheritance of apomixis in Chinese chive, the degrees of diplospory and parthenogenesis were evaluated in F(1) and BC(1) progenies derived from crosses between amphimictic and apomictic diploids (2n = 16, 2x). The F(1) population was generated by crossing three amphimictic diploids 94Mo13, 94Mo49 and 94Mo50 with an apomictic diploid KaD2 and comprised 110 diploids and 773 triploids. All the diploid F(1) plants examined were completely or highly eusporous and completely syngamic. All the triploid F(1) plants examined were highly diplosporous and highly parthenogenetic. KaD2 could not transmit its high level of apomixis via monoploid pollen grains. The BC(1) population, generated by crossing 94Mo49 with apomictic triploids found in the F(1) offspring, exhibited heteroploidy; it comprised haploid, diploid, triploid, tetraploid and various aneuploid individuals. In this generation, clear segregation was observed between diplospory and parthenogenesis. Analysis of the BC(1) population suggests that diplospory and parthenogenesis are each controlled by single dominant genes, D and P, respectively. However, all the BC(1) plants characterized as parthenogenetic were diplosporous. The absence of phenotypically eusporous parthenogenetic plants can be explained by assuming that the presence of diplospory gene is a prerequisite for the parthenogenesis gene expression in Chinese chive. PMID:23136527

  3. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    PubMed

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O

    1987-07-01

    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds. PMID:3610866

  4. Daily variation of radon gas and its short-lived progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its short-lived progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The short-lived 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its short-lived progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).

  5. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  6. Prevalence of antibody to chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in Swedish chicken breeding flocks correlated to outbreaks of blue wing disease (BWD) in their progeny.

    PubMed

    Engström, B E

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey for antibody to Chicken Anaemia Virus (CAV) was performed on broiler breeders as well as layer breeding birds in Sweden at the end of their rearing period. Grandparents (GP) of both types leaving quarantine were in 21 out of 26 cases free from antibody to CAV, but often became infected soon thereafter. A total of 10 outbreaks of blue wing disease (BWD) in 3 series were recorded in the broiler and layer parent generation, all of which were progeny of 3 late seroconverting GP-flocks. All but one of 22 layer parent flocks had been infected and had seroconverted during the rearing period. Subsequently BWD was not recorded from commercial layers. Broiler parent flocks were more protected from CAV infection during rearing. Eighteen out of 94 broiler parent flocks had not developed antibody to CAV before coming into lay. Outbreaks of BWD were reported in progeny flocks from all these broiler breeders, with the exception of those that had been vaccinated. Good hygienic routines along with isolation of the birds delayed the seroconversion to CAV in broiler breeders and vaccination of these breeders protected their progeny from outbreaks of BWD. Broiler flocks in houses where BWD had occurred recently had always antibodies to CAV at slaughter. It was possible to eradicate the infection from the house and prevent the infection between flocks by proper cleaning and disinfection of the broiler houses. PMID:10605126

  7. Evidence of various mechanisms of Cd sequestration in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri, the non-accumulator Arabidopsis lyrata, and their progenies by combined synchrotron-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Huguet, Stéphanie; Meyer, Claire-Lise; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Testemale, Denis; Vantelon, Delphine; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2015-06-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is a model plant for Zn and Cd hyperaccumulation. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the chemical forms of Cd, its distribution in leaves, and Cd accumulation and tolerance. An interspecific cross was carried out between A. halleri and the non-tolerant and non-hyperaccumulating relative A. lyrata providing progenies segregating for Cd tolerance and accumulation. Cd speciation and distribution were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and microfocused X-ray fluorescence. In A. lyrata and non-tolerant progenies, Cd was coordinated by S atoms only or with a small contribution of O groups. Interestingly, the proportion of O ligands increased in A. halleri and tolerant progenies, and they were predominant in most of them, while S ligands were still present. Therefore, the binding of Cd with O ligands was associated with Cd tolerance. In A. halleri, Cd was mainly located in the xylem, phloem, and mesophyll tissue, suggesting a reallocation process for Cd within the plant. The distribution of the metal at the cell level was further discussed. In A. lyrata, the vascular bundles were also Cd enriched, but the epidermis was richer in Cd as compared with the mesophyll. Cd was identified in trichomes of both species. This work demonstrated that both Cd speciation and localization were related to the tolerance character of the plant. PMID:25873676

  8. Anxiety behavior is reduced, and physical growth is improved in the progeny of rat dams that consumed lipids from goat milk: an elevated plus maze analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana K B; de Melo, Ana P R; Medeiros, Maria C; Queiroga, Rita C R E; Bomfim, Marcos A D; Santiago, Elaine C A; Guedes, Rubem C A

    2013-09-27

    The goat milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which can influence physical growth and brain development. This study investigated the impact of a diet containing goat milk fat (GMF) on physical parameters of gestating (G) and/or lactating (L) rat dams, and their progeny's physical growth, and anxiety behavior. In the dams, body weight was evaluated during gestation and lactation. Maternal physical parameters, thoracic and abdominal circumference and liver weight were measured at weaning. In the progeny, indicators of somatic development, and consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance) were determined. Anxiety behavior was tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM). Compared to the controls, GMF-pups presented higher body weight and tail length at days 18 and 21 (groups G+L and L). In the L-group, cliff avoidance and free-fall righting responses were respectively delayed, and accelerated. Fur appearance was anticipated in G+L pups. On postnatal day 35, the EPM responses of the G group indicated less anxiety than in the controls. Data show developmental and behavioral modifications in the progeny of dams fed the GMF-rich diet consumed during gestation and lactation, suggesting the involvement of CLA in such effects. PMID:23916660

  9. Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ana G.; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

  10. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. PMID:26199104

  11. Bioenergetics growth model for the effect of gamma irradiation and plant extract (Barnoof) on the progeny of Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel).

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hussein F

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of two substerilizing doses of gamma radiation, 100 and 150 Gray (Gy), and/or the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) in two solvents on certain biological aspects and the energy budget of the Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). Data revealed that the treatment combination of gamma radiation with the plant extract significantly increased reproduction compared with the control at all treatment levels (doses and concentrations). Most of the treatments increased the values of developmental/day and larval duration in the F(1) progeny compared with the progeny from the control treatment, although the percentage survival was decreased in all treatments. These values were more obvious in the combination treatments compared with either gamma radiation or plant extract treatments alone. The coefficient of metabolizable energy (C.M.E.) was not affected by any treatments. No consistent effect on the efficiency of storage of ingested energy [E.S.I.(E.)] and the efficiency of storage of metabolizable energy [E.S.M.(E.)] when the F(1) progeny were treated with plant extract alone or with the plant extract combined with the 100 Gy dose of radiation was noted, while they were both significantly increased at all treatment levels when the 150 Gy dose of radiation was combined with the plant extract. The results obtained are discussed in terms of their implications for the best substerilizing dose of radiation on parental male pupae of A. ipsilon. PMID:23313764

  12. Aquaporins Are Critical for Provision of Water during Lactation and Intrauterine Progeny Hydration to Maintain Tsetse Fly Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Hansen, Immo A.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Michalková, Veronika; Mireji, Paul O.; Bargul, Joel L.; Drake, Lisa L.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Aksoy, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Tsetse flies undergo drastic fluctuations in their water content throughout their adult life history due to events such as blood feeding, dehydration and lactation, an essential feature of the viviparous reproductive biology of tsetse. Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane proteins that allow water and other solutes to permeate through cellular membranes. Here we identify tsetse aquaporin (AQP) genes, examine their expression patterns under different physiological conditions (blood feeding, lactation and stress response) and perform functional analysis of three specific genes utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) gene silencing. Ten putative aquaporins were identified in the Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm) genome, two more than has been previously documented in any other insect. All organs, tissues, and body parts examined had distinct AQP expression patterns. Two AQP genes, gmmdripa and gmmdripb ( = gmmaqp1a and gmmaqp1b) are highly expressed in the milk gland/fat body tissues. The whole-body transcript levels of these two genes vary over the course of pregnancy. A set of three AQPs (gmmaqp5, gmmaqp2a, and gmmaqp4b) are expressed highly in the Malpighian tubules. Knockdown of gmmdripa and gmmdripb reduced the efficiency of water loss following a blood meal, increased dehydration tolerance and reduced heat tolerance of adult females. Knockdown of gmmdripa extended pregnancy length, and gmmdripb knockdown resulted in extended pregnancy duration and reduced progeny production. We found that knockdown of AQPs increased tsetse milk osmolality and reduced the water content in developing larva. Combined knockdown of gmmdripa, gmmdripb and gmmaqp5 extended pregnancy by 4–6 d, reduced pupal production by nearly 50%, increased milk osmolality by 20–25% and led to dehydration of feeding larvae. Based on these results, we conclude that gmmDripA and gmmDripB are critical for diuresis, stress tolerance and intrauterine lactation through the regulation of water and/or other

  13. Attached, unattached fraction of progeny concentrations and equilibrium factor for dose assessments from (222)Rn and (220)Rn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parminder; Saini, Komal; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, Bijay Kumar; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, measurements of indoor radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) were carried out in 96 dwellings from 22 different villages situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India, by using LR-115 type II-based pinhole twin cup dosimeters and deposition-based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). The annual average indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentrations observed in these dwellings were 63.82 and 89.59 Bq/m(3), respectively, while the average EEC (attached + unattached) for (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 29.28 and 2.74 Bq/m(3). For (222)Rn (f Rn) and (220)Rn (f Tn), the average values of unattached fraction were 0.11 and 0.09, respectively. The equilibrium factors for radon (F Rn) and thoron (F Tn) varied from 0.12 to 0.77 with an average of 0.50, and from 0.01 to 0.34 with an average of 0.05, respectively. The annual inhalation dose due to mouth and nasal breathing was calculated using dose conversion factors and unattached fractions. The indoor annual effective doses for (222)Rn (AEDR) and (220)Rn (AEDT) were found to be 1.92 and 0.83 mSv a(-1), respectively. The values of (222)Rn/(220)Rn concentrations and annual effective doses obtained in the present study are within the safe limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for indoor dwelling exposure conditions. PMID:27289385

  14. Floral-dip transformation of flax (Linum usitatissimum) to generate transgenic progenies with a high transformation rate.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Nasmah K; Cullis, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation via floral-dip is a widely used technique in the field of plant transformation and has been reported to be successful for many plant species. However, flax (Linum usitatissimum) transformation by floral-dip has not been reported. The goal of this protocol is to establish that Agrobacterium and the floral-dip method can be used to generate transgenic flax. We show that this technique is simple, inexpensive, efficient, and more importantly, gives a higher transformation rate than the current available methods of flax transformation. In summary, inflorescences of flax were dipped in a solution of Agrobacterium carrying a binary vector plasmid (T-DNA fragment plus the Linum Insertion Sequence, LIS-1) for 1 - 2 min. The plants were laid flat on their side for 24 hr. Then, plants were maintained under normal growth conditions until the next treatment. The process of dipping was repeated 2 - 3 times, with approximately 10 - 14 day intervals between dipping. The T1 seeds were collected and germinated on soil. After approximately two weeks, treated progenies were tested by direct PCR; 2 - 3 leaves were used per plant plus the appropriate T-DNA primers. Positive transformants were selected and grown to maturity. The transformation rate was unexpectedly high, with 50 - 60% of the seeds from treated plants being positive transformants. This is a higher transformation rate than those reported for Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species, using floral-dip transformation. It is also the highest, which has been reported so far, for flax transformation using other methods for transformation. PMID:25549243

  15. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding. PMID:26633322

  16. Shedding of live Eimeria vaccine progeny is delayed in chicks with delayed access to feed after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Price, Kayla R; Freeman, Megan; Van-Heerden, Kobus; Barta, John R

    2015-03-15

    Hatching, processing and transportation result in inevitable delays before chicks are placed into brooding and receive their first feed and drinking water after hatching. To determine if delayed access to feed for different durations following live Eimeria vaccination affected initial shedding of vaccine progeny, replacement layer chicks (480, Lohmann-LSL Lite) aged approximately 6h after hatch were administered a commercial live Eimeria vaccine. Vaccinated chicks were divided randomly into groups and were provided access to feed immediately (0 h) or after a delay of 6, 12, or 24 h (4 treatments × 6 replicates per treatment × 20 pullets per replicate). All pullets were provided drinking water immediately following vaccination. Fecal oocysts shed per gram of feces for each cage replicate was determined daily from 4 to 9 days post inoculation. Chicks provided feed immediately had peak oocyst shedding at 5 days post-inoculation but delayed access to feed for 24h was associated with a 2 days delay in peak oocyst shedding to 7 days post-inoculation. Chicks with delays in access to feed of intermediate duration (i.e. 6 or 12h) had peak oocyst shedding at 6 days post-inoculation. Overall oocyst shedding was not affected. Live Eimeria vaccination success may be measured by evaluating initial shedding of oocysts at some pre-established time after vaccine application, usually by a single fecal collection conducted at 5, 6 or 7 days post-inoculation. Recognizing that withholding feed following live Eimeria vaccination shifts the time of the resultant peak oocyst shedding complicates the assessment of vaccine application; if delayed access to feed is not taken into account, it is possible that false conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative success of vaccine administration. PMID:25638718

