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Sample records for advanced backcross qtl

  1. A New Advanced Backcross Tomato Population Enables High Resolution Leaf QTL Mapping and Gene Identification

    PubMed Central

    Fulop, Daniel; Ranjan, Aashish; Ofner, Itai; Covington, Michael F.; Chitwood, Daniel H.; West, Donelly; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Headland, Lauren; Zamir, Daniel; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima R.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping is a powerful technique for dissecting the genetic basis of traits and species differences. Established tomato mapping populations between domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its more distant interfertile relatives typically follow a near isogenic line (NIL) design, such as the S. pennellii Introgression Line (IL) population, with a single wild introgression per line in an otherwise domesticated genetic background. Here, we report on a new advanced backcross QTL mapping resource for tomato, derived from a cross between the M82 tomato cultivar and S. pennellii. This so-called Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) population is comprised of a mix of BC2 and BC3 lines, with domesticated tomato as the recurrent parent. The BIL population is complementary to the existing S. pennellii IL population, with which it shares parents. Using the BILs, we mapped traits for leaf complexity, leaflet shape, and flowering time. We demonstrate the utility of the BILs for fine-mapping QTL, particularly QTL initially mapped in the ILs, by fine-mapping several QTL to single or few candidate genes. Moreover, we confirm the value of a backcrossed population with multiple introgressions per line, such as the BILs, for epistatic QTL mapping. Our work was further enabled by the development of our own statistical inference and visualization tools, namely a heterogeneous hidden Markov model for genotyping the lines, and by using state-of-the-art sparse regression techniques for QTL mapping. PMID:27510891

  2. Advanced backcross QTL mapping of resistance to Fusarium head blight and plant morphological traits in a Triticum macha × T. aestivum population.

    PubMed

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Lemmens, Marc; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2011-07-01

    While many reports on genetic analysis of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in bread wheat have been published during the past decade, only limited information is available on FHB resistance derived from wheat relatives. In this contribution, we report on the genetic analysis of FHB resistance derived from Triticum macha (Georgian spelt wheat). As the origin of T. macha is in the Caucasian region, it is supposed that its FHB resistance differs from other well-investigated resistance sources. To introduce valuable alleles from the landrace T. macha into a modern genetic background, we adopted an advanced backcross QTL mapping scheme. A backcross-derived recombinant-inbred line population of 321 BC(2)F(3) lines was developed from a cross of T. macha with the Austrian winter wheat cultivar Furore. The population was evaluated for Fusarium resistance in seven field experiments during four seasons using artificial inoculations. A total of 300 lines of the population were genetically fingerprinted using SSR and AFLP markers. The resulting linkage map covered 33 linkage groups with 560 markers. Five novel FHB-resistance QTL, all descending from T. macha, were found on four chromosomes (2A, 2B, 5A, 5B). Several QTL for morphological and developmental traits were mapped in the same population, which partly overlapped with FHB-resistance QTL. Only the 2BL FHB-resistance QTL co-located with a plant height QTL. The largest-effect FHB-resistance QTL in this population mapped at the spelt-type locus on chromosome 5A and was associated with the wild-type allele q, but it is unclear whether q has a pleiotropic effect on FHB resistance or is closely linked to a nearby resistance QTL.

  3. Identification of QTL for Early Vigor and Stay-Green Conferring Tolerance to Drought in Two Connected Advanced Backcross Populations in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Samuel; Sun, Dapeng; SanVicente, Felix M; Zheng, Hongjian; Atlin, Gary N; Suarez, Edgar Antonio; Babu, Raman; Zhang, Xuecai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26-31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13-17; additivity: 0.1-0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop, DS

  4. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: II. Genetic analysis of seedling and field resistance against leaf rust in a wheat advanced backcross population.

    PubMed

    Naz, Ali Ahmad; Kunert, Antje; Lind, Volker; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2008-05-01

    The present study aimed to localize exotic quantitative trait locus (QTL) alleles for the improvement of leaf rust (P. triticina) resistance in an advanced backcross (AB) population, B22, which is derived from a cross between the winter wheat cultivar Batis (Triticum aestivum) and the synthetic wheat accession Syn022L. The latter was developed from hybridization of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides and T. tauschii. Altogether, 250 BC2F3 lines of B22 were assessed for seedling resistance against the leaf rust isolate 77WxR under controlled conditions. In addition, field resistance against leaf rust was evaluated by assessing symptom severity under natural infestation across multiple environments. Simultaneously, population B22 was genotyped with a total of 97 SSR markers, distributed over the wheat A, B and D genomes. The phenotype and genotype data were subjected to QTL analysis by applying a 3-factorial mixed model analysis of variance including the marker genotype as a fixed effect and the environments, the lines and the marker by environment interactions as random effects. The QTL analysis revealed six putative QTLs for seedling resistance and seven for field resistance. For seedling resistance, the effects of exotic QTL alleles improved resistance at all detected loci. The maximum decrease of disease symptoms (-46.3%) was associated with marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D. For field resistance, two loci had stable main effects across environments and five loci exhibited marker by environment interaction effects. The strongest effects were detected at marker locus Xbarc149 on chromosome 1D, at which the exotic allele decreased seedling symptoms by 46.3% and field symptoms by 43.6%, respectively. Some of the detected QTLs co-localized with known resistance genes, while others appear to be as novel resistance loci. Our findings indicate, that the exotic wheat accession Syn022L may be useful for the improvement of leaf rust resistance in cultivated wheat.

  5. Identification of QTL for Early Vigor and Stay-Green Conferring Tolerance to Drought in Two Connected Advanced Backcross Populations in Tropical Maize (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Trachsel, Samuel; Sun, Dapeng; SanVicente, Felix M.; Zheng, Hongjian; Atlin, Gary N.; Suarez, Edgar Antonio; Babu, Raman; Zhang, Xuecai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for secondary traits related to grain yield (GY) in two BC1F2:3 backcross populations (LPSpop and DTPpop) under well-watered (4 environments; WW) and drought stressed (6; DS) conditions to facilitate breeding efforts towards drought tolerant maize. GY reached 5.6 and 5.8 t/ha under WW in the LPSpop and the DTPpop, respectively. Under DS, grain yield was reduced by 65% (LPSpop) to 59% (DTPpop) relative to WW. GY was strongly associated with the normalized vegetative index (NDVI; r ranging from 0.61 to 0.96) across environmental conditions and with an early flowering under drought stressed conditions (r ranging from -0.18 to -0.25) indicative of the importance of early vigor and drought escape for GY. Out of the 105 detected QTL, 53 were overdominant indicative of strong heterosis. For 14 out of 18 detected vigor QTL, as well as for eight flowering time QTL the trait increasing allele was derived from CML491. Collocations of early vigor QTL with QTL for stay green (bin 2.02, WW, LPSpop; 2.07, DS, DTPpop), the number of ears per plant (bins 2.02, 2.05, WW, LPSpop; 5.02, DS, LPSpop) and GY (bin 2.07, WW, DTPpop; 5.04, WW, LPSpop), reinforce the importance of the observed correlations. LOD scores for early vigor QTL in these bins ranged from 2.2 to 11.25 explaining 4.6 (additivity: +0.28) to 19.9% (additivity: +0.49) of the observed phenotypic variance. A strong flowering QTL was detected in bin 2.06 across populations and environmental conditions explaining 26–31.3% of the observed phenotypic variation (LOD: 13–17; additivity: 0.1–0.6d). Improving drought tolerance while at the same time maintaining yield potential could be achieved by combining alleles conferring early vigor from the recurrent parent with alleles advancing flowering from the donor. Additionally bin 8.06 (DTPpop) harbored a QTL for GY under WW (additivity: 0.27 t/ha) and DS (additivity: 0.58 t/ha). R2 ranged from 0 (DTPpop, WW) to 26.54% (LPSpop

  6. Enhancement of Seedling Emergence in Sweet Corn by Marker-Assisted Backcrossing of Beneficial QTL.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Gad G.; Juvik, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Seedling emergence is an important trait that can limit commercialization of sweet corn hybrids. This study was designed to test what effect beneficial QTL alleles that enhance seedling emergence exert when introgressed, using marker-assisted backcrossing, into sweet corn commercial germplasm. Three RFLP marker alleles linked to QTL that enhanced seedling emergence were identified in an F(2:3) sweet corn mapping population. A recombinant inbred line (RIL, F(8)) derived from this population was used as a donor parent to backcross the marker-QTL alleles into three elite commercial sweet corn inbreds. Plants in the three segregating BC(2) populations were crossed to the non-recurrent commercial inbreds to produce three BC(2)F(1) populations with families either segregating or lacking the marker donor allele(s). These three populations were evaluated for seedling emergence under field conditions in two successive years. Across the three populations, BC(2)F(1) families segregating for the donor QTL allele linked to the marker umc139 (on chromosome 2), bnl9.08 (on chromosome 8), or php200689 (on chromosome 1) displayed 40.8, 30.2, and 28.2% increases in seedling emergence, respectively, over the unmodified F(1)s. The introgressed QTL alleles were observed to enhance seedling emergence in the BC(2)F(1) generation as was observed in the original F(2:3) mapping population. Marker-QTL associated effects were reproducible across generations and populations indicating that QTL identified in one population can exert similar effects in different genetic backgrounds. Results suggest that using DNA marker technology can help to identify and introgress beneficial QTL alleles, shortening the time and resources required to develop improved germplasm. PMID:11756259

  7. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. PMID:27342735

  8. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection on Fiber Traits Using Two Recombinant Inbred Lines and Their Backcross Populations in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Wang, Xiaocui; Liu, Fang; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Li, Yuhua; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fiber, a raw natural fiber material, is widely used in the textile industry. Understanding the genetic mechanism of fiber traits is helpful for fiber quality improvement. In the present study, the genetic basis of fiber quality traits was explored using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and corresponding backcross (BC) populations under multiple environments in Upland cotton based on marker analysis. In backcross populations, no significant correlation was observed between marker heterozygosity and fiber quality performance and it suggested that heterozygosity was not always necessarily advantageous for the high fiber quality. In two hybrids, 111 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality were detected using composite interval mapping, in which 62 new stable QTL were simultaneously identified in more than one environment or population. QTL detected at the single-locus level mainly showed additive effect. In addition, a total of 286 digenic interactions (E-QTL) and their environmental interactions [QTL × environment interactions (QEs)] were detected for fiber quality traits by inclusive composite interval mapping. QE effects should be considered in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding. On average, the E-QTL explained a larger proportion of the phenotypic variation than the main-effect QTL did. It is concluded that the additive effect of single-locus and epistasis with few detectable main effects play an important role in controlling fiber quality traits in Upland cotton. PMID:27342735

  9. Genetic mapping of QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight spread (type 2 resistance) in a Triticum dicoccoides × Triticum durum backcross-derived population.

    PubMed

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Alimari, Abdallah; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2013-11-01

    Improvement of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a continuous challenge for durum wheat breeders, particularly due to the limited genetic variation within this crop species. We accordingly generated a backcross-derived mapping population using the type 2 FHB resistant Triticum dicoccoides line Mt. Gerizim #36 as donor and the modern Austrian T. durum cultivar Helidur as recipient; 103 BC1F6:7 lines were phenotyped for type 2 FHB resistance using single-spikelet inoculations and genotyped with 421 DNA markers (SSR and AFLP). QTL mapping revealed two highly significant QTL, mapping to chromosomes 3A and 6B, respectively. For both QTL the T. dicoccoides allele improved type 2 FHB resistance. Recombinant lines with both favorable alleles fixed conferred high resistance to FHB similar to that observed in the T. dicoccoides parent. The results appear directly applicable for durum wheat resistance breeding.

  10. Identification of trait-improving quantitative trait loci for grain yield components from a dent corn inbred line in an advanced backcross BC2F2 population and comparison with its F2:3 population in popcorn.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Niu, S Z; Dong, Y B; Cui, D Q; Wang, Y Z; Liu, Y Y; Wei, M G

    2007-06-01

    Normal maize germplasm could be used to improve the grain yield of popcorn inbreds. Our first objective was to locate genetic factors associated with trait variation and make first assessment on the efficiency of advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis for the identification and transfer of favorable QTL alleles for grain yield components from the dent corn inbred. A second objective was to compare the detection of QTL in the BC2F2 population with results using F(2:3) lines of the same parents. Two hundred and twenty selected BC2F2 families developed from a cross between Dan232 and an elite popcorn inbred N04 were evaluated for six grain yield components under two environments, and genotyped by means of 170 SSR markers. Using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 19 significant QTL were detected. Eighteen QTL had favorable alleles contributed by the dent corn parent Dan232. Sixteen of these favorable QTL alleles were not in the same or near marker intervals with QTL for popping characteristics. Six QTL were also detected in the F(2:3) population. Improved N04 could be developed from 210 and 208 families with higher grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight, respectively, and 35 families with the same or higher popping expansion volume than N04. In addition, near isogenic lines containing detected QTL (QTL-NILs) for grain weight per plant and/or 100-grain weight could be obtained from 12 families. Our study demonstrated that the AB-QTL method can be applied to identify and manipulate favorable QTL alleles from normal corn inbreds and combine QTL detection and popcorn breeding efficiently. PMID:17492267

  11. Development and Genetic Characterization of an Advanced Backcross-Nested Association Mapping (AB-NAM) Population of Wild × Cultivated Barley.

    PubMed

    Nice, Liana M; Steffenson, Brian J; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Akhunov, Eduard D; Liu, Chaochih; Kono, Thomas J Y; Morrell, Peter L; Blake, Thomas K; Horsley, Richard D; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    The ability to access alleles from unadapted germplasm collections is a long-standing problem for geneticists and breeders. Here we developed, characterized, and demonstrated the utility of a wild barley advanced backcross-nested association mapping (AB-NAM) population. We developed this population by backcrossing 25 wild barley accessions to the six-rowed malting barley cultivar Rasmusson. The 25 wild barley parents were selected from the 318 accession Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) to maximize allelic diversity. The resulting 796 BC2F4:6 lines were genotyped with 384 SNP markers, and an additional 4022 SNPs and 263,531 sequence variants were imputed onto the population using 9K iSelect SNP genotypes and exome capture sequence of the parents, respectively. On average, 96% of each wild parent was introgressed into the Rasmusson background, and the population exhibited low population structure. While linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay (r(2) = 0.2) was lowest in the WBDC (0.36 cM), the AB-NAM (9.2 cM) exhibited more rapid LD decay than comparable advanced backcross (28.6 cM) and recombinant inbred line (32.3 cM) populations. Three qualitative traits: glossy spike, glossy sheath, and black hull color were mapped with high resolution to loci corresponding to known barley mutants for these traits. Additionally, a total of 10 QTL were identified for grain protein content. The combination of low LD, negligible population structure, and high diversity in an adapted background make the AB-NAM an important tool for high-resolution gene mapping and discovery of novel allelic variation using wild barley germplasm.

  12. QTL Mapping in New Arabidopsis thaliana Advanced Intercross-Recombinant Inbred Lines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anandita; Warthmann, Norman; Kim, Min Chul; Maloof, Julin N.; Loudet, Olivier; Trainer, Gabriel T.; Dabi, Tsegaye; Borevitz, Justin O.; Chory, Joanne; Weigel, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    Background Even when phenotypic differences are large between natural or domesticated strains, the underlying genetic basis is often complex, and causal genomic regions need to be identified by quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Unfortunately, QTL positions typically have large confidence intervals, which can, for example, lead to one QTL being masked by another, when two closely linked loci are detected as a single QTL. One strategy to increase the power of precisely localizing small effect QTL, is the use of an intercross approach before inbreeding to produce Advanced Intercross RILs (AI-RILs). Methodology/Principal Findings We present two new AI-RIL populations of Arabidopsis thaliana genotyped with an average intermarker distance of 600 kb. The advanced intercrossing design led to expansion of the genetic map in the two populations, which contain recombination events corresponding to 50 kb/cM in an F2 population. We used the AI-RILs to map QTL for light response and flowering time, and to identify segregation distortion in one of the AI-RIL populations due to a negative epistatic interaction between two genomic regions. Conclusions/Significance The two new AI-RIL populations, EstC and KendC, derived from crosses of Columbia (Col) to Estland (Est-1) and Kendallville (Kend-L) provide an excellent resource for high precision QTL mapping. Moreover, because they have been genotyped with over 100 common markers, they are also excellent material for comparative QTL mapping. PMID:19183806

  13. Evaluation of a M-202x Oryza nivara advanced backcross population for seedling vigor, agronomic traits, yield components, yield and grain quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza nivara, the ancestral species of cultivated rice (O. sativa) is the source of novel alleles for resistance to biotic and abiotic stress lost during domestication, including those for improved yield. Interspecific advanced backcross (ABC) populations permit both the introgression of desirable ...

  14. Analysis of QTLs for yield components, agronomic traits, and disease resistance in an advanced backcross population of spring barley.

    PubMed

    Li, J Z; Huang, X Q; Heinrichs, F; Ganal, M W; Röder, M S

    2006-05-01

    Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of barley, is a potential source of useful genetic variation for barley breeding programs. The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an advanced backcross population of barley. A total of 207 BC3 lines were developed using the 2-rowed German spring cultivar Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Brenda' as a recurrent parent and the H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum accession HS584 as a donor parent. The lines were genotyped by 108 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers and evaluated in field tests for the measurement of grain yield and its components, such as ear length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, spike number, and 1000-grain mass, as well as heading date and plant height. A total of 100 QTLs were detected. Ten QTLs with increasing effects were found for ear length, spikelet number, and grain number per spike. Three QTLs contributed by HS584 were found to significantly decrease days to heading across all years at 2 locations. In addition, 2 QTLs from HS584 on chromosomes 2H and 3H were associated with resistance to leaf rust. Based on genotypic data obtained from this population, 55 introgression lines carrying 1 or 2 donor segments were selected to develop a set of doubled-haploid lines, which will be used to reconfirm and investigate the effects of 100 QTLs for future genetic studies.

  15. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.).

    PubMed

    Parsons, Eugene P; Popopvsky, Sigal; Lohrey, Gregory T; Lü, Shiyou; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Perzelan, Yaacov; Paran, Ilan; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A

    2012-09-01

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC(2)F(2) , was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC(2)F(2) fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C(16) monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss.

  16. Development of introgression lines and advanced backcross QTL analysis for disease resistance, oil quality and yield component traits in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ploidy difference between wild Arachis species and cultivated genotypes hinder transfer of useful alleles for agronomically important traits. To overcome this genetic barrier, several synthetics have been developed at ICRISAT. Furthermore, two synthetic amphidiploids viz., ISATGR 1212 (A. duranensis...

  17. Replication of long-bone length QTL in the F9-F10 LG,SM advanced intercross.

    PubMed

    Norgard, Elizabeth A; Jarvis, Joseph P; Roseman, Charles C; Maxwell, Taylor J; Kenney-Hunt, Jane P; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Pletscher, L Susan; Wang, Bing; Fawcett, Gloria L; Leatherwood, Christopher J; Wolf, Jason B; Cheverud, James M

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are frequently used to identify genomic regions associated with variation in phenotypes of interest. However, the F(2) intercross and congenic strain populations usually employed have limited genetic resolution resulting in relatively large confidence intervals that greatly inhibit functional confirmation of statistical results. Here we use the increased resolution of the combined F(9) and F(10) generations (n = 1455) of the LG,SM advanced intercross to fine-map previously identified QTL associated with the lengths of the humerus, ulna, femur, and tibia. We detected 81 QTL affecting long-bone lengths. Of these, 49 were previously identified in the combined F(2)-F(3) population of this intercross, while 32 represent novel contributors to trait variance. Pleiotropy analysis suggests that most QTL affect three to four long bones or serially homologous limb segments. We also identified 72 epistatic interactions involving 38 QTL and 88 novel regions. This analysis shows that using later generations of an advanced intercross greatly facilitates fine-mapping of confidence intervals, resolving three F(2)-F(3) QTL into multiple linked loci and narrowing confidence intervals of other loci, as well as allowing identification of additional QTL. Further characterization of the biological bases of these QTL will help provide a better understanding of the genetics of small variations in long-bone length.

  18. REPLICATION OF LONG BONE LENGTH QTL IN THE F9 - F10 LG,SM ADVANCED INTERCROSS

    PubMed Central

    Norgard, Elizabeth A.; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Roseman, Charles C.; Maxwell, Taylor J.; Kenney-Hunt, Jane P.; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Pletscher, L. Susan; Wang, Bing; Fawcett, Gloria L.; Leatherwood, Christopher J.; Wolf, Jason B.; Cheverud, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping techniques are frequently used to identify genomic regions associated with variation in phenotypes of interest. However, the F2 intercross and congenic strain populations usually employed have limited genetic resolution resulting in relatively large confidence intervals that greatly inhibit functional confirmation of statistical results. Here, we use the increased resolution of the combined F9 and F10 generations (n=1,455) of the LG,SM advanced intercross to fine-map previously identified QTL associated with the lengths of the humerus, ulna, femur, and tibia. We detected 81 QTL affecting long bone lengths. Of these, 49 were previously identified in the combined F2-F3 population of this intercross while 32 represent novel contributors to trait variance. Pleiotropy analysis suggests that most QTL affect 3-4 long bones or serially homologous limb segments. We also identified 72 epistatic interactions involving 38 QTL and 88 novel regions. This analysis shows that using later generations of an advanced intercross greatly facilitates fine-mapping of confidence intervals, resolving 3 F2-F3 QTL into multiple linked loci and narrowing confidence intervals of other loci, as well as allowing identification of additional QTL. Further characterization of the biological bases of these QTL will help provide a better understanding of the genetics of small variations in long bone length. PMID:19306044

  19. A Random-Model Approach to QTL Mapping in Multiparent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Julong; Xu, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    Most standard QTL mapping procedures apply to populations derived from the cross of two parents. QTL detected from such biparental populations are rarely relevant to breeding programs because of the narrow genetic basis: only two alleles are involved per locus. To improve the generality and applicability of mapping results, QTL should be detected using populations initiated from multiple parents, such as the multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations. The greatest challenges of QTL mapping in MAGIC populations come from multiple founder alleles and control of the genetic background information. We developed a random-model methodology by treating the founder effects of each locus as random effects following a normal distribution with a locus-specific variance. We also fit a polygenic effect to the model to control the genetic background. To improve the statistical power for a scanned marker, we release the marker effect absorbed by the polygene back to the model. In contrast to the fixed-model approach, we estimate and test the variance of each locus and scan the entire genome one locus at a time using likelihood-ratio test statistics. Simulation studies showed that this method can increase statistical power and reduce type I error compared with composite interval mapping (CIM) and multiparent whole-genome average interval mapping (MPWGAIM). We demonstrated the method using a public Arabidopsis thaliana MAGIC population and a mouse MAGIC population.

  20. QTL mapping of complex binary traits in an advanced intercross line.

    PubMed

    Moradi Marjaneh, M; Martin, I C A; Kirk, E P; Harvey, R P; Moran, C; Thomson, P C

    2012-07-01

    An advanced intercross line (AIL) is an easier and more cost-effective approach compared to recombinant inbred lines for fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified by F(2) designs. In an AIL, a complex binary trait can be mapped through analysis of either continuously distributed proxy traits for the liability of the binary trait or the liability itself, the latter presenting the greater statistical challenge. In another work, we successfully applied both approaches in an AIL to fine map previously identified QTL underlying anatomical parameters of the cardiac inter-atrial septum including patent foramen ovale. Here, we describe the statistical methods that we used to analyse complex binary traits in our AIL design. This is achieved using a likelihood-based method, with the expectation-maximisation algorithm allowing use of standard logistic regression methods for model fitting.

  1. Advanced technologies for genomic analysis in farm animals and its application for QTL mapping.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Yu; Feng, Chungang; Liu, Qiuyue; Wang, Xiaobo; Du, Zhuo; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Rapid progress in farm animal breeding has been made in the last few decades. Advanced technologies for genomic analysis in molecular genetics have led to the identification of genes or markers associated with genes that affect economic traits. Molecular markers, large-insert libraries and RH panels have been used to build the genetic linkage maps, physical maps and comparative maps in different farm animals. Moreover, EST sequencing, genome sequencing and SNPs maps are helping us to understand how genomes function in various organisms and further areas will be studied by DNA microarray technologies and proteomics methods. Because most economically important traits in farm animals are controlled by multiple genes and the environment, the main goal of genome research in farm animals is to map and characterize genes determining QTL. There are two main strategies to identify trait loci, candidate gene association tests and genome scan approaches. In recent years, some new concepts, such as RNAi, miRNA and eQTL, have been introduced into farm animal research, especially for QTL mapping and finding QTN. Several genes that influence important traits have already been identified or are close to being identified, and some of them have been applied in farm animal breeding programs by marker-assisted selection.

  2. A comparative transcriptome analysis of two sets of backcross inbred lines differing in lint-yield derived from a Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense population.

    PubMed

    Man, Wu; Zhang, Liyuan; Li, Xihua; Xie, Xiaobing; Pei, Wenfeng; Yu, Jiwen; Yu, Shuxun; Zhang, Jinfa

    2016-08-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop, and its lint-yield improvement is impeded due to its narrow genetic base and the lack of understanding of the genetic basis of yield. Backcross inbred lines (BILs) or near-isogenic lines (NILs) in the same genetic background differing in lint yield, developed through advanced backcrossing, provide an important genomic resource to study the molecular genetic basis of lint yield. In the present study, a high-yield (HY) group and a low-yield (LY) group each with three BILs were selected from a BIL population between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. Using a microarray-based comparative transcriptome analysis on developing fibers at 10 days post-anthesis (DPA) between the two groups, 1486 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. A total of 212 DEGs were further mapped in the regions of 24 yield QTL and 11 yield trait QTL hotspots as reported previously, and 81 DEGs mapped with the 7 lint-yield QTL identified in the BIL population from which the two sets of BILs were selected. Gene Ontology annotations and Blast-Mapping-Annotation-KEGG analysis via Blast2GO revealed that more DEGs were associated with catalytic activity and binding, followed by transporters, nucleic acid binding transcription factors, structural molecules and molecular transducer activities. Six DEGs were chosen for a quantitative RT-PCR assay, and the results were consistent with the microarray analysis. The development of DEGs-based markers revealed that 7 single strand conformation polymorphism-based single nucleotide polymorphic (SSCP-SNP) markers were associated with yield traits, and 3 markers with lint yield. In the present study, we identified a number of yield and yield component QTL-co-localizing DEGs and developed several DEG-based SSCP-SNP markers for the traits, thereby providing a set of candidate genes for molecular breeding and genetic manipulation of lint yield in cotton. PMID:27256327

  3. Fatness QTL on chicken chromosome 5 and interaction with sex

    PubMed Central

    Abasht, Behnam; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Le Roy, Pascale; Demeure, Olivier; Vignoles, Florence; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry; Aggrey, Sammy; Vignal, Alain; Douaire, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fatness in male chickens were previously identified on chromosome 5 (GGA5) in a three-generation design derived from two experimental chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. A new design, established from the same pure lines, produced 407 F2 progenies (males and females) from 4 F1-sire families. Body weight and abdominal fat were measured on the F2 at 9 wk of age. In each sire family, selective genotyping was carried out for 48 extreme individuals for abdominal fat using seven microsatellite markers from GGA5. QTL analyses confirmed the presence of QTL for fatness on GGA5 and identified a QTL by sex interaction. By crossing one F1 sire heterozygous at the QTL with lean line dams, three recombinant backcross 1 (BC1) males were produced and their QTL genotypes were assessed in backcross 2 (BC2) progenies. These results confirmed the QTL by sex interaction identified in the F2 generation and they allow mapping of the female QTL to less than 8 Mb at the distal part of the GGA5. They also indicate that fat QTL alleles were segregating in both fat and lean lines. PMID:16635451

  4. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in swine at the US Meat Animal Research Center has relied heavily on linkage mapping in either F2 or Backcross families. QTL identified in the initial scans typically have very broad confidence intervals and further refinement of the QTL’s position is needed bef...

  5. AB-QTL analysis in winter wheat: I. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides x T. tauschii) as a source of favourable alleles for milling and baking quality traits.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Antje; Naz, Ali Ahmad; Dedeck, Oliver; Pillen, Klaus; Léon, Jens

    2007-09-01

    The advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) strategy was utilised to locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for baking quality traits in two BC(2)F(3) populations of winter wheat. The backcrosses are derived from two German winter wheat cultivars, Batis and Zentos, and two synthetic, hexaploid wheat accessions, Syn022 and Syn086. The synthetics originate from hybridisations of wild emmer (T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides) and T. tauschii, rather than from durum wheat and T. tauschii and thus allowed for the first time to test for exotic QTL effects on wheat genomes A and B in addition to genome D. The investigated quality traits comprised hectolitre weight, grain hardness, flour yield Type 550, falling number, grain protein content, sedimentation volume and baking volume. One hundred and forty-nine SSR markers were applied to genotype a total of 400 BC(2)F(3) lines. For QTL detection, a mixed-model ANOVA was conducted, including the effects DNA marker, BC(2)F(3) line, environment and marker x environment interaction. Overall 38 QTLs significant for a marker main effect were detected. The exotic allele improved trait performance at 14 QTLs (36.8%), while the elite genotype contributed the favourable effect at 24 QTLs (63.2%). The favourable exotic alleles were mainly associated with grain protein content, though the greatest improvement of trait performance due to the exotic alleles was achieved for the traits falling number and sedimentation volume. At the QTL on chromosome 4B the exotic allele increased the falling number by 19.6% and at the QTL on chromosome 6D the exotic allele led to an increase of the sedimentation volume by 21.7%. The results indicate that synthetic wheat derived from wild emmer x T. tauschii carries favourable QTL alleles for baking quality traits, which might be useful for breeding improved wheat varieties by marker-assisted selection.

  6. Identifying Rare FHB-Resistant Segregants in Intransigent Backcross and F2 Winter Wheat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anthony J.; Sarti-Dvorjak, Daniela; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Dong, Yanhong; Baik, Byung-Kee; Van Sanford, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [telomorph: Gibberella zeae Schwein.(Petch)] in the US, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum L.). Infected grain is usually contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), a serious mycotoxin. The challenge in FHB resistance breeding is combining resistance with superior agronomic and quality characteristics. Exotic QTL are widely used to improve FHB resistance. Success depends on the genetic background into which the QTL are introgressed, whether through backcrossing or forward crossing; QTL expression is impossible to predict. In this study four high-yielding soft red winter wheat breeding lines with little or no scab resistance were each crossed to a donor parent (VA01W-476) with resistance alleles at two QTL: Fhb1 (chromosome 3BS) and QFhs.nau-2DL (chromosome 2DL) to generate backcross and F2 progeny. F2 individuals were genotyped and assigned to 4 groups according to presence/ absence of resistance alleles at one or both QTL. The effectiveness of these QTL in reducing FHB rating, incidence, index, severity, Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and DON, in F2-derived lines was assessed over 2 years. Fhb1 showed an average reduction in DON of 17.5%, and conferred significant resistance in 3 of 4 populations. QFhs.nau-2DL reduced DON 6.7% on average and conferred significant resistance in 2 of 4 populations. The combination of Fhb1 and QFhs.nau-2DL resistance reduced DON 25.5% across all populations. Double resistant lines had significantly reduced DON compared to double susceptible lines in 3 populations. Backcross derived progeny were planted in replicated yield trials (2011 and 2012) and in a scab nursery in 2012. Several top yielding lines performed well in the scab nursery, with acceptable DON concentrations, even though the average effect of either QTL in this population was not significant. Population selection is often viewed as an “all or nothing

  7. fs3.1: a major fruit shape QTL conserved in Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Ben Chaim, Arnon; Borovsky, Yelena; Rao, G U; Tanyolac, Bahattin; Paran, Ilan

    2003-02-01

    fs3.1 is a major fruit shape (defined as the ratio of fruit length to fruit width) quantitative trait locus (QTL) originally detected in an intraspecific cross of Capsicum annuum between the blocky and elongated-fruited inbreds 'Maor' and 'Perennial', respectively. In addition to increasing fruit shape index, the 'Perennial' allele at fs3.1 increased fruit elongation and decreased fruit width and pericarp thickness. We verified the effect of fs3.1 in backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from crossing 'Perennial' with 'Maor' and with a second blocky-type inbred line of C. annuum. To determine the effect of the fs3.1 region in additional Capsicum species, we constructed an advanced backcross population from the cross of 'Maor' and the oval-fruited Capsicum frutescens BG 2816 and an F2 of the introgression line IL 152 that contains an introgression of the fs3.1 region from Capsicum chinense PI 152225. QTLs for fruit shape, fruit width, and pericarp thickness, but not for fruit length, were detected in both crosses, indicating the conservation of the fs3.1 region as a QTL affecting fruit shape in pepper. We also tested tomato (Lycopersicon spp.) introgression lines containing the corresponding fs3.1 region from L. pennellii and L. hirsutum, but we did not detect a significant fruit shape QTL in these lines. The effect of fs3.1 on the growth of fruit dimensions varied with the genetic background. By measuring the length and width of ovaries and fruits of near-isogenic C. annuum lines that differ in fs3.1 during fruit development, we determined that fs3.1 controls shape predominantly by increasing the growth rate of the longitudinal axis in the first 2 weeks after pollination. However, in the crosses of C. annuum with C. frutescens and C. chinense, fs3.1 predominantly exerted its effect on the width dimension.

  8. Main Effect QTL with Dominance Determines Heterosis for Dynamic Plant Height in Upland Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Yumei; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Cai, Shihu; Liu, Fang; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Plant height, which shows dynamic development and heterosis, is a major trait affecting plant architecture and has an indirect influence on economic yield related to biological yield in cotton. In the present study, we carried out dynamic analysis for plant height and its heterosis by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping at multiple developmental stages using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and their backcross progeny. At the single-locus level, 47 QTL were identified at five developmental stages in two hybrids. In backcross populations, QTL identified at an early stage mainly showed partial effects and QTL detected at a later stage mostly displayed overdominance effects. At the two-locus level, we found that main effect QTL played a more important role than epistatic QTL in the expression of heterosis in backcross populations. Therefore, this study implies that the genetic basis of plant height heterosis shows dynamic character and main effect QTL with dominance determines heterosis for plant height in Upland cotton. PMID:27565885

  9. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal (GI) nematode resistance was completed using a double backcross sheep population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F1 rams. These breeds were chosen, because Red Maasai sheep are known to be more tolerant ...

  10. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability. PMID:26400358

  11. QTL mapping reveals the genetic architecture of loci affecting pre- and post-zygotic isolating barriers in Louisiana Iris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hybridization among Louisiana Irises has been well established and the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation is known to affect the potential for and the directionality of introgression between taxa. Here we use co-dominant markers to identify regions where QTL are located both within and between backcross maps to compare the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and fitness traits across treatments and years. Results QTL mapping was used to elucidate the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation between Iris fulva and Iris brevicaulis. Homologous co-dominant EST-SSR markers scored in two backcross populations between I. fulva and I. brevicaulis were used to generate genetic linkage maps. These were used as the framework for mapping QTL associated with variation in 11 phenotypic traits likely responsible for reproductive isolation and fitness. QTL were dispersed throughout the genome, with the exception of one region of a single linkage group (LG) where QTL for flowering time, sterility, and fruit production clustered. In most cases, homologous QTL were not identified in both backcross populations, however, homologous QTL for flowering time, number of growth points per rhizome, number of nodes per inflorescence, and number of flowers per node were identified on several linkage groups. Conclusions Two different traits affecting reproductive isolation, flowering time and sterility, exhibit different genetic architectures, with numerous QTL across the Iris genome controlling flowering time and fewer, less distributed QTL affecting sterility. QTL for traits affecting fitness are largely distributed across the genome with occasional overlap, especially on LG 4, where several QTL increasing fitness and decreasing sterility cluster. Given the distribution and effect direction of QTL affecting reproductive isolation and fitness, we have predicted genomic regions where introgression may be more likely to occur (those regions associated with

  12. Partial Dominance, Overdominance, Epistasis and QTL by Environment Interactions Contribute to Heterosis in Two Upland Cotton Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Hua, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Based on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, two corresponding backcross (BC) populations were constructed to elucidate the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The yield, and yield components, of these populations were evaluated in three environments. At the single-locus level, 78 and 66 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively, and 29 QTL were identified based on mid-parental heterosis (MPH) data of two hybrids. Considering all traits together, a total of 50 (64.9%) QTL with partial dominance effect, and 27 (35.1%) QTL for overdominance effect were identified in two BC populations. At the two-locus level, 120 and 88 QTL with main effects (M-QTL), and 335 and 99 QTL involved in digenic interactions (E-QTL), were detected by inclusive composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively. A large number of QTL by environment interactions (QEs) for M-QTL and E-QTL were detected in three environments. For most traits, average E-QTL explained a larger proportion of phenotypic variation than did M-QTL in two RIL populations and two BC populations. It was concluded that partial dominance, overdominance, epistasis, and QEs all contribute to heterosis in Upland cotton, and that partial dominance resulting from single loci and epistasis play a relatively more important role than other genetic effects in heterosis in Upland cotton. PMID:26715091

  13. Partial Dominance, Overdominance, Epistasis and QTL by Environment Interactions Contribute to Heterosis in Two Upland Cotton Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Wang, Xiaocui; Li, Yuhua; Abduweli, Abdugheni; Hua, Jinping

    2016-03-01

    Based on two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, two corresponding backcross (BC) populations were constructed to elucidate the genetic basis of heterosis in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The yield, and yield components, of these populations were evaluated in three environments. At the single-locus level, 78 and 66 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected using composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively, and 29 QTL were identified based on mid-parental heterosis (MPH) data of two hybrids. Considering all traits together, a total of 50 (64.9%) QTL with partial dominance effect, and 27 (35.1%) QTL for overdominance effect were identified in two BC populations. At the two-locus level, 120 and 88 QTL with main effects (M-QTL), and 335 and 99 QTL involved in digenic interactions (E-QTL), were detected by inclusive composite interval mapping in RIL and BC populations, respectively. A large number of QTL by environment interactions (QEs) for M-QTL and E-QTL were detected in three environments. For most traits, average E-QTL explained a larger proportion of phenotypic variation than did M-QTL in two RIL populations and two BC populations. It was concluded that partial dominance, overdominance, epistasis, and QEs all contribute to heterosis in Upland cotton, and that partial dominance resulting from single loci and epistasis play a relatively more important role than other genetic effects in heterosis in Upland cotton. PMID:26715091

  14. Fine mapping of QTL for prepulse inhibition in LG/J and SM/J mice using F(2) and advanced intercross lines.

    PubMed

    Samocha, K E; Lim, J E; Cheng, R; Sokoloff, G; Palmer, A A

    2010-10-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating, a process that filters out extraneous sensory, motor and cognitive information. Humans with neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Huntington's disease, exhibit a reduction in PPI. Habituation of the startle response is also disrupted in schizophrenic patients. In order to elucidate the genes involved in sensorimotor gating, we phenotyped 472 mice from an F(2) cross between LG/J × SM/J for PPI and genotyped these mice genome-wide using 162 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We used prepulse intensity levels that were 3, 6 and 12 dB above background (PPI3, PPI6 and PPI12, respectively). We identified a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 12 for all three prepulse intensities as well as a significant QTL for both PPI6 and PPI12 on chromosome 11. We identified QTLs on chromosomes 7 and 17 for the startle response when sex was included as an interactive covariate and found a QTL for habituation of the startle response on chromosome 4. We also phenotyped 135 mice from an F(34) advanced intercross line (AIL) between LG/J × SM/J for PPI and genotyped them at more than 3000 SNP markers. Inclusions of data from the AIL mice reduced the size of several of these QTLs to less than 5 cM. These results will be useful for identifying genes that influence sensorimotor gaiting and show the power of AIL for fine mapping of QTLs.

  15. AB-QTL analysis reveals new alleles associated to proline accumulation and leaf wilting under drought stress conditions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Land plants have evolved several measures to maintain their life against abiotic stresses. The accumulation of proline is the most generalized response of plants under drought, heat or salt stress conditions. It is known as an osmoprotectant which also acts as an instant source of energy during drought recovery process. But, both its role and genetic inheritance are poorly understood in agriculture crops. In the present work, advanced backcross quantitative trait locus (AB-QTL) analysis was performed to elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley under drought stress conditions. Results The analysis revealed eight QTL associated to proline content (PC) and leaf wilting (WS). QTL for PC were localized on chromosome 3H, 4H, 5H and 6H. The strongest QTL effect QPC.S42.5H was detected on chromosome 5H where drought inducible exotic allele was associated to increase PC by 54%. QTL effects QPC.S42.3H, QPC.S42.4H and QPC.S42.6H were responsible to heighten PC due to the preeminence of elite alleles over the exotic alleles which ranged from 26% to 43%. For WS, QTL have been localized on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H and 4H. Among these, QWS.S42.1H and QWS.S42.4H were associated to decrease in WS due to the introgression of exotic alleles. In addition, two digenic epistatic interaction effects were detected for WS where the additive effect of exotic alleles imparted a favorable increase in the trait value. Conclusions The present data represents a first report on whole-genome mapping of proline accumulation and leaf wilting in barley. The detected QTL are linked to new alleles from both cultivated and wild accessions which bring out an initial insight on the genetic inheritance of PC and WS. These QTL alleles are fixed in the isogenic background of Scarlett, which will allow for positional cloning of underlying genes and to develop drought resilient barley cultivars. PMID:22817330

  16. Identification and reciprocal introgression of a QTL affecting body mass in mice

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Julian K; Rance, Kellie A; Knott, Sara A; Pignatelli, Pat M; Oliver, Fiona; Bünger, Lutz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a QTL in different genetic backgrounds. A QTL affecting body mass on chromosome 6 was identified in an F2 cross between two lines of mice that have been divergently selected for this trait. The effect of the QTL on mass increased between 6 and 10 weeks of age and was not sex-specific. Body composition analysis showed effects on fat-free dry body mass and fat mass. To examine the effect of this QTL in different genetic backgrounds, the high body mass sixth chromosome was introgressed into the low body mass genetic background and vice versa by repeated marker-assisted backcrossing. After three generations of backcrossing, new F2 populations were established within each of the introgression lines by crossing individuals that were heterozygous across the sixth chromosome. The estimated additive effect of the QTL on 10-week body mass was similar in both genetic backgrounds and in the original F2 population (i.e., ~0.4 phenotypic standard deviations); no evidence of epistatic interaction with the genetic background was found. The 95% confidence interval for the location of the QTL was refined to a region of approximately 7 cM between D6Mit268 and D6Mit123. PMID:15339634

  17. A Genetic Map Between Gossypium hirsutum and the Brazilian Endemic G. mustelinum and Its Application to QTL Mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohua; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Dong; Zhuang, Zhimin; Guo, Hui; Qiao, Xin; Wei, Lijuan; Rong, Junkang; May, O Lloyd; Paterson, Andrew H; Chee, Peng W

    2016-06-01

    Among the seven tetraploid cotton species, little is known about transmission genetics and genome organization in Gossypium mustelinum, the species most distant from the source of most cultivated cotton, G. hirsutum In this research, an F2 population was developed from an interspecific cross between G. hirsutum and G. mustelinum (HM). A genetic linkage map was constructed mainly using simple sequence repeat (SSRs) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) DNA markers. The arrangements of most genetic loci along the HM chromosomes were identical to those of other tetraploid cotton species. However, both major and minor structural rearrangements were also observed, for which we propose a parsimony-based model for structural divergence of tetraploid cottons from common ancestors. Sequences of mapped markers were used for alignment with the 26 scaffolds of the G. hirsutum draft genome, and showed high consistency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fiber elongation in advanced backcross populations derived from the same parents demonstrated the value of the HM map. The HM map will serve as a valuable resource for QTL mapping and introgression of G. mustelinum alleles into G. hirsutum, and help clarify evolutionary relationships between the tetraploid cotton genomes.

  18. A Genetic Map Between Gossypium hirsutum and the Brazilian Endemic G. mustelinum and Its Application to QTL Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baohua; Liu, Limei; Zhang, Dong; Zhuang, Zhimin; Guo, Hui; Qiao, Xin; Wei, Lijuan; Rong, Junkang; May, O. Lloyd; Paterson, Andrew H.; Chee, Peng W.

    2016-01-01

    Among the seven tetraploid cotton species, little is known about transmission genetics and genome organization in Gossypium mustelinum, the species most distant from the source of most cultivated cotton, G. hirsutum. In this research, an F2 population was developed from an interspecific cross between G. hirsutum and G. mustelinum (HM). A genetic linkage map was constructed mainly using simple sequence repeat (SSRs) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) DNA markers. The arrangements of most genetic loci along the HM chromosomes were identical to those of other tetraploid cotton species. However, both major and minor structural rearrangements were also observed, for which we propose a parsimony-based model for structural divergence of tetraploid cottons from common ancestors. Sequences of mapped markers were used for alignment with the 26 scaffolds of the G. hirsutum draft genome, and showed high consistency. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fiber elongation in advanced backcross populations derived from the same parents demonstrated the value of the HM map. The HM map will serve as a valuable resource for QTL mapping and introgression of G. mustelinum alleles into G. hirsutum, and help clarify evolutionary relationships between the tetraploid cotton genomes. PMID:27172208

  19. Fostered and left behind alleles in peanut: interspecific QTL mapping reveals footprints of domestication and useful natural variation for breeding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyploidy can result in genetic bottlenecks, especially for species of monophyletic origin. Cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid harbouring limited genetic diversity, likely resulting from the combined effects of its single origin and domestication. Peanut wild relatives represent an important source of novel alleles that could be used to broaden the genetic basis of the cultigen. Using an advanced backcross population developed with a synthetic amphidiploid as donor of wild alleles, under two water regimes, we conducted a detailed QTL study for several traits involved in peanut productivity and adaptation as well as domestication. Results A total of 95 QTLs were mapped in the two water treatments. About half of the QTL positive effects were associated with alleles of the wild parent and several QTLs involved in yield components were specific to the water-limited treatment. QTLs detected for the same trait mapped to non-homeologous genomic regions, suggesting differential control in subgenomes as a consequence of polyploidization. The noteworthy clustering of QTLs for traits involved in seed and pod size and in plant and pod morphology suggests, as in many crops, that a small number of loci have contributed to peanut domestication. Conclusion In our study, we have identified QTLs that differentiated cultivated peanut from its wild relatives as well as wild alleles that contributed positive variation to several traits involved in peanut productivity and adaptation. These findings offer novel opportunities for peanut improvement using wild relatives. PMID:22340522

  20. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods.

  1. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  2. Mapping small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci for complex traits in backcross or DH populations via a multi-locus GWAS methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Yang-Jun; Ren, Wen-Long; Ni, Yuan-Li; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most widely-used method in linkage analysis. Its main feature is the ability to control genomic background effects via inclusion of co-factors in its genetic model. However, the result often depends on how the co-factors are selected, especially for small-effect and linked quantitative trait loci (QTL). To address this issue, here we proposed a new method under the framework of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). First, a single-locus random-SNP-effect mixed linear model method for GWAS was used to scan each putative QTL on the genome in backcross or doubled haploid populations. Here, controlling background via selecting markers in the CIM was replaced by estimating polygenic variance. Then, all the peaks in the negative logarithm P-value curve were selected as the positions of multiple putative QTL to be included in a multi-locus genetic model, and true QTL were automatically identified by empirical Bayes. This called genome-wide CIM (GCIM). A series of simulated and real datasets was used to validate the new method. As a result, the new method had higher power in QTL detection, greater accuracy in QTL effect estimation, and stronger robustness under various backgrounds as compared with the CIM and empirical Bayes methods. PMID:27435756

  3. Investigation of the genetic architecture of a bone carcass weight QTL on BTA6.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Williams, J L; Haley, C S

    2012-12-01

    A previous analysis of an F(2) /Backcross Charolais × Holstein cross population identified the presence of a highly significant QTL on chromosome 6 (BTA6) affecting the proportion of bone in the carcass. Two closely linked QTL affected birth weight (BW) and body length at birth (BBL). In this report, the marker density around the QTL on BTA6 was increased, adding four additional microsatellite markers across the chromosome and 46 SNPs within the target QTL confidence interval. Of the SNPs, 26 were in positional candidate genes and the remaining 20 provided an even distribution of markers in the target QTL region. As a bone-related trait, the sum of the bone weight for all the left fore- and hindquarter joints of the carcass was analysed. We also studied the BW and BBL. Analyses of the data substantially reduced the QTL confidence interval. No strong evidence was found that the QTL for the three traits studied are different, and we conclude that the results are consistent with a single pleiotropic QTL influencing the three traits, with the largest effects on the proportion of bone in the carcass. The analyses also suggest that none of the SNPs tested is the sole causative variant of the QTL effects. Specifically, the SNP in the NCAPG gene previously reported as a causal mutation for foetal growth and carcass traits in other cattle populations was excluded as the causal mutation for the QTL reported here. Polymorphisms located in other previously identified candidate genes including SPP1, ABCG2, IBSP, MEPE and PPARGC1A were also excluded. The results suggest that SNP51_BTA-119876 is the polymorphism in strongest linkage disequilibrium with the causal mutation(s). Further research is required to identify the causal variant(s) associated with this bone-related QTL.

  4. Metabolic and histochemical characteristics of fat and muscle tissues in homozygous or heterozygous pigs for the body composition QTL located on chromosome 7.

    PubMed

    Demars, Julie; Riquet, Juliette; Sanchez, Marie-Pierre; Billon, Yvon; Hocquette, Jean-François; Lebret, Bénédicte; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Milan, Denis; Gondret, Florence

    2007-08-20

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing many traits including backfat thickness and carcass composition have been detected on porcine chromosome 7 (SSC7) in an F2 cross between Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS) pigs. However, the genes and controlled pathways underlying the QTL effects on body phenotype remain unknown. This study aimed at investigating the tissue characteristics at metabolic and cellular levels in pigs that were either homozygous or heterozygous for a body composition SSC7 QTL. A backcross pig (BC3) was first progeny tested to confirm its heterozygoty for the SSC7 QTL; results on all offspring (n = 80) confirmed the QTL effects on body fatness. This boar was then mated with three sows known to be heterozygous for this QTL. In the subset of pigs per genotype, we found that heterozygous LW(QTL7)/MS(QTL7) pigs had smaller adipocytes in backfat, together with a lower basal rate of glucose incorporation into lipids and lower activities of selected lipogenic enzymes in backfat isolated cells, compared with homozygous LW(QTL7)/LW(QTL7) pigs. A higher number of adipocytes was also estimated in backfat of LW(QTL7)/MS(QTL7) animals compared with LW(QTL7)/LW(QTL7) pigs. The SSC7 QTL did not influence oxidative and glycolytic metabolisms of longissimus and trapezius muscles, as estimated by the activities of specific energy metabolism enzymes, or the myofiber type properties. Altogether, this study provides new evidence for an altered adipocyte cellularity in backfat of pigs carrying at least one MS allele for the SSC7 QTL. Some candidate genes known for their functions on adipocyte growth and differentiation are suggested.

  5. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Colin R; Jonas, Elisabeth; Hobbs, Matthew; Thomson, Peter C; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2010-09-16

    An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1) and 3.5 (cohort 2) years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3), 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2), and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD < 2) were detected on eleven chromosomes. Regression analysis confirmed 28 of these QTL and an additional 17 suggestive (P < 0.1) and two significant (P < 0.05) QTL were identified using this method. QTL with pleiotropic effects for two or more tissues were identified on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 23. No tissue-specific QTL were identified.A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21.

  6. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1) and 3.5 (cohort 2) years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ≥ 3), 15 significant (LOD ≥ 2), and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ≤ LOD < 2) were detected on eleven chromosomes. Regression analysis confirmed 28 of these QTL and an additional 17 suggestive (P < 0.1) and two significant (P < 0.05) QTL were identified using this method. QTL with pleiotropic effects for two or more tissues were identified on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 23. No tissue-specific QTL were identified. A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21. PMID:20846385

  7. Identification of Novel QTL Governing Root Architectural Traits in an Interspecific Soybean Population

    PubMed Central

    Musket, Theresa A.; Chaky, Julian; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Vuong, Tri D.; Song, Li; Cregan, Perry B.; Nelson, James C.; Shannon, J. Grover; Specht, James E.; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) cv. Dunbar (PI 552538) and wild G. soja (PI 326582A) exhibited significant differences in root architecture and root-related traits. In this study, phenotypic variability for root traits among 251 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs) developed from the cross Dunbar/PI 326582A were identified. The root systems of the parents and BILs were evaluated in controlled environmental conditions using a cone system at seedling stage. The G. max parent Dunbar contributed phenotypically favorable alleles at a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 8 (Satt315-I locus) that governed root traits (tap root length and lateral root number) and shoot length. This QTL accounted for >10% of the phenotypic variation of both tap root and shoot length. This QTL region was found to control various shoot- and root-related traits across soybean genetic backgrounds. Within the confidence interval of this region, eleven transcription factors (TFs) were identified. Based on RNA sequencing and Affymetrix expression data, key TFs including MYB, AP2-EREBP and bZIP TFs were identified in this QTL interval with high expression in roots and nodules. The backcross inbred lines with different parental allelic combination showed different expression pattern for six transcription factors selected based on their expression pattern in root tissues. It appears that the marker interval Satt315–I locus on chromosome 8 contain an essential QTL contributing to early root and shoot growth in soybean. PMID:25756528

  8. Construction of genetic linkage map and mapping of QTL for seed color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Berisso; Cheema, Kuljit; Greenshields, David L; Li, Changxi; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Rahman, Habibur

    2012-12-01

    A genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa L. was constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between yellow-seeded cultivar Sampad and a yellowish brown seeded inbred line 3-0026.027. The RILs were evaluated for seed color under three conditions: field plot, greenhouse, and controlled growth chambers. Variation for seed color in the RILs ranged from yellow, like yellow sarson, to dark brown/black even though neither parent had shown brown/black colored seeds. One major QTL (SCA9-2) and one minor QTL (SCA9-1) on linkage group (LG) A9 and two minor QTL (SCA3-1, SCA5-1) on LG A3 and LG A5, respectively, were detected. These collectively explained about 67% of the total phenotypic variance. SCA9-2 mapped in the middle of LG A9, explained about 55% phenotypic variance, and consistently expressed in all environments. The second QTL on LG A9 was ~70 cM away from SCA9-2, suggesting that independent assortment of these QTLs is possible. A digenic epistatic interaction was found between the two main effect QTL on LG A9; and the epistasis × environment interaction was nonsignificant, suggesting stability of the interaction across the environments. The QTL effect on LG A9 was validated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the two QTL regions of this LG on a B(1)S(1) population (F(1) backcrossed to Sampad followed by self-pollination) segregating for brown and yellow seed color, and on their self-pollinated progenies (B(1)S(2)). The SSR markers from the QTL region SCA9-2 showed a stronger linkage association with seed color as compared with the marker from SCA9-1. This suggests that the QTL SCA9-2 is the major determinant of seed color in the A genome of B. rapa.

  9. Construction of genetic linkage map and mapping of QTL for seed color in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Berisso; Cheema, Kuljit; Greenshields, David L; Li, Changxi; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Rahman, Habibur

    2012-12-01

    A genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa L. was constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between yellow-seeded cultivar Sampad and a yellowish brown seeded inbred line 3-0026.027. The RILs were evaluated for seed color under three conditions: field plot, greenhouse, and controlled growth chambers. Variation for seed color in the RILs ranged from yellow, like yellow sarson, to dark brown/black even though neither parent had shown brown/black colored seeds. One major QTL (SCA9-2) and one minor QTL (SCA9-1) on linkage group (LG) A9 and two minor QTL (SCA3-1, SCA5-1) on LG A3 and LG A5, respectively, were detected. These collectively explained about 67% of the total phenotypic variance. SCA9-2 mapped in the middle of LG A9, explained about 55% phenotypic variance, and consistently expressed in all environments. The second QTL on LG A9 was ~70 cM away from SCA9-2, suggesting that independent assortment of these QTLs is possible. A digenic epistatic interaction was found between the two main effect QTL on LG A9; and the epistasis × environment interaction was nonsignificant, suggesting stability of the interaction across the environments. The QTL effect on LG A9 was validated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the two QTL regions of this LG on a B(1)S(1) population (F(1) backcrossed to Sampad followed by self-pollination) segregating for brown and yellow seed color, and on their self-pollinated progenies (B(1)S(2)). The SSR markers from the QTL region SCA9-2 showed a stronger linkage association with seed color as compared with the marker from SCA9-1. This suggests that the QTL SCA9-2 is the major determinant of seed color in the A genome of B. rapa. PMID:23231600

  10. Mapping QTL for Resistance Against Viral Nervous Necrosis Disease in Asian Seabass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wan, Zi Yi; Ye, Bao Qing; Huang, Shuqing; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-02-01

    Viral nervous necrosis disease (VNN), caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), leads to mass mortality in mariculture. However, phenotypic selection for resistance against VNN is very difficult. To facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance against VNN and understanding of the genetic architecture underlying the resistance against this disease, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against VNN in Asian seabass. We challenged fingerlings at 37 days post-hatching (dph), from a single back-cross family, with NNV at a concentration of 9 × 10(6) TCID50/ml for 2 h. Daily mortalities were recorded and collected. A panel of 330 mortalities and 190 surviving fingerlings was genotyped using 149 microsatellites with 145 successfully mapped markers covering 24 linkage groups (LGs). Analysis of QTL for both resistance against VNN and survival time was conducted using interval mapping. Five significant QTL located in four LGs and eight suggestive QTL in seven LGs were identified for resistance. Another five significant QTL in three LGs and five suggestive QTL in three LGs were detected for survival time. One significant QTL, spanning 3 cM in LG20, was identified for both resistance and survival time. These QTL explained 2.2-4.1% of the phenotypic variance for resistance and 2.2-3.3% of the phenotypic variance for survival time, respectively. Our results suggest that VNN resistance in Asian seabass is controlled by many loci with small effects. Our data provide information for fine mapping of QTL and identification of candidate genes for a better understanding of the mechanism of disease resistance.

  11. Genome-wide linkage analysis of QTL for growth and body composition employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The traditional strategy to map QTL is to use linkage analysis employing a limited number of markers. These analyses report wide QTL confidence intervals, making very difficult to identify the gene and polymorphisms underlying the QTL effects. The arrival of genome-wide panels of SNPs makes available thousands of markers increasing the information content and therefore the likelihood of detecting and fine mapping QTL regions. The aims of the current study are to confirm previous QTL regions for growth and body composition traits in different generations of an Iberian x Landrace intercross (IBMAP) and especially identify new ones with narrow confidence intervals by employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip in linkage analyses. Results Three generations (F3, Backcross 1 and Backcross 2) of the IBMAP and their related animals were genotyped with PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A total of 8,417 SNPs equidistantly distributed across autosomes were selected after filtering by quality, position and frequency to perform the QTL scan. The joint and separate analyses of the different IBMAP generations allowed confirming QTL regions previously identified in chromosomes 4 and 6 as well as new ones mainly for backfat thickness in chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 14 and 17 and shoulder weight in chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 13; and many other to the chromosome-wide signification level. In addition, most of the detected QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals, making easier the selection of positional candidate genes. Conclusions The use of higher density of markers has allowed to confirm results obtained in previous QTL scans carried out with microsatellites. Moreover several new QTL regions have been now identified in regions probably not covered by markers in previous scans, most of these QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals. Finally, prominent putative biological and positional candidate genes underlying those QTL effects are listed based on recent porcine genome annotation. PMID

  12. Genetic control of rhizomes and genomic localization of a major-effect growth habit QTL in perennial wildrye.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lan; Larson, Steve R; Mott, Ivan W; Jensen, Kevin B; Staub, Jack E

    2014-06-01

    Rhizomes are prostrate subterranean stems that provide primitive mechanisms of vegetative dispersal, survival, and regrowth of perennial grasses and other monocots. The extent of rhizome proliferation varies greatly among grasses, being absent in cereals and other annuals, strictly confined in caespitose perennials, or highly invasive in some perennial weeds. However, genetic studies of rhizome proliferation are limited and genes controlling rhizomatous growth habit have not been elucidated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rhizome spreading were compared in reciprocal backcross populations derived from hybrids of rhizomatous creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) and caespitose basin wildrye (L. cinereus), which are perennial relatives of wheat. Two recessive QTLs were unique to the creeping wildrye backcross, one dominant QTL was unique to the basin wildrye backcross, and one additive QTL was detectable in reciprocal backcrosses with high log odds (LOD = 31.6) in the basin wildrye background. The dominant QTL located on linkage group (LG)-2a was aligned to a dominant rhizome orthogene (Rhz3) of perennial rice (Oryza longistamina) and perennial sorghum (Sorghum propinquum). Nonparametric 99 % confidence bounds of the 31.6-LOD QTL were localized to a distal 3.8-centiMorgan region of LG-6a, which corresponds to a 0.7-Mb region of Brachypodium Chromosome 3 containing 106 genes. An Aux/IAA auxin signal factor gene was located at the 31.6-LOD peak, which could explain the gravitropic and aphototropic behavior of rhizomes. Findings elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling rhizome development and architectural growth habit differences among plant species. Results have possible applications to improve perennial forage and turf grasses, extend the vegetative life cycle of annual cereals, such as wheat, or control the invasiveness of highly rhizomatous weeds such as quackgrass (Elymus repens). PMID:24509730

  13. Genetic control of rhizomes and genomic localization of a major-effect growth habit QTL in perennial wildrye.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lan; Larson, Steve R; Mott, Ivan W; Jensen, Kevin B; Staub, Jack E

    2014-06-01

    Rhizomes are prostrate subterranean stems that provide primitive mechanisms of vegetative dispersal, survival, and regrowth of perennial grasses and other monocots. The extent of rhizome proliferation varies greatly among grasses, being absent in cereals and other annuals, strictly confined in caespitose perennials, or highly invasive in some perennial weeds. However, genetic studies of rhizome proliferation are limited and genes controlling rhizomatous growth habit have not been elucidated. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling rhizome spreading were compared in reciprocal backcross populations derived from hybrids of rhizomatous creeping wildrye (Leymus triticoides) and caespitose basin wildrye (L. cinereus), which are perennial relatives of wheat. Two recessive QTLs were unique to the creeping wildrye backcross, one dominant QTL was unique to the basin wildrye backcross, and one additive QTL was detectable in reciprocal backcrosses with high log odds (LOD = 31.6) in the basin wildrye background. The dominant QTL located on linkage group (LG)-2a was aligned to a dominant rhizome orthogene (Rhz3) of perennial rice (Oryza longistamina) and perennial sorghum (Sorghum propinquum). Nonparametric 99 % confidence bounds of the 31.6-LOD QTL were localized to a distal 3.8-centiMorgan region of LG-6a, which corresponds to a 0.7-Mb region of Brachypodium Chromosome 3 containing 106 genes. An Aux/IAA auxin signal factor gene was located at the 31.6-LOD peak, which could explain the gravitropic and aphototropic behavior of rhizomes. Findings elucidate genetic mechanisms controlling rhizome development and architectural growth habit differences among plant species. Results have possible applications to improve perennial forage and turf grasses, extend the vegetative life cycle of annual cereals, such as wheat, or control the invasiveness of highly rhizomatous weeds such as quackgrass (Elymus repens).

  14. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Fanjun; Cai, Hongguang; Liu, Jianchao; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Zhigang; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-06-01

    That root system architecture (RSA) has an essential role in nitrogen acquisition is expected in maize, but the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits remains to be elucidated. Here, the genetic basis of RSA and NUE traits was investigated in maize using a recombination inbred line population that was derived from two lines contrasted for both traits. Under high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen conditions, 10 NUE- and 9 RSA-related traits were evaluated in four field environments and three hydroponic experiments, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NutE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NupE) had significant phenotypic correlations with RSA, particularly the traits of seminal roots (r = 0.15-0.31) and crown roots (r = 0.15-0.18). A total of 331 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, including 184 and 147 QTLs for NUE- and RSA-related traits, respectively. These QTLs were assigned into 64 distinct QTL clusters, and ~70% of QTLs for nitrogen-efficiency (NUE, NupE, and NutE) coincided in clusters with those for RSA. Five important QTLs clusters at the chromosomal regions bin1.04, 2.04, 3.04, 3.05/3.06, and 6.07/6.08 were found in which QTLs for both traits had favourable effects from alleles coming from the large-rooted and high-NupE parent. Introgression of these QTL clusters in the advanced backcross-derived lines conferred mean increases in grain yield of ~14.8% for the line per se and ~15.9% in the testcross. These results reveal a significant genetic relationship between RSA and NUE traits, and uncover the most promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection of RSA to improve NUE in maize.

  15. A genetic relationship between nitrogen use efficiency and seedling root traits in maize as revealed by QTL analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengcheng; Chen, Fanjun; Cai, Hongguang; Liu, Jianchao; Pan, Qingchun; Liu, Zhigang; Gu, Riliang; Mi, Guohua; Zhang, Fusuo; Yuan, Lixing

    2015-01-01

    That root system architecture (RSA) has an essential role in nitrogen acquisition is expected in maize, but the genetic relationship between RSA and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) traits remains to be elucidated. Here, the genetic basis of RSA and NUE traits was investigated in maize using a recombination inbred line population that was derived from two lines contrasted for both traits. Under high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen conditions, 10 NUE- and 9 RSA-related traits were evaluated in four field environments and three hydroponic experiments, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen utilization efficiency (NutE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (NupE) had significant phenotypic correlations with RSA, particularly the traits of seminal roots (r = 0.15–0.31) and crown roots (r = 0.15–0.18). A total of 331 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, including 184 and 147 QTLs for NUE- and RSA-related traits, respectively. These QTLs were assigned into 64 distinct QTL clusters, and ~70% of QTLs for nitrogen-efficiency (NUE, NupE, and NutE) coincided in clusters with those for RSA. Five important QTLs clusters at the chromosomal regions bin1.04, 2.04, 3.04, 3.05/3.06, and 6.07/6.08 were found in which QTLs for both traits had favourable effects from alleles coming from the large-rooted and high-NupE parent. Introgression of these QTL clusters in the advanced backcross-derived lines conferred mean increases in grain yield of ~14.8% for the line per se and ~15.9% in the testcross. These results reveal a significant genetic relationship between RSA and NUE traits, and uncover the most promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection of RSA to improve NUE in maize. PMID:25873660

  16. QTL Mapping of Sex Determination Loci Supports an Ancient Pathway in Ants and Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Misato O; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2015-11-01

    Sex determination mechanisms play a central role in life-history characteristics, affecting mating systems, sex ratios, inbreeding tolerance, etc. Downstream components of sex determination pathways are highly conserved, but upstream components evolve rapidly. Evolutionary dynamics of sex determination remain poorly understood, particularly because mechanisms appear so diverse. Here we investigate the origins and evolution of complementary sex determination (CSD) in ants and bees. The honey bee has a well-characterized CSD locus, containing tandemly arranged homologs of the transformer gene [complementary sex determiner (csd) and feminizer (fem)]. Such tandem paralogs appear frequently in aculeate hymenopteran genomes. However, only comparative genomic, but not functional, data support a broader role for csd/fem in sex determination, and whether species other than the honey bee use this pathway remains controversial. Here we used a backcross to test whether csd/fem acts as a CSD locus in an ant (Vollenhovia emeryi). After sequencing and assembling the genome, we computed a linkage map, and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of diploid male production using 68 diploid males and 171 workers. We found two QTLs on separate linkage groups (CsdQTL1 and CsdQTL2) that jointly explained 98.0% of the phenotypic variance. CsdQTL1 included two tandem transformer homologs. These data support the prediction that the same CSD mechanism has indeed been conserved for over 100 million years. CsdQTL2 had no similarity to CsdQTL1 and included a 236-kb region with no obvious CSD gene candidates, making it impossible to conclusively characterize it using our data. The sequence of this locus was conserved in at least one other ant genome that diverged >75 million years ago. By applying QTL analysis to ants for the first time, we support the hypothesis that elements of hymenopteran CSD are ancient, but also show that more remains to be learned about the diversity of CSD

  17. QTL Mapping of Sex Determination Loci Supports an Ancient Pathway in Ants and Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Misato O.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex determination mechanisms play a central role in life-history characteristics, affecting mating systems, sex ratios, inbreeding tolerance, etc. Downstream components of sex determination pathways are highly conserved, but upstream components evolve rapidly. Evolutionary dynamics of sex determination remain poorly understood, particularly because mechanisms appear so diverse. Here we investigate the origins and evolution of complementary sex determination (CSD) in ants and bees. The honey bee has a well-characterized CSD locus, containing tandemly arranged homologs of the transformer gene [complementary sex determiner (csd) and feminizer (fem)]. Such tandem paralogs appear frequently in aculeate hymenopteran genomes. However, only comparative genomic, but not functional, data support a broader role for csd/fem in sex determination, and whether species other than the honey bee use this pathway remains controversial. Here we used a backcross to test whether csd/fem acts as a CSD locus in an ant (Vollenhovia emeryi). After sequencing and assembling the genome, we computed a linkage map, and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of diploid male production using 68 diploid males and 171 workers. We found two QTLs on separate linkage groups (CsdQTL1 and CsdQTL2) that jointly explained 98.0% of the phenotypic variance. CsdQTL1 included two tandem transformer homologs. These data support the prediction that the same CSD mechanism has indeed been conserved for over 100 million years. CsdQTL2 had no similarity to CsdQTL1 and included a 236-kb region with no obvious CSD gene candidates, making it impossible to conclusively characterize it using our data. The sequence of this locus was conserved in at least one other ant genome that diverged >75 million years ago. By applying QTL analysis to ants for the first time, we support the hypothesis that elements of hymenopteran CSD are ancient, but also show that more remains to be learned about the diversity of CSD

  18. Application of non-parametric bootstrap methods to estimate confidence intervals for QTL location in a beef cattle QTL experimental population.

    PubMed

    Jongjoo, Kim; Davis, Scott K; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2002-06-01

    Empirical confidence intervals (CIs) for the estimated quantitative trait locus (QTL) location from selective and non-selective non-parametric bootstrap resampling methods were compared for a genome scan involving an Angus x Brahman reciprocal fullsib backcross population. Genetic maps, based on 357 microsatellite markers, were constructed for 29 chromosomes using CRI-MAP V2.4. Twelve growth, carcass composition and beef quality traits (n = 527-602) were analysed to detect QTLs utilizing (composite) interval mapping approaches. CIs were investigated for 28 likelihood ratio test statistic (LRT) profiles for the one QTL per chromosome model. The CIs from the non-selective bootstrap method were largest (87 7 cM average or 79-2% coverage of test chromosomes). The Selective II procedure produced the smallest CI size (42.3 cM average). However, CI sizes from the Selective II procedure were more variable than those produced by the two LOD drop method. CI ranges from the Selective II procedure were also asymmetrical (relative to the most likely QTL position) due to the bias caused by the tendency for the estimated QTL position to be at a marker position in the bootstrap samples and due to monotonicity and asymmetry of the LRT curve in the original sample. PMID:12220133

  19. Application of non-parametric bootstrap methods to estimate confidence intervals for QTL location in a beef cattle QTL experimental population.

    PubMed

    Jongjoo, Kim; Davis, Scott K; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2002-06-01

    Empirical confidence intervals (CIs) for the estimated quantitative trait locus (QTL) location from selective and non-selective non-parametric bootstrap resampling methods were compared for a genome scan involving an Angus x Brahman reciprocal fullsib backcross population. Genetic maps, based on 357 microsatellite markers, were constructed for 29 chromosomes using CRI-MAP V2.4. Twelve growth, carcass composition and beef quality traits (n = 527-602) were analysed to detect QTLs utilizing (composite) interval mapping approaches. CIs were investigated for 28 likelihood ratio test statistic (LRT) profiles for the one QTL per chromosome model. The CIs from the non-selective bootstrap method were largest (87 7 cM average or 79-2% coverage of test chromosomes). The Selective II procedure produced the smallest CI size (42.3 cM average). However, CI sizes from the Selective II procedure were more variable than those produced by the two LOD drop method. CI ranges from the Selective II procedure were also asymmetrical (relative to the most likely QTL position) due to the bias caused by the tendency for the estimated QTL position to be at a marker position in the bootstrap samples and due to monotonicity and asymmetry of the LRT curve in the original sample.

  20. Identification of QTL with effects on fatty acid composition of meat in a Charolais x Holstein cross population.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Richardson, R I; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

    2010-08-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing beef fatty acid composition using a CharolaisxHolstein population established using a balanced F2 and Backcross breeding design. The phenotypes considered in this study included a total of 24 fatty acid related traits determined in loin muscle samples of the 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of the herd. The QTL regression analysis performed, based on 165 microsatellite markers distributed across the 29 bovine autosomes, identified 34 QTL with F-ratios exceeding the 5% chromosome-wide significance threshold. Three of these QTL, one located on chromosome 1 (for the content on linoleic acid, C18:2n-6) and two on chromosome 10 (for the content of gamma-linoleic DPA-docosapentaenoic and DPA-docosapentaenoic, C20:3n-6 and C22:5n-3), also exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance level. A follow-up analysis correcting for intramuscular fat content showed that some of the QTL detected initially (e.g. those localised on chromosome 22) were influenced by fat deposition differences between the founder breeds. The coincident location of some of the linkage associations identified and QTL previously reported for beef fatty acid composition and other meat quality traits, in the same or other cattle populations, provides supporting evidence for the results reported here. PMID:20416790

  1. Identification of QTL with effects on fatty acid composition of meat in a Charolais x Holstein cross population.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Richardson, R I; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

    2010-08-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing beef fatty acid composition using a CharolaisxHolstein population established using a balanced F2 and Backcross breeding design. The phenotypes considered in this study included a total of 24 fatty acid related traits determined in loin muscle samples of the 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of the herd. The QTL regression analysis performed, based on 165 microsatellite markers distributed across the 29 bovine autosomes, identified 34 QTL with F-ratios exceeding the 5% chromosome-wide significance threshold. Three of these QTL, one located on chromosome 1 (for the content on linoleic acid, C18:2n-6) and two on chromosome 10 (for the content of gamma-linoleic DPA-docosapentaenoic and DPA-docosapentaenoic, C20:3n-6 and C22:5n-3), also exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance level. A follow-up analysis correcting for intramuscular fat content showed that some of the QTL detected initially (e.g. those localised on chromosome 22) were influenced by fat deposition differences between the founder breeds. The coincident location of some of the linkage associations identified and QTL previously reported for beef fatty acid composition and other meat quality traits, in the same or other cattle populations, provides supporting evidence for the results reported here.

  2. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhe; Li, Kangning; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: “Chiifu” (ssp. pekinensis), the Brassica “A” genome-represented line used as the donor, and “49caixin” (ssp. parachinensis), a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, six for plant diameter, two for leaf width, and five for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding. PMID:26106405

  3. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhe; Li, Kangning; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: "Chiifu" (ssp. pekinensis), the Brassica "A" genome-represented line used as the donor, and "49caixin" (ssp. parachinensis), a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, six for plant diameter, two for leaf width, and five for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding.

  4. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep.

    PubMed

    Silva, M V B; Sonstegard, T S; Hanotte, O; Mugambi, J M; Garcia, J F; Nagda, S; Gibson, J P; Iraqi, F A; McClintock, A E; Kemp, S J; Boettcher, P J; Malek, M; Van Tassell, C P; Baker, R L

    2012-02-01

    A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting gastrointestinal nematode resistance in sheep was completed using a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper ewes bred to F(1) rams. This design provided an opportunity to map potentially unique genetic variation associated with a parasite-tolerant breed like Red Maasai, a breed developed to survive East African grazing conditions. Parasite indicator phenotypes (blood packed cell volume - PCV and faecal egg count - FEC) were collected on a weekly basis from 1064 lambs during a single 3-month post-weaning grazing challenge on infected pastures. The averages of last measurements for FEC (AVFEC) and PCV (AVPCV), along with decline in PCV from challenge start to end (PCVD), were used to select lambs (N = 371) for genotyping that represented the tails (10% threshold) of the phenotypic distributions. Marker genotypes for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of 26 autosomes (1560.7 cm) were scored and corrected by Genoprob prior to qxpak analysis that included Box-Cox transformed AVFEC and arcsine transformed PCV statistics. Significant QTL for AVFEC and AVPCV were detected on four chromosomes, and this included a novel AVFEC QTL on chromosome 6 that would have remained undetected without Box-Cox transformation methods. The most significant P-values for AVFEC, AVPCV and PCVD overlapped the same marker interval on chromosome 22, suggesting the potential for a single causative mutation, which remains unknown. In all cases, the favourable QTL allele was always contributed from Red Maasai, providing support for the idea that future marker-assisted selection for genetic improvement of production in East Africa will rely on markers in linkage disequilibrium with these QTL.

  5. Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: towards an evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication.

    PubMed

    Groot, Astrid T; Ward, Catherine; Wang, Jing; Pokrzywa, Amanda; O'Brien, Jennifer; Bennett, Joy; Kelly, Jennifer; Santangelo, Richard G; Schal, Coby; Gould, Fred

    2004-12-01

    As a first step toward understanding how noctuid moths evolve species-specific pheromone communication systems, we hybridized and back-crossed two closely related moth species, Heliothis virescens (Hv) and H. subflexa (Hs), which differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their multicomponent sex pheromone blends. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker-based mapping of backcross families to determine which of the 30 autosomes in these moths contained quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the percentages of specific chemical components in the pheromone blends. In two previous backcrosses to Hs, we found a strong depressive effect of Hv-chromosome 22 on the percentage of three acetate components in the pheromone gland. These acetates are present in Hs and absent in Hv. Here, we describe how we introgressed Hv-chromosome 22 into the genomic background of Hs. Selection for Hv-chromosome 22 started from backcross 3 (BC3) females. All females that had Hv-chromosome 22 and a low percentage of acetates (<3% of the total amount of pheromone components present) were backcrossed to Hs males. In BC5 to BC8, we determined whether Hv-chromosome 22 was present by a) running only the primer pairs that would yield the markers for that chromosome, and/or b) determining the relative percentages of acetates in the pheromone glands. Either or both genotype and phenotype were used as a criterion to continue to backcross these females to Hs males. In BC9, we confirmed the isolation of Hv-chromosome 22 in the Hs genomic background, and backcrossed the males to Hs females to eliminate the Hv-sex chromosome as well as mitochondrial DNA. The pheromone composition was determined in BC3, BC5, and BC11 females with and without Hv-chromosome 22. All backcross females with Hv-chromosome 22 contained significantly less acetates than females without this chromosome. In addition, BC3 females with Hv-chromosome 22 contained significantly more Z11-16:OH than BC3 females

  6. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci using advanced intercross lines of mice and positional cloning of the corresponding genes.

    PubMed

    Iraqi, F

    2000-12-01

    High-resolution mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is an essential step towards positional cloning and identification of the corresponding genes. Most QTL detection and mapping studies in mice have been carried out using F2 intercross and backcross populations. As a consequence of the limited number of recombination events in small chromosomal regions, this has generally permitted mapping to only relatively large confidence intervals of 20 to 40 cM. A number of population designs have been proposed to increase recombination level in crosses. This includes advanced intercross lines (AIL) described by Darvasi and Soller [Genomics. 1995; 141: 1199-1207]. In this report demonstration of the utility of the AIL approach for fine mapping of QTL, which previously had been mapped with 95% confidence interval to 20 to 40 cM in a F2 intercross, will be presented. The methodological approaches to go from the fine-mapped QTL to the identification of the actual genes and mutations are discussed.

  7. A genome scan for QTL affecting resistance to Haemonchus contortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sallé, G; Jacquiet, P; Gruner, L; Cortet, J; Sauvé, C; Prévot, F; Grisez, C; Bergeaud, J P; Schibler, L; Tircazes, A; François, D; Pery, C; Bouvier, F; Thouly, J C; Brunel, J C; Legarra, A; Elsen, J M; Bouix, J; Rupp, R; Moreno, C R

    2012-12-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the main health issues in sheep breeding. To identify loci affecting the resistance to Haemonchus contortus, a genome scan was carried out using 1,275 Romane × Martinik Black Belly backcross lambs. The entire population was challenged with Haemonchus contortus in 2 consecutive experimental infections, and fecal egg counts (FEC) and packed cell volumes were measured. A subgroup of 332 lambs with extreme FEC was necropsied to determine the total worm burden, length of female worms, sex ratio in the worm population, abomasal pH, and serum and mucosal G immunoglobulins (IgG) responses. Pepsinogen concentration was measured in another subset of 229 lambs. For QTL detection, 160 microsatellite markers were used as well as the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip that provided 42,469 SNP markers after quality control. Linkage, association, and joint linkage and association analyses were performed with the QTLMAP software. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated within each pure breed, and association analyses were carried out either considering or not the breed origin of the haplotypes. Four QTL regions on sheep chromosomes (OAR)5, 12, 13, and 21 were identified as key players among many other QTL with small to moderate effects. A QTL on OAR21 affecting pepsinogen concentration exactly matched the pepsinogen (PGA5) locus. A 10-Mbp region affecting FEC after the 1st and 2nd infections was found on OAR12. The SNP markers outperformed microsatellites in the linkage analysis. Taking advantage of the LD helped to refine the locations of the QTL mapped on OAR5 and 13.

  8. Chilling tolerant U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.): three advanced backcross and ten inbred backcross lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can reduce seed germination rate, seeding emergence rate, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Chilling temperatures occur in unpredictable patterns, making it d...

  9. Current advance methods for the identification of blast resistance genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Tanweer, Fatah A; Rafii, Mohd Y; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Harun A; Ahmed, Fahim; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-05-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating diseases of rice around the world and crop losses due to blast are considerably high. Many blast resistant rice varieties have been developed by classical plant breeding and adopted by farmers in various rice-growing countries. However, the variability in the pathogenicity of the blast fungus according to environment made blast disease a major concern for farmers, which remains a threat to the rice industry. With the utilization of molecular techniques, plant breeders have improved rice production systems and minimized yield losses. In this article, we have summarized the current advanced molecular techniques used for controlling blast disease. With the advent of new technologies like marker-assisted selection, molecular mapping, map-based cloning, marker-assisted backcrossing and allele mining, breeders have identified more than 100 Pi loci and 350 QTL in rice genome responsible for blast disease. These Pi genes and QTLs can be introgressed into a blast-susceptible cultivar through marker-assisted backcross breeding. These molecular techniques provide timesaving, environment friendly and labour-cost-saving ways to control blast disease. The knowledge of host-plant interactions in the frame of blast disease will lead to develop resistant varieties in the future.

  10. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples. PMID:27651916

  11. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations.

    PubMed

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter Ma; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world's most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples. PMID:27651916

  12. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted and labor intensive, and therefore marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a valuable tool for breeders. To advance MAS for storage disorders in apple, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to generate high-density genetic maps in two F1 apple populations, which were then used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of soft scald. In total, 900 million DNA sequence reads were generated, but after several data filtering steps, only 2% of reads were ultimately used to create two genetic maps that included 1918 and 2818 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Two QTL associated with soft scald were identified in one of the bi-parental populations originating from parent 11W-12-11, an advanced breeding line. This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies for QTL mapping in F1 populations, and provides a basis for the advancement of MAS to improve storability of apples.

  13. Reproductive isolation on interspecific backcross of F1 pollen to parental species, Hemerocallis fulva and H. citrina (Hemerocallidaceae).

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive failure of backcross could play important roles in determining the evolutionary outcome of hybridization. However, such studies have been somewhat fewer than those of the F1-producing cross and F1 x F1 cross. We conducted hand-pollination backcross experiments using Hemerocallis fulva, H. citrina, and their F1 hybrids. Seed set per flower of the backcrosses reduced to about 50% of the control cross, irrespective of ovule parent species. This symmetrical seed set reduction on the backcross might be caused by the death of backcross embryo as a result of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility by recessive alleles. PMID:18301862

  14. Functional investigation of a QTL affecting resistance to Haemonchus contortus in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a functional characterization of a limited segment (QTL) of sheep chromosome 12 associated with resistance to the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus. The first objective was to validate the identified QTL through the comparison of genetically susceptible (N) and resistant (R) sheep produced from Martinik × Romane back-cross sheep. The R and N genotype groups were then experimentally infected with 10 000 H. contortus larvae and measured for FEC (every three days from 18 to 30 days post-challenge), haematocrit, worm burden and fertility. Significant differences in FEC and haematocrit drop were found between R and N sheep. In addition, the female worms recovered from R sheep were less fecund. The second step of the characterization was to investigate functional mechanisms associated with the QTL, thanks to a gene expression analysis performed on the abomasal mucosa and the abomasal lymph node. The gene expression level of a candidate gene lying within the QTL region (PAPP-A2) was measured. In addition, putative interactions between the chromosome segment under study and the top ten differentially expressed genes between resistant MBB and susceptible RMN sheep highlighted in a previous microarray experiment were investigated. We found an induction of Th-2 related cytokine genes expression in the abomasal mucosa of R sheep. Down-regulation of the PAPP-A2 gene expression was observed between naïve and challenged sheep although no differential expression was recorded between challenged R and N sheep. The genotyping of this limited region should contribute to the ability to predict the intrinsic resistance level of sheep. PMID:24939584

  15. A major QTL for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Yin, Guangming; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Shaojiang; Xu, Mingliang

    2010-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the conidial form of Gibberella zeae, is the causal fungal pathogen responsible for Gibberella stalk rot of maize. Using a BC(1)F(1) backcross mapping population derived from a cross between '1145' (donor parent, completely resistant) and 'Y331' (recurrent parent, highly susceptible), two quantitative trait loci (QTLs), qRfg1 and qRfg2, conferring resistance to Gibberella stalk rot have been detected. The major QTL qRfg1 was further confirmed in the double haploid, F(2), BC(2)F(1), and BC(3)F(1) populations. Within a qRfg1 confidence interval, single/low-copy bacterial artificial chromosome sequences, anchored expressed sequence tags, and insertion/deletion polymorphisms, were exploited to develop 59 markers to saturate the qRfg1 region. A step by step narrowing-down strategy was adopted to pursue fine mapping of the qRfg1 locus. Recombinants within the qRfg1 region, screened from each backcross generation, were backcrossed to 'Y331' to produce the next backcross progenies. These progenies were individually genotyped and evaluated for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. Significant (or no significant) difference in resistance reactions between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes in backcross progeny suggested presence (or absence) of qRfg1 in '1145' donor fragments. The phenotypes were compared to sizes of donor fragments among recombinants to delimit the qRfg1 region. Sequential fine mapping of BC(4)F(1) to BC(6)F(1) generations enabled us to progressively refine the qRfg1 locus to a ~500-kb interval flanked by the markers SSR334 and SSR58. Meanwhile, resistance of qRfg1 to Gibberella stalk rot was also investigated in BC(3)F(1) to BC(6)F(1) generations. Once introgressed into the 'Y331' genome, the qRfg1 locus could steadily enhance the frequency of resistant plants by 32-43%. Hence, the qRfg1 locus was capable of improving maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. PMID:20401458

  16. A major QTL for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Yin, Guangming; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Shaojiang; Xu, Mingliang

    2010-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the conidial form of Gibberella zeae, is the causal fungal pathogen responsible for Gibberella stalk rot of maize. Using a BC(1)F(1) backcross mapping population derived from a cross between '1145' (donor parent, completely resistant) and 'Y331' (recurrent parent, highly susceptible), two quantitative trait loci (QTLs), qRfg1 and qRfg2, conferring resistance to Gibberella stalk rot have been detected. The major QTL qRfg1 was further confirmed in the double haploid, F(2), BC(2)F(1), and BC(3)F(1) populations. Within a qRfg1 confidence interval, single/low-copy bacterial artificial chromosome sequences, anchored expressed sequence tags, and insertion/deletion polymorphisms, were exploited to develop 59 markers to saturate the qRfg1 region. A step by step narrowing-down strategy was adopted to pursue fine mapping of the qRfg1 locus. Recombinants within the qRfg1 region, screened from each backcross generation, were backcrossed to 'Y331' to produce the next backcross progenies. These progenies were individually genotyped and evaluated for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. Significant (or no significant) difference in resistance reactions between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes in backcross progeny suggested presence (or absence) of qRfg1 in '1145' donor fragments. The phenotypes were compared to sizes of donor fragments among recombinants to delimit the qRfg1 region. Sequential fine mapping of BC(4)F(1) to BC(6)F(1) generations enabled us to progressively refine the qRfg1 locus to a ~500-kb interval flanked by the markers SSR334 and SSR58. Meanwhile, resistance of qRfg1 to Gibberella stalk rot was also investigated in BC(3)F(1) to BC(6)F(1) generations. Once introgressed into the 'Y331' genome, the qRfg1 locus could steadily enhance the frequency of resistant plants by 32-43%. Hence, the qRfg1 locus was capable of improving maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot.

  17. Did backcrossing contribute to the origin of hybrid edible bananas?

    PubMed Central

    De Langhe, Edmond; Hřibová, Eva; Carpentier, Sebastien; Doležel, Jaroslav; Swennen, Rony

    2010-01-01

    Background Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) provide a staple food for many millions of people living in the humid tropics. The cultivated varieties (cultivars) are seedless parthenocarpic clones of which the origin remains unclear. Many are believed to be diploid and polyploid hybrids involving the A genome diploid M. acuminata and the B genome M. balbisiana, with the hybrid genomes consisting of a simple combination of the parental ones. Thus the genomic constitution of the diploids has been classified as AB, and that of the triploids as AAB or ABB. However, the morphology of many accessions is biased towards either the A or B phenotype and does not conform to predictions based on these genomic formulae. Scope On the basis of published cytotypes (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), we speculate here that the hybrid banana genomes are unbalanced with respect to the parental ones, and/or that inter-genome translocation chromosomes are relatively common. We hypothesize that the evolution under domestication of cultivated banana hybrids is more likely to have passed through an intermediate hybrid, which was then involved in a variety of backcrossing events. We present experimental data supporting our hypothesis and we propose a set of experimental approaches to test it, thereby indicating other possibilities for explaining some of the unbalanced genome expressions. Progress in this area would not only throw more light on the origin of one of the most important crops, but provide data of general relevance for the evolution under domestication of many other important clonal crops. At the same time, a complex origin of the cultivated banana hybrids would imply a reconsideration of current breeding strategies. PMID:20858591

  18. Identification of agronomically important QTL in tetraploid potato cultivars using a marker-trait association analysis.

    PubMed

    D'hoop, Björn B; Keizer, Paul L C; Paulo, M João; Visser, Richard G F; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; van Eck, Herman J

    2014-03-01

    Nineteen tuber quality traits in potato were phenotyped in 205 cultivars and 299 breeder clones. Association analysis using 3364 AFLP loci and 653 SSR-alleles identified QTL for these traits. Two association mapping panels were analysed for marker-trait associations to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). The first panel comprised 205 historical and contemporary tetraploid potato cultivars that were phenotyped in field trials at two locations with two replicates (the academic panel). The second panel consisted of 299 potato cultivars and included recent breeds obtained from five Dutch potato breeding companies and reference cultivars (the industrial panel). Phenotypic data for the second panel were collected during subsequent clonal selection generations at the individual breeding companies. QTL were identified for 19 agro-morphological and quality traits. Two association mapping models were used: a baseline model without, and a more advanced model with correction for population structure and genetic relatedness. Correction for population structure and genetic relatedness was performed with a kinship matrix estimated from marker information. The detected QTL partly not only confirmed previous studies, e.g. for tuber shape and frying colour, but also new QTL were found like for after baking darkening and enzymatic browning. Pleiotropic effects could be discerned for several QTL. PMID:24408376

  19. Whole-genome analysis of multienvironment or multitrait QTL in MAGIC.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Arūnas P; Cavanagh, Colin R; Verbyla, Klara L

    2014-09-18

    Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) populations are now being utilized to more accurately identify the underlying genetic basis of quantitative traits through quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and subsequent gene discovery. The expanded genetic diversity present in such populations and the amplified number of recombination events mean that QTL can be identified at a higher resolution. Most QTL analyses are conducted separately for each trait within a single environment. Separate analysis does not take advantage of the underlying correlation structure found in multienvironment or multitrait data. By using this information in a joint analysis-be it multienvironment or multitrait - it is possible to gain a greater understanding of genotype- or QTL-by-environment interactions or of pleiotropic effects across traits. Furthermore, this can result in improvements in accuracy for a range of traits or in a specific target environment and can influence selection decisions. Data derived from MAGIC populations allow for founder probabilities of all founder alleles to be calculated for each individual within the population. This presents an additional layer of complexity and information that can be utilized to identify QTL. A whole-genome approach is proposed for multienvironment and multitrait QTL analysis in MAGIC. The whole-genome approach simultaneously incorporates all founder probabilities at each marker for all individuals in the analysis, rather than using a genome scan. A dimension reduction technique is implemented, which allows for high-dimensional genetic data. For each QTL identified, sizes of effects for each founder allele, the percentage of genetic variance explained, and a score to reflect the strength of the QTL are found. The approach was demonstrated to perform well in a small simulation study and for two experiments, using a wheat MAGIC population.

  20. Fine-mapping of muscle weight QTL in LG/J and SM/J intercrosses.

    PubMed

    Lionikas, A; Cheng, R; Lim, J E; Palmer, A A; Blizard, D A

    2010-09-01

    Genetic variation plays a substantial role in variation in strength, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to examine the mechanisms underlying variation in muscle mass, a predictor of strength, between LG/J and SM/J strains, which are the inbred progeny of mice selected, respectively, for high and low body weight. We measured weight of five hindlimb muscles in LG/J and SM/J males and females, in F(1) and F(2) intercrosses, and in an advanced intercross (AI), F(34), between the two. F(2) mice were genotyped using 162 SNPs throughout the genome; F(34) mice were genotyped at 3,015 SNPs. A twofold difference in muscle mass between the LG/J and SM/J mouse strains was observed. Integrated genome-wide association analysis in the combined population of F(2) and AI identified 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL; genome-wide P < 0.05) affecting muscle weight on Chr 2 (2 QTL), 4, 5, 6 (7 QTL), 7 (4 QTL), 8 (4 QTL), and 11 (3 QTL). The LG/J allele conferred greater muscle weight in all cases. The 1.5-LOD QTL support intervals ranged between 0.3 and 13.4 Mb (median 3.7 Mb) restricting the list of candidates to between 5 and 97 genes. Selection for body weight segregated the alleles affecting skeletal muscle, the most abundant tissue in the body. Combination of analyses in an F(2) and AI was an effective strategy to detect and refine the QTL in a genome-wide manner. The achieved resolution facilitates further elucidation of the underlying genetic mechanisms affecting muscle mass.

  1. Linkage mapping of domestication loci in a large maize-teosinte backcross resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ultimate objective of QTL mapping is cloning genes responsible for quantitative traits. However, projects seldom go beyond segments narrower than 5 cM without subsequent breeding and genotyping lines to identify additional crossovers in a genomic region of interest. We report on a QTL analysis ...

  2. From QTL to variety-harnessing the benefits of QTLs for drought, flood and salt tolerance in mega rice varieties of India through a multi-institutional network.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Singh, Yashi; Xalaxo, Suchit; Verulkar, S; Yadav, Neera; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Nisha; Prasad, K S N; Kondayya, K; Rao, P V Ramana; Rani, M Girija; Anuradha, T; Suraynarayana, Y; Sharma, P C; Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, S K; Dwivedi, J L; Singh, A K; Singh, P K; Nilanjay; Singh, N K; Kumar, Rajesh; Chetia, S K; Ahmad, T; Rai, M; Perraju, P; Pande, Anita; Singh, D N; Mandal, N P; Reddy, J N; Singh, O N; Katara, J L; Marandi, B; Swain, P; Sarkar, R K; Singh, D P; Mohapatra, T; Padmawathi, G; Ram, T; Kathiresan, R M; Paramsivam, K; Nadarajan, S; Thirumeni, S; Nagarajan, M; Singh, A K; Vikram, Prashant; Kumar, Arvind; Septiningshih, E; Singh, U S; Ismail, A M; Mackill, D; Singh, Nagendra K

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into

  3. From QTL to variety-harnessing the benefits of QTLs for drought, flood and salt tolerance in mega rice varieties of India through a multi-institutional network.

    PubMed

    Singh, Renu; Singh, Yashi; Xalaxo, Suchit; Verulkar, S; Yadav, Neera; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Nisha; Prasad, K S N; Kondayya, K; Rao, P V Ramana; Rani, M Girija; Anuradha, T; Suraynarayana, Y; Sharma, P C; Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, S K; Dwivedi, J L; Singh, A K; Singh, P K; Nilanjay; Singh, N K; Kumar, Rajesh; Chetia, S K; Ahmad, T; Rai, M; Perraju, P; Pande, Anita; Singh, D N; Mandal, N P; Reddy, J N; Singh, O N; Katara, J L; Marandi, B; Swain, P; Sarkar, R K; Singh, D P; Mohapatra, T; Padmawathi, G; Ram, T; Kathiresan, R M; Paramsivam, K; Nadarajan, S; Thirumeni, S; Nagarajan, M; Singh, A K; Vikram, Prashant; Kumar, Arvind; Septiningshih, E; Singh, U S; Ismail, A M; Mackill, D; Singh, Nagendra K

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into

  4. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and Candidate Genes for Cadmium Tolerance in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Induri, Brahma R; Ellis, Danielle R; Slavov, Gancho; Yin, Tongming; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; DiFazio, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic variation in response of Populus to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is an important step in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tolerance. In this study, a pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides was characterized for Cd exposure. The pedigree showed significant variation for Cd tolerance thus enabling the identification of relatively tolerant and susceptible genotypes for intensive characterization. A total of 16 QTLs at logarithm of odds (LOD) ratio > 2.5, were found to be associated with total dry weight, its components, and root volume. Four major QTLs for total dry weight were mapped to different linkage groups in control (LG III) and Cd conditions (LG XVI) and had opposite allelic effects on Cd tolerance, suggesting that these genomic regions were differentially controlled. The phenotypic variation explained by Cd QTL for all traits under study varied from 5.9% to 11.6% and averaged 8.2% across all QTL. Leaf Cd contents also showed significant variation suggesting the phytoextraction potential of Populus genotypes, though heritability of this trait was low (0.22). A whole-genome microarray study was conducted by using two genotypes with extreme responses for Cd tolerance in the above study and differentially expressed genes were identified. Candidate genes including CAD2 (CADMIUM SENSITIVE 2), HMA5 (HEAVY METAL ATPase5), ATGTST1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-Transferase1), ATGPX6 (Glutathione peroxidase 6), and ATMRP 14 (Arabidopsis thaliana Multidrug Resistance associated Protein 14) were identified from QTL intervals and microarray study. Functional characterization of these candidate genes could enhance phytoremediation capabilities of Populus.

  5. The Identification of Two Head Smut Resistance-Related QTL in Maize by the Joint Approach of Linkage Mapping and Association Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-xiang; Wu, Xun; Jaqueth, Jennifer; Zhang, Dengfeng; Cui, Donghui; Li, Chunhui; Hu, Guanghui; Dong, Huaiyu; Song, Yan-chun; Shi, Yun-su; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Bailin; Li, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Head smut, caused by the fungus Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kühn) Clint, is a devastating threat to maize production. In this study, QTL mapping of head smut resistance was performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between a resistant line "QI319" and a susceptible line "Huangzaosi" (HZS) with a genetic map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data and composed of 1638 bin markers. Two head smut resistance QTL were identified, located on Chromosome 2 (q2.09HR) and Chromosome 5 (q5.03HR), q2.09HR is co-localized with a previously reported QTL for head smut resistance, and the effect of q5.03HR has been validated in backcross populations. It was also observed that pyramiding the resistant alleles of both QTL enhanced the level of resistance to head smut. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 277 diverse inbred lines was processed to validate the mapped QTL and to identify additional head smut resistance associations. A total of 58 associated SNPs were detected, which were distributed in 31 independent regions. SNPs with significant association to head smut resistance were detected within the q2.09HR and q5.03HR regions, confirming the linkage mapping results. It was also observed that both additive and epistastic effects determine the genetic architecture of head smut resistance in maize. As shown in this study, the combined strategy of linkage mapping and association analysis is a powerful approach in QTL dissection for disease resistance in maize.

  6. The Identification of Two Head Smut Resistance-Related QTL in Maize by the Joint Approach of Linkage Mapping and Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-xiang; Wu, Xun; Jaqueth, Jennifer; Zhang, Dengfeng; Cui, Donghui; Li, Chunhui; Hu, Guanghui; Dong, Huaiyu; Song, Yan-chun; Shi, Yun-su; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Bailin; Li, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Head smut, caused by the fungus Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kühn) Clint, is a devastating threat to maize production. In this study, QTL mapping of head smut resistance was performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between a resistant line “QI319” and a susceptible line “Huangzaosi” (HZS) with a genetic map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data and composed of 1638 bin markers. Two head smut resistance QTL were identified, located on Chromosome 2 (q2.09HR) and Chromosome 5 (q5.03HR), q2.09HR is co-localized with a previously reported QTL for head smut resistance, and the effect of q5.03HR has been validated in backcross populations. It was also observed that pyramiding the resistant alleles of both QTL enhanced the level of resistance to head smut. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 277 diverse inbred lines was processed to validate the mapped QTL and to identify additional head smut resistance associations. A total of 58 associated SNPs were detected, which were distributed in 31 independent regions. SNPs with significant association to head smut resistance were detected within the q2.09HR and q5.03HR regions, confirming the linkage mapping results. It was also observed that both additive and epistastic effects determine the genetic architecture of head smut resistance in maize. As shown in this study, the combined strategy of linkage mapping and association analysis is a powerful approach in QTL dissection for disease resistance in maize. PMID:26689370

  7. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using different testers and independent population samples in maize reveals low power of QTL detection and large bias in estimates of QTL effects.

    PubMed Central

    Melchinger, A E; Utz, H F; Schön, C C

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted selection (MAS) depends on the power of quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and unbiased estimation of QTL effects. Two independent samples N = 344 and 107 of F2 plants were genotyped for 89 RFLP markers. For each sample, testcross (TC) progenies of the corresponding F3 lines with two testers were evaluated in four environments. QTL for grain yield and other agronomically important traits were mapped in both samples. QTL effects were estimated from the same data as used for detection and mapping of QTL (calibration) and, based on QTL positions from calibration, from the second, independent sample (validation). For all traits and both testers we detected a total of 107 QTL with N = 344, and 39 QTL with N = 107, of which only 20 were in common. Consistency of QTL effects across testers was in agreement with corresponding genotypic correlations between the two TC series. Most QTL displayed no significant QTL x environment nor epistatic interactions. Estimates of the proportion of the phenotypic and genetic variance explained by QTL were considerably reduced when derived from the independent validation sample as opposed to estimates from the calibration sample. We conclude that, unless QTL effects are estimated from an independent sample, they can be inflated, resulting in an overly optimistic assessment of the efficiency of MAS. PMID:9584111

  8. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a

  9. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K; Halbach, T J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control) Holsteins or to unproven F(1) Jersey × Holstein crossbred sires to produce backcross animals, whereas nulliparous dams were mated to proven Holstein sires to produce purebred (other) Holsteins. Traits were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, sire, birth year of sire, days in milk, lactation, and linear type score evaluator. Control Holsteins had greater 305-d milk yield (12,645 vs. 11,456 kg), 305-d mature equivalent milk yield (13,420 vs. 12,180 kg), peak daily milk yield (49.5 vs. 46.4 kg), total lactation milk yield (11,556 vs. 10,796 kg), and daily fat-corrected milk yield (43 vs. 40 kg) compared with backcrosses. Days open and services per conception as a heifer or cow did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, or backcrosses. The proportion of first-parity births that required assistance was less in control Holsteins than in backcross cows (3.7 vs. 11.2%). The incidence of scours or respiratory problems in calves did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, and backcrosses, nor did the incidence of mastitis, injury, or feet problems. Control Holstein heifers were heavier (629 vs. 557 kg), with greater hip height (145 vs. 139 cm), body length (167 vs. 163 cm), heart girth (205 vs. 198 cm), and hip width (54 vs. 53 cm) at 22 mo of age. On a 50-point scale for linear type traits, Holsteins were larger in stature compared with backcrosses (41 vs. 28), had wider rumps (37 vs. 33), and wider rear udders (34 vs. 32). Results of this study suggest that backcross Holstein × Jersey cattle have

  10. Constructing Confidence Intervals for Qtl Location

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B.; Goffinet, B.; Rebai, A.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing the confidence interval of the QTL location parameter. This method is developed in the local asymptotic framework, leading to a linear model at each position of the putative QTL. The idea is to construct a likelihood ratio test, using statistics whose asymptotic distribution does not depend on the nuisance parameters and in particular on the effect of the QTL. We show theoretical properties of the confidence interval built with this test, and compare it with the classical confidence interval using simulations. We show in particular, that our confidence interval has the correct probability of containing the true map location of the QTL, for almost all QTLs, whereas the classical confidence interval can be very biased for QTLs having small effect. PMID:7896108

  11. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross holstein x jersey cows and their holstein contemporaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin–Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals ...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to dorsal fin length from preliminary linkage map of molly fish, Poecilia sp.

    PubMed

    Keong, Bun Poh; Siraj, Siti Shapor; Daud, Siti Khalijah; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Rahman, Arina Nadia Abdul

    2014-02-15

    A preliminary linkage map was constructed by applying backcross and testcross strategy using microsatellite (SSR) markers developed for Xiphophorus and Poecilia reticulata in ornamental fish, molly Poecilia sp. The linkage map having 18 SSR loci consisted of four linkage groups that spanned a map size of 516.1cM. Association between genotypes and phenotypes was tested in a random fashion and QTL for dorsal fin length was found to be linked to locus Msb069 on linkage group 2. Coincidentally, locus Msb069 was also reported as putative homologue primer pairs containing SSRs repeat motif which encoded hSMP-1, a sex determining locus. Dorsal fin length particularly in males of Poecilia latipinna is an important feature during courtship display. Therefore, we speculate that both dorsal fin length and putative hSMP-1 gene formed a close proximity to male sexual characteristics.

  13. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  14. Multiple cross mapping (MCM) markedly improves the localization of a QTL for ethanol-induced activation.

    PubMed

    Hitzemann, R; Malmanger, B; Cooper, S; Coulombe, S; Reed, C; Demarest, K; Koyner, J; Cipp, L; Flint, J; Talbot, C; Rademacher, B; Buck, K; McCaughran, J

    2002-11-01

    This study examines the use of multiple cross mapping (MCM) to reduce the interval for an ethanol response QTL on mouse chromosome 1. The phenotype is the acute locomotor response to a 1.5-g/kg i.p. dose of ethanol. The MCM panel consisted of the six unique intercrosses that can be obtained from the C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2), BALB/cJ (C) and LP/J (LP) inbred mouse strains (N > or = 600/cross). Ethanol response QTL were detected only with the B6xD2 and B6xC intercrosses. For both crosses, the D2 and C alleles were dominant and decreased ethanol response. The QTL information was used to develop an algorithm for sorting and editing the chromosome 1 Mit microsatellite marker set (http://www.jax.org). This process yielded a cluster of markers between 82 and 85cM (MGI). Evidence that the QTL was localized in or near this interval was obtained by the analysis of a sample (n = 550) of advanced cross heterogenous stock animals. In addition, it was observed that one of the BXD recombinant inbred strains (BXD-32) had a recombination in the interval of interest which produced the expected change in behavior. Overall, the data obtained suggest that the information available within existing genetic maps coupled with MCM data can be used to reduce the QTL interval. In addition, the MCM data set can be used to interrogate gene expression data to estimate which polymorphisms within the interval of interest are relevant to the QTL.