  17. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  18. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  19. Do 'Planemos' Have Progeny?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    Two new studies, based on observations made with ESO's telescopes, show that objects only a few times more massive than Jupiter are born with discs of dust and gas, the raw material for planet making. This suggests that miniature versions of the solar system may circle objects that are some 100 times less massive than our Sun. These findings are to be presented Monday, 5 June at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Calgary, Canada. Since a few years, it is known that many young brown dwarfs, 'failed stars' that weigh less than 8 percent the mass of the Sun, are surrounded by a disc of material. This may indicate these objects form the same way as did our Sun. The new findings confirm that the same appears to be true for their even punier cousins, sometimes called planetary mass objects or 'planemos'. These objects have masses similar to those of extra-solar planets, but they are not in orbit around stars - instead, they float freely through space. "Our findings, combined with previous work, suggest similar infancies for our Sun and objects that are some hundred times less massive", says Valentin D. Ivanov (ESO), co-author of the first study. ESO PR Photo 19a/06 ESO PR Photo 19a/06 Spectra of Candidate 'Planemos' "Now that we know of these planetary mass objects with their own little infant planetary systems, the definition of the word 'planet' has blurred even more," adds Ray Jayawardhana, from the University of Toronto (Canada) and lead author of the study. "In a way, the new discoveries are not too surprising - after all, Jupiter must have been born with its own disc, out of which its bigger moons formed." Unlike Jupiter, however, these planemos are not circling stars. In their study, Jayawardhana and Ivanov used two of ESO's telescopes - Antu, the 8.2-metre Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope, and the 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope - to obtain optical spectra of six candidates identified recently by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin. Two of the six turned out to have masses between five to 10 times that of Jupiter while two others are a tad heftier, at 10 to 15 times Jupiter's mass. All four of these objects are 'newborns', just a few million years old, and are located in star-forming regions about 450 light-years from Earth. The planemos show infrared emission from dusty discs that may evolve into miniature planetary systems over time. In another study, Subhanjoy Mohanty (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, CfA), Ray Jayawardhana (Univ. of Toronto), Nuria Huelamo (ESO) and Eric Mamajek (also at CfA) used the Very Large Telescope, this time with its adaptive optics system and infrared camera NACO, to obtain images and spectra of a planetary mass companion discovered at ESO two years ago around a young brown dwarf that is itself about 25 times the mass of Jupiter. This planetary mass companion is the first-ever exoplanet to have been imaged (see ESO 12/05). ESO PR Photo 19b/06 ESO PR Photo 19b/06 The 2M1207 System The brown dwarf, dubbed 2M1207 for short and located 170 light-years from Earth, was known to be surrounded by a disc. Now, this team has found evidence for a disc around the eight-Jupiter-mass companion as well. "The pair probably formed together, like a petite stellar binary", explains lead author Mohanty, "instead of the companion forming in the disc around the brown dwarf, like a star-planet system." "Moreover", Jayawardhana adds, "it is quite likely that smaller planets or asteroids could now form in the disc around each one." Read more in the Appendix about recent developments on Exoplanets at ESO.

  20. The effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, canthaxanthin, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the performance of progeny ducklings.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z Z; Wang, J P; Zeng, Q F; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Luo, Y H; Su, Z W; Xuan, Y; Zhang, K Y

    2016-03-01

    This trial studied the effects of maternal dietary vitamin premixes, and the mixture of canthaxanthin (CX) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on the performance of progeny ducklings. Four maternal diets were used under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (Regular and High; High premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than the Regular premix), and with or without the addition of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). Cherry Valley duck breeders (38-wk-old) were fed with corn-wheat flour-soybean meal-based diets for 8 wk, and then eggs were collected and hatched. Healthy ducklings (equal number of female and male) from each maternal group were randomly selected and received the same commercial starter (1 to 14 d) and grower (15 to 35 d) pellet diet for 35 d. Maternal High vitamin premix increased shank pigmentation (1 d, P = 0.001), BW (1 d, P < 0.001 and 14 d, P = 0.006), BW gain (1 to 14 d, P = 0.008), G:F ratio (1 to 14 d, P = 0.007), superoxide dismutase (SOD; 1 d liver, P = 0.027 and 14 d serum, P = 0.031), and total antioxidant capacity (1 d liver, P < 0.001); and decreased protein carbonyl (14 d serum, P = 0.011) of ducklings. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 increased yolk pigmentation (P < 0.001); increased shank pigmentation (1 d, P < 0.001 and 14 d, P < 0.001), BW (1 d, P < 0.001), feed intake (15-35 d, P = 0.014), SOD (1 d liver, P = 0.032), and tibia ash (14 d, P = 0.010) of ducklings; and decreased malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) and protein carbonyl (P = 0.044) of yolks, and malondialdehyde (14 d serum, P < 0.001) of ducklings. In conclusion, either maternal High vitamin premix or maternal supplementation of the CX and 25-OH-D3 mixture improves growth performance and antioxidant status of ducklings. PMID:26755656

  1. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer; Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike; Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans; Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich; Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  2. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on II. Progeny performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Summers, A F; Blair, A D; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study using primiparous crossbred beef heifers (n = 114) was conducted to determine the effects of protein supplement during late gestation on progeny performance and carcass characteristics. Pregnant heifers were stratified by heifer development system, initial BW, and AI service sire and placed in an individual feeding system. Heifers were offered meadow hay (8 to 11% CP) from early November to mid-February and provided no supplement (CON; n = 37), 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplement (HI; n = 39), or 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried corn gluten feed-based supplement (LO; n = 38). Supplements were designed to be isonitrogenous (28% CP) and isocaloric but to differ in RUP with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). After the individual feeding period, heifers were placed in a drylot for calving. All heifers were bred using a fixed-timed AI protocol and pairs were moved to a commercial ranch in the Nebraska Sandhills for summer grazing. Calf weaning BW did not differ (P = 0.14) based on maternal diet. However, feedlot entry BW was greater (P = 0.03) for HI compared with CON calves. Average daily gain during the initial feedlot phase tended (P = 0.10) to be greatest for calves born to CON dams and lowest for calves born to LO dams. However, overall ADG was similar (P = 0.50) for the entire feedlot period. Residual feed intake during the reimplant and total feeding period was improved in calves born to supplemented dams in yr 2 and 3 compared with calves born to CON dams. There was no difference in final BW among treatments (P = 0.71). Hot carcass weight was similar (P = 0.72) among treatments; however, steers had greater (P < 0.01) HCW than heifers. Furthermore, percent empty body fat and 12th rib fat thickness were lowest (P = 0.05 and P = 0.04) for calves born to LO dams. Tenderness measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force was increased (P = 0.03) in longissimus samples from calves from CON

  3. Contribution to the origin of progeny in middle European Habsburgs: skeletal roentgencephalometric analysis of the Habsburgs buried in Prague.

    PubMed

    Vicek, E; Smahel, Z

    1997-01-01

    From comparisons of roentgencraniometric findings in the first Habsburgs on the Bohemian throne (1526-1612) reduction of the length of the anterior cranial base is obvious and is also consistent with reduction of the depth of the maxilla. The findings are consistent with the small cranium and skull capacity of these Habsburgs. The maxilla is therefore not retrusive, even in Rudolf II where it is affected by a pathological process. The body of the mandible is not reduced which causes a disproportion due to the short anterior base and the maxilla. The disproportion in Ferdinand I and Maxmilian II is compensated by posterior rotation of the mandible. In Rudolf II the body of the mandible is markedly prolonged, the lower jaw is displaced forward and the finding can be described as true progenia. It is evidenced by the shorter anterior base and maxilla of the emperor. Habsburg progenia is thus evident in Central European Habsburgs only in Rudolf II, probably due to the traits of his mother from the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs. The parameters of the lower jaw of father Maxmilian II and grandfather Ferdinand I, however, do not exclude a certain predisposition to progeny in the Central European Habsburg family. The cranium of the first Habsburg on the Czech throne, Ferdinand I, is typical in the high maxillary portion of the face with a markedly posterior rotation of the mandible and a steep position of the upper and lower incisors. The cranium of his wife Anna Jagellonska, on the other hand, is typical in bimaxillary protrusion. In the son Maxmilian II, as a trait from the maternal side, the face is not prolonged, the incisors procline well and the occlusion is normal. In Rudolf II the face is shorter due to the overclosure of the mandible and the pathological process of the maxilla. Anthropological examination of all three generations of emperors revealed increasing brachycrania, a narrow highly vaulted forehead with a non-indented nasal root, poorly developed

  4. Regenerated hair cells can originate from supporting cell progeny: Evidence from phototoxicity and laser ablation experiments in the lateral line system

    SciTech Connect

    Balak, K.J.; Corwin, J.T.; Jones, J.E. )

    1990-08-01

    The mechanisms that lead to the production of sensory hair cells during regeneration have been investigated by using 2 different procedures to ablate preexisting hair cells in individual neuromast sensory epithelia of the lateral line in the tails of salamanders, then monitoring the responses of surviving cells. In one series of experiments, fluorescent excitation was used to cause the phototoxic death of hair cells that selectively take up the pyridinium dye DASPEI. In the other experiments, the ultraviolet output of a pulsed neodymium-YAG laser was focused to a microbeam through a quartz objective lens in epi-illumination mode and used to selectively kill individual unlabeled hair cells while the cells were simultaneously imaged by transmitted light DIC microscopy. Through observation of the treated neuromasts in vivo, these experiments demonstrated that mature sensory epithelia that have been completely depleted of hair cells can still generate new hair cells. Preexisting hair cells are not necessary for regeneration. Immediately after the ablations the only resident cells in the sensory epithelia were supporting cells. These cells were observed to divide at rates that were increased over control values, and eventually those cell divisions gave rise to progeny that differentiated as hair cells, replacing those that had been killed. Macrophages were active in these epithelia, and their phagocytic activity had a significant influence on the standing population of cells. The first new hair cells appeared 3-5 d after the treatments, and additional hair cells usually appeared every 1-2 d for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that the fate of the progeny produced by supporting cell divisions is plastic to a degree, in that these progeny can differentiate either as supporting cells or as hair cells in epithelia where hair cells are missing or depleted.

  5. Frequent Gene Products and Molecular Pathways Altered in Prostate Cancer– and Metastasis-Initiating Cells and Their Progenies and Novel Promising Multitargeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2011-01-01

    Recent gene expression profiling analyses and gain- and loss-of-function studies performed with distinct prostate cancer (PC) cell models indicated that the alterations in specific gene products and molecular pathways often occur in PC stem/progenitor cells and their progenies during prostate carcinogenesis and metastases at distant sites, including bones. Particularly, the sustained activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, hyaluronan (HA)/CD44 and stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process may provide critical functions for PC progression to locally invasive, metastatic and androgen-independent disease states and treatment resistance. Moreover, an enhanced glycolytic metabolism in PC stem/progenitor cells and their progenies concomitant with the changes in their local microenvironment, including the induction of tumor hypoxia and release of diverse soluble factors by tumor myofibroblasts, also may promote the tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastases. More particularly, these molecular transforming events may cooperate to upregulate Akt, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and stemness gene products such as Oct3/4, Sox2, Nanog and Bmi-1 in PC cells that contribute to their acquisition of high self-renewal, tumorigenic and invasive capacities and survival advantages during PC progression. Consequently, the molecular targeting of these deregulated gene products in the PC- and metastasis-initiating cells and their progenies represent new promising therapeutic strategies of great clinical interest for eradicating the total PC cell mass and improving current antihormonal treatments and docetaxel-based chemotherapies, thereby preventing disease relapse and the death of PC patients. PMID:21607288

  6. Association between the p170 form of human topoisomerase II and progeny viral DNA in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, S N; Subramanian, D; Shtrom, S S; Chung, I K; Parris, D S; Muller, M T

    1994-01-01

    Endogenous host topoisomerase II acts upon herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in infected cells (S.N. Ebert, S.S. Shtrom, and M.T. Muller, J. Virol. 56:4059-4066, 1990), and cleavage is directed exclusively at progeny viral DNA while parental DNA is resistant. To evaluate the possibility that HSV-1 induces topoisomerase II activity which could account for the preferential cleavage of progeny viral DNA, we assessed topoisomerase II cleavage activity on cellular and viral DNA substrates before and after the initiation of viral DNA replication. We show that cleavage of a host gene in mock-infected cells was similar to that observed in HSV-1-infected cells, regardless of whether viral DNA replication had occurred. In addition, quantitative measurements revealed comparable amounts of topoisomerase II activity in infected and mock-infected cells; thus, HSV-1 neither induces nor encodes its own type II topoisomerase and cleavages in vivo are due to a preexisting host topoisomerase. Human cells contain two isozymes of topoisomerase II (p170 and p180), encoded by separate genes. Through the use of isozyme-specific antibodies, we demonstrate that only p170 was found to be cross-linked to HSV-1 DNA even though both forms were present at nearly constant levels in HSV-1-infected cells. Immunofluorescence revealed that by 6 h postinfection, p170 becomes redistributed and localized to sites of active viral DNA synthesis. The data suggest that p170 gains preferential access to replicated viral DNA molecules, which explains why topoisomerase II activity is concentrated on progeny DNA. Images PMID:8289331

  7. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Progress report, May 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    Progress is reported on the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical processes that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. The specific tasks addressed were to determine the formation rates of {center_dot}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay, to examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2}, ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size, to measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and to measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}PoO{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations. Initial measurements were conducted of the activity size distributions in actual homes with occupants present so that the variability of the indoor activity size distributions can be assessed with respect to indoor aerosol sources and general lifestyle variations of the occupants. A prospective study of the utility of measurement of deposited {sup 210}Pb embedded in glass surfaces as a measure of the long-term, integrated exposure of the population to radon are described. Methodology was developed to determine the hygroscopicity of the indoor aerosol so that the changes in deposition efficiency of the radioactive indoor aerosol with hygroscopic growth in the respiratory tract can be assessed.

  8. Coagulation effect on the activity size distributions of long lived radon progeny aerosols and its application to atmospheric residence time estimation techniques.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-03-01

    The long lived naturally occurring radon progeny species in the atmosphere, namely (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po, have been used as important tracers for understanding the atmospheric mixing processes and estimating aerosol residence times. Several observations in the past have shown that the activity size distribution of these species peaks at larger particle sizes as compared to the short lived radon progeny species - an effect that has been attributed to the process of coagulation of the background aerosols to which they are attached. To address this issue, a mathematical equation is derived for the activity-size distribution of tracer species by formulating a generalized distribution function for the number of tracer atoms present in coagulating background particles in the presence of radioactive decay and removal. A set of these equations is numerically solved for the progeny chain using Fuchs coagulation kernel combined with a realistic steady-state aerosol size spectrum that includes nucleation, accumulation and coarse mode components. The important findings are: (i) larger shifts in the modal sizes of (210)Pb and (210)Po at higher aerosol concentrations such as that found in certain Asian urban regions (ii) enrichment of tracer specific activity on particles as compared to that predicted by pure attachment laws (iii) sharp decline of daughter-to-parent activity ratios for decreasing particle sizes. The implication of the results to size-fractionated residence time estimation techniques is highlighted. A coagulation corrected graphical approach is presented for estimating the residence times from the size-segregated activity ratios of (210)Bi and (210)Po with respect to (210)Pb. The discrepancy between the residence times predicted by conventional formula and the coagulation corrected approach for specified activity ratios increases at higher atmospheric aerosol number concentrations (>10(10) #/m(3)) for smaller sizes (<1 μm). The results are further

  9. A Cre-lox approach for transient transgene expression in neural precursor cells and long-term tracking of their progeny in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G; Raineteau, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Background Neural precursor cells (NPCs) can be isolated from various regions of the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). Manipulation of gene expression in these cells offers a promising strategy to manipulate their fate both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we developed a technique that allows the transient manipulation of single/multiple gene expression in NPCs in vitro, and the long-term tracking of their progeny both in vitro and in vivo. Results In order to combine the advantages of transient transfection with the long-term tracking of the transfected cells progeny, we developed a new approach based on the cre-lox technology. We first established a fast and reliable protocol to isolate and culture NPCs as monolayer, from the spinal cord of neonatal transgenic Rosa26-YFP cre-reporter mice. These cells could be reliably transfected with single/multiple plasmids by nucleofection. Nucleofection with mono- or bicistronic plasmids containing the Cre recombinase gene resulted in efficient recombination and the long-term expression of the YFP-reporter gene. The transient cre-expression was non-toxic for the transfected cells and did not alter their intrinsic properties. Finally, we demonstrated that cre-transfected cells could be transplanted into the adult brain, where they maintained YFP expression permitting long-term tracking of their migration and differentiation. Conclusion This approach allows single/multiple genes to be manipulated in NPCs, while at the same time allowing long-term tracking of the transfected cells progeny to be analyzed both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:17504531

  10. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  11. Advanced computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Advanced concepts in hardware, software and algorithms are being pursued for application in next generation space computers and for ground based analysis of space data. The research program focuses on massively parallel computation and neural networks, as well as optical processing and optical networking which are discussed under photonics. Also included are theoretical programs in neural and nonlinear science, and device development for magnetic and ferroelectric memories.

  12. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  13. Maternal endocrine adaptation throughout pregnancy to nutrient manipulation: consequences for sexually dimorphic programming of thyroid hormones and development of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Kennaway, D J; Hernandez-Medrano, J; Perry, V E A

    2015-03-01

    Maternal nutrient restriction during critical windows of fetal development alters postnatal growth, often in a sexually dimorphic manner. Intrauterine growth restriction is frequently characterized by accelerated growth and increased adiposity in later life. Thyroid hormones are implicated as part of the mechanism involved in this scenario via their actions within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. We fed high (H = 240%) and low (L = 70%) levels of recommended daily crude protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation to beef heifers to investigate effects to their progeny's plasma concentrations of free and total triiodothyronine (FT3 and TT3) and thyroxine (FT4 and TT4) from birth until weaning at 191 days of age (n = 68). The study design was a two-by-two factorial. For male progeny, exposure to maternal diets low in protein during the first trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT4 at birth (P < 0.05) which was subsequent to lower concentrations of leptin in maternal plasma at 271 days of gestation compared with their high-protein-exposed counterparts. These same animals went on to have greater milk intake during the latter half of the lactation period (P < 0.05) and exhibited faster rates of average daily gain (ADG) relative to birth weight during this time (P < 0.05). For all progeny, independent of sex, exposure to low-protein maternal diets during the second trimester of gestation resulted in greater FT3 relative to TT3 at birth. Because FT3 at birth and 29 days was positively associated with ADG (P < 0.05) and ADG relative to birth weight (P < 0.05), it is proposed that FT3 plays an integral role in catch-up growth in the bovine as per other species. Protein intake during the first and second trimesters of gestation has a sexually dimorphic effect on progeny plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, and these changes are associated with altered milk intake and postnatal growth pathway. PMID:25492373

  14. Introgression of wheat DNA markers from A, B and D genomes in early generation progeny of Aegilops cylindrica Host x Triticum aestivum L. hybrids.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, N; Felber, F; Savova-Bianchi, D; Guadagnuolo, R

    2005-11-01

    Introgression from allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) to allotetraploid jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host, CCDD) can take place in areas where the two species grow in sympatry and hybridize. Wheat and Ae. cylindrica share the D genome, issued from the common diploid ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss. It has been proposed that the A and B genome of bread wheat are secure places to insert transgenes to avoid their introgression into Ae. cylindrica because during meiosis in pentaploid hybrids, A and B genome chromosomes form univalents and tend to be eliminated whereas recombination takes place only in D genome chromosomes. Wheat random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments, detected in intergeneric hybrids and introgressed to the first backcross generation with Ae. cylindrica as the recurrent parent and having a euploid Ae. cylindrica chromosome number or one supernumerary chromosome, were assigned to wheat chromosomes using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic wheat lines. Introgressed fragments were not limited to the D genome of wheat, but specific fragments of A and B genomes were also present in the BC1. Their presence indicates that DNA from any of the wheat genomes can introgress into Ae. cylindrica. Successfully located RAPD fragments were then converted into highly specific and easy-to-use sequence characterised amplified regions (SCARs) through sequencing and primer design. Subsequently these markers were used to characterise introgression of wheat DNA into a BC1S1 family. Implications for risk assessment of genetically modified wheat are discussed. PMID:16133306

  15. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci governing longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans in recombinant-inbred progeny of a Bergerac-BO x RC301 interstrain cross.

    PubMed Central

    Ayyadevara, S; Ayyadevara, R; Hou, S; Thaden, J J; Shmookler Reis, R J

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant-inbred populations, generated from a cross between Caenorhabditis elegans strains Bergerac-BO and RC301, were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting nematode longevity. Genotypes of young controls and longevity-selected worms (the last-surviving 1% from a synchronously aged population) were assessed at dimorphic transposon-specific markers by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The power of genetic mapping was enhanced, in a novel experimental design, through map expansion by accrual of recombinations over several generations, internally controlled longevity selection from a genetically heterogeneous, homozygous population, and selective genotyping of extremely long-lived worms. Analysis of individual markers indicated seven life-span QTL, situated near markers on chromosomes I (tcbn2), III (stP127), IV (stP13), V (stP6, stP23, and stP128), and X (stP41). These loci were corroborated, and mapped with increased precision, by nonparametric interval mapping-which supported all loci implicated by single-marker analysis. In addition, a life-span QTL on chromosome II (stP100-stP196), was significant only by interval mapping. Congenic lines were constructed for the longevity QTL on chromosomes III and X, by backcrossing the Bergerac-BO QTL allele into an RC301 background with selection for flanking markers. Survival data for these lines demonstrated consistent and significant effects of each QTL on life span. PMID:11156986

  16. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

    2005-10-01

    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness. PMID:16160060

  17. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Karin B; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20-25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS. PMID:26907493

  18. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Karin B.; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7–10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20–25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS. PMID:26907493

  19. Time-Resolved Visualisation of Nearly-Native Influenza A Virus Progeny Ribonucleoproteins and Their Individual Components in Live Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avilov, Sergiy; Magnus, Julie; Cusack, Stephen; Naffakh, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a global health concern because of the permanent threat of novel emerging strains potentially capable of causing pandemics. Viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) containing genomic RNA segments, nucleoprotein oligomers, and the viral polymerase, play a central role in the viral replication cycle. Our knowledge about critical events such as vRNP assembly and interactions with other viral and cellular proteins is poor and could be substantially improved by time lapse imaging of the infected cells. However, such studies are limited by the difficulty to achieve live-cell compatible labeling of active vRNPs. Previously we designed the first unimpaired recombinant influenza WSN-PB2-GFP11 virus allowing fluorescent labeling of the PB2 subunit of the viral polymerase (Avilov et al., J.Virol. 2012). Here, we simultaneously labeled the viral PB2 protein using the above-mentioned strategy, and virus-encoded progeny RNPs through spontaneous incorporation of transiently expressed NP-mCherry fusion proteins during RNP assembly in live infected cells. This dual labeling enabled us to visualize progeny vRNPs throughout the infection cycle and to characterize independently the mobility, oligomerization status and interactions of vRNP components in the nuclei of live infected cells. PMID:26978069

  20. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency. PMID:27302128

  1. Estimation of EEC, unattached fraction and equilibrium factor for the assessment of radiological dose using pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors.