  15. Effect of seven antibiotics on the growth and reproduction of Heliothis subflexa X H. virescens interspecific hydrids and backcross males

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, L.E.; Karpenko, C.P.

    1981-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a maternally transmitted cytoplasmic microorganism is involved in male hybrid sterility found in H. subflexa (Guenee) X H. virescens (F.) hybrid and backcross progeny, we reared H. subflexa, hybrids and backcross progeny on larval diets containing high concentrations of tetracycline, penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, rifampin, and 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. The insects tolerated relatively high concentrations (from 120 mg/liter to 6 g/liter) of antibiotics in the larval diet and showed virtually no changes in larval or pupal developmental time, adult lifespan, or fertility. Hybrid and backcross males reared on such adulterated diets were as sterile as those reared on conventional diets.

  16. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses. PMID:15612504

  17. Experimental hybridization and backcrossing reveal forces of reproductive isolation in Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i.e. ecological maladaptation or genetic incompatibilities) have not yet been detected. Here, backcrossing experiments, specifically controlling for the fungal species origins of the mating compatibility factors, were used to investigate reproductive isolation in the recently-derived species Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Microbotryum silenes-dioicae. Results Assortative mating was detected during backcrossing and was manifested by the preferential conjugation of the hybrid-produced gametes with non-hybrid gametes containing mating compatibility factors from the same parental species. Patterns of post-mating performance supported either a level of extrinsic isolation mechanism, where backcross progeny with a higher proportion of the pathogen genome adapted to the particular host environment were favored, or an infection advantage attributed to greater genetic contribution to the hybrid from the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome. Conclusion The use of controlled backcrossing experiments reveals significant species-specific mating type effects on conjugations between recently-derived sister species, which are likely to play important roles in both maintaining species separation and the nature of hybrids lineages that emerge in sympatry between Microbotryum species. PMID:24112452

  18. Hybridization and backcrossing between transgenic oilseed rape and two related weed species under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Halfhill, Matthew D; Zhu, Bin; Warwick, Suzanne I; Raymer, Paul L; Millwood, Reginald J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Determining the frequency of crop-wild transgene flow under field conditions is a necessity for the development of regulatory strategies to manage transgenic hybrids. Gene flow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenes was quantified in three field experiments using eleven independent transformed Brassica napus L. lines and the wild relatives, B. rapa L. and Raphanus raphanistrum L. Under a high crop to wild relative ratio (600:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa differed among the individual transformed B. napus lines (ranging from ca. 4% to 22%), however, this difference could be caused by the insertion events or other factors, e.g., differences in the hybridization frequencies among the B. rapa plants. The average hybridization frequency over all transformed lines was close to 10%. No hybridization with R. raphanistrum was detected. Under a lower crop to wild relative ratio (180:1), hybridization frequency with B. rapa was consistent among the transformed B. napus lines at ca. 2%. Interspecific hybridization was higher when B. rapa occurred within the B. napus plot (ca. 37.2%) compared with plot margins (ca. 5.2%). No significant differences were detected among marginal plants grown at 1, 2, and 3 m from the field plot. Transgene backcrossing frequency between B. rapa and transgenic hybrids was determined in two field experiments in which the wild relative to transgenic hybrid ratio was 5-15 plants of B. rapa to 1 transgenic hybrid. As expected, ca. 50% of the seeds produced were transgenic backcrosses when the transgenic hybrid plants served as the maternal parent. When B. rapa plants served as the maternal parent, transgene backcrossing frequencies were 0.088% and 0.060%. Results show that transgene flow from many independent transformed lines of B. napus to B. rapa can occur under a range of field conditions, and that transgenic hybrids have a high potential to produce transgenic seeds in backcrosses.

  19. Linkage of an ABCC transporter to a single QTL that controls Ostrinia nubilalis larval resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Fa toxin.

    PubMed

    Coates, Brad S; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-08-01

    Field evolved resistance of insect populations to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystalline (Cry) toxins expressed by crop plants has resulted in reduced control of insect feeding damage to field crops, and threatens the sustainability of Bt transgenic technologies. A single quantitative trait locus (QTL) that determines resistance in Ostrinia nubilalis larvae capable of surviving on reproductive stage transgenic corn that express the Bt Cry1Fa toxin was previously mapped to linkage group 12 (LG12) in a backcross pedigree. Fine mapping with high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers, a candidate ABC transporter (abcc2) marker, and de novo mutations predicted from a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data redefined a 268.8 cM LG12. The single QTL on LG12 spanned an approximate 46.1 cM region, in which marker 02302.286 and abcc2 were ≤ 2.81 cM, and the GBS marker 697 was an estimated 1.89 cM distant from the causal genetic factor. This positional mapping data showed that an O. nubilalis genome region encoding an abcc2 transporter is in proximity to a single QTL involved in the inheritance of Cry1F resistance, and will assist in the future identification the mutation(s) involved with this phenotype. PMID:26093031

  20. Development of selective markers linked to a major QTL for parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Parthenocarpy, the ability to set fruits without pollination, is a useful trait for setting fruit under unfavorable conditions. To identify the loci controlling parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), we constructed linkage maps by using co-dominant simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers in F(2) populations derived from intraspecific crosses between two non-parthenocarpic lines (LS1934 and Nakate-Shinkuro) and a parthenocarpic line (AE-P03). Total map distances were 1,414.6 cM (ALF2: LS1934 x AE-P03) and 1,153.8 cM (NAF2: Nakate-Shinkuro x AE-P03), respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses revealed two QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 8, which we denoted as Controlling parthenocarpy3.1 (Cop3.1) and Cop8.1, respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of Cop3.1 was 6.3% in ALF2 (LOD = 4.2) and 10.6% in NAF2 (LOD = 3.0). The PVE of Cop8.1 was 45.7% in ALF2 (LOD = 23.8) and 29.7% in NAF2 (LOD = 7.9). Using a population of backcross inbred lines, we confirmed the effect of Cop8.1, but there was no evidence to support the contribution of Cop3.1. We need to verify the effect of Cop3.1 under various temperature conditions. In addition, we clarified the effectiveness of selective SSR markers, emf21H22 and emh11J10, mapped on each side of Cop8.1 in other F(2) populations derived from various parental combinations. This is the first report concerning QTL analysis of parthenocarpy in eggplant using molecular markers. It will be useful in marker-assisted selection and in revealing the genomic mechanism underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant. PMID:22301906

  1. Development of selective markers linked to a major QTL for parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    Parthenocarpy, the ability to set fruits without pollination, is a useful trait for setting fruit under unfavorable conditions. To identify the loci controlling parthenocarpy in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), we constructed linkage maps by using co-dominant simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism markers in F(2) populations derived from intraspecific crosses between two non-parthenocarpic lines (LS1934 and Nakate-Shinkuro) and a parthenocarpic line (AE-P03). Total map distances were 1,414.6 cM (ALF2: LS1934 x AE-P03) and 1,153.8 cM (NAF2: Nakate-Shinkuro x AE-P03), respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses revealed two QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 8, which we denoted as Controlling parthenocarpy3.1 (Cop3.1) and Cop8.1, respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of Cop3.1 was 6.3% in ALF2 (LOD = 4.2) and 10.6% in NAF2 (LOD = 3.0). The PVE of Cop8.1 was 45.7% in ALF2 (LOD = 23.8) and 29.7% in NAF2 (LOD = 7.9). Using a population of backcross inbred lines, we confirmed the effect of Cop8.1, but there was no evidence to support the contribution of Cop3.1. We need to verify the effect of Cop3.1 under various temperature conditions. In addition, we clarified the effectiveness of selective SSR markers, emf21H22 and emh11J10, mapped on each side of Cop8.1 in other F(2) populations derived from various parental combinations. This is the first report concerning QTL analysis of parthenocarpy in eggplant using molecular markers. It will be useful in marker-assisted selection and in revealing the genomic mechanism underlying parthenocarpy in eggplant.

  2. Genome Assembly Anchored QTL Map of Bovine Chromosome 14

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Tito A.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Newberry, Ruth C.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Michal, Jennifer J.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    Bovine chromosome 14 (BTA14) has been widely explored for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes related to economically important traits in both dairy and beef cattle. We reviewed more than 40 investigations and anchored 126 QTL to the current genome assembly (Btau 4_0). Using this anchored QTL map, we observed that, in dairy cattle, the region spanning 0 – 10 Mb on BTA14 has the highest density QTL map with a total of 56 QTL, mainly for milk production traits. It is very likely that both somatic cell score (SCS) and clinical mastitis share some common QTL in two regions: 61.48 Mb - 73.84 Mb and 7.86 Mb – 39.55 Mb, respectively. As well, both ovulation rate and twinning rate might share a common QTL region from 34.16 Mb to 65.38 Mb. However, there are no common QTL locations in three pregnancy related phenotypes: non-return rate, pregnancy rate and daughter pregnancy rate. In beef cattle, the majority of QTL are located in a broad region of 15 Mb – 45 Mb on the chromosome. Functional genes, such as CRH, CYP11B1, DGAT1, FABP4 and TG, as potential candidates for some of these QTL, were also reviewed. Therefore, our review provides a standardized QTL map anchored within the current genome assembly, which would enhance the process of selecting positional and physiological candidate genes for many important traits in cattle. PMID:19043607

  3. Ensemble Learning of QTL Models Improves Prediction of Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Yang; Holland, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability but are less useful for genetic prediction because of the difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage between markers introduces near collinearity among marker genotypes, complicating the detection of QTL and estimation of QTL effects in linkage mapping, and this problem is exacerbated by very high density linkage maps. Here we developed a thinning and aggregating (TAGGING) method as a new ensemble learning approach to QTL mapping. TAGGING reduces collinearity problems by thinning dense linkage maps, maintains aspects of marker selection that characterize standard QTL mapping, and by ensembling, incorporates information from many more markers-trait associations than traditional QTL mapping. The objective of TAGGING was to improve prediction power compared with QTL mapping while also providing more specific insights into genetic architecture than genome-wide prediction models. TAGGING was compared with standard QTL mapping using cross validation of empirical data from the maize (Zea mays L.) nested association mapping population. TAGGING-assisted QTL mapping substantially improved prediction ability for both biparental and multifamily populations by reducing both the variance and bias in prediction. Furthermore, an ensemble model combining predictions from TAGGING-assisted QTL and infinitesimal models improved prediction abilities over the component models, indicating some complementarity between model assumptions and suggesting that some trait genetic architectures involve a mixture of a few major QTL and polygenic effects. PMID:26276383

  4. Ensemble Learning of QTL Models Improves Prediction of Complex Traits.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yang; Holland, James B

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability but are less useful for genetic prediction because of the difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage between markers introduces near collinearity among marker genotypes, complicating the detection of QTL and estimation of QTL effects in linkage mapping, and this problem is exacerbated by very high density linkage maps. Here we developed a thinning and aggregating (TAGGING) method as a new ensemble learning approach to QTL mapping. TAGGING reduces collinearity problems by thinning dense linkage maps, maintains aspects of marker selection that characterize standard QTL mapping, and by ensembling, incorporates information from many more markers-trait associations than traditional QTL mapping. The objective of TAGGING was to improve prediction power compared with QTL mapping while also providing more specific insights into genetic architecture than genome-wide prediction models. TAGGING was compared with standard QTL mapping using cross validation of empirical data from the maize (Zea mays L.) nested association mapping population. TAGGING-assisted QTL mapping substantially improved prediction ability for both biparental and multifamily populations by reducing both the variance and bias in prediction. Furthermore, an ensemble model combining predictions from TAGGING-assisted QTL and infinitesimal models improved prediction abilities over the component models, indicating some complementarity between model assumptions and suggesting that some trait genetic architectures involve a mixture of a few major QTL and polygenic effects. PMID:26276383

  5. Look before you leap: a new approach to mapping QTL.

    PubMed

    Huang, B Emma; George, Andrew W

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative and powerful approach for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in experimental populations. This deviates from the traditional approach of (composite) interval mapping which uses a QTL profile to simultaneously determine the number and location of QTL. Instead, we look before we leap by employing separate detection and localization stages. In the detection stage, we use an iterative variable selection process coupled with permutation to identify the number and synteny of QTL. In the localization stage, we position the detected QTL through a series of one-dimensional interval mapping scans. Results from a detailed simulation study and real analysis of wheat data are presented. We achieve impressive increases in the power of QTL detection compared to composite interval mapping. We also accurately estimate the size and position of QTL. An R library, DLMap, implements the methods described here and is freely available from CRAN ( http://cran.r-project.org/ ). PMID:19585099

  6. A growth QTL on chicken chromosome 1 affects emotionality and sociality.

    PubMed

    Wirén, Anna; Jensen, Per

    2011-03-01

    Domestication of animals, regardless of species, is often accompanied by simultaneous changes in several physiological and behavioral traits (e.g. growth rate and fearfulness). In this study we compared the social behavior and emotional reactivity, as measured in a battery of behavioral tests, of two groups of chickens selected from a common genetic background, an advanced intercross line between the ancestral red junglefowl ("RJF") and the domesticated White Leghorn layer ("WL"). The birds were selected for homozygosity for alternative alleles at one locus (a microsatellite marker), centrally positioned in a previously identified pleiotropic growth QTL on chromosome 1, closely linked to one major candidate gene (AVPR1a) for certain aspects of social behavior. Birds homozygous for the WL allele ("WL genotype") had a modified pattern of social and emotional reactions than birds homozygous for the RJF allele ("RJF genotype"), shown by different scores in a principal components analysis. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioral traits, and may have been a primary target of selection during domestication. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behavior (for example the vasotocin receptor AVPR1a targeted in this experiment). Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution genotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered the strongest candidates for bringing about the behavioral changes associated with animal domestication. PMID:20596888

  7. Exploring sheath blight quantitative trait loci in a Lemont/O. meridionalis advanced backcross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oryza meridionalis is the wild Oryza species endemic to Australia. There are eight AA genome Oryza species, one of which is cultivated rice, O. sativa and O. meridionalis is the most diverged of the eight species. An O. eridionalis (IRGC105608) accession was identified as being moderately resistant...

  8. Hybridization but No Evidence for Backcrossing and Introgression in a Sympatric Population of Great Reed Warblers and Clamorous Reed Warblers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Bengt; Tarka, Maja; Dawson, Deborah A.; Horsburgh, Gavin J.

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization is observed frequently in birds, but often it is not known whether the hybrids are fertile and if backcrossing occurs. The breeding ranges of the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and the clamorous reed warbler (A. stentoreus) overlap in southern Kazakhstan and a previous study has documented hybridization in a sympatric population. In the present study, we first present a large set of novel microsatellite loci isolated and characterised in great reed warblers. Secondly, we evaluate whether hybridization in the sympatric breeding population has been followed by backcrossing and introgression. We isolated 181 unique microsatellite loci in great reed warblers. Of 41 loci evaluated, 40 amplified and 30 were polymorphic. Bayesian clustering analyses based on genotype data from 23 autosomal loci recognised two well-defined genetic clusters corresponding to the two species. Individuals clustered to a very high extent to either of these clusters (admixture proportions ≥0.984) with the exception of four previously suggested arundinaceus–stentoreus hybrid birds that showed mixed ancestry (admixture proportions 0.495–0.619). Analyses of simulated hybrids and backcrossed individuals showed that the sampled birds do not correspond to first–fourth-generation backcrosses, and that fifth or higher generation backcrosses to a high extent resemble ‘pure’ birds at this set of markers. We conclude that these novel microsatellite loci provide a useful molecular resource for Acrocephalus warblers. The time to reach reproductive isolation is believed to be very long in birds, approximately 5 Myrs, and with an estimated divergence time of 2 Myrs between these warblers, some backcrossing and introgression could have been expected. However, there was no evidence for backcrossing and introgression suggesting that hybrids are either infertile or their progeny inviable. Very low levels of introgression cannot be excluded, which still may be an important

  9. Mapping QTL Contributing to Variation in Posterior Lobe Morphology between Strains of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Jennifer L.; Wang, Xiaofei; Smith, Brittny R.

    2016-01-01

    Closely-related, and otherwise morphologically similar insect species frequently show striking divergence in the shape and/or size of male genital structures, a phenomenon thought to be driven by sexual selection. Comparative interspecific studies can help elucidate the evolutionary forces acting on genital structures to drive this rapid differentiation. However, genetic dissection of sexual trait divergence between species is frequently hampered by the difficulty generating interspecific recombinants. Intraspecific variation can be leveraged to investigate the genetics of rapidly-evolving sexual traits, and here we carry out a genetic analysis of variation in the posterior lobe within D. melanogaster. The lobe is a male-specific process emerging from the genital arch of D. melanogaster and three closely-related species, is essential for copulation, and shows radical divergence in form across species. There is also abundant variation within species in the shape and size of the lobe, and while this variation is considerably more subtle than that seen among species, it nonetheless provides the raw material for QTL mapping. We created an advanced intercross population from a pair of phenotypically-different inbred strains, and after phenotyping and genotyping-by-sequencing the recombinants, mapped several QTL contributing to various measures of lobe morphology. The additional generations of crossing over in our mapping population led to QTL intervals that are smaller than is typical for an F2 mapping design. The intervals we map overlap with a pair of lobe QTL we previously identified in an independent mapping cross, potentially suggesting a level of shared genetic control of trait variation. Our QTL additionally implicate a suite of genes that have been shown to contribute to the development of the posterior lobe. These loci are strong candidates to harbor naturally-segregating sites contributing to phenotypic variation within D. melanogaster, and may also be those

  10. Mapping QTL Contributing to Variation in Posterior Lobe Morphology between Strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Jennifer L; Wang, Xiaofei; Smith, Brittny R; Macdonald, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Closely-related, and otherwise morphologically similar insect species frequently show striking divergence in the shape and/or size of male genital structures, a phenomenon thought to be driven by sexual selection. Comparative interspecific studies can help elucidate the evolutionary forces acting on genital structures to drive this rapid differentiation. However, genetic dissection of sexual trait divergence between species is frequently hampered by the difficulty generating interspecific recombinants. Intraspecific variation can be leveraged to investigate the genetics of rapidly-evolving sexual traits, and here we carry out a genetic analysis of variation in the posterior lobe within D. melanogaster. The lobe is a male-specific process emerging from the genital arch of D. melanogaster and three closely-related species, is essential for copulation, and shows radical divergence in form across species. There is also abundant variation within species in the shape and size of the lobe, and while this variation is considerably more subtle than that seen among species, it nonetheless provides the raw material for QTL mapping. We created an advanced intercross population from a pair of phenotypically-different inbred strains, and after phenotyping and genotyping-by-sequencing the recombinants, mapped several QTL contributing to various measures of lobe morphology. The additional generations of crossing over in our mapping population led to QTL intervals that are smaller than is typical for an F2 mapping design. The intervals we map overlap with a pair of lobe QTL we previously identified in an independent mapping cross, potentially suggesting a level of shared genetic control of trait variation. Our QTL additionally implicate a suite of genes that have been shown to contribute to the development of the posterior lobe. These loci are strong candidates to harbor naturally-segregating sites contributing to phenotypic variation within D. melanogaster, and may also be those

  11. The Analysis of Quantitative Traits for Simple Genetic Models from Parental, F1 and Backcross Data

    PubMed Central

    Elston, R. C.; Stewart, John

    1973-01-01

    The following models are considered for the genetic determination of quantitative traits: segregation at one locus, at two linked loci, at any number of equal and additive unlinked loci, and at one major locus and an indefinite number of equal and additive loci. In each case an appropriate likelihood is given for data on parental, F1 and backcross individuals, assuming that the environmental variation is normally distributed. Methods of testing and comparing the various models are presented, and methods are suggested for the simultaneous analysis of two or more traits. PMID:4711900

  12. Blood genetic marker studies of a sheep-goat hybrid and its back-cross offspring.

    PubMed

    Tucker, E M; Denis, B; Kilgour, L

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples from a female sheep-goat hybrid and its back-cross male offspring were tested for electrophoretic variants of plasma albumin, transferrin and esterase, and of red cell carbonic anhydrase, nucleoside phosphorylase, NADH-diaphorase, 'X'-protein, superoxide dismutase, malic enzyme and haemoglobin. Red cells were also tested for blood group antigens. Both animals showed variants that could not be attributed to either sheep or goat alone, thus confirming previous chromosomal data that the female was a genuine sheep-goat hybrid. PMID:2757269

  13. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  14. Incorporation of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes Into Lowland Rice Cultivar Through Marker-Assisted Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Nayak, Deepak Kumar; Pandit, Elssa; Behera, Lambodar; Anandan, Annamalai; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Lenka, Srikanta; Barik, Durga Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a major disease of rice in many rice growing countries. Pyramided lines carrying two BB resistance gene combinations (Xa21+xa13 and Xa21+xa5) were developed in a lowland cultivar Jalmagna background through backcross breeding by integrating molecular markers. In each backcross generation, markers closely linked to the disease resistance genes were used to select plants possessing the target genes. Background selection was continued in those plants carrying resistant genes until BC(3) generation. Plants having the maximum contribution from the recurrent parent genome were selected in each generation and hybridized with the recipient parent. The BB-pyramided line having the maximum recipient parent genome recovery of 95% was selected among BC3F1 plants and selfed to isolate homozygous BC(3)F(2) plants with different combinations of BB resistance genes. Twenty pyramided lines with two resistance gene combinations exhibited high levels of tolerance against the BB pathogen. In order to confirm the resistance, the pyramided lines were inoculated with different X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains of Odisha for bioassay. The genotypes with combination of two BB resistance genes conferred high levels of resistance to the predominant X. oryzae pv. oryzae isolates prevalent in the region. The pyramided lines showed similarity with the recipient parent with respect to major agro-morphologic traits.

  15. Solanum pennellii backcross inbred lines (BILs) link small genomic bins with tomato traits.

    PubMed

    Ofner, Itai; Lashbrooke, Justin; Pleban, Tzili; Aharoni, Asaph; Zamir, Dani

    2016-07-01

    We present a resource for fine mapping of traits derived from the wild tomato species Solanum pennellii (LA0716). The population of backcross inbred lines (BILs) is composed of 446 lines derived after a few generations of backcrosses of the wild species with cultivated tomato (cultivar M82; LA3475), followed by more than seven generations of self-pollination. The BILs were genotyped using the 10K SOL-CAP single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -Chip, and 3700 polymorphic markers were used to map recombination break points relative to the physical map of Solanum lycopersicum. The BILs carry, on average, 2.7 introgressions per line, with a mean introgression length of 11.7 Mbp. Whereas the classic 76 introgression lines (ILs) partitioned the genome into 106 mapping bins, the BILs generated 633 bins, thereby enhancing the mapping resolution of traits derived from the wild species. We demonstrate the power of the BILs for rapid fine mapping of simple and complex traits derived from the wild tomato species. PMID:27121752

  16. Multivariate analysis of backcross progeny of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) for pre-breeding genotype selection.

    PubMed

    Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Sousa, A G R; Viana, A P; Santos, E A

    2015-01-01

    The Ward-MLM procedure was used to evaluate genetic variation in four backcross progenies and in their parents, hybrid F1 HD13 and donor parent Passiflora sublanceolata. Sixteen quantitative descriptors and five qualitative characteristics of relevance to ornamental flower production were assessed. Using the pseudo-F and pseudo-T² criteria, we identified four groups among these plants in two evaluation periods. In both evaluations, the BC1 plants showed greater dissimilarity to their recurrent parent, but showed high genetic similarity with the P. sublanceolata parent. The first two canonical variables produced by the Ward-MLM procedure accounted for over 90% of the variation in both evaluation periods, enabling the representation of diversity through two-dimensional graphics. Groups II and IV were formed in the first assessment period. Groups I and IV formed in the second period and showed plants with selection potential. We found that it was essential to use both qualitative and quantitative variables for this analysis. Assessments of quantitative descriptors indicate that the selection of BC1 plants can be performed in any of the four progenies. Because of the similarities observed for some floral descriptors between BC1 and the P. sublanceolata parent, a second generation backcross was not recommended. However, the selection of BC1 plants for evaluation and direct use as an ornamental cultivar, or as a resource in other breeding programs, can be recommended. PMID:26634503

  17. Two genes required for diabetes in BB rats. Evidence from cyclical intercrosses and backcrosses

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The BB rat develops a syndrome of autoimmune diabetes similar to Type I diabetes of man. It also has a severe T cell lymphopenia. As part of an ongoing breeding program to transfer the diabetogenic genes of the BB rat onto inbred rat strain backgrounds, diabetic animals were used in a backcross (BC)- intercross (IC)-backcross breeding scheme with Brown Norway (BN), Lewis (L), and Wistar-Furth (WF) inbred rats. We have used monoclonal antibodies to analyze both lymphopenia and major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens (the RT1 locus in the rat) in relation to the development of diabetes. To examine T cell subsets we used a panel of monoclonal antibodies, in particular W3/25 and OX19 , which discriminate the abnormal phenotype better than W3/13. In our breeding program, at least two independent genes or gene complexes are required for the expression of diabetes. One gene determines the lymphopenia, is inherited by simple autosomal recessive genetics and is not linked to the MHC. The second gene is linked to the MHC. Both genes are necessary, but neither gene is sufficient by itself for the development of diabetes. PMID:6202817

  18. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) isogenic recombinant analysis: a method for high-resolution mapping of QTL within a single population.

    PubMed

    Peleman, Johan D; Wye, Crispin; Zethof, Jan; Sørensen, Anker P; Verbakel, Henk; van Oeveren, Jan; Gerats, Tom; van der Voort, Jeroen Rouppe

    2005-11-01

    In the quest for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a subcentimorgan scale, several methods that involve the construction of inbred lines and the generation of large progenies of such inbred lines have been developed (Complex Trait Consortium 2003). Here we present an alternative method that significantly speeds up QTL fine mapping by using one segregating population. As a first step, a rough mapping analysis is performed on a small part of the population. Once the QTL have been mapped to a chromosomal interval by standard procedures, a large population of 1000 plants or more is analyzed with markers flanking the defined QTL to select QTL isogenic recombinants (QIRs). QIRs bear a recombination event in the QTL interval of interest, while other QTL have the same homozygous genotype. Only these QIRs are subsequently phenotyped to fine map the QTL. By focusing at an early stage on the informative individuals in the population only, the efforts in population genotyping and phenotyping are significantly reduced as compared to prior methods. The principles of this approach are demonstrated by fine mapping an erucic acid QTL of rapeseed at a subcentimorgan scale.

  19. Genotype × Environment Interactions of Yield Traits in Backcross Introgression Lines Derived from Oryza sativa cv. Swarna/Oryza nivara

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Divya; Subrahmanyam, Desiraju; Badri, Jyothi; Raju, Addanki Krishnam; Rao, Yadavalli Venkateswara; Beerelli, Kavitha; Mesapogu, Sukumar; Surapaneni, Malathi; Ponnuswamy, Revathi; Padmavathi, G.; Babu, V. Ravindra; Neelamraju, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Advanced backcross introgression lines (BILs) developed from crosses of Oryza sativa var. Swarna/O. nivara accessions were grown and evaluated for yield and related traits. Trials were conducted for consecutive three seasons in field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield traits under irrigated conditions were analyzed using the Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI), Genotype and Genotype × Environment Interaction (GGE) and modified rank-sum statistic (YSi) for yield stability. BILs viz., G3 (14S) and G6 (166S) showed yield stability across the seasons along with high mean yield performance. G3 is early in flowering with high yield and has good grain quality and medium height, hence could be recommended for most of the irrigated locations. G6 is a late duration genotype, with strong culm strength, high grain number and panicle weight. G6 has higher yield and stability than Swarna but has Swarna grain type. Among the varieties tested DRRDhan 40 and recurrent parent Swarna showed stability for yield traits across the seasons. The component traits thousand grain weight, panicle weight, panicle length, grain number and plant height explained highest genotypic percentage over environment and interaction factors and can be prioritized to dissect stable QTLs/ genes. These lines were genotyped using microsatellite markers covering the entire rice genome and also using a set of markers linked to previously reported yield QTLs. It was observed that wild derived lines with more than 70% of recurrent parent genome were stable and showed enhanced yield levels compared to genotypes with higher donor genome introgressions. PMID:27807437

  20. QTL mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ling; Fan, Xingming; Tan, Jing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-12-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the causal fungal pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most serious foliar diseases of maize worldwide. In the current study, a highly resistant inbred line Y32 and a susceptible line Q11 were used to produce segregating populations for both genetic analysis and QTL mapping. The broad-sense heritability (H (2)) for GLS resistance was estimated to be as high as 0.85, indicating that genetic factors played key roles in phenotypic variation. In initial QTL analysis, four QTL, located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, and 8, were detected to confer GLS resistance. Each QTL could explain 2.53-23.90 % of the total phenotypic variation, predominantly due to additive genetic effects. Two major QTL, qRgls1 and qRgls2 on chromosomes 8 and 5, were consistently detected across different locations and replicates. Compared to the previous results, qRgls2 is located in a 'hotspot' for GLS resistance; while, qRgls1 does not overlap with any other known resistance QTL. Furthermore, the major QTL-qRgls1 was fine-mapped into an interval of 1.4 Mb, flanked by the markers GZ204 and IDP5. The QTL-qRgls1 could enhance the resistance percentages by 19.70-61.28 %, suggesting its usefulness to improve maize resistance to GLS.

  1. Educational Software for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, T. C.; Doetkott, C.

    2007-01-01

    This educational software was developed to aid teachers and students in their understanding of how the process of identifying the most likely quantitative trait loci (QTL) position is determined between two flanking DNA markers. The objective of the software that we developed was to: (1) show how a QTL is mapped to a position on a chromosome using…

  2. Mapping dynamic QTL for plant height in triticale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant height is a prime example of a dynamic trait that changes constantly throughout adult development. In this study we utilised a large triticale mapping population, comprising 647 doubled haploid lines derived from 4 families, to phenotype for plant height by a precision phenotyping platform at multiple time points. Results Using multiple-line cross QTL mapping we identified main effect and epistatic QTL for plant height for each of the time points. Interestingly, some QTL were detected at all time points whereas others were specific to particular developmental stages. Furthermore, the contribution of the QTL to the genotypic variance of plant height also varied with time as exemplified by a major QTL identified on chromosome 6A. Conclusions Taken together, our results in the small grain cereal triticale reveal the importance of considering temporal genetic patterns in the regulation of complex traits such as plant height. PMID:24885543

  3. Genotypic effects of the Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality in purebred Texel lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Richardson, R I; Macfarlane, J M; Nevison, I; Haresign, W; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2011-10-01

    Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) increases loin muscling in lambs inheriting it from their sire only. This study investigated TM-QTL effects on meat quality in 209 Texel lambs that were CT-scanned then slaughtered at 20weeks (carcasses aged for ~1week). Loin meat quality traits included: CT-measured muscle density (predicting intramuscular fat); mechanical tenderness using Volodkevich-type jaws or MIRINZ tenderometer; intramuscular fat; sensory eating quality (sub-sample of 40 lambs). Volodkevich tenderness was also measured in the leg (Vastis lateralis). TM-QTL genotypes were determined, giving 40 non-carriers (+/+), 70 heterozygotes-53 inheriting TM-QTL from the sire (TM/+) and 17 from the dam (+/TM), 34 homozygote TM-QTL lambs (TM/TM) and 65 uncertain. Multiple regression identified no genotype effects on meat quality. For MIRINZ-measured loin tenderness only, contrasts revealed a significant additive effect of TM-QTL (1.27kgF difference between homozygotes). However, the taste panel identified no significant differences between +/+ and TM/TM lambs. Results show little evidence of TM-QTL affecting meat quality.

  4. Genotypic effects of the Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality in purebred Texel lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Richardson, R I; Macfarlane, J M; Nevison, I; Haresign, W; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2011-10-01

    Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) increases loin muscling in lambs inheriting it from their sire only. This study investigated TM-QTL effects on meat quality in 209 Texel lambs that were CT-scanned then slaughtered at 20weeks (carcasses aged for ~1week). Loin meat quality traits included: CT-measured muscle density (predicting intramuscular fat); mechanical tenderness using Volodkevich-type jaws or MIRINZ tenderometer; intramuscular fat; sensory eating quality (sub-sample of 40 lambs). Volodkevich tenderness was also measured in the leg (Vastis lateralis). TM-QTL genotypes were determined, giving 40 non-carriers (+/+), 70 heterozygotes-53 inheriting TM-QTL from the sire (TM/+) and 17 from the dam (+/TM), 34 homozygote TM-QTL lambs (TM/TM) and 65 uncertain. Multiple regression identified no genotype effects on meat quality. For MIRINZ-measured loin tenderness only, contrasts revealed a significant additive effect of TM-QTL (1.27kgF difference between homozygotes). However, the taste panel identified no significant differences between +/+ and TM/TM lambs. Results show little evidence of TM-QTL affecting meat quality. PMID:21592676

  5. Saturated Molecular Map of the Rice Genome Based on an Interspecific Backcross Population

    PubMed Central

    Causse, M. A.; Fulton, T. M.; Cho, Y. G.; Ahn, S. N.; Chunwongse, J.; Wu, K.; Xiao, J.; Yu, Z.; Ronald, P. C.; Harrington, S. E.; Second, G.; McCouch, S. R.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    A molecular map has been constructed for the rice genome comprised of 726 markers (mainly restriction fragment length polymorphisms; RFLPs). The mapping population was derived from a backcross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and its wild African relative, Oryza longistaminata. The very high level of polymorphism between these species, combined with the use of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA libraries, contributed to mapping efficiency. A subset of the probes used in this study was previously used to construct an RFLP map derived from an inter subspecific cross, providing a basis for comparison of the two maps and of the relative mapping efficiencies in the two crosses. In addition to the previously described PstI genomic rice library, three cDNA libraries from rice (Oryza), oat (Avena) and barley (Hordeum) were used in this mapping project. Levels of polymorphism detected by each and the frequency of identifying heterologous sequences for use in rice mapping are discussed. Though strong reproductive barriers isolate O. sativa from O. longistaminata, the percentage of markers showing distorted segregation in this backcross population was not significantly different than that observed in an intraspecific F(2) population previously used for mapping. The map contains 1491 cM with an average interval size of 4.0 cM on the framework map, and 2.0 cM overall. A total of 238 markers from the previously described PstI genomic rice library, 250 markers from a cDNA library of rice (Oryza), 112 cDNA markers from oat (Avena), and 20 cDNA markers from a barley (Hordeum) library, two genomic clones from maize (Zea), 11 microsatellite markers, three telomere markers, eleven isozymes, 26 cloned genes, six RAPD, and 47 mutant phenotypes were used in this mapping project. Applications of a molecular map for plant improvement are discussed. PMID:7896104

  6. Identification and mapping of stable QTL with main and epistasis effect on rice grain yield under upland drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that cause drastic reduction in rice grain yield (GY) in rainfed environments. The identification and introgression of QTL leading to high GY under drought have been advocated to be the preferred breeding strategy to improve drought tolerance of popular rice varieties. Genetic control of GY under reproductive-stage drought stress (RS) was studied in two BC1F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Kali Aus, a drought-tolerant aus cultivar, with high-yielding popular varieties MTU1010 and IR64. The aim was to identify QTL for GY under RS that show a large and consistent effect for the trait. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify significant markers putatively linked with high GY under drought. Results QTL analysis revealed major-effect GY QTL: qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.3 (DTY; Drought grain yield) under drought consistently over two seasons in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010 and Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. qDTY 1.2 and qDTY 2.2 explained an additive effect of 288 kg ha−1 and 567 kg ha−1 in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010, whereas qDTY 1.3 and qDTY 2.3 explained an additive effect of 198 kg ha−1 and 147 kg ha−1 in Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. Epistatic interaction was observed for DTF (days to flowering) between regions on chromosome 2 flanked by markers RM154–RM324 and RM263–RM573 and major epistatic QTL for GY showing interaction between genomic locations on chromosome 1 at marker interval RM488–RM315 and chromosome 2 at RM324–RM263 in 2012 DS and 2013 DS RS in Kali Aus/2*IR64 mapping populations. Conclusion The QTL, qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.2 , and qDTY 2.3, identified in this study can be used to improve GY of mega varieties MTU1010 and IR64 under different degrees of severity of drought stress through marker-aided backcrossing and provide farmers with improved varieties that effectively combine high yield potential with good yield

  7. Recurrent parent genome recovery analysis in a marker-assisted backcrossing program of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2015-02-01

    Backcross breeding is the most commonly used method for incorporating a blast resistance gene into a rice cultivar. Linkage between the resistance gene and undesirable units can persist for many generations of backcrossing. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) along with marker-assisted selection (MAS) contributes immensely to overcome the main limitation of the conventional breeding and accelerates recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. The MABC approach was employed to incorporate (a) blast resistance gene(s) from the donor parent Pongsu Seribu 1, the blast-resistant local variety in Malaysia, into the genetic background of MR219, a popular high-yielding rice variety that is blast susceptible, to develop a blast-resistant MR219 improved variety. In this perspective, the recurrent parent genome recovery was analyzed in early generations of backcrossing using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Out of 375 SSR markers, 70 markers were found polymorphic between the parents, and these markers were used to evaluate the plants in subsequent generations. Background analysis revealed that the extent of RPG recovery ranged from 75.40% to 91.3% and from 80.40% to 96.70% in BC1F1 and BC2F1 generations, respectively. In this study, the recurrent parent genome content in the selected BC2F2 lines ranged from 92.7% to 97.7%. The average proportion of the recurrent parent in the selected improved line was 95.98%. MAS allowed identification of the plants that are more similar to the recurrent parent for the loci evaluated in backcross generations. The application of MAS with the MABC breeding program accelerated the recovery of the RP genome, reducing the number of generations and the time for incorporating resistance against rice blast. PMID:25553855

  8. A new finely mapped Oryza australiensis-derived QTL in rice confers resistance to brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; Cheng, Ming-Xing; Gao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Lu; He, Yu-Qing

    2015-04-25

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. The BPH resistance in the introgression line IR65482-17-511-5-7 (IR65482-17) is derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. An F2:3 population from a cross between Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and IR65482-17 was used to map three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling resistance and feeding rate to BPH. The loci were distributed on chromosomes 2, 4 and 12. The QTL qBph4.2 on chromosome 4 had the largest effect, and contributed 36-44% of the phenotypic variance with a LOD score of 19-29. To validate the effect of qBph4.2, two near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing the qBph4.2 locus in the backgrounds of ZS97 and 9311 were developed by marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC). BPH bioassays showed that lines homozygous for the IR65482-17 allele (NIL+) of qBph4.2 tented to have significantly higher seedling resistance to BPH than those homozygous for the ZS97 or 9311 alleles (NIL-). Resistance was associated with a lower feeding rate by the insect. qBph4.2 was delimited to a ~300 kb (0.04 cM) region flanked by markers RM261 and S1, and co-segregating with XC4-27. This study will facilitate map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection of the gene, and permits further studies of gene function and resistance mechanisms in rice: BPH interaction.

  9. The effect of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality traits in crossbred lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Macfarlane, J M; Richardson, R I; Matika, O; Haresign, W; Bünger, L

    2010-08-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been identified on chromosome 18 in Texel sheep (TM-QTL) that increases depth and area of the longissimus dorsi muscle. The study aimed to assess the pleiotropic QTL effects on key meat quality traits (toughness and intramuscular fat content after >or=7 days aging) of crossbred lambs carrying one copy of the TM-QTL. The results showed that male TexelxMule lambs carrying the TM-QTL had significantly less intramuscular fat (1.86% versus 2.25%) and higher toughness, with increased variation, in the loin muscle, compared to non-carrier males. Similar conclusions were obtained using two different types of tenderometer equipment: one using the Volodkevitch test (average shear force of 4.17 kgF or 40.9N for carrier males, 2.61 kgF or 25.6N for non-carrier males) and one using the MIRINZ test (average shear force of 6.18 kgF or 60.6N for carrier males, 5.22 kgF or 51.2N for non-carrier males). Although most toughness measurements were within published consumer acceptability limits, a few individual TM-QTL carrier lambs had unacceptably tough meat, despite enhanced post-slaughter processing. The TM-QTL did not significantly affect loin toughness in female lambs, leg toughness in either sex, or intramuscular fat content. These results should be considered, alongside direct effects of the TM-QTL on muscling and carcass composition, in recommendations for the use of this QTL by sheep breeders. PMID:20416795

  10. mQTL-seq delineates functionally relevant candidate gene harbouring a major QTL regulating pod number in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Das, Shouvik; Singh, Mohar; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Rana, Jai C; Bansal, Kailash C; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-02-01

    The present study used a whole-genome, NGS resequencing-based mQTL-seq (multiple QTL-seq) strategy in two inter-specific mapping populations (Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46 and Pusa 256 × ILWC 46) to scan the major genomic region(s) underlying QTL(s) governing pod number trait in chickpea. Essentially, the whole-genome resequencing of low and high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals (constituting bulks) from each of these two mapping populations discovered >8 million high-quality homozygous SNPs with respect to the reference kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of the physically mapped SNPs was apparent from the identified 2,264 non-synonymous and 23,550 regulatory SNPs, with 8-10% of these SNPs-carrying genes corresponding to transcription factors and disease resistance-related proteins. The utilization of these mined SNPs in Δ (SNP index)-led QTL-seq analysis and their correlation between two mapping populations based on mQTL-seq, narrowed down two (Caq(a)PN4.1: 867.8 kb and Caq(a)PN4.2: 1.8 Mb) major genomic regions harbouring robust pod number QTLs into the high-resolution short QTL intervals (Caq(b)PN4.1: 637.5 kb and Caq(b)PN4.2: 1.28 Mb) on chickpea chromosome 4. The integration of mQTL-seq-derived one novel robust QTL with QTL region-specific association analysis delineated the regulatory (C/T) and coding (C/A) SNPs-containing one pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) gene at a major QTL region regulating pod number in chickpea. This target gene exhibited anther, mature pollen and pod-specific expression, including pronounced higher up-regulated (∼3.5-folds) transcript expression in high pod number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two mapping populations especially during pollen and pod development. The proposed mQTL-seq-driven combinatorial strategy has profound efficacy in rapid genome-wide scanning of potential candidate gene(s) underlying trait-associated high-resolution robust QTL(s), thereby

  11. Deploying QTL-seq for rapid delineation of a potential candidate gene underlying major trait-associated QTL in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bajaj, Deepak; Kujur, Alice; Badoni, Saurabh; Laxmi; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-06-01

    A rapid high-resolution genome-wide strategy for molecular mapping of major QTL(s)/gene(s) regulating important agronomic traits is vital for in-depth dissection of complex quantitative traits and genetic enhancement in chickpea. The present study for the first time employed a NGS-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy to identify one major genomic region harbouring a robust 100-seed weight QTL using an intra-specific 221 chickpea mapping population (desi cv. ICC 7184 × desi cv. ICC 15061). The QTL-seq-derived major SW QTL (CaqSW1.1) was further validated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based traditional QTL mapping (47.6% R(2) at higher LOD >19). This reflects the reliability and efficacy of QTL-seq as a strategy for rapid genome-wide scanning and fine mapping of major trait regulatory QTLs in chickpea. The use of QTL-seq and classical QTL mapping in combination narrowed down the 1.37 Mb (comprising 177 genes) major SW QTL (CaqSW1.1) region into a 35 kb genomic interval on desi chickpea chromosome 1 containing six genes. One coding SNP (G/A)-carrying constitutive photomorphogenic9 (COP9) signalosome complex subunit 8 (CSN8) gene of these exhibited seed-specific expression, including pronounced differential up-/down-regulation in low and high seed weight mapping parents and homozygous individuals during seed development. The coding SNP mined in this potential seed weight-governing candidate CSN8 gene was found to be present exclusively in all cultivated species/genotypes, but not in any wild species/genotypes of primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. This indicates the effect of strong artificial and/or natural selection pressure on target SW locus during chickpea domestication. The proposed QTL-seq-driven integrated genome-wide strategy has potential to delineate major candidate gene(s) harbouring a robust trait regulatory QTL rapidly with optimal use of resources. This will further assist us to extrapolate the

  12. eQTL Mapping Using RNA-seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yijuan

    2012-01-01

    As RNA-seq is replacing gene expression microarrays to assess genome-wide transcription abundance, gene expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) studies using RNA-seq have emerged. RNA-seq delivers two novel features that are important for eQTL studies. First, it provides information on allele-specific expression (ASE), which is not available from gene expression microarrays. Second, it generates unprecedentedly rich data to study RNA-isoform expression. In this paper, we review current methods for eQTL mapping using ASE and discuss some future directions. We also review existing works that use RNA-seq data to study RNA-isoform expression and we discuss the gaps between these works and isoform-specific eQTL mapping. PMID:23667399

  13. Systems genetics, bioinformatics and eQTL mapping.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Deng, Hongwen

    2010-10-01

    Jansen and Nap (Trends Genet 17(7):388-391, 2001) and Jansen (Nat Rev Genet 4:145-151, 2003) first proposed the concept of genetical genomics, or genome-wide genetic analysis of gene expression data, which is also called transcriptome mapping. In this approach, microarrays are used for measuring gene expression levels across genetic mapping populations. These gene expression patterns have been used for genome-wide association analysis, an analysis referred to as expression QTL (eQTL) mapping. Recent progress in genomics and experimental biology has brought exponential growth of the biological information available for computational analysis in public genomics databases. Bioinformatics is essential to genome-wide analysis of gene expression data and used as an effective tool for eQTL mapping. The use of Plabsoft database, EcoTILLING, GNARE and FastMap allowed for dramatic reduction of time in genome analysis. Some web-based tools (e.g., Lirnet, eQTL Viewer) provide efficient and intuitive ways for biologists to explore transcriptional regulation patterns, and to generate hypotheses on the genetic basis of transcriptional regulations. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping concerns finding genomic variation to elucidate variation of expression traits. This problem poses significant challenges due to high dimensionality of both the gene expression and the genomic marker data. The core challenges in understanding and explaining eQTL associations are the fine mapping and the lack of mechanistic explanation. But with the development of genetical genomics and computer technology, many new approaches for eQTL mapping will emerge. The statistical methods used for the analysis of expression QTL will become mature in the future.

  14. Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Gonçalves, L S A; Berilli, A P C G; Pinto, F O; Ribeiro, E H

    2012-05-14

    Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

  15. Cytomorphological and molecular diversity in backcross-derived inbred lines of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Sujatha, M; Prabakaran, A J; Dwivedi, Sangam L; Chandra, S

    2008-04-01

    A set of 250 distinct, stable, and uniform backcross-derived inbred lines were developed in sunflower through 5 interspecific cross combinations involving 4 wild diploid annual species (Helianthus argophyllus, H. petiolaris, H. annuus, and H. debilis). The presence of the wild-species genome in these inbred lines was confirmed through higher chromosome associations (tri- and quadrivalents) at diakinesis. Maximum structural rearrangements of chromosomes were observed in lines derived from H. petiolaris. Forty morphologically diverse inbred lines along with 2 controls were subjected to measurements of phenotypic and genetic distance using 118 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of known map location. A total of 204 alleles were identified and the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 and 5. There were 46 unique alleles and the number of unique alleles was highest in the lines derived from the cross involving H. petiolaris. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.05 to 0.575. The pair-wise comparison values based on genetic dissimilarity estimates computed using molecular marker data varied between 0.143 and 0.486 among the 42 lines. The results indicate that the sunflower gene pool could benefit from introgression of novel alleles from the latent genetic diversity present in the wild species and particularly through exploitation of the diploid annual H. petiolaris.

  16. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa.

    PubMed

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R; Nice, Chris C

    2013-08-20

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids.

  17. Population genomics reveals a possible history of backcrossing and recombination in the gynogenetic fish Poecilia formosa

    PubMed Central

    Alberici da Barbiano, Laura; Gompert, Zachariah; Aspbury, Andrea S.; Gabor, Caitlin R.; Nice, Chris C.

    2013-01-01

    Unisexual sperm-dependent vertebrates are of hybrid origins, rare, and predicted to be short-lived as a result of several challenges arising from their mode of reproduction. In particular, because of a lack of recombination, clonal species are predicted to have a low potential to respond to natural selection. However, many unisexual sperm-dependent species persist, and assessing the genetic diversity present in these species is fundamental to understanding how they avoid extinction. We used population genomic methods to assess genotypic variation within the unisexual fish Poecilia formosa. Measures of admixture and population differentiation, as well as clustering analyses, indicate that the genomes of individuals of P. formosa are admixed and intermediate between Poecilia latipinna and Poecilia mexicana, consistent with the hypothesis of their hybrid origins. Bayesian genomic cline analyses indicate that about 12% of sampled loci exhibit patterns consistent with inheritance from only one parent. The estimation of observed heterozygosity clearly suggests that P. formosa is not comprised of direct descendants of a single nonrecombining asexual F1 hybrid individual. Additionally, the estimation of observed heterozygosity provides support for the hypothesis that the history of this unisexual species has included backcrossing with the parent species before the onset of gynogenesis. We also document high levels of variation among asexual individuals, which is attributable to recombination (historical or ongoing) and the accumulation of mutations. The high genetic variation suggests that this unisexual vertebrate has more potential to respond to natural selection than if they were frozen F1 hybrids. PMID:23918384

  18. QTL fine mapping with Bayes C(π): a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate QTL mapping is a prerequisite in the search for causative mutations. Bayesian genomic selection models that analyse many markers simultaneously should provide more accurate QTL detection results than single-marker models. Our objectives were to (a) evaluate by simulation the influence of heritability, number of QTL and number of records on the accuracy of QTL mapping with Bayes Cπ and Bayes C; (b) estimate the QTL status (homozygous vs. heterozygous) of the individuals analysed. This study focussed on the ten largest detected QTL, assuming they are candidates for further characterization. Methods Our simulations were based on a true dairy cattle population genotyped for 38 277 phased markers. Some of these markers were considered biallelic QTL and used to generate corresponding phenotypes. Different numbers of records (4387 and 1500), heritability values (0.1, 0.4 and 0.7) and numbers of QTL (10, 100 and 1000) were studied. QTL detection was based on the posterior inclusion probability for individual markers, or on the sum of the posterior inclusion probabilities for consecutive markers, estimated using Bayes C or Bayes Cπ. The QTL status of the individuals was derived from the contrast between the sums of the SNP allelic effects of their chromosomal segments. Results The proportion of markers with null effect (π) frequently did not reach convergence, leading to poor results for Bayes Cπ in QTL detection. Fixing π led to better results. Detection of the largest QTL was most accurate for medium to high heritability, for low to moderate numbers of QTL, and with a large number of records. The QTL status was accurately inferred when the distribution of the contrast between chromosomal segment effects was bimodal. Conclusions QTL detection is feasible with Bayes C. For QTL detection, it is recommended to use a large dataset and to focus on highly heritable traits and on the largest QTL. QTL statuses were inferred based on the distribution of the

  19. Analysis of quantitative trait loci affecting chlorophyll content of rice leaves in a double haploid population and two backcross populations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Gonghao; Zeng, Jing; He, Yuqing

    2014-02-25

    Chlorophyll content, one of the most important physiological parameters related to plant photosynthesis, is usually used to predict yield potential. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying the chlorophyll content of rice leaves, a double haploid (DH) population was developed from an indica/japonica (Zhenshan 97/Wuyujing 2) crossing and two backcross populations were established subsequently by backcrossing DH lines with each of their parents. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were determined by using a spectrophotometer to directly measure the leaf chlorophyll extracts. To determine the leaf chlorophyll retention along with maturation, all measurements were performed on the day of heading and were repeated 30 days later. A total of 60 QTLs were resolved for all the traits using these three populations. These QTLs were distributed on 10 rice chromosomes, except chromosomes 5 and 10; the closer the traits, the more clustering of the QTLs residing on common rice chromosomal regions. In general, the majority of QTLs that specify chlorophyll a content also play a role in determining chlorophyll b content. Strangely, chlorophyll content in this study was found mostly to be lacking or to have a negative correlation with yield. In both backcross F1 populations, overdominant (or underdominant) loci were more important than complete or partially dominant loci for main-effect QTLs and epistatic QTLs, thereby supporting previous findings that overdominant effects are the primary genetic basis for depression in inbreeding and heterosis in rice.

  20. Effect and mode of action of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on carcass traits in purebred Texel lambs.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, J M; Lambe, N R; Matika, O; Johnson, P L; Wolf, B T; Haresign, W; Bishop, S C; Bünger, L

    2014-07-01

    TM-QTL is a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on ovine chromosome 18 (OAR18) known to affect loin muscling in Texel sheep. Previous work suggested that its mode of inheritance is consistent with paternal polar overdominance, but this has yet to be formally demonstrated. This study used purebred Texel sheep segregating for TM-QTL to confirm its presence in the chromosomal region in which it was first reported and to determine its pattern of inheritance. To do so, this study used the first available data from a Texel flock, which included homozygote TM-QTL carriers (TM/TM; n=34) in addition to homozygote non-carriers (+/+; n=40 and, heterozygote TM-QTL-carriers inheriting TM-QTL from their sire (TM/+; n=53) or their dam (+/TM; n=17). Phenotypes included a wide range of loin muscling, carcass composition and tissue distribution traits. The presence of a QTL affecting ultrasound muscle depth on OAR18 was confirmed with a paternal QTL effect ranging from +0.54 to +2.82 mm UMD (s.e. 0.37 to 0.57 mm) across the sires segregating for TM-QTL. Loin muscle width, depth and area, loin muscle volume and dissected M. longissimus lumborum weight were significantly greater for TM/+ than +/+ lambs (+2.9% to +7.9%; P<0.05). There was significant evidence that the effect of TM-QTL on the various loin muscling traits measured was paternally polar overdominant (P<0.05). In contrast, there was an additive effect of TM-QTL on both live weight at 20 weeks and carcass weight; TM/TM animals were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than +/+ (+11.1% and +7.3%, respectively) and +/TM animals (+11.9% and +11.7%, respectively), with TM/+ intermediate. Weights of the leg, saddle and shoulder region (corrected for carcass weight) were similar in the genotypic groups. There was a tendency for lambs inheriting TM-QTL from their sire to be less fat with slightly more muscle than non-carriers. For example, carcass muscle weight measured by live animal CT-scanning was 2.8% higher in TM/TM than +/+ lambs (P<0

  1. THROUGH THE GENETIC BOTTLENECK: O. RUFIPOGON AS A SOURCE OF TRAIT-ENHANCING ALLELES FOR O. SATIVA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper summarizes results from a decade of collaborative research using advanced backcross (AB) populations to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with improved performance in rice and to clone genes underlying key QTLs of interest. We demonstrate taht AB-QTL analysis is capable o...