    PubMed

    Bangotra, Pargin; Mehra, Rohit; Kaur, Kirandeep; Kanse, Sandeep; Mishra, Rosaline; Sahoo, B K

    2015-10-01

    High concentration of radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure to the mankind. The (222)Rn, (220)Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin-hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor (222)Rn and (220)Rn concentration was found to vary from 21 Bqm(-3) to 94 Bqm(-3) and 17 Bqm(-3) to 125 Bqm(-3). The average EEC (attached + unattached) of (222)Rn and (220)Rn was 25 Bqm(-3) and 1.8 Bqm(-3). The equilibrium factor for (222)Rn and (220)Rn in studied area was 0.47 ± 0.13 and 0.05 ± 0.03. The equilibrium factor and unattached fraction of (222)Rn and (220)Rn has been calculated separately. Dose conversion factors (DCFs) of different models have been calculated from unattached fraction for the estimation of annual effective dose in the studied area. From the experimental data a correlation relationship has been observed between unattached fraction (f(p)(Rn)) and equilibrium factor (F(Rn)). The present work also aims to evaluate an accurate expression among available expression in literature for the estimation of f(p)(Rn). PMID:26117280

  2. Time-Resolved Visualisation of Nearly-Native Influenza A Virus Progeny Ribonucleoproteins and Their Individual Components in Live Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Avilov, Sergiy; Magnus, Julie; Cusack, Stephen; Naffakh, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a global health concern because of the permanent threat of novel emerging strains potentially capable of causing pandemics. Viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) containing genomic RNA segments, nucleoprotein oligomers, and the viral polymerase, play a central role in the viral replication cycle. Our knowledge about critical events such as vRNP assembly and interactions with other viral and cellular proteins is poor and could be substantially improved by time lapse imaging of the infected cells. However, such studies are limited by the difficulty to achieve live-cell compatible labeling of active vRNPs. Previously we designed the first unimpaired recombinant influenza WSN-PB2-GFP11 virus allowing fluorescent labeling of the PB2 subunit of the viral polymerase (Avilov et al., J.Virol. 2012). Here, we simultaneously labeled the viral PB2 protein using the above-mentioned strategy, and virus-encoded progeny RNPs through spontaneous incorporation of transiently expressed NP-mCherry fusion proteins during RNP assembly in live infected cells. This dual labeling enabled us to visualize progeny vRNPs throughout the infection cycle and to characterize independently the mobility, oligomerization status and interactions of vRNP components in the nuclei of live infected cells. PMID:26978069

  3. Inducible knockout of Mef2a, -c, and -d from nestin-expressing stem/progenitor cells and their progeny unexpectedly uncouples neurogenesis and dendritogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Latchney, Sarah E; Jiang, Yindi; Petrik, David P; Eisch, Amelia J; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Myocyte enhancer factor (Mef)-2 transcription factors are implicated in activity-dependent neuronal processes during development, but the role of MEF2 in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the adult brain is unknown. We used a transgenic mouse in which Mef2a, -c, and -d were inducibly deleted in adult nestin-expressing NSPCs and their progeny. Recombined cells in the hippocampal granule cell layer were visualized and quantified by yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression. In control mice, postmitotic neurons expressed Mef2a, -c, and -d, whereas type 1 stem cells and proliferating progenitors did not. Based on this expression, we hypothesized that Mef2a, -c, and -d deletion in adult nestin-expressing NSPCs and their progeny would result in fewer mature neurons. Control mice revealed an increase in YFP(+) neurons and dendrite formation over time. Contrary to our hypothesis, inducible Mef2 KO mice also displayed an increase in YFP(+) neurons over time-but with significantly stunted dendrites-suggesting an uncoupling of neuron survival and dendritogenesis. We also found non-cell-autonomous effects after Mef2a, -c, and -d deletion. These in vivo findings indicate a surprising functional role for Mef2a, -c, and -d in cell- and non-cell-autonomous control of adult hippocampal neurogenesis that is distinct from its role during development. PMID:26286136

  4. Maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation changes body fat, inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in the adult progeny: role of gender dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Guarda, Deysla Sabino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Carvalho, Janaíne Cavalcanti; Reis, Adelina Martha Dos; Soares, Patricia Novaes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Figueiredo, Mariana Sarto

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated maternal flaxseed oil intake during lactation on body composition, lipid profile, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation in male and female progeny at adulthood. Lactating rats were divided into the following: control 7% soybean oil (C), hyper 19% soybean oil (HS) and hyper 17% flaxseed oil+2% soybean oil (HF). Weaned pups received a standard diet. Offspring were killed in PN180. Male HF presented higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and triacylglycerol, and female HF showed insulin resistance. Both male and female HF had hyperleptinemia, and only male HF had hyperprolactinemia. In VAT, male HF presented lower PPAR-γ expressions and higher TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 expressions; in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), they presented lower PPAR-γ and TNF-α expressions. Female HF presented higher leptin, as well as lower adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β expressions in VAT and lower TNF-α in SAT. Flaxseed oil during lactation leads to gender-specific effects with more adiposity and dyslipidemia in male and insulin resistance in female. Higher prolactin and inflammatory cytokines in male could play a role in these gender differences. We suggest that the use of flaxseed oil during lactation increases metabolic syndrome risk in the adult progeny. PMID:27469994

  5. Genetic Basis of Heterosis for Growth-Related Traits in Arabidopsis Investigated by Testcross Progenies of Near-Isogenic Lines Reveals a Significant Role of Epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Utz, H. Friedrich; Muminović, Jasmina; Wegenast, Thilo; Törjék, Otto; Altmann, Thomas; Kusterer, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Epistasis seems to play a significant role in the manifestation of heterosis. However, the power of detecting epistatic interactions among quantitative trait loci (QTL) in segregating populations is low. We studied heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana hybrid C24 × Col-0 by testing near-isogenic lines (NILs) and their triple testcross (TTC) progenies. Our objectives were to (i) provide the theoretical basis for estimating different types of genetic effects with this experimental design, (ii) determine the extent of heterosis for seven growth-related traits, (iii) map the underlying QTL, and (iv) determine their gene action. Two substitution libraries, each consisting of 28 NILs and covering ∼61 and 39% of the Arabidopsis genome, were assayed by 110 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. With our novel generation means approach 38 QTL were detected, many of which confirmed heterotic QTL detected previously in the same cross with TTC progenies of recombinant inbred lines. Furthermore, many of the QTL were common for different traits and in common with the 58 QTL detected by a method that compares triplets consisting of a NIL, its recurrent parent, and their F1 cross. While the latter approach revealed mostly (75%) overdominant QTL, the former approach allowed separation of dominance and epistasis by analyzing all materials simultaneously and yielded substantial positive additive × additive effects besides directional dominance. Positive epistatic effects reduced heterosis for growth-related traits in our materials. PMID:18039884

  6. Rearrangements in human chromosome 1 visualized by arm-specific probes in the progeny of blood lymphocytes exposed to iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manti, L.; Bertucci, A.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pignalosa, D.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Durante, M.

    The objective of this study was to measure differences in the chromosomal rearrangements found in the progeny of cells exposed to the same dose of X-rays or energetic iron ions, with emphasis on intra-chromosomal exchanges. We hybridized metaphase cells with human DNA probes specific for the p and q arms of the chromosome 1. The arm-specific probes allow a fast and reliable detection of both symmetrical and asymmetrical inter-chromosomal exchanges and inter-arm intra-changes (pericentric inversions) in the painted chromosome pair. We used this method to score aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to 1 Gy of either 250 kVp X-rays or 1 GeV/n Fe-ions and harvested following 120 h in culture, including 2 h in colcemid for metaphase-block. Although iron ions are much more effective than X-rays in the induction of chromosomal aberrations formed during the first post-exposure cell cycle, we found that the effectiveness drops when daughter cells are scored at a late harvest time. In fact, no significant difference in the yield of simple interchanges or intra-changes was found for the two radiation qualities. On the other hand, complex-type exchanges, including rearrangements involving both intra- and inter-chromosomal exchanges, were much more frequent in the progeny of the population exposed to Fe-nuclei than to photons.

  7. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  8. [Cytogenetic characteristics of seed progeny of common oak trees (Quercus robur L.) exposed to the irradiation after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station and growing at the territories with different levels of anthropogenic contamination].

    PubMed

    Artiukhov, V G; Kalaev, V N

    2005-01-01

    The examination of cytogenetic characteristics (the mitotic activity, the time of passing of the mitotic stages by cells, the level and the spectrum of mitosis disturbances, the nucleoli characteristics) of seed progeny of common oak trees, exposed to the radiation exposure after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station and growing at the territories with different levels of anthropogenic contamination was held. In spite of the normalization of the radioactive level at the examined territories the changes of the cytogenetic characteristics of common oak seed progeny in comparison with the control were noticed. Obtained results are explained from the position of the radiation induced genomic instable and of the wave kinetic of the mutation process. The questions of the advisability and of the validity of using of the seed progeny of the common oak trees, exposed to the radiation exposure, in forest restoration measures are discussed. PMID:16304780

  9. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Prem P; Peterson, Terrance S

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid-an allotetraploid between 2 wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). Even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal imbalance, for example, addition of alien chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum. Therefore, one way to broaden its genetic base is to add a desirable chromosome(s) from diploid wild relatives. We attempted chromosomal engineering with chromosomes of a diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum bessarabicum-a source of resistance to some diseases including Fusarium head blight. Several advanced hybrids and alien addition lines were studied using traditional cytology, multicolor fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers. Hybrid derivatives varied in chromosome number from F1 to F8 generations and in backcross generations. In advanced generations, we exercised selection against 28-chromosome plants and in favor of 30-chromosome plants that helped recover 14 addition lines in the F8 generation, as indicated by the absence of segregation for 29-chromosome plants. Disomic additions showed regular meiosis with 15 bivalents, 14 of durum wheat, and 1 of Th. bessarabicum. The addition lines will facilitate further chromosome engineering work on durum wheat for broadening its genetic base. PMID:23396879

  11. Genome Reshuffling for Advanced Intercross Permutation (GRAIP): Simulation and permutation for advanced intercross population analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Jeremy; Broman, Karl; Chesler, Elissa J; Zhou, Guomin; Airey, David; Birmingham, Amanda; Williams, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Advanced intercross lines (AIL) are segregating populations created using a multigeneration breeding protocol for fine mapping complex traits in mice and other organisms. Applying quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methods for intercross and backcross populations, often followed by na ve permutation of individuals and phenotypes, does not account for the effect of family structure in AIL populations in which final generations have been expanded and leads to inappropriately low significance thresholds. The critical problem with a na ve mapping approach in such AIL populations is that the individual is not an exchangeable unit given the family structure. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of family structure has immediate implications for the optimal AIL creation (many crosses, few animals per cross, and population expansion before the final generation) and we discuss these and the utility of AIL populations for QTL fine mapping. We also describe Genome Reshuffling for Advanced Intercross Permutation, (GRAIP) a method for analyzing AIL data that accounts for family structure. RAIP permutes a more interchangeable unit in the final generation crosses - the parental genome - and simulating regeneration of a permuted AIL population based on exchanged parental identities. GRAIP determines appropriate genome- ide significance thresholds and locus-specific P-values for AILs and other populations with similar family structures. We contrast GRAIP with na ve permutation using a large densely genotyped mouse AIL population (1333 individuals from 32 crosses). A na ve permutation using coat color as a model phenotype demonstrates high false-positive locus identification and uncertain significance levels in our AIL population, which are corrected by use of GRAIP. We also show that GRAIP detects an established hippocampus weight locus and a new locus, Hipp9a. Conclusions and Significance GRAIP determines appropriate genome-wide significance thresholds

  12. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. D.; Buritz, R. S.; Taylor, A. R.; Bullwinkel, E. P.

    1982-11-01

    An experimental development program was conducted to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. High rep rate and low rate capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, and high frequency ac capacitors for series resonant inverters were considered. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film. Initially, low breakdown strength was thought to be related to inclusions of conductive particles. The effect of filtration of the casting solution was investigated. These experiments showed that more filtration was not the entire solution to low breakdown. The film samples were found to contain dissolved ionic impurities that move through the dielectric when voltage is applied and cause enhancement of the electric field. These contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and can be partially removed. However, these treatments did not significantly improve the breakdown characteristics. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films. this is the first step toward a replacement for kraft paper.

  13. Advanced capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, J. B.; Buritz, R. S.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes an experimental program to develop and test advanced dielectric materials for capacitors for airborne power systems. Five classes of capacitors were considered: high rep rate and low rep rate pulse capacitors for use in pulse-forming networks, high voltage filter capacitors, high frequency AC capacitors for series resonant inverters, and AC filter capacitors. To meet these requirements, existing dielectric materials were modified, and new materials were developed. The initial goal was to develop an improved polysulfone film with fewer imperfections that could operate at significantly higher electrical stresses. It was shown that contaminants enter the film via the resin and solvent, and that they can be partially removed. As far as developed, however, these treatments did not significantly improved the breakdown characteristics. The technique of casting films on a roughened drum was demonstrated, and found useful in preparing textured films -- the first step toward a replacement for Kraft paper. A new material, Ultem, was proposed for use in high energy density capacitors. This new polyetherimide resin has properties similar to polysulfone and polyimide, with improvement in breakdown characteristics and temperature capability. This material was selected for further study in model capacitor designs.