  2. Mapping Isoflavone QTL with Main, Epistatic and QTL × Environment Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yongguang; Teng, Weili; Li, Dongmei; Zhan, Yong; Li, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) isoflavone is important for human health and plant defense system. To identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) and epistatic QTL underlying isoflavone content in soybean, F5:6, F5:7 and F5:8 populations of 130 recombinant inbred (RI) lines, derived from the cross of soybean cultivar ‘Zhong Dou 27′ (high isoflavone) and ‘Jiu Nong 20′ (low isoflavone), were analyzed with 95 new SSR markers. A new linkage map including 194 SSR markers and covering 2,312 cM with mean distance of about 12 cM between markers was constructed. Thirty four QTL for both individual and total seed isoflavone contents of soybean were identified. Six, seven, ten and eleven QTL were associated with daidzein (DZ), glycitein (GC), genistein (GT) and total isoflavone (TI), respectively. Of them 23 QTL were newly identified. The qTIF_1 between Satt423 and Satt569 shared the same marker Satt569 with qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2. The qGTD2_1 between Satt186 and Satt226 was detected in four environments and explained 3.41%-10.98% of the phenotypic variation. The qGTA2_1, overlapped with qGCA2_1 and detected in four environments, was close to the previously identified major QTL for GT, which were responsible for large a effects. QTL (qDZF_2, qGTF_1 and qTIF_2) between Satt144-Satt569 were either clustered or pleiotropic. The qGCM_1, qGTM_1 and qTIM_1 between Satt540-Sat_244 explained 2.02%–9.12% of the phenotypic variation over six environments. Moreover, the qGCE_1 overlapped with qGTE_1 and qTIE_1, the qTIH_2 overlapped with qGTH_1, qGCI_1 overlapped with qDZI_1, qTIL_1 overlapped with qGTL_1, and qTIO_1 overlapped with qGTO_1. In this study, some of unstable QTL were detected in different environments, which were due to weak expression of QTL, QTL by environment interaction in the opposite direction to a effects, and/or epistasis. The markers identified in multi-environments in this study could be applied in the selection of soybean cultivars for higher

  3. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops.

  4. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops. PMID:27145323

  5. A knockout mutation in the lignin biosynthesis gene CCR1 explains a major QTL for acid detergent lignin content in Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liezhao; Stein, Anna; Wittkop, Benjamin; Sarvari, Pouya; Li, Jiana; Yan, Xingying; Dreyer, Felix; Frauen, Martin; Friedt, Wolfgang; Snowdon, Rod J

    2012-05-01

    Seed coat phenolic compounds represent important antinutritive fibre components that cause a considerable reduction in value of seed meals from oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The nutritionally most important fibre compound is acid detergent lignin (ADL), to which a significant contribution is made by phenylpropanoid-derived lignin precursors. In this study, we used bulked-segregant analysis in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of the Chinese oilseed rape lines GH06 (yellow seed, low ADL) and P174 (black seed, high ADL) to identify markers with tight linkage to a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed ADL content. Fine mapping of the QTL was performed in a backcross population comprising 872 BC(1)F(2) plants from a cross of an F(7) RIL from the above-mentioned population, which was heterozygous for this major QTL and P174. A 3:1 phenotypic segregation for seed ADL content indicated that a single, dominant, major locus causes a substantial reduction in ADL. This locus was successively narrowed to 0.75 cM using in silico markers derived from a homologous Brassica rapa sequence contig spanning the QTL. Subsequently, we located a B. rapa orthologue of the key lignin biosynthesis gene CINNAMOYL CO-A REDUCTASE 1 (CCR1) only 600 kbp (0.75 cM) upstream of the nearest linked marker. Sequencing of PCR amplicons, covering the full-length coding sequences of Bna.CCR1 homologues, revealed a locus in P174 whose sequence corresponds to the Brassica oleracea wild-type allele from chromosome C8. In GH06, however, this allele is replaced by a homologue derived from chromosome A9 that contains a loss-of-function frameshift mutation in exon 1. Genetic and physical map data infer that this loss-of-function allele has replaced a functional Bna.CCR1 locus on chromosome C8 in GH06 by homoeologous non-reciprocal translocation.

  6. Identification and fine-mapping of a QTL, qMrdd1, that confers recessive resistance to maize rough dwarf disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a devastating viral disease that results in considerable yield losses worldwide. Three major strains of virus cause MRDD, including maize rough dwarf virus in Europe, Mal de Río Cuarto virus in South America, and rice black-streaked dwarf virus in East Asia. These viral pathogens belong to the genus fijivirus in the family Reoviridae. Resistance against MRDD is a complex trait that involves a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The primary approach used to minimize yield losses from these viruses is to breed and deploy resistant maize hybrids. Results Of the 50 heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs), 24 showed consistent responses to MRDD across different years and locations, in which 9 were resistant and 15 were susceptible. We performed trait-marker association analysis on the 24 HIFs and found six chromosomal regions which were putatively associated with MRDD resistance. We then conducted QTL analysis and detected a major resistance QTL, qMrdd1, on chromosome 8. By applying recombinant-derived progeny testing to self-pollinated backcrossed families, we fine-mapped the qMrdd1 locus into a 1.2-Mb region flanked by markers M103-4 and M105-3. The qMrdd1 locus acted in a recessive manner to reduce the disease-severity index (DSI) by 24.2–39.3%. The genetic effect of qMrdd1 was validated using another F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in which MRDD resistance was segregating and two genotypes at the qMrdd1 locus differed significantly in DSI values. Conclusions The qMrdd1 locus is a major resistance QTL, acting in a recessive manner to increase maize resistance to MRDD. We mapped qMrdd1 to a 1.2-Mb region, which will enable the introgression of qMrdd1-based resistance into elite maize hybrids and reduce MRDD-related crop losses. PMID:24079304

  7. Controlling false positives in the mapping of epistatic QTL.

    PubMed

    Wei, W-H; Knott, S; Haley, C S; de Koning, D-J

    2010-04-01

    This study addresses the poorly explored issue of the control of false positive rate (FPR) in the mapping of pair-wise epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL). A nested test framework was developed to (1) allow pre-identified QTL to be used directly to detect epistasis in one-dimensional genome scans, (2) to detect novel epistatic QTL pairs in two-dimensional genome scans and (3) to derive genome-wide thresholds through permutation and handle multiple testing. We used large-scale simulations to evaluate the performance of both the one- and two-dimensional approaches in mapping different forms and levels of epistasis and to generate profiles of FPR, power and accuracy to inform epistasis mapping studies. We showed that the nested test framework and genome-wide thresholds were essential to control FPR at the 5% level. The one-dimensional approach was generally more powerful than the two-dimensional approach in detecting QTL-associated epistasis and identified nearly all epistatic pairs detected from the two-dimensional approach. However, only the two-dimensional approach could detect epistatic QTL with weak main effects. Combining the two approaches allowed effective mapping of different forms of epistasis, whereas using the nested test framework kept the FPR under control. This approach provides a good search engine for high-throughput epistasis analyses.

  8. Joint QTL analyses for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae using six nested inbred populations with heterogeneous conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). With traditional QTL mapping approaches, power to detect these QTL, frequently of small effect, can be limited by population size. Joint linkage QTL analysis of nested recombinant inbred li...

  9. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat by QTL Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jose Miguel; Royo, Conxita

    2015-12-01

    Leaf rust is an important disease that causes significant yield losses in wheat. Many studies have reported the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling leaf rust resistance; therefore, QTL meta-analysis has become a useful tool for identifying consensus QTL and refining QTL positions among them. In this study, QTL meta-analysis was conducted using reported results on the number, position, and effects of QTL for leaf rust resistance in bread and durum wheat. Investigation of 14 leaf rust resistance traits from 19 studies involving 20 mapping populations and 33 different parental lines provided information for 144 unique QTL that were projected onto the Wheat Composite 2004 reference map. In total, 35 meta-QTL for leaf rust resistance traits were identified in 17 wheat chromosomes and 13 QTL remained as unique QTL. The results will facilitate further work on the cloning of QTL for pyramiding minor- and partial-effect resistance genes to develop varieties with durable resistance to leaf rust.

  10. Dissecting the Genetic Architecture of Leaf Rust Resistance in Wheat by QTL Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jose Miguel; Royo, Conxita

    2015-12-01

    Leaf rust is an important disease that causes significant yield losses in wheat. Many studies have reported the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling leaf rust resistance; therefore, QTL meta-analysis has become a useful tool for identifying consensus QTL and refining QTL positions among them. In this study, QTL meta-analysis was conducted using reported results on the number, position, and effects of QTL for leaf rust resistance in bread and durum wheat. Investigation of 14 leaf rust resistance traits from 19 studies involving 20 mapping populations and 33 different parental lines provided information for 144 unique QTL that were projected onto the Wheat Composite 2004 reference map. In total, 35 meta-QTL for leaf rust resistance traits were identified in 17 wheat chromosomes and 13 QTL remained as unique QTL. The results will facilitate further work on the cloning of QTL for pyramiding minor- and partial-effect resistance genes to develop varieties with durable resistance to leaf rust. PMID:26571424

  11. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Jugulam, M.; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K. Y.; Chen, Shu; Hall, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  12. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  13. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    PubMed

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  14. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During postharvest storage, pepper (Capsicum sp.) fruit commonly wilts (or shrivels) early because of rapid water loss combined with the hollow fruit’s limited water storage capacity, a condition that greatly reduces its shelf-life and market value. To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid comp...

  15. Confirmation of a seed yield QTL in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic germplasm can be an important source of genetic diversity for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] improvement. Previously, four yield quantitative trait loci (QTL) had been identified in a cross between the exotic soybean plant introduction (PI) 68658 and the U.S. cultivar Lawrence. The confirma...

  16. QTL architecture of reproductive fitness characters in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reproductive output is critical to both agronomists seeking to increase seed yield and to evolutionary biologists interested in understanding natural selection. We examine the genetic architecture of diverse reproductive fitness traits in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a crop (seed oil) × wild-like (rapid cycling) genotype of Brassica rapa in field and greenhouse environments. Results Several fitness traits showed strong correlations and QTL-colocalization across environments (days to bolting, fruit length and seed color). Total fruit number was uncorrelated across environments and most QTL affecting this trait were correspondingly environment-specific. Most fitness components were positively correlated, consistent with life-history theory that genotypic variation in resource acquisition masks tradeoffs. Finally, we detected evidence of transgenerational pleiotropy, that is, maternal days to bolting was negatively correlated with days to offspring germination. A QTL for this transgenerational correlation was mapped to a genomic region harboring one copy of FLOWERING LOCUS C, a genetic locus known to affect both days to flowering as well as germination phenotypes. Conclusions This study characterizes the genetic structure of important fitness/yield traits within and between generations in B. rapa. Several identified QTL are suitable candidates for fine-mapping for the improvement of yield in crop Brassicas. Specifically, brFLC1, warrants further investigation as a potential regulator of phenology between generations. PMID:24641198

  17. Ensemble learning of QTL models improves prediction of complex traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) models can provide useful insights into trait genetic architecture because of their straightforward interpretability, but are less useful for genetic prediction due to difficulty in including the effects of numerous small effect loci without overfitting. Tight linkage ...

  18. mQTL.NMR: an integrated suite for genetic mapping of quantitative variations of (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hedjazi, Lyamine; Gauguier, Dominique; Zalloua, Pierre A; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-04-21

    High-throughput (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an increasingly popular robust approach for qualitative and quantitative metabolic profiling, which can be used in conjunction with genomic techniques to discover novel genetic associations through metabotype quantitative trait locus (mQTL) mapping. There is therefore a crucial necessity to develop specialized tools for an accurate detection and unbiased interpretability of the genetically determined metabolic signals. Here we introduce and implement a combined chemoinformatic approach for objective and systematic analysis of untargeted (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiles in quantitative genetic contexts. The R/Bioconductor mQTL.NMR package was designed to (i) perform a series of preprocessing steps restoring spectral dependency in collinear NMR data sets to reduce the multiple testing burden, (ii) carry out robust and accurate mQTL mapping in human cohorts as well as in rodent models, (iii) statistically enhance structural assignment of genetically determined metabolites, and (iv) illustrate results with a series of visualization tools. Built-in flexibility and implementation in the powerful R/Bioconductor framework allow key preprocessing steps such as peak alignment, normalization, or dimensionality reduction to be tailored to specific problems. The mQTL.NMR package is freely available with its source code through the Comprehensive R/Bioconductor repository and its own website ( http://www.ican-institute.org/tools/ ). It represents a significant advance to facilitate untargeted metabolomic data processing and quantitative analysis and their genetic mapping. PMID:25803548

  19. Action of multiple intra-QTL genes concerted around a co-localized transcription factor underpins a large effect QTL.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shalabh; Kumar Biswal, Akshaya; Min, Aye; Henry, Amelia; Oane, Rowena H; Raorane, Manish L; Longkumer, Toshisangba; Pabuayon, Isaiah M; Mutte, Sumanth K; Vardarajan, Adithi R; Miro, Berta; Govindan, Ganesan; Albano-Enriquez, Blesilda; Pueffeld, Mandy; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Slamet-Loedin, Inez; Sundarvelpandian, Kalaipandian; Tsai, Yuan-Ching; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Hsing, Yue-Ie C; Kumar, Arvind; Kohli, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Sub-QTLs and multiple intra-QTL genes are hypothesized to underpin large-effect QTLs. Known QTLs over gene families, biosynthetic pathways or certain traits represent functional gene-clusters of genes of the same gene ontology (GO). Gene-clusters containing genes of different GO have not been elaborated, except in silico as coexpressed genes within QTLs. Here we demonstrate the requirement of multiple intra-QTL genes for the full impact of QTL qDTY12.1 on rice yield under drought. Multiple evidences are presented for the need of the transcription factor 'no apical meristem' (OsNAM12.1) and its co-localized target genes of separate GO categories for qDTY12.1 function, raising a regulon-like model of genetic architecture. The molecular underpinnings of qDTY12.1 support its effectiveness in further improving a drought tolerant genotype and for its validity in multiple genotypes/ecosystems/environments. Resolving the combinatorial value of OsNAM12.1 with individual intra-QTL genes notwithstanding, identification and analyses of qDTY12.1has fast-tracked rice improvement towards food security. PMID:26507552

  20. Action of multiple intra-QTL genes concerted around a co-localized transcription factor underpins a large effect QTL

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Shalabh; Kumar Biswal, Akshaya; Min, Aye; Henry, Amelia; Oane, Rowena H.; Raorane, Manish L.; Longkumer, Toshisangba; Pabuayon, Isaiah M.; Mutte, Sumanth K.; Vardarajan, Adithi R.; Miro, Berta; Govindan, Ganesan; Albano-Enriquez, Blesilda; Pueffeld, Mandy; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Slamet-Loedin, Inez; Sundarvelpandian, Kalaipandian; Tsai, Yuan-Ching; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Kumar, Arvind; Kohli, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Sub-QTLs and multiple intra-QTL genes are hypothesized to underpin large-effect QTLs. Known QTLs over gene families, biosynthetic pathways or certain traits represent functional gene-clusters of genes of the same gene ontology (GO). Gene-clusters containing genes of different GO have not been elaborated, except in silico as coexpressed genes within QTLs. Here we demonstrate the requirement of multiple intra-QTL genes for the full impact of QTL qDTY12.1 on rice yield under drought. Multiple evidences are presented for the need of the transcription factor ‘no apical meristem’ (OsNAM12.1) and its co-localized target genes of separate GO categories for qDTY12.1 function, raising a regulon-like model of genetic architecture. The molecular underpinnings of qDTY12.1 support its effectiveness in further improving a drought tolerant genotype and for its validity in multiple genotypes/ecosystems/environments. Resolving the combinatorial value of OsNAM12.1 with individual intra-QTL genes notwithstanding, identification and analyses of qDTY12.1has fast-tracked rice improvement towards food security. PMID:26507552

  1. Genetic and Molecular Basis of QTL of Diabetes in Mouse: Genes and Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Jiao, Yan; Xiong, Qing; Wang, Cong-Yi; Gerling, Ivan; Gu, Weikuan

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted of all available reports in PubMed and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) to examine the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative genetic loci (QTL) of diabetes with the main focus on genes and polymorphisms. The major question is, What can the QTL tell us? Specifically, we want to know whether those genome regions differ from other regions in terms of genes relevant to diabetes. Which genes are within those QTL regions, and, among them, which genes have already been linked to diabetes? whether more polymorphisms have been associated with diabetes in the QTL regions than in the non-QTL regions. Our search revealed a total of 9038 genes from 26 type 1 diabetes QTL, which cover 667,096,006 bp of the mouse genomic sequence. On one hand, a large number of candidate genes are in each of these QTL; on the other hand, we found that some obvious candidate genes of QTL have not yet been investigated. Thus, the comprehensive search of candidate genes for known QTL may provide unexpected benefit for identifying QTL genes for diabetes. PMID:19471607

  2. Mendelizing all Components of a Pyramid of Three Yield QTL in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Gur, Amit; Zamir, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers allowed breeders to mendelize quantitative trait loci (QTL) providing another demonstration that quantitative traits are governed by the same principles as single qualitative genes. This research extends the QTL analysis to two and three QTL and tests our ability to mendelize an oligogenic trait. In tomato, agricultural yield is determined by the weight of the fruits harvested per unit area and the total soluble solids (% Brix)-sugars and acids. The current study explores the segregation of multiple independent yield-related QTL that were identified and mapped using introgression lines (IL) of Solanum pennellii in cultivated processing tomato (S. lycopersicum). We screened 45 different double and triple IL-QTL combinations for agricultural yield, to identify QTL pyramids that behaved in an additive manner and were suitable substrate for mendelizing an oligogenic trait. A pyramid of three independent QTL that significantly improved Brix(∗)Yield (BXY - the soluble solids output per unit area) compared to M82 was selected. In the progenies of the tri-hybrid we bred using markers a nearly isogenic 'immortalized F2.' While the common mode of QTL-QTL interactions across the 45 IL-QTLs combinations was less than additive, the three QTLs in the selected triple-stack performed in an additive manner which made it an exceptional material for breeding. This study demonstrates that using the phenotypic effect of all 27 possible QTL-alleles combinations it is possible to make reliable predictions about the genotypes that will maximize the yield.

  3. Mendelizing all Components of a Pyramid of Three Yield QTL in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Gur, Amit; Zamir, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers allowed breeders to mendelize quantitative trait loci (QTL) providing another demonstration that quantitative traits are governed by the same principles as single qualitative genes. This research extends the QTL analysis to two and three QTL and tests our ability to mendelize an oligogenic trait. In tomato, agricultural yield is determined by the weight of the fruits harvested per unit area and the total soluble solids (% Brix)-sugars and acids. The current study explores the segregation of multiple independent yield-related QTL that were identified and mapped using introgression lines (IL) of Solanum pennellii in cultivated processing tomato (S. lycopersicum). We screened 45 different double and triple IL-QTL combinations for agricultural yield, to identify QTL pyramids that behaved in an additive manner and were suitable substrate for mendelizing an oligogenic trait. A pyramid of three independent QTL that significantly improved Brix(∗)Yield (BXY - the soluble solids output per unit area) compared to M82 was selected. In the progenies of the tri-hybrid we bred using markers a nearly isogenic 'immortalized F2.' While the common mode of QTL-QTL interactions across the 45 IL-QTLs combinations was less than additive, the three QTLs in the selected triple-stack performed in an additive manner which made it an exceptional material for breeding. This study demonstrates that using the phenotypic effect of all 27 possible QTL-alleles combinations it is possible to make reliable predictions about the genotypes that will maximize the yield. PMID:26697048

  4. Chromosome characteristics and behavior differences in Allium fistulosum L., A. cepa L, their F1 hybrid, and selected backcross progeny.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1994-11-01

    Mitotic and meiotic studies were performed on Allium fistulosum, A. cepa, their F1 hybrid, and ten selected backcross (BC)1 plants [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x (A. cepa)]. Each BC1 plant had at least one A. cepa isozyme allele (Pgi, Idh, or Adh). Chromosome morphology and behavior differed among plants. Meiocytes were observed with one, two, or three bridges and/ or fragments, indicating at least three paracentric inversions between A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Unusual crossing over and multivalent associations suggest that the 5F subtelocentric chromosome of A. fistulosum is involved in at least one translocation. The number of bridges and fragments and multivalent associations varied between the F1 hybrid and BC1 progenies. The F1 hybrid and all BC1 progenies were either sterile or had very little seed set. Fertility was not restored in any of the selected BC1 plants.

  5. Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits. By using an up-to-date annotation and localization of the respective probe-sets, the integration of eQTL mapping data and information of trait correlated expression finally served to point to candidate genes for meat quality traits. Results Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs samples of 74 F2 animals of a pig resource population revealed 11,457 probe-sets representing genes expressed in the muscle. Linkage analysis of expression levels of these probe-sets provided 9,180 eQTL at the suggestive significance threshold of LOD > 2. We mapped 653 eQTL on the same chromosome as the corresponding gene and these were designated as 'putative cis-eQTL'. In order to link eQTL to the traits of interest, probe-sets were addressed with relative transcript abundances that showed correlation with meat quality traits at p ≤ 0.05. Out of the 653 'putative cis-eQTL', 262 transcripts were correlated with at least one meat quality trait. Furthermore, association of expression levels with composite traits with high loadings for meat quality traits generated by principle component analysis were taken into account leading to a list of 85 genes exhibiting cis-eQTL and trait dependent expression. Conclusion Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for meat quality traits. Correlations between transcript abundance and meat quality traits, combined with genetic positional information of eQTL allowed us to prioritise candidate genes for further study. PMID:20950486

  6. Inheritance of GFP-Bt transgenes from Brassica napus in backcrosses with three wild B. rapa accessions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Lawrence, John R; Warwick, Suzanne I; Mason, Peter; Braun, Lorraine; Halfhill, Matthew D; Stewart, C Neal

    2004-01-01

    Transgenes from transgenic oilseed rape, Brassica napus (AACC genome), can introgress into populations of wild B. rapa (AA genome), but little is known about the long-term persistence of transgenes from different transformation events. For example, transgenes that are located on the crop's C chromosomes may be lost during the process of introgression. We investigated the genetic behavior of transgenes in backcross generations of wild B. rapa after nine GFP (green fluorescent protein)-Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) B. napus lines, named GT lines, were hybridized with three wild B. rapa accessions, respectively. Each backcross generation involved crosses between hemizygous GT plants and non-GT B. rapa pollen recipients. In some cases, sample sizes were too small to allow the detection of major deviations from Mendelian segregation ratios, but the segregation of GT:non-GT was consistent with an expected ratio of 1:1 in all crosses in the BC1 generation. Starting with the BC2 generation, significantly different genetic behavior of the transgenes was observed among the nine GT B. napus lines. In some lines, the segregation of GT:non-GT showed a ratio of 1:1 in the BC2, BC3, and BC4 generations. However, in other GT B. napus lines the segregation ratio of GT:non-GT significantly deviated from 1:1 in the BC2 and BC3 generations, which had fewer transgenic progeny than expected, but not in the BC4 generation. Most importantly, in two GT B. napus lines the segregation of GT:non-GT did not fit into a ratio of 1:1 in the BC2, BC3 or BC4 generations due to a deficiency of transgenic progeny. For these lines, a strong reduction of transgene introgression was observed in all three B. rapa accessions. These findings imply that the genomic location of transgenes in B. napus may affect the long-term persistence of transgenes in B. rapa after hybridization has occurred.

  7. Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

    2013-07-08

    Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

  8. Identification of novel loci associated with gastrointestinal parasite resistance in a Red Maasai x Dorper backcross population.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Magda Vieira; Sonstegard, Tad S; Kemp, Stephen; Mugambi, John M; Gibson, John P; Baker, Robert Leyden; Hanotte, Olivier; Marshall, Karen; Van Tassell, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection is the main health constraint for small ruminant production, causing loss of weight and/or death. Red Maasai sheep have adapted to a tropical environment where extreme parasite exposure is a constant, especially with highly pathogenic Haemonchus contortus. This breed has been reported to be resistant to gastrointestinal parasite infection, hence it is considered an invaluable resource to study associations between host genetics and resistance. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms strongly associated with host resistance in a double backcross population derived from Red Maasai and Dorper sheep using a SNP-based GWAS analysis. The animals that were genotyped represented the most resistant and susceptible individuals based on the tails of phenotypic distribution (10% each) for average faecal egg counts (AVFEC). AVFEC, packed cell volume (AVPCV), and live weight (AVLWT) were adjusted for fixed effects and co-variables, and an association analysis was run using EMMAX. Revised significance levels were calculated using 100,000 permutation tests. The top five significant SNP markers with - log10 p-values >3.794 were observed on five different chromosomes for AVFEC, and BLUPPf90/PostGSf90 results confirmed EMMAX significant regions for this trait. One of these regions included a cluster of significant SNP on chromosome (Chr) 6 not in linkage disequilibrium to each other. This genomic location contains annotated genes involved in cytokine signalling, haemostasis and mucus biosynthesis. Only one association detected on Chr 7 was significant for both AVPCV and AVLWT. The results generated here reveal candidate immune variants for genes involved in differential response to infection and provide additional SNP marker information that has potential to aid selection of resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep of a similar genetic background to the double backcross population. PMID:25867089

  9. Compositional differences between near-isogenic GM and conventional maize hybrids are associated with backcrossing practices in conventional breeding.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Cook, Kevin; Liu, Bing; Perez, Timothy; Willse, Alan; Tichich, Ryan; Feng, Ping; Harrigan, George G

    2015-02-01

    Here, we show that differences between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM comparators cannot be attributed unequivocally to the GM trait, but arise because of minor genomic differences in near-isogenic lines. Specifically, this study contrasted the effect of three GM traits (drought tolerance, MON 87460; herbicide resistance, NK603; insect protection, MON 89034) on maize grain composition relative to the effects of residual genetic variation from backcrossing. Important features of the study included (i) marker-assisted backcrossing to generate genetically similar inbred variants for each GM line, (ii) high-resolution genotyping to evaluate the genetic similarity of GM lines to the corresponding recurrent parents and (iii) introgression of the different GM traits separately into a wide range of genetically distinct conventional inbred lines. The F1 hybrids of all lines were grown concurrently at three replicated field sites in the United States during the 2012 growing season, and harvested grain was subjected to compositional analysis. Proximates (protein, starch and oil), amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and minerals were measured. The number of statistically significant differences (α = 0.05), as well as magnitudes of difference, in mean levels of these components between corresponding GM variants was essentially identical to that between GM and non-GM controls. The largest sources of compositional variation were the genetic background of the different conventional inbred lines (males and females) used to generate the maize hybrids and location. The lack of any compositional effect attributable to GM suggests the development of modern agricultural biotechnology has been accompanied by a lack of any safety or nutritional concerns.

  10. QTL mapping in outbred half-sib families using Bayesian model selection.

    PubMed

    Fang, M; Liu, J; Sun, D; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we propose a model selection method, the Bayesian composite model space approach, to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a half-sib population for continuous and binary traits. In our method, the identity-by-descent-based variance component model is used. To demonstrate the performance of this model, the method was applied to map QTL underlying production traits on BTA6 in a Chinese half-sib dairy cattle population. A total of four QTLs were detected, whereas only one QTL was identified using the traditional least square (LS) method. We also conducted two simulation experiments to validate the efficiency of our method. The results suggest that the proposed method based on a multiple-QTL model is efficient in mapping multiple QTL for an outbred half-sib population and is more powerful than the LS method based on a single-QTL model.

  11. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  12. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  13. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  14. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Esko, Tõnu; Peters, Marjolein J.; Schurmann, Claudia; Schramm, Katharina; Kettunen, Johannes; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Li, Yang; Fu, Jingyuan; Karjalainen, Juha; Platteel, Mathieu; Visschedijk, Marijn; Weersma, Rinse K.; Kasela, Silva; Milani, Lili; Tserel, Liina; Peterson, Pärt; Reinmaa, Eva; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Homuth, Georg; Petersmann, Astrid; Lorbeer, Roberto; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Wood, Andrew R.; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Knight, Julian C.; Melchiotti, Rossella; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Wang, De Yun; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Veldink, Jan H.; Rotzschke, Olaf; Makino, Seiko; Salomaa, Veikko; Strauch, Konstantin; Völker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Metspalu, Andres; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Franke, Lude

    2015-01-01

    The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-environment interaction (GxE) meta-analysis on data from 5,683 samples to infer the cell type specificity of whole blood cis-eQTLs. We demonstrate that this method is able to predict neutrophil and lymphocyte specific cis-eQTLs and replicate these predictions in independent cell-type specific datasets. Finally, we show that SNPs associated with Crohn’s disease preferentially affect gene expression within neutrophils, including the archetypal NOD2 locus. PMID:25955312

  15. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells.

    PubMed

    Westra, Harm-Jan; Arends, Danny; Esko, Tõnu; Peters, Marjolein J; Schurmann, Claudia; Schramm, Katharina; Kettunen, Johannes; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Li, Yang; Fu, Jingyuan; Karjalainen, Juha; Platteel, Mathieu; Visschedijk, Marijn; Weersma, Rinse K; Kasela, Silva; Milani, Lili; Tserel, Liina; Peterson, Pärt; Reinmaa, Eva; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Homuth, Georg; Petersmann, Astrid; Lorbeer, Roberto; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Wood, Andrew R; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B; Hernandez, Dena G; Knight, Julian C; Melchiotti, Rossella; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Wang, De Yun; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Rotzschke, Olaf; Makino, Seiko; Salomaa, Veikko; Strauch, Konstantin; Völker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Metspalu, Andres; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jansen, Ritsert C; Franke, Lude

    2015-05-01

    The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-environment interaction (GxE) meta-analysis on data from 5,683 samples to infer the cell type specificity of whole blood cis-eQTLs. We demonstrate that this method is able to predict neutrophil and lymphocyte specific cis-eQTLs and replicate these predictions in independent cell-type specific datasets. Finally, we show that SNPs associated with Crohn's disease preferentially affect gene expression within neutrophils, including the archetypal NOD2 locus. PMID:25955312

  16. Analysis of morphine responses in mice reveals a QTL on Chromosome 7

    PubMed Central

    Crusio, Wim E.; Dhawan, Esha; Chesler, Elissa J.; Delprato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this study we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on mouse Chromosome 7 associated with locomotor activity and rearing post morphine treatment. This QTL was revealed after correcting for the effects of another QTL peak on Chromosome 10 using composite interval mapping. The positional candidate genes are Syt9 and Ppfibp2. Several other genes within the interval are linked to neural processes, locomotor activity, and the defensive response to harmful stimuli. PMID:27746909

  17. Multivariate whole genome average interval mapping: QTL analysis for multiple traits and/or environments.

    PubMed

    Verbyla, Arūnas P; Cullis, Brian R

    2012-09-01

    A major aim in some plant-based studies is the determination of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for multiple traits or across multiple environments. Understanding these QTL by trait or QTL by environment interactions can be of great value to the plant breeder. A whole genome approach for the analysis of QTL is presented for such multivariate applications. The approach is an extension of whole genome average interval mapping in which all intervals on a linkage map are included in the analysis simultaneously. A random effects working model is proposed for the multivariate (trait or environment) QTL effects for each interval, with a variance-covariance matrix linking the variates in a particular interval. The significance of the variance-covariance matrix for the QTL effects is tested and if significant, an outlier detection technique is used to select a putative QTL. This QTL by variate interaction is transferred to the fixed effects. The process is repeated until the variance-covariance matrix for QTL random effects is not significant; at this point all putative QTL have been selected. Unlinked markers can also be included in the analysis. A simulation study was conducted to examine the performance of the approach and demonstrated the multivariate approach results in increased power for detecting QTL in comparison to univariate methods. The approach is illustrated for data arising from experiments involving two doubled haploid populations. The first involves analysis of two wheat traits, α-amylase activity and height, while the second is concerned with a multi-environment trial for extensibility of flour dough. The method provides an approach for multi-trait and multi-environment QTL analysis in the presence of non-genetic sources of variation. PMID:22692445

  18. Genetic factors and diet affect long-bone length in the F34 LG,SM advanced intercross.

    PubMed

    Norgard, Elizabeth A; Lawson, Heather A; Pletscher, L Susan; Wang, Bing; Brooks, Victoria R; Wolf, Jason B; Cheverud, James M

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies on the LG,SM advanced intercross line have identified approximately 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for long -bone (humerus, ulna, femur, and tibia) lengths. In this study, long-bone-length QTL were fine-mapped in the F(34) generation (n = 1424) of the LG,SM advanced intercross. Environmental effects were assessed by dividing the population by sex between high-fat and low-fat diets, producing eight sex/diet cohorts. We identified 145 individual bone-length QTL comprising 45 pleiotropic QTL; 69 replicated QTL from previous studies, 35 were new traits significant at previously identified loci, and 41 were novel QTL. Many QTL affected only a subset of the population based on sex and/or diet. Eight of ten known skeletal growth genes were upregulated in 3-week-old LG/J male proximal tibial growth plates relative to SM/J. The sequences of parental strains LG/J and SM/J indicated the presence of over half a million polymorphisms in the confidence intervals of these 45 QTL. We examined 526 polymorphisms and found that 97 represented radical changes to amino acid composition while 40 were predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Additional experimentation is required to understand how changes in gene regulation or protein function can alter the genetic architecture and interact with the environment to produce phenotypic variation.

  19. Consistent effects of a major QTL for thermal resistance in field-released Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Norry, Fabian M

    2011-09-01

    Molecular genetic markers can be used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for thermal resistance and this has allowed characterization of a major QTL for knockdown resistance to high temperature in Drosophila melanogaster. The QTL showed trade-off associations with cold resistance under laboratory conditions. However, assays of thermal tolerance conducted in the laboratory may not necessarily reflect performance at varying temperatures in the field. Here we tested if lines with different genotypes in this QTL show different thermal performance under high and low temperatures in the field using a release recapture assay. We found that lines carrying the QTL genotype for high thermal tolerance were significantly better at locating resources in the field releases under hot temperatures while the QTL line carrying the contrasting genotype were superior at cold temperatures. Further, we studied copulatory success between the different QTL genotypes at different temperatures. We found higher copulatory success in males of the high tolerance QTL genotype under hot temperature conditions, while there was no difference in females at cold temperatures. The results allow relating components of field fitness at different environmental temperatures with genotypic variation in a QTL for thermal tolerance.

  20. Mapping QTL conferring resistance in maize to gray leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora zeina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gray leaf spot (GLS) is a globally important foliar disease of maize. Cercospora zeina, one of the two fungal species that cause the disease, is prevalent in southern Africa, China, Brazil and the eastern corn belt of the USA. Identification of QTL for GLS resistance in subtropical germplasm is important to support breeding programmes in developing countries where C. zeina limits production of this staple food crop. Results A maize RIL population (F7:S6) from a cross between CML444 and SC Malawi was field-tested under GLS disease pressure at five field sites over three seasons in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thirty QTL identified from eleven field trials (environments) were consolidated to seven QTL for GLS resistance based on their expression in at least two environments and location in the same core maize bins. Four GLS resistance alleles were derived from the more resistant parent CML444 (bin 1.10, 4.08, 9.04/9.05, 10.06/10.07), whereas the remainder were from SC Malawi (bin 6.06/6.07, 7.02/7.03, 9.06). QTLs in bin 4.08 and bin 6.06/6.07 were also detected as joint QTLs, each explained more than 11% of the phenotypic variation, and were identified in four and seven environments, respectively. Common markers were used to allocate GLS QTL from eleven previous studies to bins on the IBM2005 map, and GLS QTL “hotspots” were noted. Bin 4.08 and 7.02/7.03 GLS QTL from this study overlapped with hotspots, whereas the bin 6.06/6.07 and bin 9.06 QTLs appeared to be unique. QTL for flowering time (bin 1.07, 4.09) in this population did not correspond to QTL for GLS resistance. Conclusions QTL mapping of a RIL population from the subtropical maize parents CML444 and SC Malawi identified seven QTL for resistance to gray leaf spot disease caused by C. zeina. These QTL together with QTL from eleven studies were allocated to bins on the IBM2005 map to provide a basis for comparison. Hotspots of GLS QTL were identified on chromosomes one, two, four, five and

  1. QTL Mapping of Kernel Number-Related Traits and Validation of One Major QTL for Ear Length in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Dongao; Ning, Qiang; Shen, Xiaomeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize. PMID:27176215

  2. Comparative genetic and QTL mapping in sorghum and maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, M

    1996-01-01

    DNA markers and genetic maps will be important tools for direct investigations of several facets of crop improvement and will provide vital links between plant breeding and basic plant biology. The markers and maps will become more important for increased crop production because plant genetics will be required to extend or replace extant management practices such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation (Lee, 1995). Despite the importance of the sorghum crop, comprehensive genetic characterization has been limited. Therefore, the primary goal of this research program was to develop basic genetic tools to facilitate research in the genetics and breeding of sorghum. The first phase of this project consisted of constructing a genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The ISU sorghum map was created through linkage analysis of 78 F2 plants of an intraspecific cross between inbred CK60 and accession P1229828 (Pereira et al., 1994). The map consists of 201 loci distributed among 10 linkage groups covering 1,299 cM. Comparison of sorghum and maize RFLP maps on the basis of common sets of DNA probes revealed a high degree of conservation as reflected by homology, copy number, and collinearity. Examples of conserved and rearranged locus orders were observed. The same sorghum population was used to map genetic factors (mutants and QTL) for several traits including vegetative and reproductive morphology, maturity, insect, and disease resistance. This presentation will emphasize analysis of genetic factors affecting plant height, an important character for sorghum adaptation in temperate latitudes for grain production. Four QTL for plant height were identified in a sample of 152 F2 plants (Pereira and Lee, 1995) whereas 6 QTL were detected among their F3 progeny. These observations and assessments of other traits at 4 QTL common to F2 plants and their F3 progeny indicate some of these regions correspond to loci (dw) previously

  3. Floral genetic architecture: an examination of QTL architecture underlying floral (co)variation across environments.

    PubMed

    Brock, Marcus T; Dechaine, Jennifer M; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L; Maloof, Julin N; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    Genetic correlations are expected to be high among functionally related traits and lower between groups of traits with distinct functions (e.g., reproductive vs. resource-acquisition traits). Here, we explore the quantitative-genetic and QTL architecture of floral organ sizes, vegetative traits, and life history in a set of Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines within and across field and greenhouse environments. Floral organ lengths were strongly positively correlated within both environments, and analysis of standardized G-matrices indicates that the structure of genetic correlations is ∼80% conserved across environments. Consistent with these correlations, we detected a total of 19 and 21 additive-effect floral QTL in the field and the greenhouse, respectively, and individual QTL typically affected multiple organ types. Interestingly, QTL×QTL epistasis also appeared to contribute to observed genetic correlations; i.e., interactions between two QTL had similar effects on filament length and two estimates of petal size. Although floral and nonfloral traits are hypothesized to be genetically decoupled, correlations between floral organ size and both vegetative and life-history traits were highly significant in the greenhouse; G-matrices of floral and vegetative traits as well as floral and life-history traits differed across environments. Correspondingly, many QTL (45% of those mapped in the greenhouse) showed environmental interactions, including approximately even numbers of floral and nonfloral QTL. Most instances of QTL×QTL epistasis for floral traits were environment dependent.

  4. Dynamic QTL and epistasis analysis on seedling root traits in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qingzhi; Li, Pengbo; Hu, Cheng; Hua, Hua; Li, Zhaohu; Rong, Yihua; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2014-04-01

    Roots are involved in acquisition of water and nutrients, as well as in providing structural support to plant. The root system provides a dynamic model for developmental analysis. Here, we investigated quantitative trait loci (QTL), dynamic conditional QTL and epistatic interactions for seedling root traits using an upland cotton F2 population and a constructed genetic map. Totally, 37 QTLs for root traits, 35 dynamic conditional QTLs based on the net increased amount of root traits (root tips, forks, length, surface area and volume) (i) after transplanting 10 days compared to 5 days, and (ii) after transplanting 15 days to 10 days were detected. Obvious dynamic characteristic of QTL and dynamic conditional QTL existed at different developmental stages of root because QTL and dynamic conditional QTL had not been detected simultaneously. We further confirmed that additive and dominance effects of QTL qRSA-chr1-1 in interval time 5 to 10 DAT (days after transplant) offset the effects in 10 to 15 DAT. Lots of two-locus interactions for root traits were identified unconditionally or dynamically, and a few epistatic interactions were only detected simultaneously in interval time of 5-10 DAT and 10-15 DAT, suggesting different interactive genetic mechanisms on root development at different stages. Dynamic conditional QTL and epistasis effects provide new attempts to understand the dynamics of roots and provide clues for root architecture selection in upland cotton. PMID:24840824

  5. Yeast growth plasticity is regulated by environment-specific multi-QTL interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Aatish; Yadav, Anupama; Zhu, Chenchen; Gagneur, Julien; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Steinmetz, Lars M; Bhanot, Gyan; Sinha, Himanshu

    2014-01-28

    For a unicellular, nonmotile organism like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, carbon sources act as nutrients and as signaling molecules; consequently, these sources affect various fitness parameters, including growth. It is therefore advantageous for yeast strains to adapt their growth to carbon source variation. The ability of a given genotype to manifest different phenotypes in varying environments is known as phenotypic plasticity. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that drive plasticity in growth, two growth parameters (growth rate and biomass) were measured for a set of meiotic recombinants of two genetically divergent yeast strains grown in different carbon sources. To identify QTL contributing to plasticity across pairs of environments, gene-environment interaction mapping was performed, which identified several QTL that have a differential effect across environments, some of which act antagonistically across pairs of environments. Multi-QTL analysis identified loci interacting with previously known growth affecting QTL as well as novel two-QTL interactions that affect growth. A QTL that had no significant independent effect was found to alter growth rate and biomass for several carbon sources through two-QTL interactions. Our study demonstrates that environment-specific epistatic interactions contribute to the growth plasticity in yeast. We propose that a targeted scan for epistatic interactions, such as the one described here, can help unravel mechanisms regulating phenotypic plasticity.

  6. A comparative meta-analysis of QTL between intraspecific Gossypium hirsutum interspecific populations and Gossypium hirsutum x Gossypium barbadense populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent Meta-analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in tetraploid cotton (Gossypium spp.) has identified regions of the genome with high concentrations of various trait QTL called clusters, and specific trait QTL called hotspots. The Meta-analysis included all population types of Gossypium mixing ...

  7. Effect of population size on the estimation of QTL: a test using resistance to barley stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Vales, M I; Schön, C C; Capettini, F; Chen, X M; Corey, A E; Mather, D E; Mundt, C C; Richardson, K L; Sandoval-Islas, J S; Utz, H F; Hayes, P M

    2005-11-01

    The limited population sizes used in many quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection experiments can lead to underestimation of QTL number, overestimation of QTL effects, and failure to quantify QTL interactions. We used the barley/barley stripe rust pathosystem to evaluate the effect of population size on the estimation of QTL parameters. We generated a large (n = 409) population of doubled haploid lines derived from the cross of two inbred lines, BCD47 and Baronesse. This population was evaluated for barley stripe rust severity in the Toluca Valley, Mexico, and in Washington State, USA, under field conditions. BCD47 was the principal donor of resistance QTL alleles, but the susceptible parent also contributed some resistance alleles. The major QTL, located on the long arm of chromosome 4H, close to the Mlo gene, accounted for up to 34% of the phenotypic variance. Subpopulations of different sizes were generated using three methods-resampling, selective genotyping, and selective phenotyping-to evaluate the effect of population size on the estimation of QTL parameters. In all cases, the number of QTL detected increased with population size. QTL with large effects were detected even in small populations, but QTL with small effects were detected only by increasing population size. Selective genotyping and/or selective phenotyping approaches could be effective strategies for reducing the costs associated with conducting QTL analysis in large populations. The method of choice will depend on the relative costs of genotyping versus phenotyping.

  8. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  9. Biphasic survival analysis of trypanotolerance QTL in mice.

    PubMed

    Koudandé, O D; Thomson, P C; Bovenhuis, H; Iraqi, F; Gibson, J P; van Arendonk, J A M

    2008-04-01

    A marker-assisted introgression (MAI) experiment was conducted to transfer trypanotolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a donor mouse strain, C57BL/6, into a recipient mouse strain, A/J. The objective was to assess the effect of three previously identified chromosomal regions on mouse chromosomes 1 (MMU1), 5 (MMU5) and 17 (MMU17) in different genetic backgrounds on the survival pattern following infection with Trypanosoma congolense. An exploratory data analysis revealed a biphasic pattern of time to death, with highly distinct early and late mortality phases. In this paper, we present survival analysis methods that account for the biphasic mortality pattern and results of reanalyzing the data from the MAI experiment. The analysis with a Weibull mixture model confirmed the biphasic pattern of time to death. Mortality phase, an unobserved variable, appears to be an important factor influencing survival time and is modeled as a binary outcome variable using logistic regression analysis. Accounting for this biphasic pattern in the analysis reveals that a previously observed sex effect on average survival is rather an effect on proportion of mice in the two mortality phases. The C57BL/6 (donor) QTL alleles on MMU1 and MMU17 act dominantly in the late mortality phase while the A/J (recipient) QTL allele on MMU17 acts dominantly in the early mortality phase. From this study, we found clear evidence for a biphasic survival pattern and provided models for its analysis. These models can also be used when studying defense mechanisms against other pathogens. Finally, these approaches provide further information on the nature of gene actions. PMID:18253157

  10. The effect of conditioning period on loin muscle tenderness in crossbred lambs with or without the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL).

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Haresign, W; Macfarlane, J; Richardson, R I; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2010-08-01

    A Texel muscling quantitative trait locus (TM-QTL) has been identified on chromosome 18, which increases loin muscling, but may also have a negative impact on mechanically-measured loin tenderness in crossbred lambs, depending on conditioning time. This study investigated the influence of a range of conditioning times (3, 5, 7 or 9 days) on the effect of TM-QTL on loin muscle tenderness. Using Texel rams heterozygous for TM-QTL, mated to non-carrier Mule ewes, heterozygous (n=45) and wild-type (n=50) crossbred lambs were produced. Weight of the valuable Longissimus lumborum muscle was higher in TM-QTL carriers than non-carriers, when compared at a fixed age (+11.5%; P=0.038), with the same trend at a fixed carcass weight (+10.2%; P=0.064). Toughness, measured by shear force, was significantly higher in samples from TM-QTL carriers than non-carriers, after conditioning for 3 days (P=0.002), 5 days (P=0.003) or 7 days (P=0.03), but was not significantly different after 9 days of conditioning (P=0.32). Compared to non-carrier lambs, the proportion of samples above consumer acceptability thresholds for toughness was greater in the TM-QTL carrier lambs after 3 and 5 days of conditioning, similar at 7 days, but lower at 9 days. The results suggest that the negative effect of TM-QTL on loin tenderness in crossbred lambs can be overcome by conditioning for more than 7 days. Marketing of TM-QTL carrier lambs through companies that use enhanced processing protocols could be beneficial, due to higher loin muscle weights, without negative effects on meat quality. PMID:20416792

  11. Improving salt tolerance of lowland rice cultivar 'Rassi' through marker-aided backcross breeding in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Bimpong, Isaac Kofi; Manneh, Baboucarr; Sock, Mamadou; Diaw, Faty; Amoah, Nana Kofi Abaka; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Wopereis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress affects about 25% of the 4.4 million ha of irrigated and lowland systems for rice cultivation in West Africa (WA). A major quantitative trait locus (QTLs) on chromosome 1 (Saltol) that enhances tolerance to salt stress at the vegetative stage has enabled the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) to develop salt-tolerant rice cultivar(s) in WA. We used 3 cycles of backcrossing with selection based on DNA markers and field-testing using 'FL478' as tolerant donor and the widely grown 'Rassi' as recurrent parent. In the BC3F2 stage, salt-tolerant lines with over 80% Rassi alleles except in the region around Saltol segment were selected. 429 introgression lines (Saltol-ILs) were identified as tolerant at vegetative stage, of which 116 were field-tested for four seasons at the reproductive stage. Sixteen Saltol-ILs had less yield loss (3-26% relative to control trials), and 8 Saltol-ILs showed high yield potential under stress and non-stress conditions. The 16 Saltol-ILs had been included for further African-wide testing prior to release in 6 WA countries. MAS reduced the time for germplasm improvement from at least 7 to about 4 years. Our objective is to combine different genes/QTLs conferring tolerance to stresses under one genetic background using MAS. PMID:26566846

  12. Recombinant Inbred Strain and Interspecific Backcross Analysis of Molecular Markers Flanking the Murine Agouti Coat Color Locus

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, L. D.; Buchberg, A. M.; Copeland, N. G.; Jenkins, N. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant inbred strain and interspecific backcross mice were used to create a molecular genetic linkage map of the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. The orientation and distance of the Ada, Emv-13, Emv-15, Hck-1, Il-1a, Pck-1, Psp, Src-1 and Svp-1 loci from the β(2)-microglobulin locus and the agouti locus were established. Our mapping results have provided the identification of molecular markers both proximal and distal to the agouti locus. The recombinants obtained provide valuable resources for determining the direction of chromosome walking experiments designed to clone sequences at the agouti locus. Comparisons between the mouse and human genome maps suggest that the human homolog of the agouti locus resides on human chromosome 20q. Three loci not present on mouse chromosome 2 were also identified and were provisionally named Psp-2, Hck-2 and Hck-3. The Psp-2 locus maps to mouse chromosome 14. The Hck-2 locus maps near the centromere of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lyn locus. The Hck-3 locus maps near the distal end of mouse chromosome 4 and may identify the Lck locus. PMID:2759422

  13. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning.

  14. Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in the Spring Wheat Cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Curt A.; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L.; Fedak, George; Martin, Richard A.; McCallum, Brent D.; Gilbert, Jeannie; Hiebert, Colin W.; Pozniak, Curtis J.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137. Kenyon is a Canadian spring wheat, while 86ISMN 2137 is an unrelated spring wheat. The RIL population was evaluated for FHB resistance in six FHB nurseries. Nine additive effect QTL for FHB resistance were identified, six from Kenyon and three from 86ISMN 2137. Rht8 and Ppd-D1a co-located with two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2DS. A major QTL for FHB resistance from Kenyon (QFhb.crc-7D) was identified on chromosome 7D. The QTL QFhb.crc-2D.4 from Kenyon mapped to the same region as a FHB resistance QTL from Wuhan-1 on chromosome arm 2DL. This result was unexpected since Kenyon does not share common ancestry with Wuhan-1. Other FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 4A, 4D, and 5B also mapped to known locations of FHB resistance. Four digenic epistatic interactions were detected for FHB resistance, which involved eight QTL. None of these QTL were significant based upon additive effect QTL analysis. This study provides insight into the genetic basis of native FHB resistance in Canadian spring wheat. PMID:27790188

  15. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15–22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL. PMID:27351632

  16. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.

  17. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Li, Yuhong; Pandey, Sudhakar; Yandell, Brain S; Pathak, Mamta; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-08-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a very important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber are not well understood. A 3-year QTL mapping study of PM resistance was conducted with 132 F2:3 families derived from two cucumber inbred lines WI 2757 (resistant) and True Lemon (susceptible). A genetic map covering 610.4 cM in seven linkage groups was developed with 240 SSR marker loci. Multiple QTL mapping analysis of molecular marker data and disease index of the hypocotyl, cotyledon and true leaf for responses to PM inoculation identified six genomic regions in four chromosomes harboring QTL for PM resistance in WI 2757. Among the six QTL, pm1.1 and pm1.2 in chromosome 1 conferred leaf resistance. Minor QTL pm3.1 (chromosome 3) and pm4.1 (chromosome 4) contributed to disease susceptibility. The two major QTL, pm5.1 and pm5.2 were located in an interval of ~40 cM in chromosome 5 with each explaining 21.0-74.5 % phenotypic variations. Data presented herein support two recessively inherited, linked major QTL in chromosome 5 plus minor QTL in other chromosomes that control the PM resistance in WI 2757. The QTL pm5.2 for hypocotyl resistance plays the most important role in host resistance. Multiple observations in the same year revealed the importance of scoring time in the detection of PM resistance QTL. Results of this study provided new insights into phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. PMID:23689747

  18. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL. PMID:27351632

  19. Functional Multi-Locus QTL Mapping of Temporal Trends in Scots Pine Wood Traits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zitong; Hallingbäck, Henrik R.; Abrahamsson, Sara; Fries, Anders; Gull, Bengt Andersson; Sillanpää, Mikko J.; García-Gil, M. Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of wood properties in conifer species has focused on single time point measurements or on trait means based on heterogeneous wood samples (e.g., increment cores), thus ignoring systematic within-tree trends. In this study, functional QTL mapping was performed for a set of important wood properties in increment cores from a 17-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) full-sib family with the aim of detecting wood trait QTL for general intercepts (means) and for linear slopes by increasing cambial age. Two multi-locus functional QTL analysis approaches were proposed and their performances were compared on trait datasets comprising 2 to 9 time points, 91 to 455 individual tree measurements and genotype datasets of amplified length polymorphisms (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The first method was a multilevel LASSO analysis whereby trend parameter estimation and QTL mapping were conducted consecutively; the second method was our Bayesian linear mixed model whereby trends and underlying genetic effects were estimated simultaneously. We also compared several different hypothesis testing methods under either the LASSO or the Bayesian framework to perform QTL inference. In total, five and four significant QTL were observed for the intercepts and slopes, respectively, across wood traits such as earlywood percentage, wood density, radial fiberwidth, and spiral grain angle. Four of these QTL were represented by candidate gene SNPs, thus providing promising targets for future research in QTL mapping and molecular function. Bayesian and LASSO methods both detected similar sets of QTL given datasets that comprised large numbers of individuals. PMID:25305041

  20. QTL Characterization of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in CIMMYT Bread Wheat Line Soru#1.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Lillemo, Morten; Shi, Jianrong; Wu, Jirong; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Belova, Tatiana; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Duveiller, Etienne; Singh, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant line Soru#1 was hybridized with the German cultivar Naxos to generate 131 recombinant inbred lines for QTL mapping. The population was phenotyped for FHB and associated traits in spray inoculated experiments in El Batán (Mexico), spawn inoculated experiments in Ås (Norway) and point inoculated experiments in Nanjing (China), with two field trials at each location. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina iSelect 90K SNP wheat chip, along with a few SSR and STS markers. A major QTL for FHB after spray and spawn inoculation was detected on 2DLc, explaining 15-22% of the phenotypic variation in different experiments. This QTL remained significant after correction for days to heading (DH) and plant height (PH), while another QTL for FHB detected at the Vrn-A1 locus on 5AL almost disappeared after correction for DH and PH. Minor QTL were detected on chromosomes 2AS, 2DL, 4AL, 4DS and 5DL. In point inoculated experiments, QTL on 2DS, 3AS, 4AL and 5AL were identified in single environments. The mechanism of resistance of Soru#1 to FHB was mainly of Type I for resistance to initial infection, conditioned by the major QTL on 2DLc and minor ones that often coincided with QTL for DH, PH and anther extrusion (AE). This indicates that phenological and morphological traits and flowering biology play important roles in resistance/escape of FHB. SNPs tightly linked to resistance QTL, particularly 2DLc, could be utilized in breeding programs to facilitate the transfer and selection of those QTL.

  1. eQTL networks unveil enriched mRNA master integrators downstream of complex disease-associated SNPs.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiquan; Pouladi, Nima; Achour, Ikbel; Gardeux, Vincent; Li, Jianrong; Li, Qike; Zhang, Hao Helen; Martinez, Fernando D; 'Skip' Garcia, Joe G N; Lussier, Yves A

    2015-12-01

    The causal and interplay mechanisms of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex diseases (complex disease SNPs) investigated in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at the transcriptional level (mRNA) are poorly understood despite recent advancements such as discoveries reported in the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTex). Protein interaction network analyses have successfully improved our understanding of both single gene diseases (Mendelian diseases) and complex diseases. Whether the mRNAs downstream of complex disease genes are central or peripheral in the genetic information flow relating DNA to mRNA remains unclear and may be disease-specific. Using expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) that provide DNA to mRNA associations and network centrality metrics, we hypothesize that we can unveil the systems properties of information flow between SNPs and the transcriptomes of complex diseases. We compare different conditions such as naïve SNP assignments and stringent linkage disequilibrium (LD) free assignments for transcripts to remove confounders from LD. Additionally, we compare the results from eQTL networks between lymphoblastoid cell lines and liver tissue. Empirical permutation resampling (p<0.001) and theoretic Mann-Whitney U test (p<10(-30)) statistics indicate that mRNAs corresponding to complex disease SNPs via eQTL associations are likely to be regulated by a larger number of SNPs than expected. We name this novel property mRNA hubness in eQTL networks, and further term mRNAs with high hubness as master integrators. mRNA master integrators receive and coordinate the perturbation signals from large numbers of polymorphisms and respond to the personal genetic architecture integratively. This genetic signal integration contrasts with the mechanism underlying some Mendelian diseases, where a genetic polymorphism affecting a single protein hub produces a divergent signal that affects a large

  2. eQTL networks unveil enriched mRNA master integrators downstream of complex disease-associated SNPs.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiquan; Pouladi, Nima; Achour, Ikbel; Gardeux, Vincent; Li, Jianrong; Li, Qike; Zhang, Hao Helen; Martinez, Fernando D; Garcia, Joe G N 'Skip'; Lussier, Yves A

    2015-12-01

    The causal and interplay mechanisms of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex diseases (complex disease SNPs) investigated in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at the transcriptional level (mRNA) are poorly understood despite recent advancements such as discoveries reported in the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTex). Protein interaction network analyses have successfully improved our understanding of both single gene diseases (Mendelian diseases) and complex diseases. Whether the mRNAs downstream of complex disease genes are central or peripheral in the genetic information flow relating DNA to mRNA remains unclear and may be disease-specific. Using expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) that provide DNA to mRNA associations and network centrality metrics, we hypothesize that we can unveil the systems properties of information flow between SNPs and the transcriptomes of complex diseases. We compare different conditions such as naïve SNP assignments and stringent linkage disequilibrium (LD) free assignments for transcripts to remove confounders from LD. Additionally, we compare the results from eQTL networks between lymphoblastoid cell lines and liver tissue. Empirical permutation resampling (p<0.001) and theoretic Mann-Whitney U test (p<10(-30)) statistics indicate that mRNAs corresponding to complex disease SNPs via eQTL associations are likely to be regulated by a larger number of SNPs than expected. We name this novel property mRNA hubness in eQTL networks, and further term mRNAs with high hubness as master integrators. mRNA master integrators receive and coordinate the perturbation signals from large numbers of polymorphisms and respond to the personal genetic architecture integratively. This genetic signal integration contrasts with the mechanism underlying some Mendelian diseases, where a genetic polymorphism affecting a single protein hub produces a divergent signal that affects a large

  3. Mapping eQTL Networks with Mixed Graphical Markov Models

    PubMed Central

    Tur, Inma; Roverato, Alberto; Castelo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping constitutes a challenging problem due to, among other reasons, the high-dimensional multivariate nature of gene-expression traits. Next to the expression heterogeneity produced by confounding factors and other sources of unwanted variation, indirect effects spread throughout genes as a result of genetic, molecular, and environmental perturbations. From a multivariate perspective one would like to adjust for the effect of all of these factors to end up with a network of direct associations connecting the path from genotype to phenotype. In this article we approach this challenge with mixed graphical Markov models, higher-order conditional independences, and q-order correlation graphs. These models show that additive genetic effects propagate through the network as function of gene–gene correlations. Our estimation of the eQTL network underlying a well-studied yeast data set leads to a sparse structure with more direct genetic and regulatory associations that enable a straightforward comparison of the genetic control of gene expression across chromosomes. Interestingly, it also reveals that eQTLs explain most of the expression variability of network hub genes. PMID:25271303

  4. Mapping of QTL for downy mildew resistance in maize.

    PubMed

    Agrama, H A; Moussa, M E; Naser, M E; Tarek, M A; Ibrahim, A H

    1999-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of maize involved in mediating resistance to Peronosclerospora sorghi, the causative agent of sorghum downy mildew (SDM), were detected in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the Zea mays L. cross between resistant (G62) and susceptible (G58) inbred lines. Field tests of 94 RILs were conducted over two growing seasons using artificial inoculation. Heritability of the disease reaction was high (around 70%). The mapping population of the RILs was also scored for restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) markers. One hundred and six polymorphic RFLP markers were assigned to ten chromosomes covering 1648 cM. Three QTLs were detected that significantly affected resistance to SDM combined across seasons. Two of these mapped quite close together on chromosome 1, while the third one was on chromosome 9. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 12.4% to 23.8%. Collectively, the three QTLs identified in this study explained 53.6% of the phenotypic variation in susceptibility to the infection. The three resistant QTLs appeared to have additive effects. Increased susceptibility was contributed by the alleles of the susceptible parent. The detection of more than one QTL supports the hypothesis that several qualitative and quantitative genes control resistance to P. sorghi.

  5. QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Kamei, Akito; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Ning; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Hirai, Masashi

    2010-03-01

    A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops.

  6. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ishii, Takuro; Tanaka, Junichi; Tsunematsu, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Matsumura, Osamu; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL)-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only), which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05); some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001) by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05). These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield.

  7. Thyroid hormone responsive QTL and the evolution of paedomorphic salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Voss, S R; Kump, D K; Walker, J A; Shaffer, H B; Voss, G J

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of ancestral phenotypes into novel traits is poorly understood for many examples of evolutionary novelty. Ancestrally, salamanders have a biphasic life cycle with an aquatic larval stage, a brief and pronounced metamorphosis, followed by a terrestrial adult stage. Repeatedly during evolution, metamorphic timing has been delayed to exploit growth-permissive environments, resulting in paedomorphic salamanders that retain larval traits as adults. We used thyroid hormone (TH) to rescue metamorphic phenotypes in paedomorphic salamanders and then identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history traits that are associated with amphibian life cycle evolution: metamorphic timing and adult body size. We demonstrate that paedomorphic tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum complex) carry alleles at three moderate effect QTL (met1–3) that vary in responsiveness to TH and additively affect metamorphic timing. Salamanders that delay metamorphosis attain significantly larger body sizes as adults and met2 explains a significant portion of this variation. Thus, substitution of alleles at TH-responsive loci suggests an adaptive pleiotropic basis for two key life-history traits in amphibians: body size and metamorphic timing. Our study demonstrates a likely pathway for the evolution of novel paedomorphic species from metamorphic ancestors via selection of TH-response alleles that delay metamorphic timing and increase adult body size. PMID:22850698

  8. QTL analysis of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile pepper.

    PubMed

    Wang, L H; Zhang, B X; Lefebvre, V; Huang, S W; Daubèze, A M; Palloix, A

    2004-09-01

    Fertility restoration of Peterson's cytoplasmic male-sterility in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is quantitative and environment-dependent. QTL analysis of fertility restoration was performed based on the test-cross progeny of 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile line) and a doubled haploid population of 114 lines obtained from an F1 hybrid between Yolo wonder (a sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (a fertility-restorer line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed under greenhouse and open field conditions using three criteria related to pollen or seed production. One major QTL for fertility restoration was mapped to chromosome P6. It was significant in all the environments and for all the traits, accounting for 20-69% of the phenotypic variation, depending on the trait. Four additional minor QTLs were also detected on chromosomes P5, P2, and linkage groups PY3 and PY1, accounting for 7-17% of the phenotypic variation. Most of the alleles increasing fertility originated from the restorer parent, except for two alleles at minor QTLs. Phenotypic analysis and genetic dissection indicated that breeding pepper for complete sterility of female lines and high hybrid fertility requires complex combinations of alleles from both parents and a strict control of the environment. PMID:15173931

  9. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ishii, Takuro; Tanaka, Junichi; Tsunematsu, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Matsumura, Osamu; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL)-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only), which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05); some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001) by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05). These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield. PMID:26986071

  10. Disentangling two QTL on porcine chromosome 12 for backfat fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, María; Fernández, Ana Isabel; Benítez, Rita; Pena, Ramona N; Folch, Josep María; Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Silió, Luis; Alves, Estefânia

    2013-01-01

    A previous study allowed the identification of two QTL regions at positions 11-34 cM (QTL1) and 68-76 cM (QTL2) on porcine chromosome SSC12 affecting several backfat fatty acids in an Iberian x Landrace F2 intercross. In the current study, different approaches were performed in order to better delimit the quoted QTL regions and analyze candidate genes. A new chromosome scan, using 81 SNPs selected from the Porcine 60KBeadChip and six previously genotyped microsatellites have refined the QTL positions. Three new functional candidate genes (ACOX1, ACLY, and SREBF1) have been characterized. Moreover, two putative promoters of porcine ACACA gene have also been investigated. New isoforms and 24 SNPs were detected in the four candidate genes, 19 of which were genotyped in the population. ACOX1 and ACLY SNPs failed to explain the effects of QTL1 on palmitic and gadoleic fatty acids. QTL2, affecting palmitoleic, stearic, and vaccenic fatty acids, maps close to the ACACA gene location. The most significant associations have been detected between one intronic (g.53840T > C) and one synonymous (c.5634T > C) ACACA SNPs and these fatty acids. Complementary analyses including ACACA gene expression quantification and association studies in other porcine genetic types do not support the expected causal effect of ACACA SNPs.

  11. A high-density genetic map and growth related QTL mapping in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; Liu, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Growth related traits in fish are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), but no QTL for growth have been detected in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) due to the lack of high-density genetic map. In this study, an ultra-high density genetic map was constructed with 3,121 SNP markers by sequencing 117 individuals in a F1 family using 2b-RAD technology. The total length of the map was 2341.27 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.75 cM. A high level of genomic synteny between our map and zebrafish was detected. Based on this genetic map, one genome-wide significant and 37 suggestive QTL for five growth-related traits were identified in 6 linkage groups (i.e. LG3, LG11, LG15, LG18, LG19, LG22). The phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by these QTL varied from 15.4% to 38.2%. Marker within the significant QTL region was surrounded by CRP1 and CRP2, which played an important role in muscle cell division. These high-density map and QTL information provided a solid base for QTL fine mapping and comparative genomics in bighead carp. PMID:27345016

  12. A consensus linkage map of oil palm and a major QTL for stem height

    PubMed Central

    Lee, May; Xia, Jun Hong; Zou, Zhongwei; Ye, Jian; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Jin, Jingjing; Lieando, Jessica Virginia; Purnamasari, Maria Indah; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Wong, Limsoon; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacquin) is the most important source of vegetable oil and fat. Several linkage maps had been constructed using dominant and co-dominant markers to facilitate mapping of QTL. However, dominant markers are not easily transferable among different laboratories. We constructed a consensus linkage map for oil palm using co-dominant markers (i.e. microsatellite and SNPs) and two F1 breeding populations generated by crossing Dura and Pisifera individuals. Four hundreds and forty-four microsatellites and 36 SNPs were mapped onto 16 linkage groups. The map length was 1565.6 cM, with an average marker space of 3.72 cM. A genome-wide scan of QTL identified a major QTL for stem height on the linkage group 5, which explained 51% of the phenotypic variation. Genes in the QTL were predicted using the palm genome sequence and bioinformatic tools. The linkage map supplies a base for mapping QTL for accelerating the genetic improvement, and will be also useful in the improvement of the assembly of the genome sequences. Markers linked to the QTL may be used in selecting dwarf trees. Genes within the QTL will be characterized to understand the mechanisms underlying dwarfing. PMID:25648560

  13. A high-density genetic map and growth related QTL mapping in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Fu, Beide; Liu, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-01-01

    Growth related traits in fish are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), but no QTL for growth have been detected in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) due to the lack of high-density genetic map. In this study, an ultra-high density genetic map was constructed with 3,121 SNP markers by sequencing 117 individuals in a F1 family using 2b-RAD technology. The total length of the map was 2341.27 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.75 cM. A high level of genomic synteny between our map and zebrafish was detected. Based on this genetic map, one genome-wide significant and 37 suggestive QTL for five growth-related traits were identified in 6 linkage groups (i.e. LG3, LG11, LG15, LG18, LG19, LG22). The phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by these QTL varied from 15.4% to 38.2%. Marker within the significant QTL region was surrounded by CRP1 and CRP2, which played an important role in muscle cell division. These high-density map and QTL information provided a solid base for QTL fine mapping and comparative genomics in bighead carp. PMID:27345016

  14. A high-density genetic map and growth related QTL mapping in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Fu, Beide; Liu, Haiyang; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2016-06-27

    Growth related traits in fish are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTL), but no QTL for growth have been detected in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) due to the lack of high-density genetic map. In this study, an ultra-high density genetic map was constructed with 3,121 SNP markers by sequencing 117 individuals in a F1 family using 2b-RAD technology. The total length of the map was 2341.27 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.75 cM. A high level of genomic synteny between our map and zebrafish was detected. Based on this genetic map, one genome-wide significant and 37 suggestive QTL for five growth-related traits were identified in 6 linkage groups (i.e. LG3, LG11, LG15, LG18, LG19, LG22). The phenotypic variance explained (PVE) by these QTL varied from 15.4% to 38.2%. Marker within the significant QTL region was surrounded by CRP1 and CRP2, which played an important role in muscle cell division. These high-density map and QTL information provided a solid base for QTL fine mapping and comparative genomics in bighead carp.

  15. QTL for meat tenderness in the M. longissimus lumborum of cattle.

    PubMed

    Davis, G P; Moore, S S; Drinkwater, R D; Shorthose, W R; Loxton, I D; Barendse, W; Hetzel, D J S

    2008-02-01

    Meat tenderness has been difficult to improve using standard genetic selection. Marker assisted selection holds great promise if markers for meat tenderness can be identified. Here, we report quantitative trait loci (QTL) for beef tenderness identified in 598 animals of three Charolais-Brahman x Belmont Red pedigrees after screening the whole genome using 183 DNA markers. In addition to the usual Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements, tenderness was also measured using compression, adhesion and pressure-heat-treated peak force. Three QTL for meat tenderness in the M. longissimus lumborum muscle were found, two of which have not been reported before. One is located in the HEL9-CSSM47 interval on bovine chromosome 8 with a LOD of 3.1 and an effect of 1.02 phenotypic standard deviations for tensile strength of cooked muscle as measured by adhesion. A second QTL is located near CSRM60 on bovine chromosome 10 with a LOD of 2.4 and an effect of 0.48 phenotypic standard deviations for compression. The third QTL is in a region of bovine chromosome 7 that has previously been reported to have a QTL affecting peak force. This region also shows effects on compression and a combined tenderness index. These QTL are all for the myofibrillar component of meat tenderness. No QTL were found for pressure-treated peak force, which is an estimate of the connective tissue component muscle of meat tenderness.

  16. Mendelizing all Components of a Pyramid of Three Yield QTL in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Amit; Zamir, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Molecular markers allowed breeders to mendelize quantitative trait loci (QTL) providing another demonstration that quantitative traits are governed by the same principles as single qualitative genes. This research extends the QTL analysis to two and three QTL and tests our ability to mendelize an oligogenic trait. In tomato, agricultural yield is determined by the weight of the fruits harvested per unit area and the total soluble solids (% Brix)–sugars and acids. The current study explores the segregation of multiple independent yield-related QTL that were identified and mapped using introgression lines (IL) of Solanum pennellii in cultivated processing tomato (S. lycopersicum). We screened 45 different double and triple IL-QTL combinations for agricultural yield, to identify QTL pyramids that behaved in an additive manner and were suitable substrate for mendelizing an oligogenic trait. A pyramid of three independent QTL that significantly improved Brix∗Yield (BXY - the soluble solids output per unit area) compared to M82 was selected. In the progenies of the tri-hybrid we bred using markers a nearly isogenic ‘immortalized F2.’ While the common mode of QTL–QTL interactions across the 45 IL-QTLs combinations was less than additive, the three QTLs in the selected triple-stack performed in an additive manner which made it an exceptional material for breeding. This study demonstrates that using the phenotypic effect of all 27 possible QTL-alleles combinations it is possible to make reliable predictions about the genotypes that will maximize the yield. PMID:26697048

  17. Dynamic QTL Analysis and Candidate Gene Mapping for Waterlogging Tolerance at Maize Seedling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Khalid A.; Tang, Bin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Juanhua; Yu, Feng; Li, Liu; Han, Xuesong; Zhang, Zuxin; Yan, Jianbin; Zheng, Yonglian; Yue, Bing; Qiu, Fazhan

    2013-01-01

    Soil waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses adversely affecting maize growth and yield. To identify dynamic expression of genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL), QTL associated with plant height, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total dry weight were identified via conditional analysis in a mixed linear model and inclusive composite interval mapping method at three respective periods under waterlogging and control conditions. A total of 13, 19 and 23 QTL were detected at stages 3D|0D (the period during 0–3 d of waterlogging), 6D|3D and 9D|6D, respectively. The effects of each QTL were moderate and distributed over nine chromosomes, singly explaining 4.14–18.88% of the phenotypic variation. Six QTL (ph6-1, rl1-2, sdw4-1, sdw7-1, tdw4-1 and tdw7-1) were identified at two consistent stages of seedling development, which could reflect a continuous expression of genes; the remaining QTL were detected at only one stage. Thus, expression of most QTL was influenced by the developmental status. In order to provide additional evidence regarding the role of corresponding genes in waterlogging tolerance, mapping of Expressed Sequence Tags markers and microRNAs were conducted. Seven candidate genes were observed to co-localize with the identified QTL on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7 and 9, and may be important candidate genes for waterlogging tolerance. These results are a good starting point for understanding the genetic basis for selectively expressing of QTL in different stress periods and the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits. PMID:24244474

  18. Mapping of QTL Associated with Waterlogging Tolerance during the Seedling Stage in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Fazhan; Zheng, Yonglian; Zhang, Zili; Xu, Shangzhong

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Soil waterlogging is a major environmental stress that suppresses maize (Zea mays) growth and yield. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with waterlogging tolerance at the maize seedling stage, a F2 population consisting of 288 F2:3 lines was created from a cross between two maize genotypes, ‘HZ32’ (waterlogging-tolerant) and ‘K12’ (waterlogging-sensitive). Methods The F2 population was genotyped and a base-map of 1710·5 cM length was constructed with an average marker space of 11·5 cM based on 177 SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. QTL associated with root length, root dry weight, plant height, shoot dry weight, total dry weight and waterlogging tolerance coefficient were identified via composite interval mapping (CIM) under waterlogging and control conditions in 2004 (EXP.1) and 2005 (EXP.2), respectively. Key Results and Conclusions Twenty-five and thirty-four QTL were detected in EXP.1 and EXP.2, respectively. The effects of each QTL were moderate, ranging from 3·9 to 37·3 %. Several major QTL determining shoot dry weight, root dry weight, total dry weight, plant height and their waterlogging tolerance coefficient each mapped on chromosomes 4 and 9. These QTL were detected consistently in both experiments. Secondary QTL influencing tolerance were also identified and located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 10. These QTL were specific to particular traits or environments. Although the detected regions need to be mapped more precisely, the findings and QTL found in this study may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and further genetic studies on maize waterlogging tolerance. PMID:17470902

  19. Identification of a hidden resistance gene in tetraploid wheat using laboratory strains of Pyricularia oryzae produced by backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Cumagun, Christian Joseph R; Anh, Vu Lan; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Asano, Hokuto; Hyon, Gang-Su; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In the process (BC3F1 generation) of backcrossing an Avena isolate of Pyricularia oryzae with a Triticum isolate, color mutants with white mycelia were obtained. These white mutants lacked virulence on all (31/31) hexaploid and most (28/32) tetraploid wheat lines tested. In a BC4F1 population, white and black cultures segregated in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is controlled by a single gene. Furthermore, the mycelial color was perfectly linked with avirulence in the BC4F1 population; white cultures were all avirulent on common wheat (Triticum aestivum) 'Norin 4' (N4) whereas black cultures were all virulent. White cultures in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generations were also avirulent on tetraploid wheat (T. dicoccoides) accession 'KU109' (Tat4), which was susceptible to all cultures derived from the parental wild isolates through the BC2F1 generation. A cross between Tat4 and a susceptible tetraploid (T. paleocolchicum) accession 'KU196' (Tat14) produced resistant and susceptible F2 seedlings in a 3:1 ratio against the white cultures. In the F3 generation homozygous resistant/segregating/homozygous susceptible lines segregated in a 1:2:1 ratio. These results suggest that the resistance of Tat4 to the white cultures is controlled by a single major gene. This gene, tentatively designated as RmgTd(t), is considered to be a hidden resistance gene because it was not detected with the Br58, F1, BC1F1, or BC2F1 cultures. Cytological analysis revealed that the moderate resistance controlled by RmgTd(t) was associated with a hypersensitive reaction of mesophyll cells. PMID:24824421

  20. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N) supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims were (1) to test the suitability of a hydroponic system for early detection of favourable S42ILs, (2) to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the examined traits, (3) to identify favourable wild barley alleles that improve trait performances in regard to N treatment and, finally, (4) to validate the identified QTL through comparison with previously reported QTL originating from the same parental cross. Results The phenotypic data were analysed in a mixed model association study to detect QTL. The post-hoc Dunnett test identified 28 S42ILs that revealed significant (P < 0.01) effects for at least one trait. Forty-three, 41 and 42 S42ILs revealed effects across both N treatments, under low N and under high N treatment, respectively. Due to overlapping or flanking wild barley introgressions of the S42ILs, these associations were summarised to 58 QTL. In total, 12 QTL of the hydroponic N study corresponded to QTL that were also detected in field trials with adult plants of a similar S42IL set or of the original S42 population. For instance, S42IL-135, -136 and -137, revealed increasing Hsp effects for tiller number, leaf number, leaf length, plant height and leaf to root ratio on the long arm of chromosome 7H. These QTL correspond to QTL for ears per plant and plant height that were previously detected in field trials conducted with the same S42ILs or with the S42 population. Conclusion Our results suggest that the QTL we identified under hydroponic N cultivation partly

  1. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical pathways. To this end we conducted genome scans of seven rainbow trout families from a single broodstock population to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) having an effect on stress response to crowding as measured by plasma cortisol concentration. Our goal was to estimate the number of major genes having large effects on this trait in our broodstock population through the identification of QTL. Results A genome scan including 380 microsatellite markers representing 29 chromosomes resulted in the de novo construction of genetic maps which were in good agreement with the NCCCWA genetic map. Unique sets of QTL were detected for two traits which were defined after observing a low correlation between repeated measurements of plasma cortisol concentration in response to stress. A highly significant QTL was detected in three independent analyses on Omy16, many additional suggestive and significant QTL were also identified. With linkage-based methods of QTL analysis such as half-sib regression interval mapping and a variance component method, we determined that the significant and suggestive QTL explain about 40-43% and 13-27% of the phenotypic trait variation, respectively. Conclusions The cortisol response to crowding stress is a complex trait controlled in a sub-sample of our broodstock population by multiple QTL on at least 8 chromosomes. These QTL are largely different from others previously identified for a similar trait, documenting that population specific genetic variants independently affect cortisol response in ways that may result in different impacts on growth. Also, mapping QTL for multiple traits associated with stress response detected trait specific QTL which

  2. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  3. QTL Mapping of Leafy Heads by Genome Resequencing in the RIL Population of Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits. PMID:24204591

  4. QTL Mapping in Eggplant Reveals Clusters of Yield-Related Loci and Orthology with the Tomato Genome

    PubMed Central

    Portis, Ezio; Barchi, Lorenzo; Toppino, Laura; Lanteri, Sergio; Acciarri, Nazzareno; Felicioni, Nazzareno; Fusari, Fabio; Barbierato, Valeria; Cericola, Fabio; Valè, Giampiero; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its widespread cultivation and nutritional and economic importance, the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genome has not been extensively explored. A lack of knowledge of the patterns of inheritance of key agronomic traits has hindered the exploitation of marker technologies to accelerate its genetic improvement. An already established F2 intraspecific population of eggplant bred from the cross ‘305E40’ x ‘67/3’ was phenotyped for 20 agronomically relevant traits at two sites. Up to seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) per trait were identified and the percentage of the phenotypic variance (PV) explained per QTL ranged from 4 to 93%. Not all the QTL were detectable at both sites, but for each trait at least one major QTL (PV explained ≥10%) was identified. Although no detectable QTL x environment interaction was found, some QTL identified were location-specific. Many of the fruit-related QTL clustered within specific chromosomal regions, reflecting either linkage and/or pleiotropy. Evidence for putative tomato orthologous QTL/genes was obtained for several of the eggplant QTL. Information regarding the inheritance of key agronomic traits was obtained. Some of the QTL, along with their respective linked markers, may be useful in the context of marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24586828

  5. Does probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improve the accuracy of QTL location in animal pedigree?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2001, the use of more and more dense maps has made researchers aware that combining linkage and linkage disequilibrium enhances the feasibility of fine-mapping genes of interest. So, various method types have been derived to include concepts of population genetics in the analyses. One major drawback of many of these methods is their computational cost, which is very significant when many markers are considered. Recent advances in technology, such as SNP genotyping, have made it possible to deal with huge amount of data. Thus the challenge that remains is to find accurate and efficient methods that are not too time consuming. The study reported here specifically focuses on the half-sib family animal design. Our objective was to determine whether modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution improved the mapping accuracy of a quantitative trait locus of agricultural interest in these populations. We compared two methods of fine-mapping. The first one was an association analysis. In this method, we did not model linkage disequilibrium evolution. Therefore, the modelling of the evolution of linkage disequilibrium was a deterministic process; it was complete at time 0 and remained complete during the following generations. In the second method, the modelling of the evolution of population allele frequencies was derived from a Wright-Fisher model. We simulated a wide range of scenarios adapted to animal populations and compared these two methods for each scenario. Results Our results indicated that the improvement produced by probabilistic modelling of linkage disequilibrium evolution was not significant. Both methods led to similar results concerning the location accuracy of quantitative trait loci which appeared to be mainly improved by using four flanking markers instead of two. Conclusions Therefore, in animal half-sib designs, modelling linkage disequilibrium evolution using a Wright-Fisher model does not significantly improve the accuracy of the

  6. Dissection and fine mapping of a major QTL for preharvest sprouting resistance in white wheat Rio Blanco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shubing; Bai, Guihua

    2010-11-01

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) is a major constraint to white wheat production. Previously, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for PHS resistance in white wheat by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross Rio Blanco/NW97S186. One QTL, QPhs.pseru-3A, showed a major effect on PHS resistance, and three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were mapped in the QTL region. To determine the flanking markers for the QTL and narrow down the QTL to a smaller chromosome region, we developed a new fine mapping population of 1,874 secondary segregating F(2) plants by selfing an F6 RIL (RIL25) that was heterozygous in the three SSR marker loci. Segregation of PHS resistance in the population fitted monogenic inheritance. An additive effect of the QTL played a major role on PHS resistance, but a dominant effect was also observed. Fifty-six recombinants among the three SSR markers were identified in the population and selfed to produce homozygous recombinants or QTL near-isogenic lines (NIL). PHS evaluation of the recombinants delineated the QTL in the region close to Xbarc57 flanked by Xbarc321 and Xbarc12. To saturate the QTL region, 11 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were mapped in the QTL region with 7 AFLP co-segregated with Xbarc57 by using the NIL population. Dissection of the QTL as a Mendelian factor and saturation of the QTL region with additional markers created a solid foundation for positional cloning of the major QTL. PMID:20607209

  7. Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

  8. Mapping of pigmentation QTL on an anchored genome assembly of the cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pigmentation patterns are one of the most recognizable phenotypes across the animal kingdom. They play an important role in camouflage, communication, mate recognition and mate choice. Most progress on understanding the genetics of pigmentation has been achieved via mutational analysis, with relatively little work done to understand variation in natural populations. Pigment patterns vary dramatically among species of cichlid fish from Lake Malawi, and are thought to be important in speciation. In this study, we crossed two species, Metriaclima zebra and M. mbenjii, that differ in several aspects of their body and fin color. We genotyped 798 SNPs in 160 F2 male individuals to construct a linkage map that was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the pigmentation traits of interest. We also used the linkage map to anchor portions of the M. zebra genome assembly. Results We constructed a linkage map consisting of 834 markers in 22 linkage groups that spanned over 1,933 cM. QTL analysis detected one QTL each for dorsal fin xanthophores, caudal fin xanthophores, and pelvic fin melanophores. Dorsal fin and caudal fin xanthophores share a QTL on LG12, while pelvic fin melanophores have a QTL on LG11. We used the mapped markers to anchor 66.5% of the M. zebra genome assembly. Within each QTL interval we identified several candidate genes that might play a role in pigment cell development. Conclusion This is one of a few studies to identify QTL for natural variation in fish pigmentation. The QTL intervals we identified did not contain any pigmentation genes previously identified by mutagenesis studies in other species. We expect that further work on these intervals will identify new genes involved in pigment cell development in natural populations. PMID:23622422

  9. Determination of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Early Maturation in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Haidle, Lisa; Janssen, Jennifer E.; Gharbi, Karim; Moghadam, Hooman K.; Ferguson, Moira M.

    2008-01-01

    To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing early maturation (EM) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a genome scan was performed using 100 microsatellite loci across 29 linkage groups. Six inter-strain paternal half-sib families using three inter-strain F1 brothers (approximately 50 progeny in each family) derived from two strains that differ in the propensity for EM were used in the study. Alleles derived from both parental sources were observed to contribute to the expression of EM in the progeny of the brothers. Four genome-wide significant QTL regions (i.e., RT-8, -17, -24, and -30) were observed. EM QTL detected on RT-8 and -24 demonstrated significant and suggestive QTL effects in both male and female progeny. Furthermore, within both male and female full-sib groupings, QTL on RT-8 and -24 were detected in two or more of the five parents used. Significant genome-wide and several strong chromosome-wide QTL for EM localized to different regions in males and females, suggesting some sex-specific control. Namely, QTL detected on RT-13, -15, -21, and -30 were associated with EM only in females, and those on RT-3, -17, and -19 were associated with EM only in males. Within the QTL regions identified, a comparison of syntenic EST markers from the rainbow trout linkage map with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genome identified several putative candidate genes that may influence EM. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10126-008-9098-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18491191

  10. Selecting a set of wild barley introgression lines and verification of QTL effects for resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Schmalenbach, Inga; Körber, Niklas; Pillen, Klaus

    2008-11-01

    A set of 59 spring barley introgression lines (ILs) was developed from the advanced backcross population S42. The ILs were generated by three rounds of backcrossing, two to four subsequent selfings, and, in parallel, marker-assisted selection. Each line includes a single marker-defined chromosomal segment of the wild barley accession ISR42-8 (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum), whereas the remaining part of the genome is derived from the elite barley cultivar Scarlett (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare). Based on a map containing 98 SSR markers, the IL set covers so far 86.6% (1041.5 cM) of the donor genome. Each single line contains an average exotic introgression of 39.2 cM, representing 3.2% of the exotic genome. The utility of the developed IL set is illustrated by verification of QTLs controlling resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei L.) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei L.) which were previously identified in the advanced backcross population S42. Altogether 57.1 and 75.0% of QTLs conferring resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust, respectively, were verified by ILs. The strongest favorable effects were mapped to regions 1H, 0-85 cM and 4H, 125-170 cM, where susceptibility to powdery mildew and leaf rust was decreased by 66.1 and 34.7%, respectively, compared to the recurrent parent. In addition, three and one new QTLs were localized, respectively. A co-localization of two favorable QTLs was identified for line S42IL-138, which holds an introgressed segment in region 7H, 166-181. Here, a reduction effect was revealed for powdery mildew as well as for leaf rust severity. This line might be a valuable resource for transferring new resistance alleles into elite cultivars. In future, we aim to cover the complete exotic genome by selecting additional ILs. We intend to conduct further phenotype studies with the IL set in regard to the trait complexes agronomic performance, malting quality, biotic stress, and abiotic stress.

  11. Hybridization and Back-Crossing in Giant Petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a Summary of Hybridization in Seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth M.; Techow, N. M. S. Mareile; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillips, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4–2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  12. Hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus and M. halli) at Bird Island, South Georgia, and a summary of hybridization in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth M; Techow, N M S Mareile; Wood, Andrew G; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization in natural populations provides an opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that shape divergence and genetic isolation of species. The emergence of pre-mating barriers is often the precursor to complete reproductive isolation. However, in recently diverged species, pre-mating barriers may be incomplete, leading to hybridization between seemingly distinct taxa. Here we report results of a long-term study at Bird Island, South Georgia, of the extent of hybridization, mate fidelity, timing of breeding and breeding success in mixed and conspecific pairs of the sibling species, Macronectes halli (northern giant petrel) and M. giganteus (southern giant petrel). The proportion of mixed-species pairs varied annually from 0.4-2.4% (mean of 1.5%), and showed no linear trend with time. Mean laying date in mixed-species pairs tended to be later than in northern giant petrel, and always earlier than in southern giant petrel pairs, and their breeding success (15.6%) was lower than that of conspecific pairs. By comparison, mixed-species pairs at both Marion and Macquarie islands always failed before hatching. Histories of birds in mixed-species pairs at Bird Island were variable; some bred previously or subsequently with a conspecific partner, others subsequently with a different allospecific partner, and some mixed-species pairs remained together for multiple seasons. We also report the first verified back-crossing of a hybrid giant petrel with a female northern giant petrel. We discuss the potential causes and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and back-crossing in giant petrels and summarize the incidence of back-crossing in other seabird species. PMID:25815478

  13. QTL Analysis for Resistance to Blast Disease in U.S. Weedy Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Qi, Xinshuai; Gealy, Dave R; Olsen, Kenneth M; Caicedo, Ana L; Jia, Yulin

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of adaptation is of great importance in evolutionary biology. U.S. weedy rice is well adapted to the local conditions in U.S. rice fields. Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice worldwide. However, information about resistance to blast in weedy rice is limited. Here, we evaluated the disease reactions of 60 U.S. weedy rice accessions with 14 blast races, and investigated the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with blast resistance in two major ecotypes of U.S. weedy rice. Our results revealed that U.S. weedy rice exhibited a broad resistance spectrum. Using genotyping by sequencing, we identified 28 resistance QTL in two U.S. weedy rice ecotypes. The resistance QTL with relatively large and small effects suggest that U.S. weedy rice groups have adapted to blast disease using two methods, both major resistance (R) genes and QTL. Three genomic loci shared by some of the resistance QTL indicated that these loci may contribute to no-race-specific resistance in weedy rice. Comparing with known blast disease R genes, we found that the R genes at these resistance QTL are novel, suggesting that U.S. weedy rice is a potential source of novel blast R genes for resistant breeding.

  14. Systematic Genetic Analysis Identifies Cis-eQTL Target Genes Associated with Glioblastoma Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Rong; Hu, Ying; Yan, Chunhua; Buetow, Kenneth; Meerzaman, Daoud

    2014-01-01

    Prior expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies have demonstrated heritable variation determining differences in gene expression. The majority of eQTL studies were based on cell lines and normal tissues. We performed cis-eQTL analysis using glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) data sets obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to systematically investigate germline variation’s contribution to tumor gene expression levels. We identified 985 significant cis-eQTL associations (FDR<0.05) mapped to 978 SNP loci and 159 unique genes. Approximately 57% of these eQTLs have been previously linked to the gene expression in cell lines and normal tissues; 43% of these share cis associations known to be associated with functional annotations. About 25% of these cis-eQTL associations are also common to those identified in Breast Cancer from a recent study. Further investigation of the relationship between gene expression and patient clinical information identified 13 eQTL genes whose expression level significantly correlates with GBM patient survival (p<0.05). Most of these genes are also differentially expressed in tumor samples and organ-specific controls (p<0.05). Our results demonstrated a significant relationship of germline variation with gene expression levels in GBM. The identification of eQTLs-based expression associated survival might be important to the understanding of genetic contribution to GBM cancer prognosis. PMID:25133526

  15. eQTL Regulating Transcript Levels Associated with Diverse Biological Processes in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Aashish; Budke, Jessica M; Rowland, Steven D; Chitwood, Daniel H; Kumar, Ravi; Carriedo, Leonela; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Zumstein, Kristina; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima R

    2016-09-01

    Variation in gene expression, in addition to sequence polymorphisms, is known to influence developmental, physiological, and metabolic traits in plants. Genetic mapping populations have facilitated identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the genetic determinants of variation in gene expression patterns. We used an introgression population developed from the wild desert-adapted Solanum pennellii and domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to identify the genetic basis of transcript level variation. We established the effect of each introgression on the transcriptome and identified approximately 7,200 eQTL regulating the steady-state transcript levels of 5,300 genes. Barnes-Hut t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding clustering identified 42 modules revealing novel associations between transcript level patterns and biological processes. The results showed a complex genetic architecture of global transcript abundance pattern in tomato. Several genetic hot spots regulating a large number of transcript level patterns relating to diverse biological processes such as plant defense and photosynthesis were identified. Important eQTL regulating transcript level patterns were related to leaf number and complexity as well as hypocotyl length. Genes associated with leaf development showed an inverse correlation with photosynthetic gene expression, but eQTL regulating genes associated with leaf development and photosynthesis were dispersed across the genome. This comprehensive eQTL analysis details the influence of these loci on plant phenotypes and will be a valuable community resource for investigations on the genetic effects of eQTL on phenotypic traits in tomato. PMID:27418589

  16. eQTL Regulating Transcript Levels Associated with Diverse Biological Processes in Tomato1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Budke, Jessica M.; Rowland, Steven D.; Kumar, Ravi; Ichihashi, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Variation in gene expression, in addition to sequence polymorphisms, is known to influence developmental, physiological, and metabolic traits in plants. Genetic mapping populations have facilitated identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the genetic determinants of variation in gene expression patterns. We used an introgression population developed from the wild desert-adapted Solanum pennellii and domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to identify the genetic basis of transcript level variation. We established the effect of each introgression on the transcriptome and identified approximately 7,200 eQTL regulating the steady-state transcript levels of 5,300 genes. Barnes-Hut t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding clustering identified 42 modules revealing novel associations between transcript level patterns and biological processes. The results showed a complex genetic architecture of global transcript abundance pattern in tomato. Several genetic hot spots regulating a large number of transcript level patterns relating to diverse biological processes such as plant defense and photosynthesis were identified. Important eQTL regulating transcript level patterns were related to leaf number and complexity as well as hypocotyl length. Genes associated with leaf development showed an inverse correlation with photosynthetic gene expression, but eQTL regulating genes associated with leaf development and photosynthesis were dispersed across the genome. This comprehensive eQTL analysis details the influence of these loci on plant phenotypes and will be a valuable community resource for investigations on the genetic effects of eQTL on phenotypic traits in tomato. PMID:27418589

  17. Major quality trait analysis and QTL detection in hexaploid wheat in humid rain-fed agriculture.

    PubMed

    Li, H M; Tang, Z X; Zhang, H Q; Yan, B J; Ren, Z L

    2013-05-21

    Humid rain-fed agriculture is a special environment for wheat (Triticum aestivum) culture that tends to negatively affect wheat yield and quality. To identify quality characters of wheat in a humid environment, we conducted quality analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred line whose parent had a high level of quality for several years. We found that high-quality wheat had less gluten content and lower protein content. Apparently, wheat quality and associated quantity traits were in a dynamic state of equilibrium. We detected 83 QTL for 10 wheat quality traits in this recombinant inbred line population. Nine QTL were detected in both evaluation years; Q.DT.scau-2A, linked to Xwmc522-2A, was detected at the same genetic location in both years. Other QTL for different traits were detected simultaneously in more than one location. Consequently, there appeared to be pleiotropic genes that control wheat quality. Based on previous studies and our research on QTL analysis of grain protein content, we conclude that there must be one or more genes for grain protein content on chromosome 6B, whose expression was little affected by environment. We constructed a consensus map and projected the QTL on it. It was useful for choosing optimal markers for marker-assisted breeding and map-based cloning.

  18. Feasibility of the grandprogeny design for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in purebred beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Buchanan, D S

    1997-04-01

    The grandprogeny design (GPD) was developed for dairy cattle to use existing pedigreed populations for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. Marker genotypes of grandsires and sons are determined, and trait phenotypic data from grandprogeny are analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of GPD in purebred beef cattle populations. Pedigree structures of Angus (n = 123,319), Hereford (n = 107,778), Brangus (n = 14,449), and Gelbvieh (n = 8,114) sire evaluation reports were analyzed to identify potentially useful families. Power of QTL detection was calculated for a range of QTL effects (.1 to .5 SD) and two Type I error rates (.01 and .001). Reasonable power (> .75) could be achieved using GPD in Angus and Hereford for QTL having moderate effects (.3 SD) on weaning weight and large effects (.4 to .5 SD) on birth, yearling, and maternal weaning weights by genotyping 500 animals. Existing Gelbvieh and Brangus families useful for GPD were limited, and reasonable power could be expected only for QTL having large effects on weaning or birth weights. Although family structures suitable for GPD exist in purebred beef populations, large amounts of genotyping would be required to achieve reasonable power, and only QTL having moderate to large effects could be expected to be identified. PMID:9110205

  19. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  20. QTL analyses of drought tolerance and growth for a Salix dasyclados x Salix viminalis hybrid in contrasting water regimes.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg-Wästljung, A C; Glynn, C; Weih, M

    2005-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits and water-use efficiency have been identified in two water regimes (normal and drought-treated) and for a treatment index. A tetraploid hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados clone (SW901290) and a Salix viminalis clone ('Jorunn') was used in the study. The growth response of each individual including both above and below ground dry-matter production (i.e. shoot length, shoot diameter, aboveground and root dry weight, internode length, root dry weight/total dry weight, relative growth rate and leaf nitrogen content) was analysed in a replicated block experiment with two water treatments. A composite interval mapping approach was used to estimate number of QTL, the magnitude of the QTL and their position on genetic linkage maps. QTL specific for each treatment and for the treatment index were found, but QTL common across the treatments and the treatment index were also detected. Each QTL explained from 8% to 29% of the phenotypic variation, depending on trait and treatment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped close to each other at several linkage groups, indicating either a common genetic base or tightly linked QTL. Common QTL identified between treatments and treatment index in the complex trait dry weight can be useful tools in the breeding and selection for drought stress tolerance in Salix.

  1. Sequence-based introgression mapping identifies candidate white mold tolerance genes in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). More than 20 QTL were reported using multiple bi-parental populations. To study the disease in more detail, advanced back-cross populations seg...

  2. Mitigation using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene precludes establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in hybrids and backcrosses with weedy Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Gressel, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants can interbreed with nearby weedy Brassica rapa, potentially enhancing the weediness and/or invasiveness of subsequent hybrid offspring. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mitigation effectively reduces the fitness of the transgenic dwarf and herbicide-resistant B. napus volunteers. We now report the efficacy of such a tandem construct, including a primary herbicide-resistant gene and a dwarfing mitigator gene, to preclude the risks of gene establishment in the related weed B. rapa and its backcross progeny. The transgenically mitigated and non-transgenic B. rapa x B. napus interspecific hybrids and the backcrosses (BC(1)) with B. rapa were grown alone and in competition with B. rapa weed. The reproductive fitness of hybrid offspring progressively decreased with increased B. rapa genes in the offspring, illustrating the efficacy of the concept. The fitness of F(2) interspecific non-transgenic hybrids was between 50% and 80% of the competing weedy B. rapa, whereas the fitness of the comparable T(2) interspecific transgenic hybrids was never more than 2%. The reproductive fitness of the transgenic T(2) BC(1) mixed with B. rapa was further severely suppressed to 0.9% of that of the competing weed due to dwarfism. Clearly, the mitigation technology works efficiently in a rapeseed crop-weed system under biocontainment-controlled environments, but field studies should further validate its utility for minimizing the risks of gene flow.

  3. Mitigation using a tandem construct containing a selectively unfit gene precludes establishment of Brassica napus transgenes in hybrids and backcrosses with weedy Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, Hani; Gressel, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) plants can interbreed with nearby weedy Brassica rapa, potentially enhancing the weediness and/or invasiveness of subsequent hybrid offspring. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic mitigation effectively reduces the fitness of the transgenic dwarf and herbicide-resistant B. napus volunteers. We now report the efficacy of such a tandem construct, including a primary herbicide-resistant gene and a dwarfing mitigator gene, to preclude the risks of gene establishment in the related weed B. rapa and its backcross progeny. The transgenically mitigated and non-transgenic B. rapa x B. napus interspecific hybrids and the backcrosses (BC(1)) with B. rapa were grown alone and in competition with B. rapa weed. The reproductive fitness of hybrid offspring progressively decreased with increased B. rapa genes in the offspring, illustrating the efficacy of the concept. The fitness of F(2) interspecific non-transgenic hybrids was between 50% and 80% of the competing weedy B. rapa, whereas the fitness of the comparable T(2) interspecific transgenic hybrids was never more than 2%. The reproductive fitness of the transgenic T(2) BC(1) mixed with B. rapa was further severely suppressed to 0.9% of that of the competing weed due to dwarfism. Clearly, the mitigation technology works efficiently in a rapeseed crop-weed system under biocontainment-controlled environments, but field studies should further validate its utility for minimizing the risks of gene flow. PMID:17177782

  4. Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Mapping Reveals a Role for Unstudied Genes in Aspergillus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Christians, Julian K.; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Vergara, Ismael A.; Watt, Cortney A.; Pinto, Linda J.; Chen, Nansheng; Moore, Margo M.

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by the fungus Aspergillus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. To identify genes required for virulence that could be used as targets for novel treatments, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting virulence in the progeny of a cross between two strains of A. nidulans (FGSC strains A4 and A91). We genotyped 61 progeny at 739 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spread throughout the genome, and constructed a linkage map that was largely consistent with the genomic sequence, with the exception of one potential inversion of ∼527 kb on Chromosome V. The estimated genome size was 3705 cM and the average intermarker spacing was 5.0 cM. The average ratio of physical distance to genetic distance was 8.1 kb/cM, which is similar to previous estimates, and variation in recombination rate was significantly positively correlated with GC content, a pattern seen in other taxa. To map QTL affecting virulence, we measured the ability of each progeny strain to kill model hosts, larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella. We detected three QTL affecting in vivo virulence that were distinct from QTL affecting in vitro growth, and mapped the virulence QTL to regions containing 7–24 genes, excluding genes with no sequence variation between the parental strains and genes with only synonymous SNPs. None of the genes in our QTL target regions have been previously associated with virulence in Aspergillus, and almost half of these genes are currently annotated as “hypothetical”. This study is the first to map QTL affecting the virulence of a fungal pathogen in an animal host, and our results illustrate the power of this approach to identify a short list of unknown genes for further investigation. PMID:21559404

  5. Identification of Polymorphisms Associated with Drought Adaptation QTL in Brassica napus by Resequencing.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard S; Herrmann, David; Mullen, Jack L; Li, Qinfei; Schrider, Daniel R; Price, Nicholas; Lin, Junjiang; Grogan, Kelsi; Kern, Andrew; McKay, John K

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus is a globally important oilseed for which little is known about the genetics of drought adaptation. We previously mapped twelve quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying drought-related traits in a biparental mapping population created from a cross between winter and spring B. napus cultivars. Here we resequence the genomes of the mapping population parents to identify genetic diversity across the genome and within QTL regions. We sequenced each parental cultivar on the Illumina HiSeq platform to a minimum depth of 23 × and performed a reference based assembly in order to describe the molecular variation differentiating them at the scale of the genome, QTL and gene. Genome-wide patterns of variation were characterized by an overall higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density in the A genome and a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in the C genome. Nonsynonymous substitutions were used to categorize gene ontology terms differentiating the parent genomes along with a list of putative functional variants contained within each QTL. Marker assays were developed for several of the discovered polymorphisms within a pleiotropic QTL on chromosome A10. QTL analysis with the new, denser map showed the most associated marker to be that developed from an insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the candidate gene Bna.FLC.A10, and it was the only candidate within the QTL interval with observed polymorphism. Together, these results provide a glimpse of genome-wide variation differentiating annual and biennial B. napus ecotypes as well as a better understanding of the genetic basis of root and drought phenotypes.

  6. A mixed model QTL analysis for sugarcane multiple-harvest-location trial data.

    PubMed

    Pastina, M M; Malosetti, M; Gazaffi, R; Mollinari, M; Margarido, G R A; Oliveira, K M; Pinto, L R; Souza, A P; van Eeuwijk, F A; Garcia, A A F

    2012-03-01

    Sugarcane-breeding programs take at least 12 years to develop new commercial cultivars. Molecular markers offer a possibility to study the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in sugarcane, and they may be used in marker-assisted selection to speed up artificial selection. Although the performance of sugarcane progenies in breeding programs are commonly evaluated across a range of locations and harvest years, many of the QTL detection methods ignore two- and three-way interactions between QTL, harvest, and location. In this work, a strategy for QTL detection in multi-harvest-location trial data, based on interval mapping and mixed models, is proposed and applied to map QTL effects on a segregating progeny from a biparental cross of pre-commercial Brazilian cultivars, evaluated at two locations and three consecutive harvest years for cane yield (tonnes per hectare), sugar yield (tonnes per hectare), fiber percent, and sucrose content. In the mixed model, we have included appropriate (co)variance structures for modeling heterogeneity and correlation of genetic effects and non-genetic residual effects. Forty-six QTLs were found: 13 QTLs for cane yield, 14 for sugar yield, 11 for fiber percent, and 8 for sucrose content. In addition, QTL by harvest, QTL by location, and QTL by harvest by location interaction effects were significant for all evaluated traits (30 QTLs showed some interaction, and 16 none). Our results contribute to a better understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to biomass production and sucrose content in sugarcane. PMID:22159754

  7. Identification of Polymorphisms Associated with Drought Adaptation QTL in Brassica napus by Resequencing

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, David; Mullen, Jack L.; Li, Qinfei; Schrider, Daniel R.; Price, Nicholas; Lin, Junjiang; Grogan, Kelsi; Kern, Andrew; McKay, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus is a globally important oilseed for which little is known about the genetics of drought adaptation. We previously mapped twelve quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying drought-related traits in a biparental mapping population created from a cross between winter and spring B. napus cultivars. Here we resequence the genomes of the mapping population parents to identify genetic diversity across the genome and within QTL regions. We sequenced each parental cultivar on the Illumina HiSeq platform to a minimum depth of 23 × and performed a reference based assembly in order to describe the molecular variation differentiating them at the scale of the genome, QTL and gene. Genome-wide patterns of variation were characterized by an overall higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density in the A genome and a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in the C genome. Nonsynonymous substitutions were used to categorize gene ontology terms differentiating the parent genomes along with a list of putative functional variants contained within each QTL. Marker assays were developed for several of the discovered polymorphisms within a pleiotropic QTL on chromosome A10. QTL analysis with the new, denser map showed the most associated marker to be that developed from an insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the candidate gene Bna.FLC.A10, and it was the only candidate within the QTL interval with observed polymorphism. Together, these results provide a glimpse of genome-wide variation differentiating annual and biennial B. napus ecotypes as well as a better understanding of the genetic basis of root and drought phenotypes. PMID:26801646

  8. Identification of Polymorphisms Associated with Drought Adaptation QTL in Brassica napus by Resequencing.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard S; Herrmann, David; Mullen, Jack L; Li, Qinfei; Schrider, Daniel R; Price, Nicholas; Lin, Junjiang; Grogan, Kelsi; Kern, Andrew; McKay, John K

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus is a globally important oilseed for which little is known about the genetics of drought adaptation. We previously mapped twelve quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying drought-related traits in a biparental mapping population created from a cross between winter and spring B. napus cultivars. Here we resequence the genomes of the mapping population parents to identify genetic diversity across the genome and within QTL regions. We sequenced each parental cultivar on the Illumina HiSeq platform to a minimum depth of 23 × and performed a reference based assembly in order to describe the molecular variation differentiating them at the scale of the genome, QTL and gene. Genome-wide patterns of variation were characterized by an overall higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density in the A genome and a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in the C genome. Nonsynonymous substitutions were used to categorize gene ontology terms differentiating the parent genomes along with a list of putative functional variants contained within each QTL. Marker assays were developed for several of the discovered polymorphisms within a pleiotropic QTL on chromosome A10. QTL analysis with the new, denser map showed the most associated marker to be that developed from an insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the candidate gene Bna.FLC.A10, and it was the only candidate within the QTL interval with observed polymorphism. Together, these results provide a glimpse of genome-wide variation differentiating annual and biennial B. napus ecotypes as well as a better understanding of the genetic basis of root and drought phenotypes. PMID:26801646

  9. Integrating sorghum whole genome sequence information with a compendium of sorghum QTL studies reveals uneven distribution of QTL and of gene-rich regions with significant implications for crop improvement.