  14. Future advances.

    PubMed

    Celesia, Gastone G; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future advances in the auditory systems are difficult to predict, and only educated guesses are possible. It is expected that innovative technologies in the field of neuroscience will be applied to the auditory system. Optogenetics, Brainbow, and CLARITY will improve our knowledge of the working of neural auditory networks and the relationship between sound and language, providing a dynamic picture of the brain in action. CLARITY makes brain tissue transparent and offers a three-dimensional view of neural networks, which, combined with genetically labeling neurons with multiple, distinct colors (Optogenetics), will provide detailed information of the complex brain system. Molecular functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will allow the study of neurotransmitters detectable by MRI and their function in the auditory pathways. The Human Connectome project will study the patterns of distributed brain activity that underlie virtually all aspects of cognition and behavior and determine if abnormalities in the distributed patterns of activity may result in hearing and behavior disorders. Similarly, the programs of Big Brain and ENIGMA will improve our understanding of auditory disorders. New stem-cell therapy and gene therapies therapy may bring about a partial restoration of hearing for impaired patients by inducing regeneration of cochlear hair cells. PMID:25726297

  15. Developing stable progenies of ×Brassicoraphanus, an intergeneric allopolyploid between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus, through induced mutation using microspore culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Seong; Lee, Sun-Ae; Yang, Jungmin; Kim, Jongkee

    2011-03-01

    Induced mutations were used to improve the low seed fertility of an intergeneric allopolyploid, 'Baemoochae,' ×Brassicoraphanus, synthesized following hybridization between Brassica rapa and Raphanus sativus. The mutagen N-methyl-N-nitroso-urethane (NMU) was added to microspore cultures. Four lines of nine in the Mi(2) generation showed very high fertility under controlled pollination. The progeny lines (Mi(3)) confirmed this result under open pollination, and excellent uniformity was observed in plants grown in the field, as well as in their AFLP profile. On attaining high fertility and uniformity, one of the lines was released to farmers as a new leafy vegetable crop. The original nine lines shared very similar AFLP banding patterns, without any large differences between the high and low seed fertility lines. Thus, mutation induction accelerated genetic stabilization of a newly synthesized allopolyploid, ×Brassicoraphanus. PMID:21113703

  16. Sir2p-dependent protein segregation gives rise to a superior reactive oxygen species management in the progeny of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Erjavec, Nika; Nyström, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Yeast cytokinesis entails a rejuvenation process by which the aged mother cell generates daughter cells enjoying full replicative potential. Here we show that this process includes a precipitous reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species in the progeny immediately after completion of cytokinesis. The reduction in hydrogen peroxide is the result of a Sir2p and actin cytoskeleton-dependent segregation of the cytosolic catalase Ctt1p such that the daughter cell receives a higher load of undamaged and active Ctt1p than the progenitor cell. Such spatial quality control provides the daughter cells with a superior capacity to combat external oxidative stress and delays self-inflicted oxidative damage to their cellular proteins. PMID:17581878

  17. Influenza NA and PB1 Gene Segments Interact during the Formation of Viral Progeny: Localization of the Binding Region within the PB1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Brad; Zheng, Tian; Gerber, Marie; Printz-Schweigert, Anne; Ong, Chi; Marquet, Roland; Isel, Catherine; Rockman, Steven; Brown, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A virus genome comprises eight negative-sense viral RNAs (vRNAs) that form individual ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. In order to incorporate a complete set of each of these vRNAs, the virus uses a selective packaging mechanism that facilitates co-packaging of specific gene segments but whose molecular basis is still not fully understood. Recently, we used a competitive transfection model where plasmids encoding the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) and A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) PB1 gene segments were competed to show that the Udorn PB1 gene segment is preferentially co-packaged into progeny virions with the Udorn NA gene segment. Here we created chimeric PB1 genes combining both Udorn and PR8 PB1 sequences to further define the location within the Udorn PB1 gene that drives co-segregation of these genes and show that nucleotides 1776-2070 of the PB1 gene are crucial for preferential selection. In vitro assays examining specific interactions between Udorn NA vRNA and purified vRNAs transcribed from chimeric PB1 genes also supported the importance of this region in the PB1-NA interaction. Hence, this work identifies an association between viral genes that are co-selected during packaging. It also reveals a region potentially important in the RNP-RNP interactions within the supramolecular complex that is predicted to form prior to budding to allow one of each segment to be packaged in the viral progeny. Our study lays the foundation to understand the co-selection of specific genes, which may be critical to the emergence of new viruses with pandemic potential. PMID:27556479

  18. Influenza NA and PB1 Gene Segments Interact during the Formation of Viral Progeny: Localization of the Binding Region within the PB1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Brad; Zheng, Tian; Gerber, Marie; Printz-Schweigert, Anne; Ong, Chi; Marquet, Roland; Isel, Catherine; Rockman, Steven; Brown, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The influenza A virus genome comprises eight negative-sense viral RNAs (vRNAs) that form individual ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. In order to incorporate a complete set of each of these vRNAs, the virus uses a selective packaging mechanism that facilitates co-packaging of specific gene segments but whose molecular basis is still not fully understood. Recently, we used a competitive transfection model where plasmids encoding the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) and A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) PB1 gene segments were competed to show that the Udorn PB1 gene segment is preferentially co-packaged into progeny virions with the Udorn NA gene segment. Here we created chimeric PB1 genes combining both Udorn and PR8 PB1 sequences to further define the location within the Udorn PB1 gene that drives co-segregation of these genes and show that nucleotides 1776–2070 of the PB1 gene are crucial for preferential selection. In vitro assays examining specific interactions between Udorn NA vRNA and purified vRNAs transcribed from chimeric PB1 genes also supported the importance of this region in the PB1-NA interaction. Hence, this work identifies an association between viral genes that are co-selected during packaging. It also reveals a region potentially important in the RNP-RNP interactions within the supramolecular complex that is predicted to form prior to budding to allow one of each segment to be packaged in the viral progeny. Our study lays the foundation to understand the co-selection of specific genes, which may be critical to the emergence of new viruses with pandemic potential. PMID:27556479

  19. Estimate of the annual per capita surplus dose due to the elevated indoor exposure to 222Rn progeny caused by the use of slag and spoil of uranium rich coal for building purposes in Ajka Town, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z

    1998-03-01

    Ajka is a mining and industrial town in Hungary. Brown coal rich in uranium (300 to 900 Bq kg(-1)) has been mined by the town since 1865. Slag and spoil of the coal were frequently used in the town for building purposes before 1960. Screening measurements of 222Rn progeny in indoor air were performed in 86 Ajka buildings. Elevated 222Rn progeny levels were found in houses that used the above by-products as building materials or foundations. Annual per capita surplus effective doses due to the exposure to elevated 222Rn progeny levels were estimated from the results of the screening measurements. The possibility of estimating the mean of the annual averages of 222Rn or 222Rn progeny concentration for a group of houses from the results of screening measurements is discussed in detail. The estimated annual surplus dose is 0.64 mSv for the population of the whole town and 1.86 mSv for the 7,000 occupants of family houses built before 1960. PMID:9482606

  20. Maternal high fat diet promotion of mammary tumor risk in adult progeny is associated with early expansion of mammary cancer stem-like cells and increased maternal oxidative environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many adult chronic diseases might be programmed during early life by maternal nutritional history. Here, we evaluated effects of maternal high fat diet on mammary gland development and tumor formation in adult progeny. Female Wnt-1 transgenic mice exposed to high fat (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or control C...

  1. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  2. Evaluation of Genome-Enabled Selection for Bacterial Cold Water Disease Resistance Using Progeny Performance Data in Rainbow Trout: Insights on Genotyping Methods and Genomic Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Roger L.; Leeds, Timothy D.; Fragomeni, Breno O.; Gao, Guangtu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Misztal, Ignacy; Welch, Timothy J.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Palti, Yniv

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture, and traditional family-based breeding programs aimed at improving BCWD resistance have been limited to exploiting only between-family variation. We used genomic selection (GS) models to predict genomic breeding values (GEBVs) for BCWD resistance in 10 families from the first generation of the NCCCWA BCWD resistance breeding line, compared the predictive ability (PA) of GEBVs to pedigree-based estimated breeding values (EBVs), and compared the impact of two SNP genotyping methods on the accuracy of GEBV predictions. The BCWD phenotypes survival days (DAYS) and survival status (STATUS) had been recorded in training fish (n = 583) subjected to experimental BCWD challenge. Training fish, and their full sibs without phenotypic data that were used as parents of the subsequent generation, were genotyped using two methods: restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing and the Rainbow Trout Axiom® 57 K SNP array (Chip). Animal-specific GEBVs were estimated using four GS models: BayesB, BayesC, single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP), and weighted ssGBLUP (wssGBLUP). Family-specific EBVs were estimated using pedigree and phenotype data in the training fish only. The PA of EBVs and GEBVs was assessed by correlating mean progeny phenotype (MPP) with mid-parent EBV (family-specific) or GEBV (animal-specific). The best GEBV predictions were similar to EBV with PA values of 0.49 and 0.46 vs. 0.50 and 0.41 for DAYS and STATUS, respectively. Among the GEBV prediction methods, ssGBLUP consistently had the highest PA. The RAD genotyping platform had GEBVs with similar PA to those of GEBVs from the Chip platform. The PA of ssGBLUP and wssGBLUP methods was higher with the Chip, but for BayesB and BayesC methods it was higher with the RAD platform. The overall GEBV accuracy in this study was low to moderate, likely due to the small training sample used. This study explored the potential of GS for

  3. Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

    2008-01-01

    Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

  4. The influence of peri-conception and first trimester dietary restriction of protein in cattle on meat quality traits of entire male progeny.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Tharcilla I R C; Copping, Katrina J; Han, Xuemei; Clayton, Edward H; Meyer, Richard J; Rodgers, Raymond J; McMillen, I Caroline; Perry, Viv E A; Geesink, Geert

    2016-11-01

    Primiparous Santa Gertrudis heifers were used to evaluate the effects of gestational dietary protein content on meat quality traits of 20month old bull progeny (n=40). At -60d before AI, heifers were randomly allocated to HIGH or LOW protein diet (HPERI and LPERI). From 24dpc, half of each treatment group changed to an alternative post-conception HIGH or LOW protein diet (HPOST and LPOST). LPERI and LPOST diets resulted in higher shear force of the semitendinosus muscle than HPERI (P=0.053) and HPOST (P=0.003), respectively. Heat-soluble collagen in the semitendinosus muscle was lower (P=0.019) for LPERI than HPERI. Collagen and tenderness of the longissimus muscle were not affected by dam nutrition (P>0.05). Color, pH, sarcomere length, cooking loss, compression values, desmin and troponin-T degradation, fiber type, intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content were not affected by dam nutrition during the peri-conception and first trimester gestational period (P>0.05). PMID:27317848

  5. Aneuploid progeny of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, produced by tetraploid × diploid crosses: another example of chromosome instability in polyploid oysters.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Joana Teixeira; Allen, Standish K; Baker, Haley; Matt, Joseph L

    2016-05-01

    The commercial production of triploids, and the creation of tetraploid broodstock to support it, has become an important technique in aquaculture of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Tetraploids are produced by cytogenetic manipulation of embryos and have been shown to undergo chromosome loss (to become a mosaic) with unknown consequences for breeding. Our objective was to determine the extent of aneuploidy in triploid progeny produced from both mosaic and non-mosaic tetraploids. Six families of triploids were produced using a single diploid female and crossed with three mosaic and non-mosaic tetraploid male oysters. A second set of crosses was performed with the reciprocals. Chromosome counts of the resultant embryos were tallied at 2-4 cell stage and as 6-hour(h)-old embryos. A significant level of aneuploidy was observed in 6-h-old embryos. For crosses using tetraploid males, aneuploidy ranged from 53% to 77% of observed metaphases, compared to 36% in the diploid control. For crosses using tetraploid females, 51%-71% of metaphases were aneuploidy versus 53% in the diploid control. We conclude that somatic chromosome loss may be a regular feature of early development in triploids, and perhaps polyploid oysters in general. Other aspects of chromosome loss in polyploid oysters are also discussed. PMID:27070368

  6. Changes in the rat lung after exposure to radon and its progeny: Effects on incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine in epithelial cells and on the incidence of nuclear aberrations in Alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, A.; Morgan, A.; Baker, S.T.; Humphreys, J.A.H.; Collier, C.G.; Bisson, M.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some responses of cells in the rat respiratory tract as a function of time after inhalation exposure to various levels of radon and its progeny. Rats were exposed to a constant concentration of radon and its progeny to give cumulative exposure levels of 120, 225, 440 and 990 working level months (WLM). An additional unexposed group of rats served as controls. The end points selected for investigation were (a) the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in epithelial cells of the conducting airways and of the alveolar region of the respiratory tract and (b) the incidence of alveolar macrophages with nuclear aberrations. After exposure, the incidence of epithelial cells incorporating BrdU-the labeling index-increased in all regions of the respiratory tract examined, but the increase occurred later in alveolar than in airway epithelial cells. The highest labeling index was found in bronchial epithelial cells, which probably received the highest radiation dose. After an initial induction period, the incidence of alveolar macrophages with nuclear aberrations also increased. The possibility of using the labeling index of alveolar and airway epithelial cells, and/or the incidence of nuclear aberrations in alveolar macrophages, to estimate the radiation dose to various regions of the respiratory tract after exposure of rats to radon and its progeny is discussed. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Advance Care Planning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... Is Advance Care Planning? Advance care planning involves learning about the types of decisions that might need ...