    PubMed

    Mace, E S; Jordan, D R

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted using 48 sorghum QTL studies published from 1995 to 2010 to make information from historical sorghum QTL experiments available in a form that could be more readily used by sorghum researchers and plant breeders. In total, 771 QTL relating to 161 unique traits from 44 studies were projected onto a sorghum consensus map. Confidence intervals (CI) of QTL were estimated so that valid comparisons could be made between studies. The method accounted for the number of lines used and the phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL from each study. In addition, estimated centimorgan (cM) locations were calculated for the predicted sorghum gene models identified in Phytozome (JGI GeneModels SBI v1.4) and compared with QTL distribution genome-wide, both on genetic linkage (cM) and physical (base-pair/bp) map scales. QTL and genes were distributed unevenly across the genome. Heterochromatic enrichment for QTL was observed, with approximately 22% of QTL either entirely or partially located in the heterochromatic regions. Heterochromatic gene enrichment was also observed based on their predicted cM locations on the sorghum consensus map, due to suppressed recombination in heterochromatic regions, in contrast to the euchromatic gene enrichment observed on the physical, sequence-based map. The finding of high gene density in recombination-poor regions, coupled with the association with increased QTL density, has implications for the development of more efficient breeding systems in sorghum to better exploit heterosis. The projected QTL information described, combined with the physical locations of sorghum sequence-based markers and predicted gene models, provides sorghum researchers with a useful resource for more detailed analysis of traits and development of efficient marker-assisted breeding strategies. PMID:21484332

  10. Genetic analysis of arsenic accumulation in maize using QTL mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhongjun; Li, Weihua; Xing, Xiaolong; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Haochuan; Xue, Yadong; Liu, Zonghua; Tang, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic heavy metal that can accumulate in crops and poses a threat to human health. The genetic mechanism of As accumulation is unclear. Herein, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to unravel the genetic basis of As accumulation in a maize recombinant inbred line population derived from the Chinese crossbred variety Yuyu22. The kernels had the lowest As content among the different maize tissues, followed by the axes, stems, bracts and leaves. Fourteen QTLs were identified at each location. Some of these QTLs were identified in different environments and were also detected by joint analysis. Compared with the B73 RefGen v2 reference genome, the distributions and effects of some QTLs were closely linked to those of QTLs detected in a previous study; the QTLs were likely in strong linkage disequilibrium. Our findings could be used to help maintain maize production to satisfy the demand for edible corn and to decrease the As content in As-contaminated soil through the selection and breeding of As pollution-safe cultivars. PMID:26880701

  11. Mapping of yield influencing QTL in Brassica juncea: implications for breeding of a major oilseed crop of dryland areas.

    PubMed

    Ramchiary, N; Padmaja, K L; Sharma, S; Gupta, V; Sodhi, Y S; Mukhopadhyay, A; Arumugam, N; Pental, D; Pradhan, A K

    2007-10-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of yield influencing traits was carried out in Brassica juncea (AABB) using a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population of 123 lines derived from a cross between Varuna (a line representing the Indian gene pool) and Heera (representing the east European gene pool) to identify potentially useful alleles from both the parents. The existing AFLP based map of B. juncea was further saturated with RFLP and SSR markers which led to the identification of the linkage groups belonging to the A (B. rapa) and B (B. nigra) genome components of B. juncea. For QTL dissection, the DH lines were evaluated at three different environments and phenotyped for 12 quantitative traits. A total of 65 QTL spread over 13 linkage groups (LG) were identified from the three environments. QTL analysis showed that the A genome has contributed more than the B genome to productivity (68% of the total QTL detected) suggesting a more prominent role of the A genome towards domestication of this crop. The east European line, Heera, carried favorable alleles for 42% of the detected QTL and the remaining 58% were in the Indian gene pool line, Varuna. We observed clustering of major QTL in a few linkage groups, particularly in J7 and J10 of the A genome, with QTL of different traits having agronomically antagonistic allelic effects co-mapping to the same genetic interval. QTL analysis also identified some well-separated QTL which could be readily transferred between the two pools. Based on the QTL analysis, we propose that improvement in yield could be achieved more readily by heterosis breeding rather than by pure line breeding.

  12. QTL influencing baseline hematocrit in the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J lineage: age-related effects.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Frank; Blizard, David A; Lionikas, Arimantas; Lang, Dena H; Vandenbergh, David J; Stout, Joseph T; Strauss, James A; McClearn, Gerald E; Vogler, George P

    2006-06-01

    Baseline serum hematocrit varies substantially in the population. While additive genetic factors account for a large part of this variability, little is known about the genetic architecture underlying the trait. Because hematocrit levels vary with age, it is plausible that quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence the phenotype also show an age-specific profile. To investigate this possibility, hematocrit was measured in three different age cohorts of mice (150, 450, and 750 days) of the C57BL/6J (B6) and the DBA2/J (D2) lineage. QTL were searched in the B6D2F(2) intercross and the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains. The effects of these QTL were explored across the different age groups. On the phenotypic level, baseline serum hematocrit declines with age in a sex-specific manner. In the B6D2F(2) intercross, suggestive QTL that influence the phenotype were located on Chromosomes (Chr) 1, 2, 7, 11, 13, and 16. With the exception of the QTL on Chr 2, all of these QTL exerted their largest effect at 750 days. The QTL on Chr 1, 2, 7, 11 and 16 were confirmed in the BXD RIs in a sex- and age-specific manner. Linkage analysis in the BXD RIs revealed an additional significant QTL on Chr 19. Baseline serum hematocrit is influenced by several QTL that appear to vary with the age and sex of the animal. These QTL primarily overlap with QTL that have been shown to regulate hematopoietic stem cell phenotypes.

  13. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16 h, 18°C/8 h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24 h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM) were umc1303 (265.1 cM) on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM) on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM) on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM) on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (http://www.maizegdb.org). Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize.

  14. Heat and drought adaptive QTL in a wheat population designed to minimize confounding agronomic effects

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, R. Suzuky; Mathews, Ky L.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Olivares-Villegas, Juan-Jose; Chapman, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    A restricted range in height and phenology of the elite Seri/Babax recombinant inbred line (RIL) population makes it ideal for physiological and genetic studies. Previous research has shown differential expression for yield under water deficit associated with canopy temperature (CT). In the current study, 167 RILs plus parents were phenotyped under drought (DRT), hot irrigated (HOT), and temperate irrigated (IRR) environments to identify the genomic regions associated with stress-adaptive traits. In total, 104 QTL were identified across a combination of 115 traits × 3 environments × 2 years, of which 14, 16, and 10 QTL were associated exclusively with DRT, HOT, and IRR, respectively. Six genomic regions were related to a large number of traits, namely 1B-a, 2B-a, 3B-b, 4A-a, 4A-b, and 5A-a. A yield QTL located on 4A-a explained 27 and 17% of variation under drought and heat stress, respectively. At the same location, a QTL explained 28% of the variation in CT under heat, while 14% of CT variation under drought was explained by a QTL on 3B-b. The T1BL.1RS (rye) translocation donated by the Seri parent was associated with decreased yield in this population. There was no co-location of consistent yield and phenology or height-related QTL, highlighting the utility of using a population with a restricted range in anthesis to facilitate QTL studies. Common QTL for drought and heat stress traits were identified on 1B-a, 2B-a, 3B-b, 4A-a, 4B-b, and 7A-a confirming their generic value across stresses. Yield QTL were shown to be associated with components of other traits, supporting the prospects for dissecting crop performance into its physiological and genetic components in order to facilitate a more strategic approach to breeding. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1351-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20523964

  15. QTL Mapping of Low-Temperature Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn4 RIL Population

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuaidong; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu; Lee, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is the primary factor to affect maize sowing in early spring. It is, therefore, vital for maize breeding programs to improve tolerance to low temperatures at seed germination stage. However, little is known about maize QTL involved in low-temperature germination ability. 243 lines of the intermated B73×Mo17 (IBM) Syn4 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was used for QTL analysis of low-temperature germination ability. There were significant differences in germination-related traits under both conditions of low temperature (12°C/16h, 18°C/8h) and optimum temperature (28°C/24h) between the parental lines. Only three QTL were identified for controlling optimum-temperature germination rate. Six QTL controlling low-temperature germination rate were detected on chromosome 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, and contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.39%~11.29%. In addition, six QTL controlling low-temperature primary root length were detected in chromosome 4, 5, 6, and 9, and the contribution rate of single QTL explained between 3.96%~8.41%. Four pairs of QTL were located at the same chromosome position and together controlled germination rate and primary root length under low temperature condition. The nearest markers apart from the corresponding QTL (only 0.01 cM) were umc1303 (265.1 cM) on chromosome 4, umc1 (246.4 cM) on chromosome 5, umc62 (459.1 cM) on chromosome 6, bnl14.28a (477.4 cM) on chromosome 9, respectively. A total of 3155 candidate genes were extracted from nine separate intervals based on the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database (http://www.maizegdb.org). Five candidate genes were selected for analysis as candidates putatively affecting seed germination and seedling growth at low temperature. The results provided a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study of cold-tolerance at the stage of seed germination in maize. PMID:27031623

  16. Connecting thermal performance curve variation to the genotype: a multivariate QTL approach.

    PubMed

    Latimer, C A L; Foley, B R; Chenoweth, S F

    2015-01-01

    Thermal performance curves (TPCs) are continuous reaction norms that describe the relationship between organismal performance and temperature and are useful for understanding trade-offs involved in thermal adaptation. Although thermal trade-offs such as those between generalists and specialists or between hot- and cold-adapted phenotypes are known to be genetically variable and evolve during thermal adaptation, little is known of the genetic basis to TPCs - specifically, the loci involved and the directionality of their effects across different temperatures. To address this, we took a multivariate approach, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for locomotor activity TPCs in the fly, Drosophila serrata, using a panel of 76 recombinant inbred lines. The distribution of additive genetic (co)variance in the mapping population was remarkably similar to the distribution of mutational (co)variance for these traits. We detected 11 TPC QTL in females and 4 in males. Multivariate QTL effects were closely aligned with the major axes genetic (co)variation between temperatures; most QTL effects corresponded to variation for either overall increases or decreases in activity with a smaller number indicating possible trade-offs between activity at high and low temperatures. QTL representing changes in curve shape such as the 'generalist-specialist' trade-off, thought key to thermal adaptation, were poorly represented in the data. We discuss these results in the light of genetic constraints on thermal adaptation.

  17. QTL mapping for two commercial traits in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Miles, L G; Isberg, S R; Thomson, P C; Glenn, T C; Lance, S L; Dalzell, P; Moran, C

    2010-04-01

    The recent generation of a genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) has now made it possible to carry out the systematic searches necessary for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting traits of economic, as well as evolutionary, importance in crocodilians. In this study, we conducted genome-wide scans for two commercially important traits, inventory head length (which is highly correlated with growth rate) and number of scale rows (SR, a skin quality trait), for the existence of QTL in a commercial population of saltwater crocodiles at Darwin Crocodile Farm, Northern Territory, Australia. To account for the uncommonly large difference in sex-specific recombination rates apparent in the saltwater crocodile, a duel mapping strategy was employed. This strategy employed a sib-pair analysis to take advantage of our full-sib pedigree structure, together with a half-sib analysis to account for, and take advantage of, the large difference in sex-specific recombination frequencies. Using these approaches, two putative QTL regions were identified for SR on linkage group 1 (LG1) at 36 cM, and on LG12 at 0 cM. The QTL identified in this investigation represent the first for a crocodilian and indeed for any non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Mapping of QTL is an important first step towards the identification of genes and causal mutations for commercially important traits and the development of selection tools for implementation in crocodile breeding programmes for the industry. PMID:19917044

  18. Co-localization of growth QTL with differentially expressed candidate genes in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kocmarek, Andrea L; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2015-09-01

    We tested whether genes differentially expressed between large and small rainbow trout co-localized with familial QTL regions for body size. Eleven chromosomes, known from previous work to house QTL for weight and length in rainbow trout, were examined for QTL in half-sibling families produced in September (1 XY male and 1 XX neomale) and December (1 XY male). In previous studies, we identified 108 candidate genes for growth expressed in the liver and white muscle in a subset of the fish used in this study. These gene sequences were BLASTN aligned against the rainbow trout and stickleback genomes to determine their location (rainbow trout) and inferred location based on synteny with the stickleback genome. Across the progeny of all three males used in the study, 63.9% of the genes with differential expression appear to co-localize with the QTL regions on 6 of the 11 chromosomes tested in these males. Genes that co-localized with QTL in the mixed-sex offspring of the two XY males primarily showed up-regulation in the muscle of large fish and were related to muscle growth, metabolism, and the stress response.

  19. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  20. pain2: A neuropathic pain QTL identified on rat chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Shpigler, Hagai; Pisanté, Anne; DelCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Devor, Marshall; Darvasi, Ariel

    2008-03-01

    We aimed to locate a chronic pain-associated QTL in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) based on previous findings of a QTL (pain1) on chromosome 15 of the mouse (Mus musculus). The work was based on rat selection lines HA (high autotomy) and LA (low autotomy) which show a contrasting pain phenotype in response to nerve injury in the neuroma model of neuropathic pain. An F(2) segregating population was generated from HA and LA animals. Phenotyped F(2) rats were genotyped on chromosome 7 and chromosome 2, regions that share a partial homology with mouse chromosome 15. Our interval mapping analysis revealed a LOD score value of 3.63 (corresponding to p=0.005 after correcting for multiple testing using permutations) on rat chromosome 2, which is suggestive of the presence of a QTL affecting the predisposition to neuropathic pain. This QTL was mapped to the 14-26cM interval of chromosome 2. Interestingly, this region is syntenic to mouse chromosome 13, rather than to the region of mouse chromosome 15 that contains pain1. This chromosomal position indicates that it is possibly a new QTL, and hence we name it pain2. Further work is needed to replicate and to uncover the underlying gene(s) in both species.

  1. QTL linkage analysis of connected populations using ancestral marker and pedigree information.

    PubMed

    Bink, Marco C A M; Totir, L Radu; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Winkler, Christopher R; Boer, Martin P; Smith, Oscar S

    2012-04-01

    The common assumption in quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage mapping studies that parents of multiple connected populations are unrelated is unrealistic for many plant breeding programs. We remove this assumption and propose a Bayesian approach that clusters the alleles of the parents of the current mapping populations from locus-specific identity by descent (IBD) matrices that capture ancestral marker and pedigree information. Moreover, we demonstrate how the parental IBD data can be incorporated into a QTL linkage analysis framework by using two approaches: a Threshold IBD model (TIBD) and a Latent Ancestral Allele Model (LAAM). The TIBD and LAAM models are empirically tested via numerical simulation based on the structure of a commercial maize breeding program. The simulations included a pilot dataset with closely linked QTL on a single linkage group and 100 replicated datasets with five linkage groups harboring four unlinked QTL. The simulation results show that including parental IBD data (similarly for TIBD and LAAM) significantly improves the power and particularly accuracy of QTL mapping, e.g., position, effect size and individuals' genotype probability without significantly increasing computational demand.

  2. High-Resolution Genetic Mapping of Complex Traits from a Combined Analysis of F2 and Advanced Intercross Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Clarissa C.; Carbonetto, Peter; Sokoloff, Greta; Park, Yeonhee J.; Abney, Mark; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic influences on anxiety disorders are well documented; however, the specific genes underlying these disorders remain largely unknown. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for conditioned fear and open field behavior, we used an F2 intercross (n = 490) and a 34th-generation advanced intercross line (AIL) (n = 687) from the LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains. The F2 provided strong support for several QTL, but within wide chromosomal regions. The AIL yielded much narrower QTL, but the results were less statistically significant, despite the larger number of mice. Simultaneous analysis of the F2 and AIL provided strong support for QTL and within much narrower regions. We used a linear mixed-model approach, implemented in the program QTLRel, to correct for possible confounding due to familial relatedness. Because we recorded the full pedigree, we were able to empirically compare two ways of accounting for relatedness: using the pedigree to estimate kinship coefficients and using genetic marker estimates of “realized relatedness.” QTL mapping using the marker-based estimates yielded more support for QTL, but only when we excluded the chromosome being scanned from the marker-based relatedness estimates. We used a forward model selection procedure to assess evidence for multiple QTL on the same chromosome. Overall, we identified 12 significant loci for behaviors in the open field and 12 significant loci for conditioned fear behaviors. Our approach implements multiple advances to integrated analysis of F2 and AILs that provide both power and precision, while maintaining the advantages of using only two inbred strains to map QTL. PMID:25236452

  3. Meta-analyses of QTL for grain yield and anthesis silking interval in 18 maize populations evaluated under water-stressed and well-watered environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of QTL with large phenotypic effects conserved across genetic backgrounds and environments is one of the prerequisites for crop improvement using marker assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of this study were to identify meta-QTL (mQTL) for grain yield (GY) and anthesis silking interval (ASI) across 18 bi-parental maize populations evaluated in the same conditions across 2-4 managed water stressed and 3-4 well watered environments. Results The meta-analyses identified 68 mQTL (9 QTL specific to ASI, 15 specific to GY, and 44 for both GY and ASI). Mean phenotypic variance explained by each mQTL varied from 1.2 to 13.1% and the overall average was 6.5%. Few QTL were detected under both environmental treatments and/or multiple (>4 populations) genetic backgrounds. The number and 95% genetic and physical confidence intervals of the mQTL were highly reduced compared to the QTL identified in the original studies. Each physical interval of the mQTL consisted of 5 to 926 candidate genes. Conclusions Meta-analyses reduced the number of QTL by 68% and narrowed the confidence intervals up to 12-fold. At least the 4 mQTL (mQTL2.2, mQTL6.1, mQTL7.5 and mQTL9.2) associated with GY under both water-stressed and well-watered environments and detected up to 6 populations may be considered for fine mapping and validation to confirm effects in different genetic backgrounds and pyramid them into new drought resistant breeding lines. This is the first extensive report on meta-analysis of data from over 3100 individuals genotyped using the same SNP platform and evaluated in the same conditions across a wide range of managed water-stressed and well-watered environments. PMID:23663209

  4. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    PubMed

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits.

  5. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  6. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: II. Postweaning, carcass, and meat traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) x Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves belonging to 28 full-sib families were evaluated for differences in feedyard initial BW, feedyard final BW, carcass weight, LM area, adjusted fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Two methods of analysis were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA, corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). No significant reciprocal differences for these weight and carcass traits were detected under method I analyses, although the same trend existed for subsequent BW rankings as for birth weight and weaning weight. For each weight phase, the cross that involved a larger proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam (F(1) x A and B x F(1)) ranked heavier than the respective reciprocal cross (A x F(1) and F(1) x B). As a whole, A backcross calves had larger (P < 0.001) LM area, more (P < 0.001) marbling, and lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force than B back-cross calves, but no consistent trends were detected between reciprocal crosses for any of these traits, in contrast with the trends observed for the weight traits. Furthermore, males were heavier than females entering (P < 0.001) and leaving (P < 0.001) the feedyard, produced a heavier carcass (P < 0.001), and had larger LM area (P < 0.05) with less adjusted fat (P < 0.001). No difference existed between the sexes for Warner-Bratzler shear force or marbling. No interactions involving sex, sire type, and dam type were observed for any of these traits. The results were similar under methods I and II analyses, with the exception that a significant sire type x dam type interaction was observed for initial feedyard BW. Results from this study suggest that for weight-related traits, both the breed constitution of the embryo transfer calf and the cross that produces

  7. Validation of linkage between BCWD resistance and spleen size QTL on Omy19 in rainbow trout: Pleiotropy versus linkage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is caused by infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and results in significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. Previously, we identified a major QTL for BCWD resistance on Omy19 (h2q=0.57-0.67) as well as a QTL for surrogate measures of disease resi...

  8. Validation of linked QTL for bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size on rainbow trout chromosome Omy19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is caused by infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum, and results in significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. Previously, we identified a major QTL for BCWD resistance and a QTL for spleen size (SPLW = spleen weight and SPLI = spleen index) in naï...

  9. Prioritization of candidate genes in “QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Sandip M; Jaganathan, Deepa; Ruperao, Pradeep; Chen, Charles; Punna, Ramu; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Katta, Mohan AVSK; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Garg, Vanika; Kishor, P B Kavi; Gaur, Pooran M; Nguyen, Henry T; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Sutton, Tim; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    A combination of two approaches, namely QTL analysis and gene enrichment analysis were used to identify candidate genes in the “QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance present on the Ca4 pseudomolecule in chickpea. In the first approach, a high-density bin map was developed using 53,223 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICC 4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought sensitive) cross. QTL analysis using recombination bins as markers along with the phenotyping data for 17 drought tolerance related traits obtained over 1–5 seasons and 1–5 locations split the “QTL-hotspot” region into two subregions namely “QTL-hotspot_a” (15 genes) and “QTL-hotspot_b” (11 genes). In the second approach, gene enrichment analysis using significant marker trait associations based on SNPs from the Ca4 pseudomolecule with the above mentioned phenotyping data, and the candidate genes from the refined “QTL-hotspot” region showed enrichment for 23 genes. Twelve genes were found common in both approaches. Functional validation using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated four promising candidate genes having functional implications on the effect of “QTL-hotspot” for drought tolerance in chickpea. PMID:26478518

  10. Identification and fine mapping of a soybean seed protein QTL from PI 407788A on Chromosome 15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is grown primarily as a source of vegetable protein and oil. The objectives of this study were to identify soybean seed protein quantitative trait loci (QTL) from the high protein line PI 407788A and to fine map an important QTL for protein on chromosome (chr) 15. Th...

  11. QTL analysis of ICA Bunsi-derived resistance to white mold in a pinto x navy bean cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for genetic resistance to white mold [Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary] in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is difficult because of low heritability. To facilitate breeding, researchers have sought to identify QTL underpinning genetic resistance to white mold. We identified two QTL ...

  12. Prioritization of candidate genes in "QTL-hotspot" region for drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Kale, Sandip M; Jaganathan, Deepa; Ruperao, Pradeep; Chen, Charles; Punna, Ramu; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Garg, Vanika; Kishor, P B Kavi; Gaur, Pooran M; Nguyen, Henry T; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Sutton, Tim; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-10-19

    A combination of two approaches, namely QTL analysis and gene enrichment analysis were used to identify candidate genes in the "QTL-hotspot" region for drought tolerance present on the Ca4 pseudomolecule in chickpea. In the first approach, a high-density bin map was developed using 53,223 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICC 4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought sensitive) cross. QTL analysis using recombination bins as markers along with the phenotyping data for 17 drought tolerance related traits obtained over 1-5 seasons and 1-5 locations split the "QTL-hotspot" region into two subregions namely "QTL-hotspot_a" (15 genes) and "QTL-hotspot_b" (11 genes). In the second approach, gene enrichment analysis using significant marker trait associations based on SNPs from the Ca4 pseudomolecule with the above mentioned phenotyping data, and the candidate genes from the refined "QTL-hotspot" region showed enrichment for 23 genes. Twelve genes were found common in both approaches. Functional validation using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated four promising candidate genes having functional implications on the effect of "QTL-hotspot" for drought tolerance in chickpea.

  13. Animal QTLdb: beyond a repository. A public platform for QTL comparisons and integration with diverse types of structural genomic information.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Reecy, James M

    2007-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been a large number of publications that have described hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in livestock species. To facilitate the comparison of QTL results across experiments, the Animal QTL database (QTLdb) was developed to house all published QTL information as a public repository. The QTLdb was originally developed to serve the porcine genomics community (previously known as PigQTLdb). We have further developed the QTLdb to house QTL data from multiple species, including but not limited to cattle, chickens, and pigs. In addition, tools have been developed to allow QTL map alignments against consensus linkage maps, radiation hybrid (RH) maps, BAC fingerprinted contig (FPC) maps, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) location maps, and human maps. In addition, we have expanded the capabilities of the database such that research tools were developed where "private" preliminary QTL data could be entered and compared against all public data. This allows researchers to visualize data before publication and compare it with published results to aid in data interpretation. To serve this purpose, the database curator/editor tools also include functions that allow registered users to enter their own QTL data, make use of the QTLdb tools for data analysis, and use the QTLdb as a publishing tool (URL: http://www.animalgenome.org).

  14. Coding Gene SNP Mapping Reveals QTL Linked to Growth and Stress Response in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growth performance and reduced stress response are traits of major interest in fish production. Growth and stress-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been already identified in several salmonid species, but little effort has been devoted to charrs (genus Salvelinus). Moreover, most QTL studies to date focused on one or very few traits, and little investigation has been devoted to QTL identification for gene expression. Here, our objective was to identify QTL for 27 phenotypes related to growth and stress responses in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is one of the most economically important freshwater aquaculture species in Canada. Phenotypes included 12 growth parameters, six blood and plasma variables, three hepatic variables, and one plasma hormone level as well as the relative expression measurements of five genes of interest linked to growth regulation. QTL analysis relied on a linkage map recently built from S. fontinalis consisting of both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, n = 266) and microsatellite (n =81) markers in an F2 interstrain hybrid population (n = 171). We identified 63 growth-related QTL and four stress-related QTL across 18 of the 40 linkage groups of the brook charr linkage map. Percent variance explained, confidence interval, and allelic QTL effects also were investigated to provide insight into the genetic architecture of growth- and stress-related QTL. QTL related to growth performance and stress response that were identified could be classified into two groups: (1) a group composed of the numerous, small-effect QTL associated with some traits related to growth (i.e., weight) that may be under the control of a large number of genes or pleiotropic genes, and (2) a group of less numerous QTL associated with growth (i.e., gene expression) and with stress-related QTL that display a larger effect, suggesting that these QTL are under the control of a limited number of genes of major effect. This study represents a first step

  15. The phenotypic difference discards sib-pair QTL linkage information

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, F.A. |

    1997-03-01

    Kruglyak and Lander provide an important synthesis of methods for (IBD) sib-pair linkage mapping, with an emphasis on the use of complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. These procedures are implemented in the computer program MAPMAKER/SIBS, which performs interval mapping for dichotomous and quantitative traits. The authors present three methods for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs): a variant of the commonly used Haseman-Elston regression approach, a maximum-likelihood procedure involving variance components, and a rank-based nonparametric procedure. These approaches and related work use the magnitude of the difference in the sibling phenotype values for each sib pair as the observation for analysis. Linkage is detected if siblings sharing more alleles IBD have similar phenotypes (i.e., a small difference in the phenotype values), while siblings sharing fewer alleles IBD have less similar phenotypes. Such techniques have been used to detect linkage for a number of quantitative traits. However, the exclusive reliance on the phenotypic differences may be due in large part to historical inertia. A likelihood argument is presented here to show that, under certain classical assumptions, the phenotypic differences do not contain the full likelihood information for QTL mapping. Furthermore, considerable gains in power to detect linkage can be achieved with an expanded likelihood model. The development here is related to previous work, which incorporates the full set of phenotypic data using likelihood and robust quasi-likelihood methods. The purpose of this letter is not to endorse a particular approach but to spur research in alternative and perhaps more powerful linkage tests. 17 refs.

  16. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits.

    PubMed

    Imumorin, Ikhide G; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0-9 cM; genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait's phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits. PMID:22303340

  17. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Imumorin, Ikhide G.; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A.; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE–QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0–9 cM; genomic region of 5.0–10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait’s phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits. PMID:22303340

  18. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  19. Unravelling enzymatic discoloration in potato through a combined approach of candidate genes, QTL, and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Werij, Jeroen S; Kloosterman, Bjorn; Celis-Gamboa, Carolina; de Vos, C H Ric; America, Twan; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2007-07-01

    Enzymatic discoloration (ED) of potato tubers was investigated in an attempt to unravel the underlying genetic factors. Both enzyme and substrate concentration have been reported to influence the degree of discoloration and as such this trait can be regarded as polygenic. The diploid mapping population C x E, consisting of 249 individuals, was assayed for the degree of ED and levels of chlorogenic acid and tyrosine. Using this data, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was performed. Three QTLs for ED have been found on parental chromosomes C3, C8, E1, and E8. For chlorogenic acid a QTL has been identified on C2 and for tyrosine levels, a QTL has been detected on C8. None of the QTLs overlap, indicating the absence of genetic correlations between these components underlying ED, in contrast to earlier reports in literature. An obvious candidate gene for the QTL for ED on Chromosome 8 is polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which was previously mapped on chromosome 8. With gene-specific primers for PPO gene POT32 a CAPS marker was developed. Three different alleles (POT32-1, -2, and -3) could be discriminated. The segregating POT32 alleles were used to map the POT32 CAPS marker and QTL analysis was redone, showing that POT32 coincides with the QTL peak. A clear correlation between allele combinations and degree of discoloration was observed. In addition, analysis of POT32 gene expression in a subset of genotypes indicated a correlation between the level of gene expression and allele composition. On average, genotypes having two copies of allele 1 had both the highest degree of discoloration as well as the highest level of POT32 gene expression. PMID:17492422

  20. Unravelling enzymatic discoloration in potato through a combined approach of candidate genes, QTL, and expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Celis-Gamboa, Carolina; de Vos, C. H. Ric; America, Twan; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic discoloration (ED) of potato tubers was investigated in an attempt to unravel the underlying genetic factors. Both enzyme and substrate concentration have been reported to influence the degree of discoloration and as such this trait can be regarded as polygenic. The diploid mapping population C × E, consisting of 249 individuals, was assayed for the degree of ED and levels of chlorogenic acid and tyrosine. Using this data, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was performed. Three QTLs for ED have been found on parental chromosomes C3, C8, E1, and E8. For chlorogenic acid a QTL has been identified on C2 and for tyrosine levels, a QTL has been detected on C8. None of the QTLs overlap, indicating the absence of genetic correlations between these components underlying ED, in contrast to earlier reports in literature. An obvious candidate gene for the QTL for ED on Chromosome 8 is polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which was previously mapped on chromosome 8. With gene-specific primers for PPO gene POT32 a CAPS marker was developed. Three different alleles (POT32-1, -2, and -3) could be discriminated. The segregating POT32 alleles were used to map the POT32 CAPS marker and QTL analysis was redone, showing that POT32 coincides with the QTL peak. A clear correlation between allele combinations and degree of discoloration was observed. In addition, analysis of POT32 gene expression in a subset of genotypes indicated a correlation between the level of gene expression and allele composition. On average, genotypes having two copies of allele 1 had both the highest degree of discoloration as well as the highest level of POT32 gene expression. PMID:17492422

  1. Genome Scan for Parent-of-Origin QTL Effects on Bovine Growth and Carcass Traits.

    PubMed

    Imumorin, Ikhide G; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Yun-Mi; De Koning, Dirk-Jan; van Arendonk, Johan A; De Donato, Marcos; Taylor, Jeremy F; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Parent-of-origin effects (POE) such as genomic imprinting influence growth and body composition in livestock, rodents, and humans. Here, we report the results of a genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) with POE on growth and carcass traits in Angus × Brahman cattle crossbreds. We identified 24 POE-QTL on 15 Bos taurus autosomes (BTAs) of which six were significant at 5% genome-wide (GW) level and 18 at the 5% chromosome-wide (CW) significance level. Six QTL were paternally expressed while 15 were maternally expressed. Three QTL influencing post-weaning growth map to the proximal end of BTA2 (linkage region of 0-9 cM; genomic region of 5.0-10.8 Mb), for which only one imprinted ortholog is known so far in the human and mouse genomes, and therefore may potentially represent a novel imprinted region. The detected QTL individually explained 1.4 ∼ 5.1% of each trait's phenotypic variance. Comparative in silico analysis of bovine genomic locations show that 32 out of 1,442 known mammalian imprinted genes from human and mouse homologs map to the identified QTL regions. Although several of the 32 genes have been associated with quantitative traits in cattle, only two (GNAS and PEG3) have experimental proof of being imprinted in cattle. These results lend additional support to recent reports that POE on quantitative traits in mammals may be more common than previously thought, and strengthen the need to identify and experimentally validate cattle orthologs of imprinted genes so as to investigate their effects on quantitative traits.

  2. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa.

  3. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa. PMID:14653804

  4. Genetics-Statistical Analysis of Traits Related to Grain in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotokian, Mohammad H.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify quantitative traits loci (QTLs) for grain-related traits in a BC2F5 population derived from a cross between IR64 and Tarom molaei in Iran. The parental survey was done by 235 SSR markers in agarose and polyacrylamide gels, through them 114 markers with clear polymorphic bands were employed to genotype 59 advanced backcross lines. The traits under study included: grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain shape, GS), and 100-grain weight (HGW). Using multiple interval mapping, a total of 21 putative QTLs were detected, of which 6 were for GL, 4 for GW, 3 for GS, and 8 for HGW. The epistatic effects observed only for GL and GW, each with one additibe by additive QTL. Because of mapping more than one QTL for most traits, it is concluded that these traits are polygenic.

  5. Genetic variation in salt tolerance during seed germination in a backcross inbred line population and advanced breeding lines derived from upland cotton x pima cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed germination is a crucial phase of the plant life cycle that affects its establishment and productivity. However, information on salt tolerance at this phase is limited. Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) may be more salt tolerant during germination than Upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) based o...

  6. QTL mapping in three tropical maize populations reveals a set of constitutive and adaptive genomic regions for drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Makumbi, Dan; Magorokosho, Cosmos; Nair, Sudha; Borém, Aluízio; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Bänziger, Marianne; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Crossa, Jose; Babu, Raman

    2013-03-01

    Despite numerous published reports of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought-related traits, practical applications of such QTL in maize improvement are scarce. Identifying QTL of sizeable effects that express more or less uniformly in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes could significantly complement conventional breeding efforts to improve drought tolerance. We evaluated three tropical bi-parental populations under water-stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) regimes in Mexico, Kenya and Zimbabwe to identify genomic regions responsible for grain yield (GY) and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) across multiple environments and diverse genetic backgrounds. Across the three populations, on average, drought stress reduced GY by more than 50 % and increased ASI by 3.2 days. We identified a total of 83 and 62 QTL through individual environment analyses for GY and ASI, respectively. In each population, most QTL consistently showed up in each water regime. Across the three populations, the phenotypic variance explained by various individual QTL ranged from 2.6 to 17.8 % for GY and 1.7 to 17.8 % for ASI under WS environments and from 5 to 19.5 % for GY under WW environments. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis across the three populations and multiple environments identified seven genomic regions for GY and one for ASI, of which six mQTL on chr.1, 4, 5 and 10 for GY were constitutively expressed across WS and WW environments. One mQTL on chr.7 for GY and one on chr.3 for ASI were found to be 'adaptive' to WS conditions. High throughput assays were developed for SNPs that delimit the physical intervals of these mQTL. At most of the QTL, almost equal number of favorable alleles was donated by either of the parents within each cross, thereby demonstrating the potential of drought tolerant × drought tolerant crosses to identify QTL under contrasting water regimes.

  7. Inheritance and Identification of a Major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) that Confers Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and a Novel QTL for Plant Height in Sweet Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Davis, Richard F; Knoll, Joseph E; Anderson, William; Wang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are a pest on many economically important row crop and vegetable species and management relies on chemicals, plant resistance, and cultural practices such as crop rotation. Little is known about the inheritance of resistance to M. incognita or the genomic regions associated with resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In this study, an F2 population (n = 130) was developed between the resistant sweet sorghum cultivar 'Honey Drip' and the susceptible sweet cultivar 'Collier'. Each F2 plant was phenotyped for stalk weight, height, juice Brix, root weight, total eggs, and eggs per gram of root. Strong correlations were observed between eggs per gram of root and total eggs, height and stalk weight, and between two measurements of Brix. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to generate single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The G-Model, single marker analysis, interval mapping, and composite interval mapping were used to identify a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3 for total eggs and eggs per gram of root. Furthermore, a new QTL for plant height was also discovered on chromosome 3. Simple sequence repeat markers were developed in the total eggs and eggs per gram of root QTL region and the markers flanking the resistance gene are 4.7 and 2.4 cM away. These markers can be utilized to move the southern root-knot nematode resistance gene from Honey Drip to any sorghum line. PMID:26574655

  8. Inheritance and Identification of a Major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) that Confers Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and a Novel QTL for Plant Height in Sweet Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Davis, Richard F; Knoll, Joseph E; Anderson, William; Wang, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are a pest on many economically important row crop and vegetable species and management relies on chemicals, plant resistance, and cultural practices such as crop rotation. Little is known about the inheritance of resistance to M. incognita or the genomic regions associated with resistance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). In this study, an F2 population (n = 130) was developed between the resistant sweet sorghum cultivar 'Honey Drip' and the susceptible sweet cultivar 'Collier'. Each F2 plant was phenotyped for stalk weight, height, juice Brix, root weight, total eggs, and eggs per gram of root. Strong correlations were observed between eggs per gram of root and total eggs, height and stalk weight, and between two measurements of Brix. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to generate single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The G-Model, single marker analysis, interval mapping, and composite interval mapping were used to identify a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 3 for total eggs and eggs per gram of root. Furthermore, a new QTL for plant height was also discovered on chromosome 3. Simple sequence repeat markers were developed in the total eggs and eggs per gram of root QTL region and the markers flanking the resistance gene are 4.7 and 2.4 cM away. These markers can be utilized to move the southern root-knot nematode resistance gene from Honey Drip to any sorghum line.

  9. QTL meta-analysis of root traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphorus supply in two growth systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Catherine L; Xiang, Jinxia; Long, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Zou, Jun; Luo, Ziliang; Ding, Guangda; Cai, Hongmei; Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Xu, Fangsen; Broadley, Martin R; Shi, Lei; Meng, Jinling

    2016-01-01

    A high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map was constructed and integrated with a previous map in the Tapidor x Ningyou7 (TNDH) Brassica napus population, giving a new map with a total of 2041 molecular markers and an average marker density which increased from 0.39 to 0.97 (0.82 SNP bin) per cM. Root and shoot traits were screened under low and 'normal' phosphate (Pi) supply using a 'pouch and wick' system, and had been screened previously in an agar based system. The P-efficient parent Ningyou7 had a shorter primary root length (PRL), greater lateral root density (LRD) and a greater shoot biomass than the P-inefficient parent Tapidor under both treatments and growth systems. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified a total of 131 QTL, and QTL meta-analysis found four integrated QTL across the growth systems. Integration reduced the confidence interval by ~41%. QTL for root and shoot biomass were co-located on chromosome A3 and for lateral root emergence were co-located on chromosomes A4/C4 and C8/C9. There was a major QTL for LRD on chromosome C9 explaining ~18% of the phenotypic variation. QTL underlying an increased LRD may be a useful breeding target for P uptake efficiency in Brassica. PMID:27624881

  10. QTL meta-analysis of root traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphorus supply in two growth systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Catherine L; Xiang, Jinxia; Long, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Zou, Jun; Luo, Ziliang; Ding, Guangda; Cai, Hongmei; Graham, Neil S; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Xu, Fangsen; Broadley, Martin R; Shi, Lei; Meng, Jinling

    2016-09-14

    A high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map was constructed and integrated with a previous map in the Tapidor x Ningyou7 (TNDH) Brassica napus population, giving a new map with a total of 2041 molecular markers and an average marker density which increased from 0.39 to 0.97 (0.82 SNP bin) per cM. Root and shoot traits were screened under low and 'normal' phosphate (Pi) supply using a 'pouch and wick' system, and had been screened previously in an agar based system. The P-efficient parent Ningyou7 had a shorter primary root length (PRL), greater lateral root density (LRD) and a greater shoot biomass than the P-inefficient parent Tapidor under both treatments and growth systems. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified a total of 131 QTL, and QTL meta-analysis found four integrated QTL across the growth systems. Integration reduced the confidence interval by ~41%. QTL for root and shoot biomass were co-located on chromosome A3 and for lateral root emergence were co-located on chromosomes A4/C4 and C8/C9. There was a major QTL for LRD on chromosome C9 explaining ~18% of the phenotypic variation. QTL underlying an increased LRD may be a useful breeding target for P uptake efficiency in Brassica.

  11. QTL meta-analysis of root traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphorus supply in two growth systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Catherine L.; Xiang, Jinxia; Long, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Zou, Jun; Luo, Ziliang; Ding, Guangda; Cai, Hongmei; Graham, Neil S.; Hammond, John P.; King, Graham J.; White, Philip J.; Xu, Fangsen; Broadley, Martin R.; Shi, Lei; Meng, Jinling

    2016-01-01

    A high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map was constructed and integrated with a previous map in the Tapidor x Ningyou7 (TNDH) Brassica napus population, giving a new map with a total of 2041 molecular markers and an average marker density which increased from 0.39 to 0.97 (0.82 SNP bin) per cM. Root and shoot traits were screened under low and ‘normal’ phosphate (Pi) supply using a ‘pouch and wick’ system, and had been screened previously in an agar based system. The P-efficient parent Ningyou7 had a shorter primary root length (PRL), greater lateral root density (LRD) and a greater shoot biomass than the P-inefficient parent Tapidor under both treatments and growth systems. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified a total of 131 QTL, and QTL meta-analysis found four integrated QTL across the growth systems. Integration reduced the confidence interval by ~41%. QTL for root and shoot biomass were co-located on chromosome A3 and for lateral root emergence were co-located on chromosomes A4/C4 and C8/C9. There was a major QTL for LRD on chromosome C9 explaining ~18% of the phenotypic variation. QTL underlying an increased LRD may be a useful breeding target for P uptake efficiency in Brassica. PMID:27624881

  12. Multi-environment analysis and improved mapping of a yield-related QTL on chromosome 3B of wheat.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Julien; Taylor, Julian; Parent, Boris; Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Feuillet, Catherine; Langridge, Peter; Mather, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Improved mapping, multi-environment quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and dissection of allelic effects were used to define a QTL associated with grain yield, thousand grain weight and early vigour on chromosome 3BL of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under abiotic stresses. The QTL had pleiotropic effects and showed QTL x environment interactions across 21 diverse environments in Australia and Mexico. The occurrence and the severity of water deficit combined with high temperatures during the growing season affected the responsiveness of this QTL, resulting in a reversal in the direction of allelic effects. The influence of this QTL can be substantial, with the allele from one parent (RAC875) increasing grain yield by up to 12.5 % (particularly in environments where both heat and drought stress occurred) and the allele from the other parent (Kukri) increasing grain yield by up to 9 % in favourable environments. With the application of additional markers and the genotyping of additional recombinant inbred lines, the genetic map in the QTL region was refined to provide a basis for future positional cloning.

  13. QTL analysis of disease resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Cercosporidium personatum, and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) result in great losses in yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these dise...

  14. Fine Mapping and Evolution of a QTL Region on Cattle Chromosome 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donthu, Ravikiran

    2009-01-01

    The goal of my dissertation was to fine map the milk yield and composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to cattle chromosome 3 (BTA3) by Heyen et al. (1999) and to identify candidate genes affecting these traits. To accomplish this, the region between "BL41" and "TGLA263" was mapped to the cattle genome sequence assembly Btau 3.1 and a…

  15. [Integrating genetic and gene expression data: methods and applications of eQTL mapping].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Hui-Ru; Ni, Zhong-Fu; Qin, Dan-Dan; Song, Fang-Wei; Song, Guang-Shu; Sun, Qi-Xin

    2008-09-01

    The availability of high-throughput genotyping technologies and microarray assays has allowed researchers to investigate genetic variations that influence levels of gene expression. Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) mapping methods have been used to identify the genetic basis of gene expression. Similar to traditional QTL studies, the main goal of eQTL is to identify the genomic locations to which the expression traits are linked. Although microarrays provide the expression data of thousands of transcripts, standard QTL mapping methods, which are able to handle at most tens of traits, cannot be applied directly. As a result, it is necessary to consider the statistical principles involved in the design and analysis of these experiments. In this paper, we reviewed individual selection, experimental design of microarray, normalization of gene expression data, mapping methods, and explaining of results and proposed potential methodological problems for such analyses. Finally, we discussed the applications of this integrative genomic approach to estimate heritability of transcripts, identify candidate genes, construct gene networks, and understand interactions between genes, genes and environments.

  16. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  17. A new method to infer causal phenotype networks using QTL and phenotypic information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huange; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2014-01-01

    In the context of genetics and breeding research on multiple phenotypic traits, reconstructing the directional or causal structure between phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for quantifying the effects of genetic interventions on the traits. Current approaches mainly exploit the genetic effects at quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to learn about causal relationships among phenotypic traits. A requirement for using these approaches is that at least one unique QTL has been identified for each trait studied. However, in practice, especially for molecular phenotypes such as metabolites, this prerequisite is often not met due to limited sample sizes, high noise levels and small QTL effects. Here, we present a novel heuristic search algorithm called the QTL+phenotype supervised orientation (QPSO) algorithm to infer causal directions for edges in undirected phenotype networks. The two main advantages of this algorithm are: first, it does not require QTLs for each and every trait; second, it takes into account associated phenotypic interactions in addition to detected QTLs when orienting undirected edges between traits. We evaluate and compare the performance of QPSO with another state-of-the-art approach, the QTL-directed dependency graph (QDG) algorithm. Simulation results show that our method has broader applicability and leads to more accurate overall orientations. We also illustrate our method with a real-life example involving 24 metabolites and a few major QTLs measured on an association panel of 93 tomato cultivars. Matlab source code implementing the proposed algorithm is freely available upon request. PMID:25144184

  18. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  19. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  20. QTL mapping for milling quality in elite western U.S. rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) milling yield is a key export and domestic grain quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. To identify genomic regions influencing grain quality, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits including head-rice yield (HR) in...

  1. Mapping QTL main and interaction influences on milling quality in elite U.S. rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) head-rice yield (HR) is a key export and domestic quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. With the goal of identifying genomic regions influencing HR, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits in recombinant inbred line...

  2. QTL analysis for sugar-regulated leaf senescence supports flowering-dependent and -independent senescence pathways.

    PubMed

    Wingler, Astrid; Purdy, Sarah Jane; Edwards, Sally-Anne; Chardon, Fabien; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2010-01-01

    *The aim of this work was to determine the genetic basis of sugar-regulated senescence and to explore the relationship with other traits, including flowering and nitrogen-use efficiency. *Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for senescence were mapped in the Arabidopsis Bay-0 x Shahdara recombinant-inbred line (RIL) population after growth on glucose-containing medium, which accelerates senescence. The extent of whole-rosette senescence was determined by imaging the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)). *A major QTL on the top of chromosome 4 colocalized with FRI, a major determinant of flowering. This QTL interacted epistatically with a QTL on chromosome 5, where the floral repressor FLC localizes. Vernalization accelerated senescence in late-flowering lines with functional FRI and FLC alleles. Comparison with previous results using the Bay-0 x Shahdara population showed that rapid rosette senescence on glucose-containing medium was correlated with early flowering and high sugar content in compost-grown plants. In addition, correlation was found between the expression of flowering and senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis accessions. However, an additional QTL on chromosome 3 was not linked to flowering, but to nitrogen-use efficiency. *The results show that whole-rosette senescence is genetically linked to the vernalization-dependent control of flowering, but is also controlled by flowering-independent pathways.

  3. QTL involved in the modification of cyanidin compounds in black and red raspberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Bushakra, J M; Krieger, C; Deng, D; Stephens, M J; Allan, A C; Storey, R; Symonds, V V; Stevenson, D; McGhie, T; Chagné, D; Buck, E J; Gardiner, S E

    2013-03-01

    Fruit from Rubus species are highly valued for their flavor and nutritive qualities. Anthocyanin content contributes to these qualities, and although many studies have been conducted to identify and quantify the major anthocyanin compounds from various Rubus species, the genetic control of the accumulation of these complex traits in Rubus is not yet well understood. The identification of the regions of the genome involved in the production of anthocyanins is an important first step in identifying the genes underlying their expression. In this study, ultra and high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC and HPLC) and two newly developed Rubus linkage maps were used to conduct QTL analyses to explore the presence of associations between concentrations of five anthocyanins in fruit and genotype. In total, 27 QTL were identified on the Rubus linkage maps, four of which are associated with molecular markers designed from transcription factors and three of which are associated with molecular markers designed from anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway candidate genes. The results of this study suggest that, while QTL for anthocyanin accumulation have been identified on six of seven Rubus linkage groups (RLG), the QTL on RLG2 and RLG7 may be very important for genetic control of cyanidin modification in Rubus.

  4. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  5. Identification of QTL for maize grain yield and kernel-related traits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cong; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Aimin; Rong, Tingzhao

    2016-06-01

    Grain yield (GY) is one of the most important and complex quantitative traits in maize (Zea mays L.) breeding practice. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for GY and three kernel-related traits were detected in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). One hundred and seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 168 insertion/deletion polymorphism markers (Indels) were used to genotype RILs. Eight QTLs were found to be associated with four yield-related traits: GY, 100-kernel weight (HKW), 10-kernel length (KL), and 10-kernel length width (KW). Each QTL explained between 5.96 (qKL2-1) and 13.05 (qKL1-1) per cent of the phenotypic variance. Notably, one common QTL, located at the marker interval between bnlg1893 and chr2- 236477 (chromosomal bin 2.09) simultaneously controlled GY and HKW; another common QTL, at bin 2.03 was simultaneously responsible for HKW and KW. Of the QTLs identified, only one pair of significant epistatic interaction involved in chromosomal region at bin 2.03 was detected for HKW; no significant QTL × environment interactions were observed. These results provide the common QTLs and for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27350665

  6. Identification of QTL associated with flower and runner production in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal flowering of strawberry is described as remontant and non-remontant. The genetic basis of this trait is important for breeding. This study was conducted to validate the existence of a major QTL for remontancy and weeks of flowering in F. × ananassa on LG IV, to determine if the level of flo...

  7. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTL in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Melinda A; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-08-01

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129 recombinant inbred population from the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was grown to seed under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and 2007. Phenotypic data were collected for seed calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations and content. Data for physical seed traits (average seed mass and seed-pod allocation values) were also collected. Based on these phenotypic data, QTL analyses identified 103 QTL linked to 55 different molecular markers. Transgressive segregation, identified within this recombinant inbred population for both seed nutrient and physical traits, suggests new allelic combinations are available for agronomic trait improvement. QTL co-localization was also seen, suggesting that common transport processes might contribute to seed nutrient loading. Identification of loci involved in seed mineral density can be an important first step in identifying the genetic factors and, consequently, the physiological processes involved in mineral distribution to developing seeds. Longer term research efforts will focus on facilitating agronomic breeding efforts through ortholog identification in related crop legumes.

  8. Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTL in Winter Wheat Cultivar NC-Neuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, can significantly reduce the grain quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) due to mycotoxin contamination. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in the moderately resistant so...

  9. QTL for yield under multiple stress and drought conditions in a dry bean population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal and intermittent drought limits dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide. Tolerance to drought exists but is difficult to breed for because of inconsistent expression across environments. Our objective was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning yield in a recom...

  10. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Riccardo; Van Deynze, Allen; Portis, Ezio; Rotino, Giuseppe L.; Toppino, Laura; Hill, Theresa; Ashrafi, Hamid; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant, pepper, and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage. Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits. The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5–0.7 Mbp. Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation. In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10%) affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in orthologous

  11. Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different environments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS) is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%). This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4%) under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b marker is a potential tool

  12. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Riccardo; Van Deynze, Allen; Portis, Ezio; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Toppino, Laura; Hill, Theresa; Ashrafi, Hamid; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant, pepper, and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage. Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits. The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5-0.7 Mbp. Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation. In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10%) affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in orthologous

  13. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5), the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5), the duration of bud formation (subproc1) and bud maturation (subproc2)) eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs). These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set. Conclusions This study

  14. Cell Wall Composition and Underlying QTL in an F1 Pseudo-Testcross Population of Switchgrass

    DOE PAGES

    Serba, Desalegn D.; Sykes, Robert W.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Decker, Stephen R.; Daverdin, Guillaume; Devos, Katrien M.; Brummer, E. Charles; Saha, Malay C.

    2016-04-23

    Natural genetic variation for reduced recalcitrance can be used to improve switchgrass for biofuel production. A full-sib switchgrass mapping population developed by crossing a lowland genotype, AP13, and upland genotype, VS16, was evaluated at three locations (Ardmore and Burneyville, OK and Watkinsville, GA). Biomass harvested after senescence in 2009 and 2010 was evaluated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for sugar release using enzymatic hydrolysis and for lignin content and syringyl/guaiacyl lignin monomer (S/G) ratio using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS). Glucose and xylose release ranged from 120 to 313 and 123 to 263 mg g-1, respectively, whilemore » lignin content ranged from 19 to 27% of the dry biomass. Statistically significant differences were observed among the genotypes and the environments for the cell wall composition traits. Regression analysis showed that a unit increase in lignin content reduced total sugar release by an average of 10 mg g-1. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis detected 9 genomic regions underlying sugar release and 14 for lignin content. The phenotypic variation explained by the individual QTL identified for sugar release ranged from 4.5 to 9.4 and for lignin content from 3.8 to 11.1%. Mapping of the QTL regions to the switchgrass genome sequence (v1.1) found that some of the QTL colocalized with genes involved in carbohydrate processing and metabolism, plant development, defense systems, and transcription factors. Finally, the markers associated with QTL can be implemented in breeding programs to efficiently develop improved switchgrass cultivars for biofuel production.« less

  15. Abiotic stress QTL in lettuce crop–wild hybrids: comparing greenhouse and field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Hooftman, Danny A P; Uwimana, Brigitte; Schranz, M Eric; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Michelmore, Richard W; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The development of stress-tolerant crops is an increasingly important goal of current crop breeding. A higher abiotic stress tolerance could increase the probability of introgression of genes from crops to wild relatives. This is particularly relevant to the discussion on the risks of new GM crops that may be engineered to increase abiotic stress resistance. We investigated abiotic stress QTL in greenhouse and field experiments in which we subjected recombinant inbred lines from a cross between cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and its wild relative L. serriola to drought, low nutrients, salt stress, and aboveground competition. Aboveground biomass at the end of the rosette stage was used as a proxy for the performance of plants under a particular stress. We detected a mosaic of abiotic stress QTL over the entire genome with little overlap between QTL from different stresses. The two QTL clusters that were identified reflected general growth rather than specific stress responses and colocated with clusters found in earlier studies for leaf shape and flowering time. Genetic correlations across treatments were often higher among different stress treatments within the same experiment (greenhouse or field), than among the same type of stress applied in different experiments. Moreover, the effects of the field stress treatments were more correlated with those of the greenhouse competition treatments than to those of the other greenhouse stress experiments, suggesting that competition rather than abiotic stress is a major factor in the field. In conclusion, the introgression risk of stress tolerance (trans-)genes under field conditions cannot easily be predicted based on genomic background selection patterns from controlled QTL experiments in greenhouses, especially field data will be needed to assess potential (negative) ecological effects of introgression of these transgenes into wild relatives. PMID:25360276

  16. Plethysmography Phenotype QTL in Mice Before and After Allergen Sensitization and Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kelada, Samir N. P.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is common airway disease that is characterized in part by enhanced airway constriction in response to nonspecific stimuli. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with asthma risk in humans, but these studies have not accounted for gene–environment interactions, which are thought to be important factors in asthma. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that regulate responses to a common human allergen, we applied a house dust mite mouse (HDM) model of allergic airway disease (AAD) to 146 incipient lines of the Collaborative Cross (CC) and the CC founder strains. We employed a longitudinal study design in which mice were phenotyped for response to the bronchoconstrictor methacholine both before and after HDM sensitization and challenge using whole body plethysmography (WBP). There was significant variation in methacholine responsiveness due to both strain and HDM treatment, as reflected by changes in the WBP parameter enhanced pause. We also found that distinct QTL regulate baseline [chromosome (Chr) 18] and post-HDM (Chr 19) methacholine responsiveness and that post-HDM airway responsiveness was correlated with other features of AAD. Finally, using invasive measurements of airway mechanics, we tested whether the Chr 19 QTL affects lung resistance per se using C57BL/6J mice and a consomic strain but found that QTL haplotype did not affect lung resistance. We conclude that aspects of baseline and allergen-induced methacholine responsiveness are associated with genetic variation, and that robust detection of airway resistance QTL in genetically diverse mice will be facilitated by direct measurement of airway mechanics. PMID:27449512

  17. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs.

  18. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs. PMID:24776887

  19. Genetic architecture of growth traits in Populus revealed by integrated quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and association studies.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingzhang; Gong, Chenrui; Wang, Qingshi; Zhou, Daling; Yang, Haijiao; Pan, Wei; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    Deciphering the genetic architecture underlying polygenic traits in perennial species can inform molecular marker-assisted breeding. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled strategies that integrate linkage-linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping in Populus. We used an integrated method of quantitative trait locus (QTL) dissection with a high-resolution linkage map and multi-gene association mapping to decipher the nature of genetic architecture (additive, dominant, and epistatic effects) of potential QTLs for growth traits in a Populus linkage population (1200 progeny) and a natural population (435 individuals). Seventeen QTLs for tree height, diameter at breast height, and stem volume mapped to 11 linkage groups (logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.5), and explained 2.7-18.5% of the phenotypic variance. After comparative mapping and transcriptome analysis, 187 expressed genes (10 046 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were selected from the segmental homology regions (SHRs) of 13 QTLs. Using multi-gene association models, we observed 202 significant SNPs in 63 promising genes from 10 QTLs (P ≤ 0.0001; FDR ≤ 0.10) that exhibited reproducible associations with additive/dominant effects, and further determined 11 top-ranked genes tightly linked to the QTLs. Epistasis analysis uncovered a uniquely interconnected gene-gene network for each trait. This study opens up opportunities to uncover the causal networks of interacting genes in plants using an integrated linkage-LD mapping approach.

  20. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Zhen; Fu, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Qin, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Jin-Feng

    2016-06-07

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes.

  1. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing-Zhen; Fu, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Qin, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-Feng; Chen, Jin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes. PMID:27271557

  2. Rapid identification of fruit length loci in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based QTL analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing-zhen; Fu, Wen-yuan; Wang, Yun-zhu; Qin, Xiao-dong; Wang, Jing; Li, Ji; Lou, Qun-feng; Chen, Jin-feng

    2016-01-01

    The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) exhibits extensive variations in fruit size and shape. Fruit length is an important agronomic and domesticated trait controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Nonetheless, the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine cucumber fruit length remain unclear. QTL-seq is an efficient strategy for QTL identification that takes advantage of bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we conducted QTL mapping and QTL-seq of cucumber fruit length. QTL mapping identified 8 QTLs for immature and mature fruit length. A major-effect QTL fl3.2, which explained a maximum of 38.87% of the phenotypic variation, was detected. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between two DNA bulks identified 6 QTLs for ovary length. QTLs ovl3.1 and ovl3.2 both had major effects on ovary length with a △ (SNP-index) of 0.80 (P < 0.01) and 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR of fruit size-related homologous genes localized in the consensus QTL FL3.2 was conducted. Four candidate genes exhibited increased expression levels in long fruit genotypes. Our results demonstrated the power of the QTL-seq method in rapid QTL detection and provided reliable QTL regions for fine mapping of fruit length-related loci and for identifying candidate genes. PMID:27271557

  3. Identification and Fine Mapping of a Stably Expressed QTL for Cold Tolerance at the Booting Stage Using an Interconnected Breeding Population in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yajun; Chen, Kai; Mi, Xuefei; Chen, Tianxiao; Ali, Jauhar; Ye, Guoyou; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impede rice production. A interconnected breeding (IB) population consisted of 497 advanced lines developed using HHZ as the recurrent parent and eight diverse elite indica lines as the donors were used to identify stably expressed QTLs for CT at the booting stage. A total of 41,754 high-quality SNPs were obtained through re-sequencing of the IB population. Phenotyping was conducted under field conditions in two years and three locations. Association analysis identified six QTLs for CT on the chromosomes 3, 4 and 12. QTL qCT-3-2 that showed stable CT across years and locations was fine-mapped to an approximately 192.9 kb region. Our results suggested that GWAS applied to an IB population allows better integration of gene discovery and breeding. QTLs can be mapped in high resolution and quickly utilized in breeding. PMID:26713764

  4. Identification and Fine Mapping of a Stably Expressed QTL for Cold Tolerance at the Booting Stage Using an Interconnected Breeding Population in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianxiao; Ali, Jauhar; Ye, Guoyou; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhikang

    2015-01-01

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impede rice production. A interconnected breeding (IB) population consisted of 497 advanced lines developed using HHZ as the recurrent parent and eight diverse elite indica lines as the donors were used to identify stably expressed QTLs for CT at the booting stage. A total of 41,754 high-quality SNPs were obtained through re-sequencing of the IB population. Phenotyping was conducted under field conditions in two years and three locations. Association analysis identified six QTLs for CT on the chromosomes 3, 4 and 12. QTL qCT-3-2 that showed stable CT across years and locations was fine-mapped to an approximately 192.9 kb region. Our results suggested that GWAS applied to an IB population allows better integration of gene discovery and breeding. QTLs can be mapped in high resolution and quickly utilized in breeding. PMID:26713764

  5. High-Density SNP Map Construction and QTL Identification for the Apetalous Character in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Kunjiang; Li, Hongge; Peng, Qi; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Song; Hu, Maolong; Zhang, Jiefu

    2015-01-01

    The apetalous genotype is a morphological ideotype for increasing seed yield and should be of considerable agricultural use; however, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of this trait in Brassica napus. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line, the AH population, containing 189 individuals was derived from a cross between an apetalous line ‘APL01’ and a normally petalled variety ‘Holly’. The Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array harboring 52,157 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used to genotype the AH individuals. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed based on 2,755 bins involving 11,458 SNPs and 57 simple sequence repeats, and was used to identify loci associated with petalous degree (PDgr). The linkage map covered 2,027.53 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.72 cM. The AH map had good collinearity with the B. napus reference genome, indicating its high quality and accuracy. After phenotypic analyses across five different experiments, a total of 19 identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) distributed across chromosomes A3, A5, A6, A9 and C8 were obtained, and these QTLs were further integrated into nine consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Interestingly, the major QTL qPD.C8-2 was consistently detected in all five experiments, and qPD.A9-2 and qPD.C8-3 were stably expressed in four experiments. Comparative mapping between the AH map and the B. napus reference genome suggested that there were 328 genes underlying the confidence intervals of the three steady QTLs. Based on the Gene Ontology assignments of 52 genes to the regulation of floral development in published studies, 146 genes were considered as potential candidate genes for PDgr. The current study carried out a QTL analysis for PDgr using a high-density SNP map in B. napus, providing novel targets for improving seed yield. These results advanced our understanding of the genetic control of PDgr regulation in B. napus. PMID:26779193

  6. High-Density SNP Map Construction and QTL Identification for the Apetalous Character in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Kunjiang; Li, Hongge; Peng, Qi; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Song; Hu, Maolong; Zhang, Jiefu

    2015-01-01

    The apetalous genotype is a morphological ideotype for increasing seed yield and should be of considerable agricultural use; however, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of this trait in Brassica napus. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line, the AH population, containing 189 individuals was derived from a cross between an apetalous line 'APL01' and a normally petalled variety 'Holly'. The Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array harboring 52,157 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used to genotype the AH individuals. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed based on 2,755 bins involving 11,458 SNPs and 57 simple sequence repeats, and was used to identify loci associated with petalous degree (PDgr). The linkage map covered 2,027.53 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.72 cM. The AH map had good collinearity with the B. napus reference genome, indicating its high quality and accuracy. After phenotypic analyses across five different experiments, a total of 19 identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) distributed across chromosomes A3, A5, A6, A9 and C8 were obtained, and these QTLs were further integrated into nine consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Interestingly, the major QTL qPD.C8-2 was consistently detected in all five experiments, and qPD.A9-2 and qPD.C8-3 were stably expressed in four experiments. Comparative mapping between the AH map and the B. napus reference genome suggested that there were 328 genes underlying the confidence intervals of the three steady QTLs. Based on the Gene Ontology assignments of 52 genes to the regulation of floral development in published studies, 146 genes were considered as potential candidate genes for PDgr. The current study carried out a QTL analysis for PDgr using a high-density SNP map in B. napus, providing novel targets for improving seed yield. These results advanced our understanding of the genetic control of PDgr regulation in B. napus.

  7. High-Density SNP Map Construction and QTL Identification for the Apetalous Character in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Kunjiang; Li, Hongge; Peng, Qi; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Song; Hu, Maolong; Zhang, Jiefu

    2015-01-01

    The apetalous genotype is a morphological ideotype for increasing seed yield and should be of considerable agricultural use; however, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of this trait in Brassica napus. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line, the AH population, containing 189 individuals was derived from a cross between an apetalous line 'APL01' and a normally petalled variety 'Holly'. The Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array harboring 52,157 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used to genotype the AH individuals. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed based on 2,755 bins involving 11,458 SNPs and 57 simple sequence repeats, and was used to identify loci associated with petalous degree (PDgr). The linkage map covered 2,027.53 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.72 cM. The AH map had good collinearity with the B. napus reference genome, indicating its high quality and accuracy. After phenotypic analyses across five different experiments, a total of 19 identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) distributed across chromosomes A3, A5, A6, A9 and C8 were obtained, and these QTLs were further integrated into nine consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Interestingly, the major QTL qPD.C8-2 was consistently detected in all five experiments, and qPD.A9-2 and qPD.C8-3 were stably expressed in four experiments. Comparative mapping between the AH map and the B. napus reference genome suggested that there were 328 genes underlying the confidence intervals of the three steady QTLs. Based on the Gene Ontology assignments of 52 genes to the regulation of floral development in published studies, 146 genes were considered as potential candidate genes for PDgr. The current study carried out a QTL analysis for PDgr using a high-density SNP map in B. napus, providing novel targets for improving seed yield. These results advanced our understanding of the genetic control of PDgr regulation in B. napus. PMID:26779193

  8. Saturation mapping of QTL regions and identification of putative candidate genes for drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T T; Klueva, N; Chamareck, V; Aarti, A; Magpantay, G; Millena, A C M; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T

    2004-08-01

    We have developed 85 new markers (50 RFLPs, 5 SSRs, 12 DD cDNAs, 9 ESTs, 8 HSP-encoding cDNAs and one BSA-derived AFLP marker) for saturation mapping of QTL regions for drought tolerance in rice, in our efforts to identify putative candidate genes. Thirteen of the markers were localized in the close vicinity of the targeted QTL regions. Fifteen of the additional markers mapped, respectively, inside one QTL region controlling osmotic adjustment on chromosome 3 ( oa3.1) and 14 regions that affect root traits on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12. Differential display was used to identify more putative candidate genes and to saturate the QTL regions of the genetic map. Eleven of the isolated cDNA clones were found to be derived from drought-inducible genes. Two of them were unique and did not match any genes in the GenBank, while nine were highly similar to cDNAs encoding known proteins, including a DnaJ-related protein, a zinc-finger protein, a protease inhibitor, a glutathione-S-transferase, a DNA recombinase, and a protease. Twelve new cDNA fragments were mapped onto the genetic linkage map; seven of these mapped inside, or in close proximity to, the targeted QTL regions determining root thickness and osmotic adjustment capacity. The gene I12A1, which codes for a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase homolog, was identified as a putative target gene within the prt7.1/brt7.1 QTL region, as it is involved in the cell wall biogenesis pathway and hence may be implicated in modulating the ability of rice roots to penetrate further into the substratum when exposed to drought conditions. RNAs encoding elongation factor 1beta, a DnaJ-related protein, and a homolog of wheat zinc-finger protein were more prominently induced in the leaves of IR62266 (the lowland rice parent of the mapping materials used) than in those of CT9993 (the upland rice parent) under drought conditions. Homologs of 18S ribosomal RNA, and mRNAs for a multiple-stress induced zinc-finger protein, a protease

  9. Saturation mapping of QTL regions and identification of putative candidate genes for drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T T; Klueva, N; Chamareck, V; Aarti, A; Magpantay, G; Millena, A C M; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T

    2004-08-01

    We have developed 85 new markers (50 RFLPs, 5 SSRs, 12 DD cDNAs, 9 ESTs, 8 HSP-encoding cDNAs and one BSA-derived AFLP marker) for saturation mapping of QTL regions for drought tolerance in rice, in our efforts to identify putative candidate genes. Thirteen of the markers were localized in the close vicinity of the targeted QTL regions. Fifteen of the additional markers mapped, respectively, inside one QTL region controlling osmotic adjustment on chromosome 3 ( oa3.1) and 14 regions that affect root traits on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12. Differential display was used to identify more putative candidate genes and to saturate the QTL regions of the genetic map. Eleven of the isolated cDNA clones were found to be derived from drought-inducible genes. Two of them were unique and did not match any genes in the GenBank, while nine were highly similar to cDNAs encoding known proteins, including a DnaJ-related protein, a zinc-finger protein, a protease inhibitor, a glutathione-S-transferase, a DNA recombinase, and a protease. Twelve new cDNA fragments were mapped onto the genetic linkage map; seven of these mapped inside, or in close proximity to, the targeted QTL regions determining root thickness and osmotic adjustment capacity. The gene I12A1, which codes for a UDP-glucose 4-epimerase homolog, was identified as a putative target gene within the prt7.1/brt7.1 QTL region, as it is involved in the cell wall biogenesis pathway and hence may be implicated in modulating the ability of rice roots to penetrate further into the substratum when exposed to drought conditions. RNAs encoding elongation factor 1beta, a DnaJ-related protein, and a homolog of wheat zinc-finger protein were more prominently induced in the leaves of IR62266 (the lowland rice parent of the mapping materials used) than in those of CT9993 (the upland rice parent) under drought conditions. Homologs of 18S ribosomal RNA, and mRNAs for a multiple-stress induced zinc-finger protein, a protease

  10. Mapping QTL for drought stress-induced premature senescence and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.].

    PubMed

    Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2009-03-01

    Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in arid regions of Africa, Asia, and South America. Efforts to develop cultivars with improved productivity under drought conditions are constrained by lack of molecular markers associated with drought tolerance. Here, we report the mapping of 12 quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seedling drought tolerance and maturity in a cowpea recombinant inbred (RIL) population. One hundred and twenty-seven F(8) RILs developed from a cross between IT93K503-1 and CB46 were screened with 62 EcoR1 and Mse1 primer combinations to generate 306 amplified fragment length polymorphisms for use in genetic linkage mapping. The same population was phenotyped for maintenance of stem greenness (stg) and recovery dry weight (rdw) after drought stress in six greenhouse experiments. In field experiments conducted over 3 years, visual ratings and dry weights were used to phenotype drought stress-induced premature senescence in the RIL population. Kruskall-Wallis and multiple-QTL model mapping analysis were used to identify QTL associated with drought response phenotypes. Observed QTL were highly reproducible between stg and rdw under greenhouse conditions. Field studies confirmed all ten drought-response QTL observed under greenhouse conditions. Regions harboring drought-related QTL were observed on linkage groups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 accounting for between 4.7 and 24.2% of the phenotypic variance (R(2)). Further, two QTL for maturity (R(2) = 14.4-28.9% and R(2) = 11.7-25.2%) mapped on linkage groups 7 and 8 separately from drought-related QTL. These results provide a platform for identification of genetic determinants of seedling drought tolerance in cowpea.

  11. Optimal selection of sib pairs from random samples for linkage analysis of a QTL using the EDAC test.

    PubMed

    Dolan, C V; Boomsma, D I

    1998-05-01

    Percentages of extremely concordant and extremely discordant sib pairs are calculated that maximize the power to detect a quantitative trait locus (QTL) under a variety of circumstances using the EDAC test. We assume a large fixed number of randomly sampled sib pairs, such as one would hope to find in the large twin registries, and limited resources to genotype a certain number of selected sib pairs. Our aim is to investigate whether optimal selection can be achieved when prior knowledge concerning the QTL gene action, QTL allele frequency, QTL effect size, and background (residual) sib correlation is limited or absent. To this end we calculate the best selection percentages for a large number of models, which differ in QTL gene action allele frequency, background correlation, and QTL effect size. By averaging these percentages over gene action, over allele frequency, over gene action, and over allele frequencies, we arrive at general recommendations concerning selection percentages. The soundness of these recommendations is subsequently in a number of test cases. PMID:9670595

  12. Detection and mapping of QTL for temperature tolerance and body size in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using genotyping by sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Meredith V; Seeb, James E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how organisms interact with their environments is increasingly important for conservation efforts in many species, especially in light of highly anticipated climate changes. One method for understanding this relationship is to use genetic maps and QTL mapping to detect genomic regions linked to phenotypic traits of importance for adaptation. We used high-throughput genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to both detect and map thousands of SNPs in haploid Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We next applied this map to detect QTL related to temperature tolerance and body size in families of diploid Chinook salmon. Using these techniques, we mapped 3534 SNPs in 34 linkage groups which is consistent with the haploid chromosome number for Chinook salmon. We successfully detected three QTL for temperature tolerance and one QTL for body size at the experiment-wide level, as well as additional QTL significant at the chromosome-wide level. The use of haploids coupled with GBS provides a robust pathway to rapidly develop genomic resources in nonmodel organisms; these QTL represent preliminary progress toward linking traits of conservation interest to regions in the Chinook salmon genome. PMID:24822082

  13. Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

    2008-01-01

    Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

  14. Mapping QTL associated with Verticillium dahliae resistance in the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Antanaviciute, L; Šurbanovski, N; Harrison, N; McLeary, K J; Simpson, D W; Wilson, F; Sargent, D J; Harrison, R J

    2015-01-01

    A biparental cross of octoploid strawberry segregating for resistance to Verticillium dahliae, the causative agent of Verticillium wilt, was screened under field conditions for three seasons. Average wilt scores were significantly associated with multiple QTL, which were mostly significant across all years. Markers significantly associated with the traits were used to screen material with known wilt resistance and susceptibility phenotypes. A clear and statistically significant relationship was observed between resistant, tolerant and susceptible material and the total number of markers present in the different resistance classes. In field situations resistance QTL appear to behave in an additive manner. These markers are abundant in the cultivated strawberry germplasm indicating that, despite the large number of markers, clear genetic gain is possible through marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26504565

  15. Genome-wide association QTL mapping for teat number in a purebred population of Duroc pigs.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, A; Okumura, N; Taniguchi, M; Hayashi, T; Hirose, K; Fukawa, K; Ito, T; Matsumoto, T; Uenishi, H; Mikawa, S

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing litter size in Western pig breeds, additional teats are desirable to increase the capacity for nursing offspring. We applied genome-wide SNP markers to detect QTL regions that affect teat number in a Duroc population. We phenotyped 1024 animals for total teat number. A total of 36 588 SNPs on autosomes were used in the analysis. The estimated heritability for teat number was 0.34 ± 0.05 on the basis of a genomic relationship matrix constructed from all SNP markers. Using a BayesC method, we identified a total of 18 QTL regions that affected teat number in Duroc pigs; 9 of the 18 regions were newly detected.

  16. Mapping QTL associated with Verticillium dahliae resistance in the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Antanaviciute, L; Šurbanovski, N; Harrison, N; McLeary, K J; Simpson, D W; Wilson, F; Sargent, D J; Harrison, R J

    2015-01-01

    A biparental cross of octoploid strawberry segregating for resistance to Verticillium dahliae, the causative agent of Verticillium wilt, was screened under field conditions for three seasons. Average wilt scores were significantly associated with multiple QTL, which were mostly significant across all years. Markers significantly associated with the traits were used to screen material with known wilt resistance and susceptibility phenotypes. A clear and statistically significant relationship was observed between resistant, tolerant and susceptible material and the total number of markers present in the different resistance classes. In field situations resistance QTL appear to behave in an additive manner. These markers are abundant in the cultivated strawberry germplasm indicating that, despite the large number of markers, clear genetic gain is possible through marker-assisted breeding.

  17. eSNPO: An eQTL-based SNP Ontology and SNP functional enrichment analysis platform

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Wang, Limei; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Li, Xue; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Hongchao; Guo, Maozu

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have mined many common genetic variants associated with human complex traits like diseases. After that, the functional annotation and enrichment analysis of significant SNPs are important tasks. Classic methods are always based on physical positions of SNPs and genes. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are genomic loci that contribute to variation in gene expression levels and have been proven efficient to connect SNPs and genes. In this work, we integrated the eQTL data and Gene Ontology (GO), constructed associations between SNPs and GO terms, then performed functional enrichment analysis. Finally, we constructed an eQTL-based SNP Ontology and SNP functional enrichment analysis platform. Taking Parkinson Disease (PD) as an example, the proposed platform and method are efficient. We believe eSNPO will be a useful resource for SNP functional annotation and enrichment analysis after we have got significant disease related SNPs. PMID:27470167

  18. Genetic and environmental effects influencing fruit colour and QTL analysis in raspberry.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Susan; Woodhead, Mary; Hackett, Christine A; Kassim, Angzzas; Paterson, Alistair; Graham, Julie

    2010-08-01

    Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit colour was assessed in the Latham x Glen Moy mapping population using a colour meter and visual scores over three seasons and three environments. The colour measurements were found to be significantly associated with pigment content, have high heritability, and stable QTL were identified across environments and seasons. Anthocyanin content has previously been shown to be the major contributor to fruit colour in red raspberry. Major structural genes (F3'H, FLS, DFR, IFR, OMT and GST) and transcription factors (bZIP, bHLH and MYB) influencing flavonoid biosynthesis have been identified, mapped and shown to underlie QTL for quantitative and qualitative anthocyanin composition. Favourable alleles for the selected traits were identified for the aspects of fruit colour and partitioning of individual pigments.

  19. eSNPO: An eQTL-based SNP Ontology and SNP functional enrichment analysis platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Wang, Limei; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Jizhe; Li, Xue; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Hongchao; Guo, Maozu

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have mined many common genetic variants associated with human complex traits like diseases. After that, the functional annotation and enrichment analysis of significant SNPs are important tasks. Classic methods are always based on physical positions of SNPs and genes. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are genomic loci that contribute to variation in gene expression levels and have been proven efficient to connect SNPs and genes. In this work, we integrated the eQTL data and Gene Ontology (GO), constructed associations between SNPs and GO terms, then performed functional enrichment analysis. Finally, we constructed an eQTL-based SNP Ontology and SNP functional enrichment analysis platform. Taking Parkinson Disease (PD) as an example, the proposed platform and method are efficient. We believe eSNPO will be a useful resource for SNP functional annotation and enrichment analysis after we have got significant disease related SNPs. PMID:27470167

  20. Genetic and QTL analysis of resistance to Xiphinema index in a grapevine cross.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Riaz, S; Roncoroni, N C; Jin, Y; Hu, R; Zhou, R; Walker, M A

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to the dagger nematode Xiphinema index has been an important objective in grape rootstock breeding programs. This nematode not only causes severe feeding damage to the root system, but it also vectors grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), the causal agent of fanleaf degeneration and one of the most severe viral diseases of grape. The established screening procedures for dagger nematode resistance are time consuming and can produce inconsistent results. A fast and reliable greenhouse-based system for screening resistance to X. index that is suitable for genetic studies and capable of evaluating breeding populations is needed. In this report, the dynamics of nematode numbers, gall formation, and root weight loss were investigated using a variety of soil mixes and pot sizes over a 52-week period. Results indicated that the number of galls formed was correlated with the size of the nematode population and with the degree of root weight loss. After inoculation with 100 nematodes, gall formation could be reliably evaluated in 4-8 weeks in most plant growth conditions and results were obtained 6 months more rapidly than past evaluation methods. This modified X. index resistance screening method was successfully applied to 185 of the 188 F(1) progeny from a cross of D8909-15 x F8909-17 (the 9621 population), which segregates for a form of X. index resistance originally derived from Vitis arizonica. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out on both parental genetic maps of 255 markers using MapQTL 4.0. Results revealed that X. index resistance is controlled by a major QTL, designated Xiphinema index Resistance 1 (XiR1), near marker VMC5a10 on chromosome 19. The XiR1 QTL was supported by a LOD score of 36.9 and explained 59.9% of the resistance variance in the mapping population.

  1. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program.

  2. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  3. Graph-regularized dual Lasso for robust eQTL mapping

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Xiang; Guo, Zhishan; Shi, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: As a promising tool for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping has attracted increasing research interest. An important issue in eQTL mapping is how to effectively integrate networks representing interactions among genetic markers and genes. Recently, several Lasso-based methods have been proposed to leverage such network information. Despite their success, existing methods have three common limitations: (i) a preprocessing step is usually needed to cluster the networks; (ii) the incompleteness of the networks and the noise in them are not considered; (iii) other available information, such as location of genetic markers and pathway information are not integrated. Results: To address the limitations of the existing methods, we propose Graph-regularized Dual Lasso (GDL), a robust approach for eQTL mapping. GDL integrates the correlation structures among genetic markers and traits simultaneously. It also takes into account the incompleteness of the networks and is robust to the noise. GDL utilizes graph-based regularizers to model the prior networks and does not require an explicit clustering step. Moreover, it enables further refinement of the partial and noisy networks. We further generalize GDL to incorporate the location of genetic makers and gene-pathway information. We perform extensive experimental evaluations using both simulated and real datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively integrate various available priori knowledge and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art eQTL mapping methods. Availability: Software for both C++ version and Matlab version is available at http://www.cs.unc.edu/∼weicheng/. Contact: weiwang@cs.ucla.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24931977

  4. QTL and candidate gene mapping for polyphenolic composition in apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The polyphenolic products of the phenylpropanoid pathway, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and flavonols, possess antioxidant properties that may provide health benefits. To investigate the genetic architecture of control of their biosynthesis in apple fruit, various polyphenolic compounds were quantified in progeny from a 'Royal Gala' × 'Braeburn' apple population segregating for antioxidant content, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography of extracts derived from fruit cortex and skin. Results Construction of genetic maps for 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' enabled detection of 79 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for content of 17 fruit polyphenolic compounds. Seven QTL clusters were stable across two years of harvest and included QTLs for content of flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. Alignment of the parental genetic maps with the apple whole genome sequence in silico enabled screening for co-segregation with the QTLs of a range of candidate genes coding for enzymes in the polyphenolic biosynthetic pathway. This co-location was confirmed by genetic mapping of markers derived from the gene sequences. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) co-located with a QTL cluster for the fruit flavanols catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin dimer and five unknown procyanidin oligomers identified near the top of linkage group (LG) 16, while hydroxy cinnamate/quinate transferase (HCT/HQT) co-located with a QTL for chlorogenic acid concentration mapping near the bottom of LG 17. Conclusion We conclude that LAR1 and HCT/HQT are likely to influence the concentration of these compounds in apple fruit and provide useful allele-specific markers for marker assisted selection of trees bearing fruit with healthy attributes. PMID:22269060

  5. Molecular genetic map construction and QTL analysis of fruit maturation period in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Su, K; Guo, Y H; Ma, H F; Guo, X W

    2016-06-20

    In this study, we aimed at finding the genetic regularity of grape maturation period. Early-maturing grapevine, "87-1", was used as the female parent and late-maturing, "9-22", as the male parent, to create an F1 hybrid population. A total of 149 individual plants and their parents were selected as the mapping population. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism and simple-sequence repeat analyses were performed. We performed a linkage analysis and constructed a molecular genetic map. In the obtained map, the female and male parents each covered 19 linkage groups containing 188 and 175 maker loci, respectively. The total map distances for the female and male parents were 1074.5 and 1100.2 cM, respectively, whereas the average genetic distances between each two loci were 5.7 and 7.8 cM, respectively. The interval-mapping method was used in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for fruit maturation period. A total of 12 QTLs associated with fruit maturation period were detected. These included four QTLs in the male parent genetic map that were located in linkage groups M5, M11, M14-1, and M16, with a 62.6-75.7% rate of contribution of each QTL. Another three QTLs were found in the female parent genetic map, located in linkage groups F6, F14-1, and F18, with a 72.7-77.7% rate of contribution of each QTL. Five more QTLs were detected in the consensus map, located in linkage groups LG11, LG14-1, LG16, LG17, and LG18, with 8.9-75.7% phenotypic variance explained by each QTL.

  6. Mimicry on the QT(L): genetics of speciation in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, R

    2001-08-01

    Ecological studies suggest that hummingbird-pollinated plants in North America mimic each other to increase visitation by birds. Published quantitative trait locus (QTL) data for two Mimulus species indicate that floral traits associated with hummingbird versus bee pollination results from a few loci with major effects on morphology, as predicted by classical models for the evolution of mimicry. Thus, the architecture of genetic divergence associated with speciation may depend on the ecological context.

  7. QTL analysis of pasta quality using a composite microsatellite and SNP map of durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Chao, S; Manthey, F; Chicaiza, O; Brevis, J C; Echenique, V; Dubcovsky, J

    2008-11-01

    Bright yellow color, firmness and low cooking loss are important factors for the production of good-quality pasta products. However, the genetic factors underlying those traits are still poorly understood. To fill this gap we developed a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from the cross between experimental line UC1113 (intermediate pasta quality) with the cultivar Kofa (excellent pasta quality). A total of 269 markers, including 23 SNP markers, were arranged on 14 linkage groups covering a total length of 2,140 cM. Samples from each RIL from five different environments were used for complete pasta quality testing and the results from each year were used for QTL analyses. The combined effect of different loci, environment and their interactions were analyzed using factorial ANOVAs for each trait. We identified major QTLs for pasta color on chromosomes 1B, 4B, 6A, 7A and 7B. The 4B QTL was linked to a polymorphic deletion in the Lpx-B1.1 lipoxygenase locus, suggesting that it was associated with pigment degradation during pasta processing. The 7B QTL for pasta color was linked to the Phytoene synthase 1 (Psy-B1) locus suggesting difference in pigment biosynthesis. QTLs affecting pasta firmness and cooking loss were detected on chromosomes 5A and 7B, and in both cases they were overlapping with QTL for grain protein content and wet gluten content. These last two parameters were highly correlated with pasta firmness (R > 0.71) and inversely correlated to cooking loss (R < -0.37). The location and effect of other QTLs affecting grain size and weight, gluten strength, mixing properties, and ash content are also discussed. PMID:18781292

  8. Analysis of the QTL for sleep homeostasis in mice: Homer1a is a likely candidate.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, M; Paigen, B; Naidoo, N; Pack, A I

    2008-03-14

    Electroencephalographic oscillations in the frequency range of 0.5-4 Hz, characteristic of slow-wave sleep (SWS), are often referred to as the delta oscillation or delta power. Delta power reflects sleep intensity and correlates with the homeostatic response to sleep loss. A published survey of inbred strains of mice demonstrated that the time course of accumulation of delta power varied among inbred strains, and the segregation of the rebound of delta power in BxD recombinant inbred strains identified a genomic region on chromosome 13 referred to as the delta power in SWS (or Dps1). The quantitative trait locus (QTL) contains genes that modify the accumulation of delta power after sleep deprivation. Here, we narrow the QTL using interval-specific haplotype analysis and present a comprehensive annotation of the remaining genes in the Dps1 region with sequence comparisons to identify polymorphisms within the coding and regulatory regions. We established the expression pattern of selected genes located in the Dps1 interval in sleep and wakefulness in B6 and D2 parental strains. Taken together, these steps reduced the number of potential candidate genes that may underlie the accumulation of delta power after sleep deprivation and explain the Dps1 QTL. The strongest candidate gene is Homer1a, which is supported by expression differences between sleep and wakefulness and the SNP polymorphism in the upstream regulatory regions.

  9. Mapping of Novel QTL Regulating Grain Shattering Using Doubled Haploid Population in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Kang, In-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2016-01-01

    The critical evolutionary step during domestication of major cereals was elimination of seed shattering because the easy-to-shatter trait in wild relatives results in a severe reduction in yield. In this study, we analyzed the QTLs associated with shattering employing a high-density genetic map in doubled haploid (DH) population of rice (Oryza sativa L.). A genetic linkage map was generated with 217 microsatellite markers spanning 2082.4 cM and covering 12 rice chromosomes with an average interval of 9.6 cM between markers based on 120 DHLs derived from a cross between Cheongcheong indica type cultivar and Nagdong japonica type cultivar. In the QTL analysis, five QTLs pertaining to the breaking tensile strength (BTS) were detected in 2013 and 2015. Two regions of the QTLs related to BTS on chromosome 1 and chromosome 6 were detected. Several important genes are distributed in 1 Mbp region of the QTL on chromosome 6 and they are related to the formation of abscission layer. We decide to name this QTL qSh6 and the candidate genes in the qSh6 region can be employed usefully in further research for cloning. PMID:27419124

  10. Multiparental Mapping of Plant Height and Flowering Time QTL in Partially Isogenic Sorghum Families

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R. H.; Thurber, C. S.; Assaranurak, I.; Brown, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Sorghum varieties suitable for grain production at temperate latitudes show dwarfism and photoperiod insensitivity, both of which are controlled by a small number of loci with large effects. We studied the genetic control of plant height and flowering time in five sorghum families (A–E), each derived from a cross between a tropical line and a partially isogenic line carrying introgressions derived from a common, temperate-adapted donor. A total of 724 F2:3 lines were phenotyped in temperate and tropical environments for plant height and flowering time and scored at 9139 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing. Biparental mapping was compared with multiparental mapping in different subsets of families (AB, ABC, ABCD, and ABCDE) using both a GWAS approach, which fit each QTL as a single effect across all families, and using a joint linkage approach, which fit QTL effects as nested within families. GWAS using all families (ABCDE) performed best at the cloned Dw3 locus, whereas joint linkage using all families performed best at the cloned Ma1 locus. Both multiparental approaches yielded apparently synthetic associations due to genetic heterogeneity and were highly dependent on the subset of families used. Comparison of all mapping approaches suggests that a GA2-oxidase underlies Dw1, and that a mir172a gene underlies a Dw1-linked flowering time QTL. PMID:25237111

  11. Multiparental mapping of plant height and flowering time QTL in partially isogenic sorghum families.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R H; Thurber, C S; Assaranurak, I; Brown, P J

    2014-09-01

    Sorghum varieties suitable for grain production at temperate latitudes show dwarfism and photoperiod insensitivity, both of which are controlled by a small number of loci with large effects. We studied the genetic control of plant height and flowering time in five sorghum families (A-E), each derived from a cross between a tropical line and a partially isogenic line carrying introgressions derived from a common, temperate-adapted donor. A total of 724 F2:3 lines were phenotyped in temperate and tropical environments for plant height and flowering time and scored at 9139 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing. Biparental mapping was compared with multiparental mapping in different subsets of families (AB, ABC, ABCD, and ABCDE) using both a GWAS approach, which fit each QTL as a single effect across all families, and using a joint linkage approach, which fit QTL effects as nested within families. GWAS using all families (ABCDE) performed best at the cloned Dw3 locus, whereas joint linkage using all families performed best at the cloned Ma1 locus. Both multiparental approaches yielded apparently synthetic associations due to genetic heterogeneity and were highly dependent on the subset of families used. Comparison of all mapping approaches suggests that a GA2-oxidase underlies Dw1, and that a mir172a gene underlies a Dw1-linked flowering time QTL. PMID:25237111

  12. A global search reveals epistatic interaction between QTL for early growth in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Carlborg, Orjan; Kerje, Susanne; Schütz, Karin; Jacobsson, Lina; Jensen, Per; Andersson, Leif

    2003-03-01

    We have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a large proportion of the variation in body weights at different ages and growth between chronological ages in an F(2) intercross between red junglefowl and White Leghorn chickens. QTL were mapped using forward selection for loci with significant marginal genetic effects and with a simultaneous search for epistatic QTL pairs. We found 22 significant loci contributing to these traits, nine of these were only found by the simultaneous two-dimensional search, which demonstrates the power of this approach for detecting loci affecting complex traits. We have also estimated the relative contribution of additive, dominance, and epistasis effects to growth and the contribution of epistasis was more pronounced prior to 46 days of age, whereas additive genetic effects explained the major portion of the genetic variance later in life. Several of the detected loci affected either early or late growth but not both. Very few loci affected the entire growth process, which points out that early and late growth, at least to some extent, have different genetic regulation. PMID:12618372

  13. A two-phase procedure for QTL mapping with regression models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zehua; Cui, Wenquan

    2010-07-01

    It is typical in QTL mapping experiments that the number of markers under investigation is large. This poses a challenge to commonly used regression models since the number of feature variables is usually much larger than the sample size, especially, when epistasis effects are to be considered. The greedy nature of the conventional stepwise procedures is well known and is even more conspicuous in such cases. In this article, we propose a two-phase procedure based on penalized likelihood techniques and extended Bayes information criterion (EBIC) for QTL mapping. The procedure consists of a screening phase and a selection phase. In the screening phase, the main and interaction features are alternatively screened by a penalized likelihood mechanism. In the selection phase, a low-dimensional approach using EBIC is applied to the features retained in the screening phase to identify QTL. The two-phase procedure has the asymptotic property that its positive detection rate (PDR) and false discovery rate (FDR) converge to 1 and 0, respectively, as sample size goes to infinity. The two-phase procedure is compared with both traditional and recently developed approaches by simulation studies. A real data analysis is presented to demonstrate the application of the two-phase procedure.

  14. Multiparental mapping of plant height and flowering time QTL in partially isogenic sorghum families.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R H; Thurber, C S; Assaranurak, I; Brown, P J

    2014-09-18

    Sorghum varieties suitable for grain production at temperate latitudes show dwarfism and photoperiod insensitivity, both of which are controlled by a small number of loci with large effects. We studied the genetic control of plant height and flowering time in five sorghum families (A-E), each derived from a cross between a tropical line and a partially isogenic line carrying introgressions derived from a common, temperate-adapted donor. A total of 724 F2:3 lines were phenotyped in temperate and tropical environments for plant height and flowering time and scored at 9139 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing. Biparental mapping was compared with multiparental mapping in different subsets of families (AB, ABC, ABCD, and ABCDE) using both a GWAS approach, which fit each QTL as a single effect across all families, and using a joint linkage approach, which fit QTL effects as nested within families. GWAS using all families (ABCDE) performed best at the cloned Dw3 locus, whereas joint linkage using all families performed best at the cloned Ma1 locus. Both multiparental approaches yielded apparently synthetic associations due to genetic heterogeneity and were highly dependent on the subset of families used. Comparison of all mapping approaches suggests that a GA2-oxidase underlies Dw1, and that a mir172a gene underlies a Dw1-linked flowering time QTL.

  15. Mapping of Novel QTL Regulating Grain Shattering Using Doubled Haploid Population in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Kang, In-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The critical evolutionary step during domestication of major cereals was elimination of seed shattering because the easy-to-shatter trait in wild relatives results in a severe reduction in yield. In this study, we analyzed the QTLs associated with shattering employing a high-density genetic map in doubled haploid (DH) population of rice (Oryza sativa L.). A genetic linkage map was generated with 217 microsatellite markers spanning 2082.4 cM and covering 12 rice chromosomes with an average interval of 9.6 cM between markers based on 120 DHLs derived from a cross between Cheongcheong indica type cultivar and Nagdong japonica type cultivar. In the QTL analysis, five QTLs pertaining to the breaking tensile strength (BTS) were detected in 2013 and 2015. Two regions of the QTLs related to BTS on chromosome 1 and chromosome 6 were detected. Several important genes are distributed in 1 Mbp region of the QTL on chromosome 6 and they are related to the formation of abscission layer. We decide to name this QTL qSh6 and the candidate genes in the qSh6 region can be employed usefully in further research for cloning. PMID:27419124

  16. In silico QTL mapping of maternal nurturing ability with the mouse diversity panel.

    PubMed

    Hadsell, D L; Wei, J; Olea, W; Hadsell, L A; Renwick, A; Thomson, P C; Shariflou, M; Williamson, P

    2012-08-17

    Significant variation exists for maternal nurturing ability in inbred mice. Although classical mapping approaches have identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that may account for this variation, the underlying genes are unknown. In this study, lactation performance data among the mouse diversity panel were used to map genomic regions associated with this variation. Females from each of 32 inbred strains (n = 8-19 dams/strain) were studied during the first 8 days of lactation by allowing them to raise weight- and size-normalized cross-foster litters (10 pups/litter). Average daily weight gain (ADG) of litters served as the primary indicator of milk production. The number of pups successfully reared to 8 days (PNUM8) also served as a related indicator of maternal performance. Initial haplotype association analysis using a Bonferroni-corrected, genome-wide threshold revealed 10 and 15 associations encompassing 11 and 13 genes for ADG and PNUM8, respectively. The most significant of these associated haplotype blocks were found on MMU 8, 11, and 19 and contained the genes Nr3c2, Egfr, Sec61g, and Gnaq. Lastly, two haplotype blocks on MMU9 were detected in association with PNUM8. These overlapped with the previously described maternal performance QTL, Neogq1. These results suggest that the application of in silico QTL mapping is a useful tool in discovering the presence of novel candidate genes involved in determining lactation capacity in mice.

  17. QTL analysis of plant development and fruit traits in pepper and performance of selective phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Barchi, Lorenzo; Lefebvre, Véronique; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Lanteri, Sergio; Palloix, Alain

    2009-04-01

    A QTL analysis was performed to determine the genetic basis of 13 horticultural traits conditioning yield in pepper (Capsicum annuum). The mapping population was a large population of 297 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) originating from a cross between the large-fruited bell pepper cultivar 'Yolo Wonder' and the small-fruited chilli pepper 'Criollo de Morelos 334'. A total of 76 QTLs were detected for 13 fruit and plant traits, grouped in 28 chromosome regions. These QTLs explained together between 7% (internode growth time) and 91% (fruit diameter) of the phenotypic variation. The QTL analysis was also performed on two subsets of 141 and 93 RILs sampled using the MapPop software. The smaller populations allowed for the detection of a reduced set of QTLs and reduced the overall percentage of trait variation explained by QTLs. The frequency of false positives as well as the individual effect of QTLs increased in reduced population sets as a result of reduced sampling. The results from the QTL analysis permitted an overall glance over the genetic architecture of traits considered by breeders for selection. Colinearities between clusters of QTLs controlling fruit traits and/or plant development in distinct pepper species and in related solanaceous crop species (tomato and eggplant) suggests that shared mechanisms control the shape and growth of different organs throughout these species.

  18. A major QTL controls susceptibility to spinal curvature in the curveback guppy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature would benefit medicine and aquaculture. Heritable spinal curvature among otherwise healthy children (i.e. Idiopathic Scoliosis and Scheuermann kyphosis) accounts for more than 80% of all spinal curvatures and imposes a substantial healthcare cost through bracing, hospitalizations, surgery, and chronic back pain. In aquaculture, the prevalence of heritable spinal curvature can reach as high as 80% of a stock, and thus imposes a substantial cost through production losses. The genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature is unknown and so the objective of this work is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy. Prior work with curveback has demonstrated phenotypic parallels to human idiopathic-type scoliosis, suggesting shared biological pathways for the deformity. Results A major effect QTL that acts in a recessive manner and accounts for curve susceptibility was detected in an initial mapping cross on LG 14. In a second cross, we confirmed this susceptibility locus and fine mapped it to a 5 cM region that explains 82.6% of the total phenotypic variance. Conclusions We identify a major QTL that controls susceptibility to curvature. This locus contains over 100 genes, including MTNR1B, a candidate gene for human idiopathic scoliosis. The identification of genes associated with heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy has the potential to elucidate the biological basis of spinal curvature among humans and economically important teleosts. PMID:21269476

  19. Association studies in QTL regions linked to bovine trypanotolerance in a West African crossbred population.

    PubMed

    Dayo, G K; Gautier, M; Berthier, D; Poivey, J P; Sidibe, I; Bengaly, Z; Eggen, A; Boichard, D; Thevenon, S

    2012-04-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a parasitic blood disease transmitted by tsetse flies and is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. West African taurine breeds have the ability, known as trypanotolerance, to limit parasitaemia and anaemia and remain productive in enzootic areas. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying traits related to trypanotolerance have been identified in an experimentally infected F(2) population resulting from a cross between taurine and zebu cattle. Although this information is highly valuable, the QTL remain to be confirmed in populations subjected to natural conditions of infection, and the corresponding regions need to be refined. In our study, 360 West African cattle were phenotyped for the packed cell volume control under natural conditions of infection in south-western Burkina Faso. Phenotypes were assessed by analysing data from previous cattle monitored over 2 years in an area enzootic for trypanosomosis. We further genotyped for 64 microsatellite markers mapping within four previously reported QTL on BTA02, BTA04, BTA07 and BTA13. These data enabled us to estimate the heritability of the phenotype using the kinship matrix between individuals computed from genotyping data. Thus, depending on the estimators considered and the method used, the heritability of anaemia control ranged from 0.09 to 0.22. Finally, an analysis of association identified an allele of the MNB42 marker on BTA04 as being strongly associated with anaemia control, and a candidate gene, INHBA, as being close to that marker. PMID:22404348

  20. QTL analysis of plant development and fruit traits in pepper and performance of selective phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Barchi, Lorenzo; Lefebvre, Véronique; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Lanteri, Sergio; Palloix, Alain

    2009-04-01

    A QTL analysis was performed to determine the genetic basis of 13 horticultural traits conditioning yield in pepper (Capsicum annuum). The mapping population was a large population of 297 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) originating from a cross between the large-fruited bell pepper cultivar 'Yolo Wonder' and the small-fruited chilli pepper 'Criollo de Morelos 334'. A total of 76 QTLs were detected for 13 fruit and plant traits, grouped in 28 chromosome regions. These QTLs explained together between 7% (internode growth time) and 91% (fruit diameter) of the phenotypic variation. The QTL analysis was also performed on two subsets of 141 and 93 RILs sampled using the MapPop software. The smaller populations allowed for the detection of a reduced set of QTLs and reduced the overall percentage of trait variation explained by QTLs. The frequency of false positives as well as the individual effect of QTLs increased in reduced population sets as a result of reduced sampling. The results from the QTL analysis permitted an overall glance over the genetic architecture of traits considered by breeders for selection. Colinearities between clusters of QTLs controlling fruit traits and/or plant development in distinct pepper species and in related solanaceous crop species (tomato and eggplant) suggests that shared mechanisms control the shape and growth of different organs throughout these species. PMID:19219599

  1. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles.

  2. Identification of QTL affecting resistance/susceptibility to acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection in swine.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Gerald; Bertsch, Natalie; Hoeltig, Doris; Selke, Martin; Willems, Hermann; Gerlach, Gerald Friedrich; Tuemmler, Burkhard; Probst, Inga; Herwig, Ralf; Drungowski, Mario; Waldmann, Karl Heinz

    2014-04-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is among the most important pathogens worldwide in pig production. The agent can cause severe economic losses due to decreased performance, acute or chronic pleuropneumonia and an increased incidence of death. Therapeutics cannot be used in a sustainable manner, and vaccination is not always available, but discovering more about host defence and disease mechanisms might lead to new methods of prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance/susceptibility to A. pleuropneumoniae. Under controlled conditions, 170 F2 animals of a Hampshire/Landrace family, with known differences in founder populations regarding A. pleuropneumoniae resistance, were challenged with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 aerosol followed by a detailed clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, pathological and bacteriological examination. F2 pigs were genotyped with 159 microsatellite markers. Significant QTL were identified on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 2, 6, 12, 13, 16, 17 and 18. They explained 6-22% of phenotypic variance. One QTL on SSC2 reached significance on a genome-wide level for five associated phenotypic traits. A multiple regression analysis revealed a combinatory effect of markers SWR345 (SSC2) and S0143 (SSC12) on Respiratory Health Score, Clinical Score and the occurrence of death. The results indicate the genetic background of A. pleuropneumoniae resistance in swine and provide new insights into the genetic architecture of resistance/susceptibility to porcine pleuropneumonia. The results will be helpful in identifying the underlying genes and mechanisms.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium with linkage analysis of multiline crosses reveals different multiallelic QTL for hybrid performance in the flint and dent heterotic groups of maize.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Héloïse; Lehermeier, Christina; Bauer, Eva; Falque, Matthieu; Segura, Vincent; Bauland, Cyril; Camisan, Christian; Campo, Laura; Meyer, Nina; Ranc, Nicolas; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Flament, Pascal; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Menz, Monica; Moreno-González, Jesús; Ouzunova, Milena; Charcosset, Alain; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Moreau, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Multiparental designs combined with dense genotyping of parents have been proposed as a way to increase the diversity and resolution of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies, using methods combining linkage disequilibrium information with linkage analysis (LDLA). Two new nested association mapping designs adapted to European conditions were derived from the complementary dent and flint heterotic groups of maize (Zea mays L.). Ten biparental dent families (N = 841) and 11 biparental flint families (N = 811) were genotyped with 56,110 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and evaluated as test crosses with the central line of the reciprocal design for biomass yield, plant height, and precocity. Alleles at candidate QTL were defined as (i) parental alleles, (ii) haplotypic identity by descent, and (iii) single-marker groupings. Between five and 16 QTL were detected depending on the model, trait, and genetic group considered. In the flint design, a major QTL (R(2) = 27%) with pleiotropic effects was detected on chromosome 10, whereas other QTL displayed milder effects (R(2) < 10%). On average, the LDLA models detected more QTL but generally explained lower percentages of variance, consistent with the fact that most QTL display complex allelic series. Only 15% of the QTL were common to the two designs. A joint analysis of the two designs detected between 15 and 21 QTL for the five traits. Of these, between 27 for silking date and 41% for tasseling date were significant in both groups. Favorable allelic effects detected in both groups open perspectives for improving biomass production.

  4. An interaction quantitative trait loci tool implicates epistatic functional variants in an apoptosis pathway in smallpox vaccine eQTL data.