  8. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  9. The Effect of Ultrafine Aerosol (0.5 to 50 NM (0.05 Micrometers)) on the Deposition of Radon Progeny in Human Lungs and Implications for the Measurement of Exposure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalbeck, Linda Michaels

    1995-01-01

    Despite a generally acknowledged public health risk from indoor exposure to airborne radon progeny, measurement techniques in current use do not provide sufficient information to assess risk from exposures in the home. By contrast, a simple, direct, measurement (the working level month) is a reliable starting point for the evaluation of miners' risks from radon progeny exposure. Ultrafine particles (0.5 to 50 nm in diameter) are frequently present in room air, especially during high occupancy times when activities like cooking and cleaning are taking place; but they are virtually absent from mine air. Measurement techniques used to evaluate mine and indoor air exposures do not supply any size-based data. Few studies of ultrafine aerosol deposition in humans have been undertaken, and none of these has specifically examined ultrafine particle deposition in the radiosensitive bronchial region of the respiratory tract. In this research, the effect of ultrafine aerosol on radon progeny deposition in the bronchial airways was studied using: (1) a unique human exposure data base involving 8 men and 4 women volunteers, (2) a mathematical model describing the attachment behavior of radon progeny in the presence of aerosol developed as part of this work, and (3) a human respiratory-tract deposition model. The addition of ultrafine aerosol to the air breathed by human subjects more than doubled the amount of radon progeny activity deposited in the bronchial region of the subjects' lungs, although radon gas concentration was held constant during all exposure experiments. The gamma activity measured in vivo remained higher at all times after exposure to ultrafine aerosol, while the rate of gamma activity clearance from the region was, on average, about 40 percent faster following ultrafine aerosol exposure. The human exposure data demonstrated that some aerosol size information is crucial to the determination of regional lung deposition and, consequently, the calculation of

  10. Increase in endogenous estradiol in the progeny of obese rats is associated with precocious puberty and altered follicular development in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ambrosetti, Valery; Guerra, Marcelo; Ramírez, Luisa A; Reyes, Aldo; Álvarez, Daniela; Olguín, Sofía; González-Mañan, Daniel; Fernandois, Daniela; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Cruz, Gonzalo

    2016-07-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been related with several pathological states in offspring. However, the impact of maternal obesity on reproductive system on the progeny is beginning to be elucidated. In this work, we characterize the effect of maternal obesity on puberty onset and follicular development in adult offspring in rats. We also propose that alterations in ovarian physiology observed in offspring of obese mothers are due to increased levels of estradiol during early development. Offspring of control dams and offspring of dams exposed to a high-fat diet (HF) were studied at postnatal days (PND) 1, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 120. Body weight and onset of puberty were measured. Counting of ovarian follicles was performed at PND 60 and 120. Serum estradiol, estriol, androstenedione, FSH, LH, and insulin levels were measured by ELISA. Hepatic CYP3A2 expression was determined by Western blot. HF rats had a higher weight than controls at all ages and they also had a precocious puberty. Estradiol levels were increased while CYP3A2 expression was reduced from PND 1 until PND 60 in HF rats compared to controls. Estriol was decreased at PND60 in HF rats. Ovaries from HF rats had a decrease in antral follicles at PND60 and PND120 and an increase in follicular cysts at PND60 and PND120. In this work, we demonstrated that maternal obesity in rats alters follicular development and induces follicular cysts generation in the adult offspring. We observed that maternal obesity produces an endocrine disruption through increasing endogenous estradiol in early life. A programmed failure in hepatic metabolism of estradiol is probably the cause of its increase. PMID:26767652

  11. Survival and reproduction of Myxobolus cerebralis-resistant rainbow trout introduced to the Colorado river and increased resistance of age-0 progeny.

    PubMed

    Fetherman, Eric R; Winkelman, Dana L; Baerwald, Melinda R; Schisler, George J

    2014-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis caused severe declines in rainbow trout populations across Colorado following its introduction in the 1980s. One promising approach for the recovery of Colorado's rainbow trout populations has been the production of rainbow trout that are genetically resistant to the parasite. We introduced one of these resistant crosses, known as the GR×CRR (cross between the German Rainbow [GR] and Colorado River Rainbow [CRR] trout strains), to the upper Colorado River. The abundance, survival, and growth of the stocked GR×CRR population was examined to determine if GR×CRRs had contributed offspring to the age-0 population, and determine whether these offspring displayed increased resistance and survival characteristics compared to their wild CRR counterparts. Apparent survival of the introduced GR×CRR over the entire study period was estimated to be 0.007 (±0.001). Despite low survival of the GR×CRRs, age-0 progeny of the GR×CRR were encountered in years 2008 through 2011. Genetic assignments revealed a shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population over time, with CRR fish comprising the entirety of the fry population in 2007, and GR-cross fish comprising nearly 80% of the fry population in 2011. A decrease in average infection severity (myxospores fish-1) was observed concurrent with the shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population, decreasing from an average of 47,708 (±8,950) myxospores fish-1 in 2009 to 2,672 (±4,379) myxospores fish-1 in 2011. Results from this experiment suggest that the GR×CRR can survive and reproduce in rivers with a high prevalence of M. cerebralis. In addition, reduced myxospore burdens in age-0 fish indicated that stocking this cross may ultimately lead to an overall reduction in infection prevalence and severity in the salmonid populations of the upper Colorado River. PMID:24811066

  12. Does broodstock nutritional history affect the response of progeny to different first-feeding diets? A whole-body transcriptomic study of rainbow trout alevins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Mazurais, David; Médale, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The whole-body transcriptome of trout alevins was characterised to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of rainbow trout broodstock females a diet free of fishmeal and fish oil on the metabolic capacities of progeny. Effects were studied before first feeding and after 3 weeks of feeding diets containing different proportions of marine and plant ingredients. Feeding alevins plant-based diets resulted in lower fish body weight, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. No differences in whole-body lipids were found between treatments, and the tissue fatty acid profile strongly reflected that of the respective broodstock or first-feeding diets. We showed that the maternal diet history did not significantly affect expressions of any genes before the first feeding. Interestingly, we found an effect of maternal nutritional history on gene expression in alevins after 3 weeks of feeding. The major differences in the transcriptome of alevins from plant-based diet-fed females compared with those from commercial-fed females were as follows: (i) down-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth/contraction and (ii) up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism related to the delay in growth/development observed with plant-based diets. Our findings also showed an effect of the first-feeding diets, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. Specifically, the introduction of plant ingredients resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid/protein and cholesterol metabolism and in differences in the expressions of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Information gained through this study opens up avenues for further reduction of marine ingredients in trout diets, including the whole rearing cycle. PMID:27112276

  13. Survival and Reproduction of Myxobolus cerebralis-Resistant Rainbow Trout Introduced to the Colorado River and Increased Resistance of Age-0 Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Winkelman, Dana L.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Schisler, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis caused severe declines in rainbow trout populations across Colorado following its introduction in the 1980s. One promising approach for the recovery of Colorado’s rainbow trout populations has been the production of rainbow trout that are genetically resistant to the parasite. We introduced one of these resistant crosses, known as the GR×CRR (cross between the German Rainbow [GR] and Colorado River Rainbow [CRR] trout strains), to the upper Colorado River. The abundance, survival, and growth of the stocked GR×CRR population was examined to determine if GR×CRRs had contributed offspring to the age-0 population, and determine whether these offspring displayed increased resistance and survival characteristics compared to their wild CRR counterparts. Apparent survival of the introduced GR×CRR over the entire study period was estimated to be 0.007 (±0.001). Despite low survival of the GR×CRRs, age-0 progeny of the GR×CRR were encountered in years 2008 through 2011. Genetic assignments revealed a shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population over time, with CRR fish comprising the entirety of the fry population in 2007, and GR-cross fish comprising nearly 80% of the fry population in 2011. A decrease in average infection severity (myxospores fish−1) was observed concurrent with the shift in the genetic composition of the rainbow trout fry population, decreasing from an average of 47,708 (±8,950) myxospores fish−1 in 2009 to 2,672 (±4,379) myxospores fish−1 in 2011. Results from this experiment suggest that the GR×CRR can survive and reproduce in rivers with a high prevalence of M. cerebralis. In addition, reduced myxospore burdens in age-0 fish indicated that stocking this cross may ultimately lead to an overall reduction in infection prevalence and severity in the salmonid populations of the upper Colorado River. PMID:24811066

  14. Investigation of radon, thoron, and their progeny near the earth`s surface. Final report, 1 January 1994--31 December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for DOE Grant DE-FG03-94ER6178, covering a performance period of 1 January 1994 through 31 December 1997. The DOE award amount for this period was $547,495. The objective of the project as stated in its proposal was {open_quotes}to improve our understanding of the physical processes controlling the concentration of radon, thoron, and their progeny in the atmospheric environment.{close_quotes} The original project was directed at developing underlying science that would help with evaluation of the health hazard from indoor radon in the United States and implementation of corrective measures that might be employed to reduce the health hazard. As priorities within the Office of Health and Environment (OHER) changed, and the radon research program was phased out, emphasis of the project was shifted somewhat to be also relevant to other interests of the OHER, namely global pollution and climate change and pollution resulting from energy production. This final report is brief, since by reference it can direct the reader to the comprehensive research publications that have been generated by the project. In section 2, we summarize the main accomplishments of the project and reference the primary publications. There were seven students who received support from the project and their names are listed in section 3. One of these students (Fred Yarger, Ph.D. candidate) continues to work on research initiated through this project. No post-docs received support from the project, although one of the co-principal investigators (Dr. Piotr Wasiolek) received the majority of his salary from the project. The project also provided part-time support for a laboratory manager (Dr. Maryla Wasiolek). Section 4 lists chronologically the reports and publications resulting from the project (references 1 through 12), and the Appendix provides abstracts of major publications and reports.

  15. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Progress report, July 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes studies on the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and its dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are to determine the formation rates of {center_dot}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay, to examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2} ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size, to measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and to measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}Po{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations. Tasks of the exposure studies in occupied indoor spaces are to initiate measurements of the activity size distributions in actual homes with occupants present so that the variability of the indoor activity size distributions can be assessed with respect to indoor aerosol sources and general lifestyle variations of the occupants, to initiate a prospective study of the utility of measurement of deposited {sup 210}Pb embedded in glass surfaces as a measure of the long-term, integrated exposure of the population to radon, and to develop the methodology to determine the hygroscopicity of the indoor aerosol so that the changes in deposition efficiency of the radioactive indoor aerosol with hygroscopic growth in the respiratory tract can be assessed.

  16. A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull

    PubMed Central

    Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

  17. RNAi-Mediated Knock-Down of transformer and transformer 2 to Generate Male-Only Progeny in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianwei; Zhang, Guifen; Wan, Fanghao

    2015-01-01

    The transformer (tra) gene appears to act as the genetic switch that promotes female development by interaction with the transformer2 (tra-2) gene in several dipteran species including the Medfly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we describe the isolation, expression and function of tra and tra-2 in the economically important agricultural pest, the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Bdtra and Bdtra-2 are similar to their homologs from other tephritid species. Bdtra demonstrated sex-specific transcripts: one transcript in females and two transcripts in males. In contrast, Bdtra-2 only had one transcript that was common to males and females, which was transcribed continuously in different adult tissues and developmental stages. Bdtra-2 and the female form of Bdtra were maternally inherited in eggs, whereas the male form of Bdtra was not detectable until embryos of 1 and 2 h after egg laying. Function analyses of Bdtra and Bdtra-2 indicated that both were indispensable for female development, as nearly 100% males were obtained with embryonic RNAi against either Bdtra or Bdtra-2. The fertility of these RNAi-generated males was subsequently tested. More than 80% of RNAi-generated males could mate and the mated females could lay eggs, but only 40-48.6% males gave rise to progeny. In XX-reversed males and intersex individuals, no clear female gonadal morphology was observed after dissection. These results shed light on the development of a genetic sexing system with male-only release for this agricultural pest. PMID:26057559

  18. Productivity, water-use efficiency and tolerance to moderate water deficit correlate in 33 poplar genotypes from a Populus deltoides x Populus trichocarpa F1 progeny.

    PubMed

    Monclus, R; Villar, M; Barbaroux, C; Bastien, C; Fichot, R; Delmotte, F M; Delay, D; Petit, J-M; Bréchet, C; Dreyer, E; Brignolas, F

    2009-11-01

    Genotypic variability for productivity, water-use efficiency and leaf traits in 33 genotypes selected from an F1 progeny of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh x Populus trichocarpa L. was explored under optimal and moderate water-deficit conditions. Saplings of the 33 genotypes were grown in a two-plot open field at INRA Orléans (France) and coppiced every year. A moderate water deficit was induced during two successive years on one plot by withholding irrigation, while the second one remained irrigated (control). Stem biomass and leaf structure (e.g., specific leaf area and leaf area) were measured in 2004 and 2005 and functional leaf traits (e.g., carbon isotope discrimination, Delta) were measured only in 2004. Tolerance to water deficit was estimated at genotype level as the ability to limit losses in biomass production in water deficit versus control trees. Stem biomass, leaf structure and Delta displayed a significant genotypic variability whatever the irrigation regime. For all traits, genotype ranks remained stable across years for similar irrigation conditions. Carbon isotope discrimination scaled negatively with productivity and leaf nitrogen content in controls. The most productive genotypes were the least tolerant to moderate water deficit. No relationship was evidenced between Delta and the level of tolerance to water deficit. The relationships between traits evidenced in this collection of P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 genotypes contrast with the ones that were previously detected in a collection of P. deltoides x Populus nigra L. cultivars tested in the same field trial. PMID:19773340

  19. Advanced midwifery practice or advancing midwifery practice?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Leap, Nicky; Homer, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    Advanced midwifery practice is a controversial notion in midwifery, particularly at present in Australia. The proposed changes in legislation around access to the publicly funded Medical Benefits Scheme (MBS) and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2009-2010 have meant that the issue of advanced midwifery practice has again taken prominence. Linking midwifery access to MBS and PBS to a safety and quality framework that includes an 'advanced midwifery credentialling framework' is particularly challenging. The Haxton and Fahy paper in the December 2009 edition of Women and Birth is timely as it enables a reflection upon these issues and encourages debate and discussion about exactly what is midwifery, what are we educating our students for and is working to the full scope of practice practising at advanced level? This paper seeks to address some of these questions and open up the topic for further debate. PMID:20018582

  20. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  1. The cellular origin for malignant glioma and prospects for clinical advancements

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Hui; Verhaak, Roel GW; Canoll, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Glioma remains incurable despite great advancements in medicine. Targeting the cell of origin for gliomas could bring great hope for patients. However, as a collection of diverse diseases, each subtype of glioma could derive from a distinct cell of origin. To resolve such a complex problem, one must use multiple research approaches to gain deep insights. Here we review current evidence regarding the cell of origin from clinical observations, whole-genome molecular pathology and glioma animal models. We conclude that neural stem cells, glial progenitors (including oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) and astrocytes could all serve as cells of origin for gliomas, and that cells incurring initial mutations (cells of mutation) might not transform, while their progeny cells could instead transform and act as cells of origin. Further studies with multidisciplinary approaches are needed to link each subtype to a particular cell of origin, and to develop effective therapies that target the signaling network within these cells. PMID:22616703

  2. Advance Care Planning.

    PubMed

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making. PMID:23586906

  3. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  4. Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought

    PubMed Central

    Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (ΨM). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ΨM, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ΨM from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ΨM, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ΨM under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ΨM maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ΨM under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

  5. [Induction of DNA damage in blood leucocytes and of cytogenetic injuries in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes in mice exposed to low-LET and high-LET radiation and in their progeny].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A; Zaichkina, S I; Sirota, N P; Abdullaev, S A; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Sorokina, S S; Romanchenko, S P; Smirnova, E N

    2014-01-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the molecular and cellular levels of the response of the hematopoietic system in mice and their progeny to the action of low-LET and high-LET radiation at different times after exposure. The damage to the genome at the molecular level was assessed by the comet assay in peripheral blood leucocytes, whereas at the cellular level it was estimated by means of the micronuclear test in the marrow cells, after exposure of mice to X-radiation of 1, 3 and 5 Gy and to a high-LET low-intensity radiation at thedoses of 0.14 and 0.35 Gy, as well as to a combined effect of these types of radiation. When accessing the level of the DNA damage to individual cells by the comet assay, we also used, apart from a commonly accepted parameter %TDNA, additional characteristics: the proportions of leucocytes with an intact and highly fragmented DNA. Using these parameters, we detected the changes characterizing the dynamics of the leukocyte population in mouse blood at different times after the action of X-ray and high-LET radiation. It was found that: (1) the DNA damage increases with the dose of high-LET radiation; (2) the level of damage in the progeny of the animals exposed to high-LET radiation does not differ from that in unirradiated animals both at the molecular and cytogenetic levels; and (3) a decrease in the radiosensitivity of the progeny of the mice exposed to high-LET radiation at a dose of 0.35 Gy makes itself evident only at the molecular level, which may point to the possible transgeneration transmission of genomic lesions. PMID:25775822

  6. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  7. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-09-21

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  8. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  10. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  11. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  12. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  13. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  14. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  15. Simulating ocean acidification and CO2 leakages from carbon capture and storage to assess the effects of pH reduction on cladoceran Moina mongolica Daday and its progeny.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaosheng; Wang, Youshao; Yan, Changzhou

    2016-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of pH reduction in seawater as a result of increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, laboratory-scale experiments simulating the scenarios of ocean acidification (OA) and CO2 leakages of carbon capture and storage (CCS) were performed using the model organism Moina mongolica Daday. The LpH50s calculated in cladoceran toxicity tests showed that M. mongolica exhibited intermediate sensitivity to OA, which varied among species and with ontogeny, when compared with different phyla or classes of marine biota. Survival, reproduction and fecundity of parthenogenetic females were evaluated after 21-day exposures. Results showed that increased acidity significantly reduced the rate of reproduction of M. mongolica resulting in a decreased intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) across the gradients of pH reduction. The analysis of macromolecule contents in neonates suggested that nutritional status in progeny from all broods were significantly reduced as seawater pH decreased, with increasing magnitude in latter broods, except the contents of protein from two former broods and lipids from the first brood. Our findings clearly showed that for this ecologically and economically important fish species, the negative effects of pH reduction on both "quantity" and "quality" of progeny may have far-reaching implications, providing direct evidence that OA could influence the energetic transfer of marine food web and ecosystem functions in acidified oceans in the future. PMID:27160436

  16. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  17. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  18. Advanced camera for surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Ford, Holland C.; Bartko, Frank; Bely, Pierre Y.; Broadhurst, Tom; Burrows, Christopher J.; Cheng, Edward S.; Crocker, James H.; Franx, Marijn; Feldman, Paul D.; Golimowski, David A.; Hartig, George F.; Illingworth, Garth; Kimble, Randy A.; Lesser, Michael P.; Miley, George H.; Postman, Marc; Rafal, Marc D.; Rosati, Piero; Sparks, William B.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; White, Richard L.; Sullivan, Pamela; Volmer, Paul; LaJeunesse, Tom

    2000-07-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third generation instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). It is currently planned for installation in HST during the fourth servicing mission in Summer 2001. The ACS will have three cameras.

  19. The Advanced Energy Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliken, JoAnn; Joseck, Fred; Wang, Michael; Yuzugullu, Elvin

    The President's Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI), launched in 2006, addresses the challenges of energy supply and demand facing our Nation by supporting research and development of advanced technologies for transportation and stationary power generation. The AEI portfolio includes clean coal, nuclear and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind) for stationary power generation and advanced battery technologies, cellulosic ethanol as a fuel and hydrogen fuel cells for transportation. These research and development programs are underpinned by comprehensive life-cycle analysis efforts using models such as Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) and Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) to enable a better understanding of the characteristics and trade-offs associated with advanced energy options and to help decision makers choose viable pathways for clean, reliable and affordable energy.

  20. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  1. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  2. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  3. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  4. Descendants and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Buford, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Some of the concerns that have been raised in connection to the use of advance directives are of the epistemic variety. Such concerns highlight the possibility that adhering to an advance directive may conflict with what the author of the directive actually wants (or would want) at the time of treatment. However, at least one objection to the employment of advance directives is metaphysical in nature. The objection to be discussed here, first formulated by Rebecca Dresser and labeled by Allen Buchanan as the slavery argument and David DeGrazia the someone else problem, aims to undermine the legitimacy of certain uses of advance directives by concluding that such uses rest upon an incorrect assumption about the identity over time of those ostensibly governed by the directives. There have been numerous attempts to respond to this objection. This paper aims to assess two strategies that have been pursued to cope with the problem. PMID:25743056

  5. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  6. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  7. Advanced Welding Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the applications of advanced welding techniques are shown in this poster presentation. Included are brief explanations of the use on the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicle and on the Space Shuttle Launch vehicle. Also included are microstructural views from four advanced welding techniques: Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) weld (fusion), self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW), conventional FSW, and Tube Socket Weld (TSW) on aluminum.

  8. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  9. A direct advance on advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2012-06-01

    Advance directives (ADs), which are also sometimes referred to as 'living wills', are statements made by a person that indicate what treatment she should not be given in the event that she is not competent to consent or refuse at the future moment in question. As such, ADs provide a way for patients to make decisions in advance about what treatments they do not want to receive, without doctors having to find proxy decision-makers or having recourse to the doctrine of necessity. While patients can request particular treatments in an AD, only refusals are binding. This paper will examine whether ADs safeguard the autonomy and best interests of the incompetent patient, and whether legislating for the use of ADs is justified, using the specific context of the legal situation in the United Kingdom to illustrate the debate. The issue of whether the law should permit ADs is itself dependent on the issue of whether ADs are ethically justified; thus we must answer a normative question in order to answer the legislative one. It emerges that ADs suffer from two major problems, one related to autonomy and one to consent. First, ADs' emphasis on precedent autonomy effectively sentences some people who want to live to death. Second, many ADs might not meet the standard criteria for informed refusal of treatment, because they fail on the crucial criterion of sufficient information. Ultimately, it transpires that ADs are typically only appropriate for patients who temporarily lose physical or mental capacity. PMID:21133977

  10. Recruit and ADVANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  11. Advanced access appointments

    PubMed Central

    Hudec, John C.; MacDougall, Steven; Rankin, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of advanced access (same-day physician appointments) on patient and provider satisfaction and to determine its association with other variables such as physician income and patient emergency department use. DESIGN Patient satisfaction survey and semistructured interviews with physicians and support staff; analysis of physician medical insurance billings and patient emergency department visits. SETTING Cape Breton, NS. PARTICIPANTS Patients, physicians, and support staff of 3 comparable family physician practices that had not implemented advanced access and an established advanced access practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported provider and patient satisfaction, physician office income, and patients’ emergency department use. RESULTS The key benefits of implementation of advanced access were an increase in provider and patient satisfaction levels, same or greater physician office income, and fewer less urgent (triage level 4) and nonurgent (triage level 5) emergency department visits by patients. CONCLUSION Currently within the Central Cape Breton Region, 33% of patients wait 4 or more days for urgent appointments. Findings from this study can be used to enhance primary care physician practice redesign. This research supports many benefits of transitioning to an advanced access model of patient booking. PMID:20944024

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  13. Advanced thermionic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. D.; Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1974-01-01

    Basic analytical and experimental exploration was conducted on several types of advanced thermionic energy converters, and preliminary analysis was performed on systems utilizing advanced converter performance. The Pt--Nb cylindrical diode which exhibited a suppressed arc drop, as described in the preceding report, was reassembled and the existence of the postulated hydrid mode of operation was tentatively confirmed. Initial data obtained on ignited and unignited triode operation in the demountable cesium vapor system essentially confirmed the design principles developed in earlier work, with a few exceptions. Three specific advanced converter concepts were selected as candidates for concentrated basic study and for practical evaluation in fixed-configuration converters. Test vehicles and test stands for these converters and a unique controlled-atmosphere station for converter assembly and processing were designed, and procurement was initiated.

  14. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  15. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-01-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  16. Advanced Aerodynamic Control Effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1999-01-01

    A 1990 research program that focused on the development of advanced aerodynamic control effectors (AACE) for military aircraft has been reviewed and summarized. Data are presented for advanced planform, flow control, and surface contouring technologies. The data show significant increases in lift, reductions in drag, and increased control power, compared to typical aerodynamic designs. The results presented also highlighted the importance of planform selection in the design of a control effector suite. Planform data showed that dramatic increases in lift (greater than 25%) can be achieved with multiple wings and a sawtooth forebody. Passive porosity and micro drag generator control effector data showed control power levels exceeding that available from typical effectors (moving surfaces). Application of an advanced planform to a tailless concept showed benefits of similar magnitude as those observed in the generic studies.

  17. Advanced rocket propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1993-02-01

    Existing NASA research contracts are supporting development of advanced reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites for use in liquid rocket engines of the future. Advanced rocket propulsion concepts, such as modular platelet engines, dual-fuel dual-expander engines, and variable mixture ratio engines, require advanced materials and structures to reduce overall vehicle weight as well as address specific propulsion system problems related to elevated operating temperatures, new engine components, and unique operating processes. High performance propulsion systems with improved manufacturability and maintainability are needed for single stage to orbit vehicles and other high performance mission applications. One way to satisfy these needs is to develop a small engine which can be clustered in modules to provide required levels of total thrust. This approach should reduce development schedule and cost requirements by lowering hardware lead times and permitting the use of existing test facilities. Modular engines should also reduce operational costs associated with maintenance and parts inventories.

  18. Cascaded humidified advanced turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swenson, E.C.; Cohn, A.; Bradshaw, D.; Taylor, R.; Wilson, J.M.; Gaul, G.; Jahnke, F.; Polsky, M.

    1995-05-01

    This article describes how, by combining the best features of simple- and combined-cycle gas turbine power plants, the CHAT cycle concept offers power producers a clean, more efficient and less expensive alternative to both. The patented cascaded advanced turbine and its cascaded humidified advanced turbine (CHAT) derivative offer utilities and other power producers a practical advanced gas turbine power plant by combining commercially-available gas turbine and industrial compressor technologies in a unique way. Compared to combined-cycle plants, a CHAT power plant has lower emissions and specific capital costs-approximately 20 percent lower than what is presently available. Further, CHAT`s operating characteristics are especially well-suited to load following quick start-up scenarios and they are less susceptible to power degradation from higher ambient air temperature conditions.

  19. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  20. Advanced ramjet concepts program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leingang, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Uniquely advantageous features, on both the performance and weight sides of the ledger, can be achieved through synergistic design integration of airbreathing and rocket technologies in the development of advanced orbital space transport propulsion systems of the combined cycle type. In the context of well understood advanced airbreathing and liquid rocket propulsion principles and practices, this precept of synergism is advanced mainly through six rather specific examples. These range from the detailed component level to the overall vehicle system level as follows: using jet compression; achieving a high area ratio rocket nozzle; ameliorating gas generator cycle rocket system deficiencies; using the in-duct special rocket thrust chamber assembly as the principal scramjet fuel injection operation; using the unstowed, covered fan as a duct closure for effecting high area ratio rocket mode operation; and creating a unique airbreathing rocket system via the onboard, cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction process.

  1. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  2. The Advanced LIGO Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritschel, Peter

    2016-03-01

    After decades of development, the Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are now operating, and they completed their first observational run in early 2016. Advanced LIGO consists of two 4-km scale interferometric detectors located at separate sites in the US. The first year of detector commissioning that led to the first observation run produced instruments that have several times better sensitivity to gravitational-wave strain than previous instruments. At their final design sensitivity, the detectors will be another factor of 2-3x more sensitive than current performance. This talk will cover the design of Advanced LIGO, explain how the sensitivity improvements have been achieved, and lay out the path to reaching final design sensitivity.

  3. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  4. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  5. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  6. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-02-08

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. The advanced containment system comprises a plurality of casing sections with each casing section interlocked to an adjacent casing section. Each casing section includes a complementary interlocking structure that interlocks with the complementary interlocking structure on an adjacent casing section. A barrier filler substantially fills the casing sections and may substantially fill the spaces of the complementary interlocking structure to form a substantially impermeable barrier. Some of the casing sections may include sensors so that the casing sections and the zone of interest may be remotely monitored after the casing sections are emplaced in the ground.

  7. MR Neurography: Advances

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Zhao, Lianxin; Carrino, John A.; Trueblood, Eo; Koceski, Saso; Shteriev, Filip; Lenkinski, Lionel; Sinclair, Christopher D. J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    High resolution and high field magnetic resonance neurography (MR neurography, MRN) is shown to have excellent anatomic capability. There have been considerable advances in the technology in the last few years leading to various feasibility studies using different structural and functional imaging approaches in both clinical and research settings. This paper is intended to be a useful seminar for readers who want to gain knowledge of the advancements in the MRN pulse sequences currently used in clinical practice as well as learn about the other techniques on the horizon aimed at better depiction of nerve anatomy, pathology, and potential noninvasive evaluation of nerve degeneration or regeneration. PMID:23589774

  8. Advanced engine study program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.; Denman, T. F.; Shied, R. A.; Black, J. R.; Fierstein, A. R.; Clark, G. L.; Branstrom, B. R.

    1993-01-01

    A design and analysis study was conducted to provide advanced engine descriptions and parametric data for space transfer vehicles. The study was based on an advanced oxygen/hydrogen engine in the 7,500 to 50,000 lbf thrust range. Emphasis was placed on defining requirements for high-performance engines capable of achieving reliable and versatile operation in a space environment. Four variations on the expander cycle were compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each were assessed. Parametric weight, envelope, and performance data were generated over a range of 7,500 to 50,000 lb thrust and a wide range of chamber pressure and nozzle expansion ratio.

  9. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  10. Avionics advanced development strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, D.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is the problem of how to put together an integrated, phased, and affordable avionics advanced development program that links and applies to operational, evolving, and developing programs/vehicles, as well as those in the planning phases. Collecting technology needs from individual programs/vehicles and proposed technology items from individual developers usually results in a mismatch and something that is unaffordable. A strategy to address this problem is outlined with task definitions which will lead to avionics advanced development items that will fit within an overall framework, prioritized to support budgeting, and support the scope of NASA space transportations needs.

  11. Advances in attosecond science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Francesca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Nisoli, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Attosecond science offers formidable tools for the investigation of electronic processes at the heart of important physical processes in atomic, molecular and solid-state physics. In the last 15 years impressive advances have been obtained from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. Attosecond pulses, in the form of isolated pulses or of trains of pulses, are now routinely available in various laboratories. In this review recent advances in attosecond science are reported and important applications are discussed. After a brief presentation of various techniques that can be employed for the generation and diagnosis of sub-femtosecond pulses, various applications are reported in atomic, molecular and condensed-matter physics.

  12. Technological advances in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Orphanoudakis, S C; Kaldoudi, E; Tsiknakis, M

    1996-06-01

    Teleradiology consists of a set of added-value telematic services, implemented over an advanced telecommunications infrastructure and supported by different information technologies and related applications. The main goal of teleradiology is to provide different levels of support for remote diagnostic imaging procedures. This paper considers technological advances in this important area, including a discussion of the various added-value telematic services, applications supporting these services, and the required information technology and telecommunications infrastructure. Teleradiology is also considered in the general context of an integrated regional health telematics network, emphasizing its role and its interaction with other information and networking services. PMID:8832235

  13. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  14. Advanced Neuroimaging of Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Prashant; Steven, Andrew; Rath, Tanya; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-05-01

    Although tinnitus may originate in damage to the peripheral auditory apparatus, its perception and distressing symptomatology are consequences of alterations to auditory, sensory, and limbic neural networks. This has been described in several studies, some using advanced structural MR imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging. An understanding of these complex changes could enable development of targeted treatment. New MR imaging techniques enabling detailed depiction of the labyrinth may be useful when diagnosis of Meniere disease is equivocal. Advances in computed tomography and MR imaging have enabled noninvasive diagnosis of dural arteriovenous fistulae. PMID:27154611

  15. Advanced sensors technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G.; Costello, David J.; Davis, Jerry G.; Horst, Richard L.; Lessard, Charles S.; Peel, H. Herbert; Tolliver, Robert

    1992-01-01

    This project assesses the state-of-the-art in advanced or 'smart' sensors technology for NASA Life Sciences research applications with an emphasis on those sensors with potential applications on the space station freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to conduct literature reviews on relevant advanced sensor technology; (2) to interview various scientists and engineers in industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable on this topic; (3) to provide viewpoints and opinions regarding the potential applications of this technology on the SSF; and (4) to provide summary charts of relevant technologies and centers where these technologies are being developed.

  16. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  17. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2013-05-28

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Technological advances transforming rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, William H.; Mao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances over the past decade have revolutionized many areas of rheumatology, ranging from diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development to the mechanistic understanding of rheumatic diseases. This overview highlights key technological innovations and discusses the major impact that these developments are having on research and clinical practice. PMID:26439404

  19. Advanced Civilian Aeronautical Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1996-01-01

    Paper discusses alternatives to currently deployed systems which could provide revolutionary improvements in metrics applicable to civilian aeronautics. Specific missions addressed include subsonic transports, supersonic transports and personal aircraft. These alternative systems and concepts are enabled by recent and envisaged advancements in electronics, communications, computing and Designer Fluid Mechanics in conjunction with a design approach employing extensive synergistic interactions between propulsion, aerodynamics and structures.

  20. Advances in photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Elma D; Kirkland, Eugene B; Domingo, Diana Santo

    2008-08-01

    Major advancements in the realm of photoprotection have occurred over the last decade providing potential means to reduce the prevalence of ultraviolet radiation-related skin problems. This review elucidates current photoprotective methods and recent developments that may hold future promise. PMID:18819220

  1. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  2. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  3. Advancing beyond AP Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    A quiet revolution is picking up steam in the nation's private secondary schools, with broad implications for college admissions and for teaching and learning on both sides of the transition from high school to college. About 50 of the nation's leading college-preparatory schools have opted out of the College Board's Advanced Placement (AP)…

  4. Impedance cardiography: recent advancements.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Gerard; Strasz, Anna; Niewiadomski, Wiktor; Gąsiorowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the presentation of recent advancements in impedance cardiography regarding methodical approach, applied equipment and clinical or research implementations. The review is limited to the papers which were published over last 17 months (dated 2011 and 2012) in well recognised scientific journals. PMID:23042327

  5. Advances in fetal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Denise Araujo Lapa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper discusses the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform health care professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field. We discuss the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy). PMID:27074241

  6. NIST ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Not-yet-possible technologies are the domain of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Advanced Technology Program. The ATP is a unique partnership between government and private industry to accelerate the development of high-risk technologies that promise sign...

  7. Oklahoma's Advanced School Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary

    A new means of funding school operations known as advanced school funding allows Oklahoma schools financing during the temporary cash shortfalls. The program consists of the Oklahoma Development Authority issuing revenue bonds purchased by E. F. Hutton and Company, Inc., which then sells the tax free bonds to investors throughout the country. A…

  8. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  9. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  10. Advanced Concept Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaput, Armand; Johns, Zachary; Hodges, Todd; Selfridge, Justin; Bevirt, Joeben; Ahuja, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Concepts Modeling software validation, analysis, and design. This was a National Institute of Aerospace contract with a lot of pieces. Efforts ranged from software development and validation for structures and aerodynamics, through flight control development, and aeropropulsive analysis, to UAV piloting services.

  11. Management of advanced melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma.

  12. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  13. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  14. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  15. Advances in satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  17. The Advancement Checkup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    It is proposed that an external audit of a college advancement program is analogous to a periodic physical examination that offers objectivity and expertise. Audits are appropriate at the time of administrative transitions, performance difficulties, and even periods of sustained success. Guidelines and expectations are discussed. (MSE)

  18. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  19. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  20. Cartoons as Advance Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Cindy L.; Williams, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated student reaction to the use of cartoons as advance organizers for online discussions in an online course. A convenience sample of 15 students participated in the study by contributing cartoons, participating in online discussions, and completing a survey. Overall, survey results indicated student reaction to the…