    PubMed

    Lareau, C A; White, B C; Oberg, A L; Kennedy, R B; Poland, G A; McKinney, B A

    2016-06-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have functionalized nucleic acid variants through the regulation of gene expression. Although most eQTL studies only examine the effects of single variants on transcription, a more complex process of variant-variant interaction (epistasis) may regulate transcription. Herein, we describe a tool called interaction QTL (iQTL) designed to efficiently detect epistatic interactions that regulate gene expression. To maximize biological relevance and minimize the computational and hypothesis testing burden, iQTL restricts interactions such that one variant is within a user-defined proximity of the transcript (cis-regulatory). We apply iQTL to a data set of 183 smallpox vaccine study participants with genome-wide association study and gene expression data from unstimulated samples and samples stimulated by inactivated vaccinia virus. While computing only 0.15% of possible interactions, we identify 11 probe sets whose expression is regulated through a variant-variant interaction. We highlight the functional epistatic interactions among apoptosis-related genes, DIABLO, TRAPPC4 and FADD, in the context of smallpox vaccination. We also use an integrative network approach to characterize these iQTL interactions in a posterior network of known prior functional interactions. iQTL is an efficient, open-source tool to analyze variant interactions in eQTL studies, providing better understanding of the function of epistasis in immune response and other complex phenotypes. PMID:27052692

  5. Investigation of QTL regions on Chromosome 17 for genes associated with meat color in the pig.

    PubMed

    Fan, B; Glenn, K L; Geiger, B; Mileham, A; Rothschild, M F

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have uncovered several significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) relevant to meat colour traits mapped at the end of SSC17 in the pig. Furthermore, results released from the porcine genome sequencing project have identified genes underlying the entire QTL regions and can further contribute to mining the region for likely causative genes. Ten protein coding genes or novel transcripts located within the QTL regions were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Linkage mapping and association studies were carried out in the ISU Berkshire x Yorkshire (B x Y) pig resource family. The total length of the new SSC17 linkage map was 126.6 cM and additional markers including endothelin 3 (EDN3) and phosphatase and actin regulator 3 (PHACTR3) genes were assigned at positions 119.4 cM and 122.9 cM, respectively. A new QTL peak was noted at approximately 120 cM, close to the EDN3 gene, and for some colour traits QTL exceeded the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold. The association analyses in the B x Y family showed that the EDN3 BslI and PHACTR3 PstI polymorphisms were strongly associated with the subjective colour score and objective colour reflectance measures in the loin, as well as average drip loss percentage and pH value. The RNPC1 DpnII and CTCFL HpyCH4III polymorphisms were associated with some meat colour traits. No significant association between CBLN4, TFAP2C, and four novel transcripts and meat colour traits were detected. The association analyses conducted in one commercial pig line found that both EDN3 BslI and PHACTR3 PstI polymorphisms were associated with meat colour reflectance traits such as centre loin hue angle and Minolta Lightness score. The present findings suggested that the EDN3 and PHACTR3 genes might have potential effects on meat colour in pigs, and molecular mechanisms of their functions are worth exploring.

  6. Detection and validation of one stable fiber strength QTL on c9 in tetraploid cotton.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, G; Wang, X; Wu, L; Ke, H; Liu, H; Ma, Z

    2016-08-01

    Fiber strength is an essential trait of fiber property in cotton, and it is quantitatively inherited. Identification of stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to fiber strength would provide the key basis for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding. In this study, four interspecific hybridization populations were established with a common G. barbadense parent Pima 90-53 and two G. hirsutum parents (CCRI 8 and Handan 208), each of which had fiber strength characteristic. Based on the phenotypic data of fiber strength from seven environments, a stable QTL, qFS-c9-1, was detected and validated on c9 in a marker interval between SSR markers NAU2395 and NAU1092. The QTL explaining 14.4-17.9 % of the phenotypic variation was firstly detected in two populations (CCRI 8 × Pima 90-53, BC1F1 and BC1F2) and its derived lines in four environments. And it accounting for 12.1-14.8 % of the phenotypic variation was further confirmed in two populations (Handan 208 × Pima 90-53, BC1F1, and F2) under one environment. In silico mapping using three sequenced cotton genomes indicated that homologous genes, anchored by NAU2395 and NAU1092, were aligned to the G. arboreum genome within a physical distance between 81.10 Mbps and 87.07 Mbps. In that interval, several genes were confirmed in literatures to associate with fiber development. Among these genes, seven genes were further selected for an expression analysis through fiber development transcriptome database, revealing unique expression patterns across different stages of fiber development between CCRI 8 and Pima 90-53. The genes underlying qFS-c9-1 were favorable to fine mapping and cloning. The current study results provided valuable evidence for mapping stable QTL of fiber strength utilizing multiple populations and environments, as well as map-based cloning the candidate gene underlying the QTL for future prospective research directions. PMID:27119657

  7. Insight into the Genetic Components of Community Genetics: QTL Mapping of Insect Association in a Fast-Growing Forest Tree

    PubMed Central

    DeWoody, Jennifer; Viger, Maud; Lakatos, Ferenc; Tuba, Katalin; Taylor, Gail; Smulders, Marinus J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses conducted on data from a common garden experiment. The F2 offspring of a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) cross were assessed for seven categories of insect leaf damage at two time points, June and August. Positive and negative correlations were detected among damage categories and between sampling times. For example, sap suckers on leaves in June were positively correlated with sap suckers on leaves (P<0.001) but negatively correlated with skeletonizer damage (P<0.01) in August. The seven forms of leaf damage were used as a proxy for seven functional groups of insect species. Significant variation in insect association occurred among the hybrid offspring, including transgressive segregation of susceptibility to damage. NMDS analyses revealed significant variation and modest broad-sense heritability in insect community structure among genets. QTL analyses identified 14 genomic regions across 9 linkage groups that correlated with insect association. We used three genomics tools to test for putative mechanisms underlying the QTL. First, shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway genes co-located to 9 of the 13 QTL tested, consistent with the role of phenolic glycosides as defensive compounds. Second, two insect association QTL corresponded to genomic hotspots for leaf trait QTL as identified in previous studies, indicating that, in addition to biochemical attributes, leaf morphology may influence insect preference. Third, network analyses identified categories of gene models over-represented in QTL for certain damage types, providing direction for future functional studies. These results provide insight into the genetic components involved in insect community structure in a fast-growing forest tree

  8. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    PubMed

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  9. Characterization of a major QTL for adult plant resistance to stripe rust in US soft red winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuanfeng; Chen, Zhenbang; Wang, Yingying; Bland, Dan; Buck, James; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Johnson, Jerry

    2011-12-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of soft red winter wheat in the eastern region of the USA. Pioneer 26R61 has provided effective resistance to stripe rust for 10 years. To elucidate the genetic basis of the resistance, a mapping population of 178 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using single-seed descent from a cross between Pioneer 26R61 and the susceptible cultivar AGS 2000. A genetic map with 895 markers covering all 21 chromosomes was used for QTL analysis. One major QTL was detected, explaining up to 56.0% of the mean phenotypic variation, flanked by markers Xbarc124 and Xgwm359, and assigned to the distal 22% of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2A. Evidence showed that it was different from Yr17 derived from Ae. ventricosa, the only formally named Yr gene in 2AS, and the QTL was temporarily designated as YrR61. In addition, a minor QTL, QYr.uga-6AS, probably conditioned high-temperature adult plant resistance. The QTL explained 6-7% of the trait variation. Preliminary test of the flanking markers for YrR61, in two cultivars and two promising breeding lines with Pioneer 26R61 in their pedigree, indicated that YrR61 was present in these cultivars and lines, and these markers could therefore be used in marker-assisted selection.

  10. QTL mapping for growth and carcass traits in an Iberian by Landrace pig intercross: additive, dominant and epistatic effects.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Ovilo, C; Clop, A; Noguera, J L; Pérez-Enciso, M; Coll, A; Folch, J M; Barragán, C; Toro, M A; Babot, D; Sánchez, A

    2002-10-01

    Results from a QTL experiment on growth and carcass traits in an experimental F2 cross between Iberian and Landrace pigs are reported. Phenotypic data for growth, length of carcass and muscle mass, fat deposition and carcass composition traits from 321 individuals corresponding to 58 families were recorded. Animals were genotyped for 92 markers covering the 18 porcine autosomes (SSC). The results from the genomic scan show genomewide significant QTL in SSC2 (longissimus muscle area and backfat thickness), SSC4 (length of carcass, backfat thickness, loin, shoulder and belly bacon weights) and SSC6 (longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, loin, shoulder and belly bacon weights). Suggestive QTL were also found on SSC1, SSC5, SSC7, SSC8, SSC9, SSC13, SCC14, SSC16 and SSC17. A bidimensional genomic scan every 10 cM was performed to detect interaction between QTL. The joint action of two suggestive QTL in SSC2 and SSC17 led to a genome-wide significant effect in live weight. The results of the bidimensional genomic scan showed that the genetic architecture was mainly additive or the experimental set-up did not have enough power to detect epistatic interactions.

  11. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Brassica rapa Reveals QTL Hotspots and Epistatic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Ram K; Duwal, Anita; Tiwari, Dev N; Xiao, Dong; Monakhos, Sokrat; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Groot, Steven P C; Bonnema, Guusje; Maliepaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding. PMID:26648948

  12. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Brassica rapa Reveals QTL Hotspots and Epistatic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Ram K; Duwal, Anita; Tiwari, Dev N; Xiao, Dong; Monakhos, Sokrat; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G F; Groot, Steven P C; Bonnema, Guusje; Maliepaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding.

  13. The quantitative-genetic and QTL architecture of trait integration and modularity in Brassica rapa across simulated seasonal settings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C E; Weinig, C

    2011-04-01

    Within organisms, groups of traits with different functions are frequently modular, such that variation among modules is independent and variation within modules is tightly integrated, or correlated. Here, we investigated patterns of trait integration and modularity in Brassica rapa in response to three simulated seasonal temperature/photoperiod conditions. The goals of this research were to use trait correlations to understand patterns of trait integration and modularity within and among floral, vegetative and phenological traits of B. rapa in each of three treatments, to examine the QTL architecture underlying patterns of trait integration and modularity, and to quantify how variation in temperature and photoperiod affects the correlation structure and QTL architecture of traits. All floral organs of B. rapa were strongly correlated, and contrary to expectations, floral and vegetative traits were also correlated. Extensive QTL co-localization suggests that covariation of these traits is likely due to pleiotropy, although physically linked loci that independently affect individual traits cannot be ruled out. Across treatments, the structure of genotypic and QTL correlations was generally conserved. Any observed variation in genetic architecture arose from genotype × environment interactions (GEIs) and attendant QTL × E in response to temperature but not photoperiod.

  14. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  15. Domestication-related variation in social preferences in chickens is affected by genotype on a growth QTL.

    PubMed

    Wirén, A; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2013-04-01

    A growth-related QTL on chicken chromosome 1 has previously been shown to influence domestication behaviour in chickens. In this study, we used Red Junglefowl (RJF) and White Leghorn (WL) as well as the intercross between them to investigate whether stress affects the way birds allocate their time between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics in a social preference test ('social support seeking'), and how this is related to genotype at specific loci within the growth QTL. Red Junglefowl males spent more time with unfamiliar chickens before the stressful event compared to the other birds, whereas all birds except WL males tended to spend less time with unfamiliar ones after stress. A significant QTL locus was found to influence both social preference under undisturbed circumstances and social support seeking. The WL allele at this QTL was associated not only with a preference for unfamiliar individuals but also with a shift towards familiar ones in response to stress (social support seeking). A second, suggestive QTL also affected social support seeking, but in the opposite direction; the WL allele was associated with increased time spent with unfamiliar individuals. The region contains several possible candidate genes, and gene expression analysis of a number of them showed differential expression between RJF and WL of AVPR2 (receptor for vasotocin), and possibly AVPR1a (another vasotocin receptor) and NRCAM (involved in neural development) in the lower frontal lobes of the brains of RJF and WL animals. These three genes continue to be interesting candidates for the observed behavioural effects. PMID:23331324

  16. Fine mapping QTL for resistance to VNN disease using a high-density linkage map in Asian seabass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-08-24

    Asian seabass has suffered from viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Our previous study has mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to VNN disease. To fine map these QTL and identify causative genes, we identified 6425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 85 dead and 94 surviving individuals. Combined with 155 microsatellites, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 24 linkage groups (LGs) containing 3000 markers, with an average interval of 1.27 cM. We mapped one significant and three suggestive QTL with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 8.3 to 11.0%, two significant and two suggestive QTL with PVE of 7.8 to 10.9%, for resistance in three LGs and survival time in four LGs, respectively. Further analysis one QTL with the largest effect identified protocadherin alpha-C 2-like (Pcdhac2) as the possible candidate gene. Association study in 43 families with 1127 individuals revealed a 6 bp insertion-deletion was significantly associated with disease resistance. qRT-PCR showed the expression of Pcdhac2 was significantly induced in the brain, muscle and skin after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. Our results could facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to NNV in Asian seabass and set up the basis for functional analysis of the potential causative gene for resistance.

  17. Combined Linkage and Association Mapping Reveals QTL and Candidate Genes for Plant and Ear Height in Maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Zijian; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Yabin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Ruixia; Ma, Jinliang; Wang, Shiwei; Zhang, Xuecai; Xia, Zongliang; Chen, Jiafa; Wu, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Plant height (PH) and ear height (EH) are two very important agronomic traits related to the population density and lodging in maize. In order to better understand of the genetic basis of nature variation in PH and EH, two bi-parental populations and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) population were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both traits. Phenotypic data analysis revealed a wide normal distribution and high heritability for PH and EH in the three populations, which indicated that maize height is a highly polygenic trait. A total of 21 QTL for PH and EH in three common genomic regions (bin 1.05, 5.04/05, and 6.04/05) were identified by QTL mapping in the two bi-parental populations under multiple environments. Additionally, 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for PH and EH by GWAS, of which 29 SNPs were located in 19 unique candidate gene regions. Most of the candidate genes were related to plant growth and development. One QTL on Chromosome 1 was further verified in a near-isogenic line (NIL) population, and GWAS identified a C2H2 zinc finger family protein that maybe the candidate gene for this QTL. These results revealed that nature variation of PH and EH are strongly controlled by multiple genes with low effect and facilitated a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of height in maize.

  18. Combined Linkage and Association Mapping Reveals QTL and Candidate Genes for Plant and Ear Height in Maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Zijian; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Yabin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Ruixia; Ma, Jinliang; Wang, Shiwei; Zhang, Xuecai; Xia, Zongliang; Chen, Jiafa; Wu, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Plant height (PH) and ear height (EH) are two very important agronomic traits related to the population density and lodging in maize. In order to better understand of the genetic basis of nature variation in PH and EH, two bi-parental populations and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) population were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both traits. Phenotypic data analysis revealed a wide normal distribution and high heritability for PH and EH in the three populations, which indicated that maize height is a highly polygenic trait. A total of 21 QTL for PH and EH in three common genomic regions (bin 1.05, 5.04/05, and 6.04/05) were identified by QTL mapping in the two bi-parental populations under multiple environments. Additionally, 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for PH and EH by GWAS, of which 29 SNPs were located in 19 unique candidate gene regions. Most of the candidate genes were related to plant growth and development. One QTL on Chromosome 1 was further verified in a near-isogenic line (NIL) population, and GWAS identified a C2H2 zinc finger family protein that maybe the candidate gene for this QTL. These results revealed that nature variation of PH and EH are strongly controlled by multiple genes with low effect and facilitated a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of height in maize. PMID:27379126

  19. Fine mapping QTL for resistance to VNN disease using a high-density linkage map in Asian seabass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass has suffered from viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Our previous study has mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to VNN disease. To fine map these QTL and identify causative genes, we identified 6425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 85 dead and 94 surviving individuals. Combined with 155 microsatellites, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 24 linkage groups (LGs) containing 3000 markers, with an average interval of 1.27 cM. We mapped one significant and three suggestive QTL with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 8.3 to 11.0%, two significant and two suggestive QTL with PVE of 7.8 to 10.9%, for resistance in three LGs and survival time in four LGs, respectively. Further analysis one QTL with the largest effect identified protocadherin alpha-C 2-like (Pcdhac2) as the possible candidate gene. Association study in 43 families with 1127 individuals revealed a 6 bp insertion-deletion was significantly associated with disease resistance. qRT-PCR showed the expression of Pcdhac2 was significantly induced in the brain, muscle and skin after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. Our results could facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to NNV in Asian seabass and set up the basis for functional analysis of the potential causative gene for resistance. PMID:27555039

  20. Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

    2013-12-01

    A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL.

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Seed Germination and Seedling Vigor in Brassica rapa Reveals QTL Hotspots and Epistatic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Ram K.; Duwal, Anita; Tiwari, Dev N.; Xiao, Dong; Monakhos, Sokrat; Bucher, Johan; Visser, Richard G. F.; Groot, Steven P. C.; Bonnema, Guusje; Maliepaard, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The genetic basis of seed germination and seedling vigor is largely unknown in Brassica species. We performed a study to evaluate the genetic basis of these important traits in a B. rapa doubled haploid population from a cross of a yellow-seeded oil-type yellow sarson and a black-seeded vegetable-type pak choi. We identified 26 QTL regions across all 10 linkage groups for traits related to seed weight, seed germination and seedling vigor under non-stress and salt stress conditions illustrating the polygenic nature of these traits. QTLs for multiple traits co-localized and we identified eight hotspots for quantitative trait loci (QTL) of seed weight, seed germination, and root and shoot lengths. A QTL hotspot for seed germination on A02 mapped at the B. rapa Flowering Locus C (BrFLC2). Another hotspot on A05 with salt stress specific QTLs co-located with the B. rapa Fatty acid desaturase 2 (BrFAD2) locus. Epistatic interactions were observed between QTL hotspots for seed germination on A02 and A10 and with a salt tolerance QTL on A05. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetics of seed quality and seeding vigor in B. rapa and can offer tools for Brassica breeding. PMID:26648948

  2. Identification of Multiple QTL Hotspots in Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing and a Dense Linkage Map.

    PubMed

    Larson, Wesley A; McKinney, Garrett J; Limborg, Morten T; Everett, Meredith V; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits can provide important information about the mechanisms and genomic regions involved in local adaptation and speciation. Here, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and a combination of previously published and newly generated data to construct sex-specific linkage maps for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We then used the denser female linkage map to conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 4 phenotypic traits in 3 families. The female linkage map consisted of 6322 loci distributed across 29 linkage groups and was 4082 cM long, and the male map contained 2179 loci found on 28 linkage groups and was 2291 cM long. We found 26 QTL: 6 for thermotolerance, 5 for length, 9 for weight, and 6 for condition factor. QTL were distributed nonrandomly across the genome and were often found in hotspots containing multiple QTL for a variety of phenotypic traits. These hotspots may represent adaptively important regions and are excellent candidates for future research. Comparing our results with studies in other salmonids revealed several regions with overlapping QTL for the same phenotypic trait, indicating these regions may be adaptively important across multiple species. Altogether, our study demonstrates the utility of genomic data for investigating the genetic basis of important phenotypic traits. Additionally, the linkage map created here will enable future research on the genetic basis of phenotypic traits in salmon. PMID:26712859

  3. Sequence-based Association Analysis Reveals an MGST1 eQTL with Pleiotropic Effects on Bovine Milk Composition

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Fink, Tania A.; Lehnert, Klaus; Lopdell, Thomas; Johnson, Thomas; Couldrey, Christine; Keehan, Mike; Sherlock, Richard G.; Harland, Chad; Scott, Andrew; Snell, Russell G.; Davis, Stephen R.; Spelman, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is a prolific lipogenic organ, synthesising copious amounts of triglycerides for secretion into milk. The fat content of milk varies widely both between and within species, and recent independent genome-wide association studies have highlighted a milk fat percentage quantitative trait locus (QTL) of large effect on bovine chromosome 5. Although both EPS8 and MGST1 have been proposed to underlie these signals, the causative status of these genes has not been functionally confirmed. To investigate this QTL in detail, we report genome sequence-based imputation and association mapping in a population of 64,244 taurine cattle. This analysis reveals a cluster of 17 non-coding variants spanning MGST1 that are highly associated with milk fat percentage, and a range of other milk composition traits. Further, we exploit a high-depth mammary RNA sequence dataset to conduct expression QTL (eQTL) mapping in 375 lactating cows, revealing a strong MGST1 eQTL underpinning these effects. These data demonstrate the utility of DNA and RNA sequence-based association mapping, and implicate MGST1, a gene with no obvious mechanistic relationship to milk composition regulation, as causally involved in these processes. PMID:27146958

  4. Combined Linkage and Association Mapping Reveals QTL and Candidate Genes for Plant and Ear Height in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Zijian; Ding, Junqiang; Wu, Yabin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Ruixia; Ma, Jinliang; Wang, Shiwei; Zhang, Xuecai; Xia, Zongliang; Chen, Jiafa; Wu, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Plant height (PH) and ear height (EH) are two very important agronomic traits related to the population density and lodging in maize. In order to better understand of the genetic basis of nature variation in PH and EH, two bi-parental populations and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) population were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both traits. Phenotypic data analysis revealed a wide normal distribution and high heritability for PH and EH in the three populations, which indicated that maize height is a highly polygenic trait. A total of 21 QTL for PH and EH in three common genomic regions (bin 1.05, 5.04/05, and 6.04/05) were identified by QTL mapping in the two bi-parental populations under multiple environments. Additionally, 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified for PH and EH by GWAS, of which 29 SNPs were located in 19 unique candidate gene regions. Most of the candidate genes were related to plant growth and development. One QTL on Chromosome 1 was further verified in a near-isogenic line (NIL) population, and GWAS identified a C2H2 zinc finger family protein that maybe the candidate gene for this QTL. These results revealed that nature variation of PH and EH are strongly controlled by multiple genes with low effect and facilitated a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of height in maize. PMID:27379126

  5. Fine mapping QTL for resistance to VNN disease using a high-density linkage map in Asian seabass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Asian seabass has suffered from viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease. Our previous study has mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to VNN disease. To fine map these QTL and identify causative genes, we identified 6425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 85 dead and 94 surviving individuals. Combined with 155 microsatellites, we constructed a genetic map consisting of 24 linkage groups (LGs) containing 3000 markers, with an average interval of 1.27 cM. We mapped one significant and three suggestive QTL with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) of 8.3 to 11.0%, two significant and two suggestive QTL with PVE of 7.8 to 10.9%, for resistance in three LGs and survival time in four LGs, respectively. Further analysis one QTL with the largest effect identified protocadherin alpha-C 2-like (Pcdhac2) as the possible candidate gene. Association study in 43 families with 1127 individuals revealed a 6 bp insertion-deletion was significantly associated with disease resistance. qRT-PCR showed the expression of Pcdhac2 was significantly induced in the brain, muscle and skin after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. Our results could facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to NNV in Asian seabass and set up the basis for functional analysis of the potential causative gene for resistance. PMID:27555039

  6. Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

  7. Mapping Novel Pathways in Cardiovascular Disease Using eQTL Data: The Past, Present, and Future of Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajat M.; Musunuru, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with numerous cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Newly identified polymorphisms associated with myocardial infarction, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and insulin resistance suggest novel mechanistic pathways that underlie these and other complex diseases. Working out the connections between the polymorphisms identified in GWAS and their biological mechanisms has been especially challenging given the number of non-coding variants identified thus far. In this review, we discuss the utility of expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) databases in the study of non-coding variants with respect to cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes. Recent successes in using eQTL data to link variants with functional candidate genes will be reviewed, and the shortcomings of this approach will be outlined. Finally, we discuss the emerging next generation of eQTL studies that take advantage of the ability to generate induced pluripotent stem cell lines from population cohorts. PMID:23755065

  8. Interacted QTL mapping in partial NCII design provides evidences for breeding by design.

    PubMed

    Bu, Su Hong; Zhao, Xinwang; Xinwang, Zhao; Yi, Can; Wen, Jia; Tu, Jinxing; Jinxing, Tu; Zhang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of heterosis in rice, maize and rapeseed has revolutionized crop production. Although elite hybrid cultivars are mainly derived from the F1 crosses between two groups of parents, named NCII mating design, little has been known about the methodology of how interacted effects influence quantitative trait performance in the population. To bridge genetic analysis with hybrid breeding, here we integrated an interacted QTL mapping approach with breeding by design in partial NCII mating design. All the potential main and interacted effects were included in one full model. If the number of the effects is huge, bulked segregant analysis were used to test which effects were associated with the trait. All the selected effects were further shrunk by empirical Bayesian, so significant effects could be identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to validate the new method. Furthermore, all the significant effects were used to calculate genotypic values of all the missing F1 hybrids, and all these F1 phenotypic or genotypic values were used to predict elite parents and parental combinations. Finally, the new method was adopted to dissect the genetic foundation of oil content in 441 rapeseed parents and 284 F1 hybrids. As a result, 8 main-effect QTL and 37 interacted QTL were found and used to predict 10 elite restorer lines, 10 elite sterile lines and 10 elite parental crosses. Similar results across various methods and in previous studies and a high correlation coefficient (0.76) between the predicted and observed phenotypes validated the proposed method in this study.

  9. QTL mapping for yield and lodging resistance in an enhanced SSR-based map for tef.

    PubMed

    Zeid, M; Belay, G; Mulkey, S; Poland, J; Sorrells, M E

    2011-01-01

    Tef is a cereal crop of cultural and economic importance in Ethiopia. It is grown primarily for its grain though it is also an important source of fodder. Tef suffers from lodging that reduces both grain yield and quality. As a first step toward executing a marker-assisted breeding program for lodging resistance and grain yield improvement, a linkage map was constructed using 151 F(9) recombinant inbred lines obtained by single-seed-descent from a cross between Eragrostis tef and its wild relative Eragrostis pilosa. The map was primarily based on microsatellite (SSR) markers that were developed from SSR-enriched genomic libraries. The map consisted of 30 linkage groups and spanned a total length of 1,277.4 cM (78.7% of the genome) with an average distance of 5.7 cM between markers. This is the most saturated map for tef to date, and for the first time, all of the markers are PCR-based. Using agronomic data from 11 environments and marker data, it was possible to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lodging, grain yield and 15 other related traits. The positive effects of the QTL identified from the wild parent were mainly for earliness, reduced culm length and lodging resistance. In this population, it is now possible to combine lodging resistance and grain yield using a marker-assisted selection program targeting the QTL identified for both traits. The newly developed SSR markers will play a key role in germplasm organization, fingerprinting and monitoring the success of the hybridization process in intra-specific crosses lacking distinctive morphological markers.

  10. Network-Based Analysis of eQTL Data to Prioritize Driver Mutations

    PubMed Central

    De Maeyer, Dries; Weytjens, Bram; De Raedt, Luc; Marchal, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In clonal systems, interpreting driver genes in terms of molecular networks helps understanding how these drivers elicit an adaptive phenotype. Obtaining such a network-based understanding depends on the correct identification of driver genes. In clonal systems, independent evolved lines can acquire a similar adaptive phenotype by affecting the same molecular pathways, a phenomenon referred to as parallelism at the molecular pathway level. This implies that successful driver identification depends on interpreting mutated genes in terms of molecular networks. Driver identification and obtaining a network-based understanding of the adaptive phenotype are thus confounded problems that ideally should be solved simultaneously. In this study, a network-based eQTL method is presented that solves both the driver identification and the network-based interpretation problem. As input the method uses coupled genotype-expression phenotype data (eQTL data) of independently evolved lines with similar adaptive phenotypes and an organism-specific genome-wide interaction network. The search for mutational consistency at pathway level is defined as a subnetwork inference problem, which consists of inferring a subnetwork from the genome-wide interaction network that best connects the genes containing mutations to differentially expressed genes. Based on their connectivity with the differentially expressed genes, mutated genes are prioritized as driver genes. Based on semisynthetic data and two publicly available data sets, we illustrate the potential of the network-based eQTL method to prioritize driver genes and to gain insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying an adaptive phenotype. The method is available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/phenetic_eqtl/index.html PMID:26802430

  11. Ovarian parameters and fertility of dairy cows selected for one QTL located on BTA3.

    PubMed

    Coyral-Castel, S; Ramé, C; Monniaux, D; Fréret, S; Fabre-Nys, C; Fritz, S; Monget, P; Dupont, F; Dupont, J

    2011-04-15

    Recently, one Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) of female fertility located on Bos Taurus chromosome 3 (BTA3), QTL-F-Fert-BTA3, has been identified in Holstein breed. It is implied in the success rate after the first AI (AI1) in cow. The failure of pregnancy can be due to several factors involved in the different steps of the reproductive process. The aim of our study was to finely phenotype heifers and primiparous cows selected for their haplotype at the QTL-F-Fert-BTA3. We specifically studied the ovarian follicular dynamic and several fertility parameters. Females carrying the favourable haplotype "fertil+" or unfavourable haplotype "fertil-" were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography during their cycle before the first AI (AI1). Follicular dynamic was similar between the two groups. However, the length of the estrus cycle was shorter in heifers than in primiparous cows and two-wave cycles were shorter than three-wave cycles, regardless of the age and the haplotype. The concentration of plasma anti-Müllerian hormone was correlated with the number of small antral follicles. It was higher in heifers than in primiparous cows, independently of their haplotype. The success rate at the AI1 was significantly higher in "fertil+" than in "fertil-" primiparous cows, 35 d after the AI1 (70% vs 39%). In both haplotypes, pregnancy failure occurred mainly before 21 d after AI1. The commencement of luteal activity after calving was significantly earlier in "fertil+" than in "fertil-" primiparous cows. Calving-AI1 and calving-calving intervals were similar between "fertil+" and "fertil-" primiparous cows. Taken together, "fertil+" and "fertil-" primiparous cows present a difference in the success rate after AI1 that is not explained by variations of ovarian dynamics. PMID:21196034

  12. Sherlock: detecting gene-disease associations by matching patterns of expression QTL and GWAS.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Fuller, Chris K; Song, Yi; Meng, Qingying; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia; Li, Hao

    2013-05-01

    Genetic mapping of complex diseases to date depends on variations inside or close to the genes that perturb their activities. A strong body of evidence suggests that changes in gene expression play a key role in complex diseases and that numerous loci perturb gene expression in trans. The information in trans variants, however, has largely been ignored in the current analysis paradigm. Here we present a statistical framework for genetic mapping by utilizing collective information in both cis and trans variants. We reason that for a disease-associated gene, any genetic variation that perturbs its expression is also likely to influence the disease risk. Thus, the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) of the gene, which constitute a unique "genetic signature," should overlap significantly with the set of loci associated with the disease. We translate this idea into a computational algorithm (named Sherlock) to search for gene-disease associations from GWASs, taking advantage of independent eQTL data. Application of this strategy to Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes predicts a number of genes with possible disease roles, including several predictions supported by solid experimental evidence. Importantly, predicted genes are often implicated by multiple trans eQTL with moderate associations. These genes are far from any GWAS association signals and thus cannot be identified from the GWAS alone. Our approach allows analysis of association data from a new perspective and is applicable to any complex phenotype. It is readily generalizable to molecular traits other than gene expression, such as metabolites, noncoding RNAs, and epigenetic modifications.

  13. Learning a Prior on Regulatory Potential from eQTL Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-In; Dudley, Aimée M.; Drubin, David; Silver, Pamela A.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Pe'er, Dana; Koller, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide RNA expression data provide a detailed view of an organism's biological state; hence, a dataset measuring expression variation between genetically diverse individuals (eQTL data) may provide important insights into the genetics of complex traits. However, with data from a relatively small number of individuals, it is difficult to distinguish true causal polymorphisms from the large number of possibilities. The problem is particularly challenging in populations with significant linkage disequilibrium, where traits are often linked to large chromosomal regions containing many genes. Here, we present a novel method, Lirnet, that automatically learns a regulatory potential for each sequence polymorphism, estimating how likely it is to have a significant effect on gene expression. This regulatory potential is defined in terms of “regulatory features”—including the function of the gene and the conservation, type, and position of genetic polymorphisms—that are available for any organism. The extent to which the different features influence the regulatory potential is learned automatically, making Lirnet readily applicable to different datasets, organisms, and feature sets. We apply Lirnet both to the human HapMap eQTL dataset and to a yeast eQTL dataset and provide statistical and biological results demonstrating that Lirnet produces significantly better regulatory programs than other recent approaches. We demonstrate in the yeast data that Lirnet can correctly suggest a specific causal sequence variation within a large, linked chromosomal region. In one example, Lirnet uncovered a novel, experimentally validated connection between Puf3—a sequence-specific RNA binding protein—and P-bodies—cytoplasmic structures that regulate translation and RNA stability—as well as the particular causative polymorphism, a SNP in Mkt1, that induces the variation in the pathway. PMID:19180192

  14. Sherlock: Detecting Gene-Disease Associations by Matching Patterns of Expression QTL and GWAS

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Fuller, Chris K.; Song, Yi; Meng, Qingying; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xia; Li, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Genetic mapping of complex diseases to date depends on variations inside or close to the genes that perturb their activities. A strong body of evidence suggests that changes in gene expression play a key role in complex diseases and that numerous loci perturb gene expression in trans. The information in trans variants, however, has largely been ignored in the current analysis paradigm. Here we present a statistical framework for genetic mapping by utilizing collective information in both cis and trans variants. We reason that for a disease-associated gene, any genetic variation that perturbs its expression is also likely to influence the disease risk. Thus, the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) of the gene, which constitute a unique “genetic signature,” should overlap significantly with the set of loci associated with the disease. We translate this idea into a computational algorithm (named Sherlock) to search for gene-disease associations from GWASs, taking advantage of independent eQTL data. Application of this strategy to Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes predicts a number of genes with possible disease roles, including several predictions supported by solid experimental evidence. Importantly, predicted genes are often implicated by multiple trans eQTL with moderate associations. These genes are far from any GWAS association signals and thus cannot be identified from the GWAS alone. Our approach allows analysis of association data from a new perspective and is applicable to any complex phenotype. It is readily generalizable to molecular traits other than gene expression, such as metabolites, noncoding RNAs, and epigenetic modifications. PMID:23643380

  15. A novel approach identifying hybrid sterility QTL on the autosomes of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Christopher T D; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    When species interbreed, the hybrid offspring that are produced are often sterile. If only one hybrid sex is sterile, it is almost always the heterogametic (XY or ZW) sex. Taking this trend into account, the predominant model used to explain the genetic basis of F1 sterility involves a deleterious interaction between recessive sex-linked loci from one species and dominant autosomal loci from the other species. This model is difficult to evaluate, however, as only a handful of loci influencing interspecies hybrid sterility have been identified, and their autosomal genetic interactors have remained elusive. One hindrance to their identification has been the overwhelming effect of the sex chromosome in mapping studies, which could 'mask' the ability to accurately map autosomal factors. Here, we use a novel approach employing attached-X chromosomes to create reciprocal backcross interspecies hybrid males that have a non-recombinant sex chromosome and recombinant autosomes. The heritable variation in phenotype is thus solely caused by differences in the autosomes, thereby allowing us to accurately identify the number and location of autosomal sterility loci. In one direction of backcross, all males were sterile, indicating that sterility could be entirely induced by the sex chromosome complement in these males. In the other direction, we identified nine quantitative trait loci that account for a surprisingly large amount (56%) of the autosome-induced phenotypic variance in sterility, with a large contribution of autosome-autosome epistatic interactions. These loci are capable of acting dominantly, and thus could contribute to F1 hybrid sterility.

  16. hi2-1, A QTL which improves harvest index, earliness and alters metabolite accumulation of processing tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Amit; Osorio, Sonia; Fridman, Eyal; Zamir, Dani

    2010-01-01

    Harvest index, defined as the ratio of reproductive yield to total plant biomass, and early ripening are traits with important agronomic value in processing tomatoes. The Solanum pennellii introgression-line (IL) population shows variation for harvest index and earliness. Most of the QTL mapped for these traits display negative agronomic effects; however, hi2-1 is a unique QTL displaying improved harvest index and earliness. This introgression was tested over several years and under different genetic backgrounds. Thirty-one nearly isogenic sub-lines segregating for the 18 cM TG33–TG276 interval were used for fine mapping of this multi-phenotypic QTL. Based on this analysis the phenotypic effects for plant weight, Brix, total yield and earliness were co-mapped to the same region. In a different mapping experiment these sub-lines were tested as heterozygotes in order to map the harvest index QTL which were only expressed in the heterozygous state. These QTL mapped to the same candidate region, suggesting that hi2-1 is either a single gene with pleiotropic effects or represents linked genes independently affecting these traits. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pericarp revealed that a number of metabolic QTL co-segregate with the harvest index trait including those for important transport assimilates such as sugars and amino acids. Analysis of the flowering pattern of these lines revealed induced flowering at IL2-1 plants, suggest that hi2-1 may also affect harvest index and early ripening by changing plant architecture and flowering rate. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1412-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20680612

  17. QTL and Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Pinus Taeda L

    SciTech Connect

    Claire G. Williams

    2002-10-01

    The reason for the project is to find the genetic factors which control growth at ages closer to commercial harvest (also known as QTL detection). To date, efforts to find genetic factors which control growth have been limited to seedlings. Because tree breeders want to find molecular markers which are linked to traits of direct economic value, finding linkage to factors controlling older-tree growth is more critical than seedling growth. Our current research interest includes both absolute height at ages 10-13 years but also growth trajectory or the rate of growth from seedling to half-rotation.

  18. QTL for the thermotolerance effect of heat hardening, knockdown resistance to heat and chill-coma recovery in an intercontinental set of recombinant inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Norry, Fabian M; Scannapieco, Alejandra C; Sambucetti, Pablo; Bertoli, Carlos I; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-10-01

    The thermotolerance effect of heat hardening (also called short-term acclimation), knockdown resistance to high temperature (KRHT) with and without heat hardening and chill-coma recovery (CCR) are important phenotypes of thermal adaptation in insects and other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster from Denmark and Australia were previously selected for low and high KRHT, respectively. These flies were crossed to construct recombinant inbred lines (RIL). KRHT was higher in heat-hardened than in nonhardened RIL. We quantify the heat-hardening effect (HHE) as the ratio in KRHT between heat-hardened and nonhardened RIL. Composite interval mapping revealed a more complex genetic architecture for KRHT without heat-hardening than for KRHT in heat-hardened insects. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found for KRHT, but only two of them were significant after heat hardening. KRHT and CCR showed trade-off associations for QTL both in the middle of chromosome 2 and the right arm of chromosome 3, which should be the result of either pleiotropy or linkage. The major QTL on chromosome 2 explained 18% and 27-33% of the phenotypic variance in CCR and KRHT in nonhardened flies, respectively, but its KRHT effects decreased by heat hardening. We discuss candidate loci for each QTL. One HHE-QTL was found in the region of small heat-shock protein genes. However, HHE-QTL explained only a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Most heat-resistance QTL did not colocalize with CCR-QTL. Large-effect QTL for CCR and KRHT without hardening (basal thermotolerance) were consistent across continents, with apparent transgressive segregation for CCR. HHE (inducible thermotolerance) was not regulated by large-effect QTL.

  19. Power of QTL mapping experiments in commercial Atlantic salmon populations, exploiting linkage and linkage disequilibrium and effect of limited recombination in males.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B J; Gjuvsland, A; Omholt, S

    2006-07-01

    Whereas detection and positioning of genes that affect quantitative traits (quantitative trait loci (QTL)) using linkage mapping uses only information from recombinants in the genotyped generations, linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping uses historical recombinants. Thus, whereas linkage mapping requires large family sizes to detect and accurately position QTL, LD mapping is more dependent on the number of families sampled from the population. In commercial Atlantic salmon breeding programmes, only a small number of individuals per family are routinely phenotyped for traits such as disease resistance and meat colour. In this paper, we assess the power and accuracy of combined linkage disequilibrium linkage analysis (LDLA) to detect QTL in the commercial population using simulation. When 15 half-sib sire families (each sire mated to 30 dams, each dam with 10 progeny) were sampled from the population for genotyping, we were able to detect a QTL explaining 10% of the phenotypic variance in 85% of replicates and position this QTL within 3 cM of the true position in 70% of replicates. When recombination was absent in males, a feature of the salmon genome, power to detect QTL increased; however, the accuracy of positioning the QTL was decreased. By increasing the number of sire families sampled from the population to be genotyped to 30, we were able to increase both the proportion of QTL detected and correctly positioned (even with no recombination in males). QTL with much smaller effect could also be detected. The results suggest that even with the existing recording structure in commercial salmon breeding programmes, there is considerable power to detect and accurately position QTL using LDLA. PMID:16685283

  20. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B; Miras, Monaliza A; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Simon, Eliza V; Lumanglas, Patrick D; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-03-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5-2.0 h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource.

  1. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B.; Miras, Monaliza A.; Mendioro, Merlyn S.; Simon, Eliza V.; Lumanglas, Patrick D.; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5–2.0h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. PMID:25534925

  2. eQTL mapping identify insertion and deletion specific eQTLs in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinyan; Chen, Jun; Esparza, Jorge; Ding, Jun; Elder, James; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Lee, Young-Ae; Lathrop, G. Mark; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C; Liang, Liming

    2016-01-01

    GenomeC wide gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping have been focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms and have helped interpret findings from diseases mapping studies. The functional effect of structure variants, especially short insertions and deletions (indel) has not been well investigated. Here we imputed 1,380,133 indels based on the latest 1000 Genomes Project panel into 3 eQTL datasets from multiple tissues. Imputation of indels increased 9.9% power and identified indel specific eQTLs for 325 genes. We found introns and vicinities of UTRs were more enriched of indel eQTLs and 3.6 (singleC tissue)C 9.2%(multiC tissue) of previous identified eSNPs were taggers of eindels. Functional analyses identified epigenetics marks, gene ontology categories and disease GWAS loci affected by SNPs and indels eQTLs showing tissueC consistent or tissueC specific effects. This study provides new insights into the underlying genetic architecture of gene expression across tissues and new resource to interpret function of diseases and traits associated structure variants. PMID:25951796

  3. Mapping of a QTL for oleic acid concentration in spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera).

    PubMed

    Tanhuanpää, P K; Vilkki, J P; Vilkki, H J

    1996-06-01

    Bulk segregant analysis was used to search for RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to gene(s) affecting oleic acid concentration in an F2 population from the Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera cross Jo4002 x a high oleic acid individual from line Jo4072. Eight primers (=8 markers) out of 104 discriminated the 'high' and 'low' bulks consisting of extreme individuals from the oleic acid distribution. These markers were analysed throughout the entire F2 population, and their association with oleic acid was studied using both interval mapping and ANOVA analysis. Six of the markers mapped to one linkage group. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting oleic acid concentration was found to reside within this linkage group with a LOD score >15. The most suitable marker for oleic acid content is OPH-17, a codominant marker close (<4cM) to the QTL. The mean seed oleic acid content in the F2 individuals carrying the larger allele of this marker was 80.14±9.76%; in individuals with the smaller allele, 54.53±6.83%; in the heterozygotes, 65.47±8.15%. To increase reproducibility, the RAPD marker was converted into a SCAR (sequence characterized amplied region) marker with specific primers. Marker OPH-17 can be used to select spring turnip rape individuals with the desired oleic acid content.

  4. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    PubMed

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content.

  5. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    PubMed

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content. PMID:27050959

  6. QTL clustering as a mechanism for rapid multi-trait evolution.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; O'Quin, Kelly E; Jeffery, William R

    2013-07-01

    Cave-dwelling animals exhibit remarkable convergence in multiple cave-related traits, yet the genetic mechanisms responsible for the evolution and integration of many such traits remain unclear. Astyanax mexicanus is a model cave-dwelling fish with sighted surface-dwelling (surface fish) and blind cave-dwelling (cavefish) forms. Using a genetic cross between these morphs, we discovered significant correlations among several cave-related traits, including reduced eyes, increased superficial neuromast receptors located within the eye orbit (EO SN) and a vibration-attraction behavior (VAB) that facilitates foraging in darkness. Furthermore, we discovered that the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying these traits are clustered within the Astyanax genome. Following an ablation experiment that demonstrated that the EO SN contribute to VAB, we concluded that the adaptive evolution of VAB and EO SN has likely contributed to eye loss in cavefish. In this addendum, we further discuss the possible role of multi-trait QTL clustering in facilitating rapid adaptation. PMID:23956812

  7. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms. PMID:27620731

  8. Fine Mapping of a QTL Associated with Kernel Row Number on Chromosome 1 of Maize

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Claudia I.; Yandell, Brian S.; Doebley, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic factors underlying changes in ear morphology, and particularly the inheritance of kernel row number (KRN), have been broadly investigated in diverse mapping populations in maize (Zea mays L.). In this study, we mapped a region on the long arm of chromosome 1 containing a QTL for KRN. This work was performed using a set of recombinant chromosome nearly isogenic lines (RCNILs) derived from a BC2S3 population produced using the inbred maize line W22 and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) as the parents. A set of 48 RCNILs was evaluated in the field during the summer of 2013 in order to perform the mapping. A QTL for KRN was found that explained approximately 51% of the phenotypic variance and had a 1.5-LOD confidence interval of 203 kb. Seven genes are described in this interval. One of these candidate genes may have been the target of domestication processes in maize and contributed to the shift from two kernel row ears in teosinte to a highly polystichous ear in maize. PMID:26930509

  9. Identification of a major QTL controlling the content of B-type starch granules in Aegilops

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Thomas; Rejab, Nur Ardiyana; Griffiths, Simon; Leigh, Fiona; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Simmonds, James; Uauy, Cristobal; Trafford, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Starch within the endosperm of most species of the Triticeae has a unique bimodal granule morphology comprising large lenticular A-type granules and smaller near-spherical B-type granules. However, a few wild wheat species (Aegilops) are known to lack B-granules. Ae. peregrina and a synthetic tetraploid Aegilops with the same genome composition (SU) were found to differ in B-granule number. The synthetic tetraploid had normal A- and B-type starch granules whilst Ae. peregrina had only A-granules because the B-granules failed to initiate. A population segregating for B-granule number was generated by crossing these two accessions and was used to study the genetic basis of B-granule initiation. A combination of Bulked Segregant Analysis and QTL mapping identified a major QTL located on the short arm of chromosome 4S that accounted for 44.4% of the phenotypic variation. The lack of B-granules in polyploid Aegilops with diverse genomes suggests that the B-granule locus has been lost several times independently during the evolution of the Triticeae. It is proposed that the B-granule locus is susceptible to silencing during polyploidization and a model is presented to explain the observed data based on the assumption that the initiation of B-granules is controlled by a single major locus per haploid genome. PMID:21227932

  10. QTL mapping of cucumber fruit flesh thickness by SLAF-seq.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuewen; Lu, Lu; Zhu, Biyun; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-10-28

    Cucumber is an agriculturally and economically important vegetable crop worldwide. Fruit flesh thickness is an important trait for cucumber and also a central determinant of yield, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this trait. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) combined with specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was applied to finely map the gene that underlies fruit flesh thickness in cucumber. A 0.19-Mb-long quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 controlling fruit flesh thickness (QTL fft2.1) was identified and further confirmed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based classical QTL mapping in 138 F2 individuals. Gene prediction of this 0.19-Mb region identified 20 genes. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed higher expression levels of Csa2 M058670.1 (SET domain protein-lysine methyltransferase) in D8 (thick fruit flesh parent) compared with that in XUE1 (thin fruit flesh parent) during fruit development. Sequence alignment analysis of Csa2M058670.1 from thick and thin fruit flesh cucumber lines revealed a 4-bp deletion mutation in the promoter region of this candidate gene, which may result in the loss of Csa2M058670.1 activation in thin fruit flesh lines. The data presented herein suggest that Csa2M058670.1 is a possible candidate gene for controlling flesh thickness in cucumber.

  11. Predictions of heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using QTL-based parameters of an ecophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Matthieu; Ravel, Catherine; Paux, Etienne; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Chapman, Scott C; Le Gouis, Jacques; Allard, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of wheat phenology facilitates the selection of cultivars with specific adaptations to a particular environment. However, while QTL analysis for heading date can identify major genes controlling phenology, the results are limited to the environments and genotypes tested. Moreover, while ecophysiological models allow accurate predictions in new environments, they may require substantial phenotypic data to parameterize each genotype. Also, the model parameters are rarely related to all underlying genes, and all the possible allelic combinations that could be obtained by breeding cannot be tested with models. In this study, a QTL-based model is proposed to predict heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two parameters of an ecophysiological model (V sat and P base , representing genotype vernalization requirements and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively) were optimized for 210 genotypes grown in 10 contrasting location × sowing date combinations. Multiple linear regression models predicting V sat and P base with 11 and 12 associated genetic markers accounted for 71 and 68% of the variance of these parameters, respectively. QTL-based V sat and P base estimates were able to predict heading date of an independent validation data set (88 genotypes in six location × sowing date combinations) with a root mean square error of prediction of 5 to 8.6 days, explaining 48 to 63% of the variation for heading date. The QTL-based model proposed in this study may be used for agronomic purposes and to assist breeders in suggesting locally adapted ideotypes for wheat phenology.

  12. QTL for bacterial cold water disease resistance and spleen size are located on rainbow trout chromosome Omy19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of aquatic animals for improved disease resistance has become a major focus in aquaculture, although little is known about underlying QTL or correlated traits. At the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA), we have pursued a selective breeding program with t...

  13. Utility assessment of published microsatellite markers for fiber length and bundle strength QTL in a cotton breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) may help mitigate some of the current challenges regarding the genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, such as low genetic diversity and the negative association between fiber quality and lint yield. A multitude of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber length a...

  14. Mapping and validation of a major QTL affecting resistance to pancreas disease (salmonid alphavirus) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Gonen, S; Baranski, M; Thorland, I; Norris, A; Grove, H; Arnesen, P; Bakke, H; Lien, S; Bishop, S C; Houston, R D

    2015-11-01

    Pancreas disease (PD), caused by a salmonid alphavirus (SAV), has a large negative economic and animal welfare impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Evidence for genetic variation in host resistance to this disease has been reported, suggesting that selective breeding may potentially form an important component of disease control. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic architecture of resistance to PD, using survival data collected from two unrelated populations of Atlantic salmon; one challenged with SAV as fry in freshwater (POP 1) and one challenged with SAV as post-smolts in sea water (POP 2). Analyses of the binary survival data revealed a moderate-to-high heritability for host resistance to PD in both populations (fry POP 1 h(2)~0.5; post-smolt POP 2 h(2)~0.4). Subsets of both populations were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and six putative resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. One of these QTL was mapped to the same location on chromosome 3 in both populations, reaching chromosome-wide significance in both the sire- and dam-based analyses in POP 1, and genome-wide significance in a combined analysis in POP 2. This independently verified QTL explains a significant proportion of host genetic variation in resistance to PD in both populations, suggesting a common underlying mechanism for genetic resistance across lifecycle stages. Markers associated with this QTL are being incorporated into selective breeding programs to improve PD resistance.

  15. Identification of conjoint genomic regions for multiple traits using RIL populations through meta-QTL analysis in peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, several quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies have been conducted for tolerance to drought, resistance to foliar diseases and yield-related traits in peanut. Number as well as position of the identified QTLs for a given trait, however, differed in different studies mainly because o...

  16. Mapping and validation of a major QTL affecting resistance to pancreas disease (salmonid alphavirus) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, S; Baranski, M; Thorland, I; Norris, A; Grove, H; Arnesen, P; Bakke, H; Lien, S; Bishop, S C; Houston, R D

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas disease (PD), caused by a salmonid alphavirus (SAV), has a large negative economic and animal welfare impact on Atlantic salmon aquaculture. Evidence for genetic variation in host resistance to this disease has been reported, suggesting that selective breeding may potentially form an important component of disease control. The aim of this study was to explore the genetic architecture of resistance to PD, using survival data collected from two unrelated populations of Atlantic salmon; one challenged with SAV as fry in freshwater (POP 1) and one challenged with SAV as post-smolts in sea water (POP 2). Analyses of the binary survival data revealed a moderate-to-high heritability for host resistance to PD in both populations (fry POP 1 h2~0.5; post-smolt POP 2 h2~0.4). Subsets of both populations were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphism markers, and six putative resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. One of these QTL was mapped to the same location on chromosome 3 in both populations, reaching chromosome-wide significance in both the sire- and dam-based analyses in POP 1, and genome-wide significance in a combined analysis in POP 2. This independently verified QTL explains a significant proportion of host genetic variation in resistance to PD in both populations, suggesting a common underlying mechanism for genetic resistance across lifecycle stages. Markers associated with this QTL are being incorporated into selective breeding programs to improve PD resistance. PMID:25990876

  17. Predictions of heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using QTL-based parameters of an ecophysiological model

    PubMed Central

    Bogard, Matthieu; Ravel, Catherine; Paux, Etienne; Bordes, Jacques; Balfourier, François; Chapman, Scott C.; Le Gouis, Jacques; Allard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of wheat phenology facilitates the selection of cultivars with specific adaptations to a particular environment. However, while QTL analysis for heading date can identify major genes controlling phenology, the results are limited to the environments and genotypes tested. Moreover, while ecophysiological models allow accurate predictions in new environments, they may require substantial phenotypic data to parameterize each genotype. Also, the model parameters are rarely related to all underlying genes, and all the possible allelic combinations that could be obtained by breeding cannot be tested with models. In this study, a QTL-based model is proposed to predict heading date in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two parameters of an ecophysiological model (V sat and P base, representing genotype vernalization requirements and photoperiod sensitivity, respectively) were optimized for 210 genotypes grown in 10 contrasting location × sowing date combinations. Multiple linear regression models predicting V sat and P base with 11 and 12 associated genetic markers accounted for 71 and 68% of the variance of these parameters, respectively. QTL-based V sat and P base estimates were able to predict heading date of an independent validation data set (88 genotypes in six location × sowing date combinations) with a root mean square error of prediction of 5 to 8.6 days, explaining 48 to 63% of the variation for heading date. The QTL-based model proposed in this study may be used for agronomic purposes and to assist breeders in suggesting locally adapted ideotypes for wheat phenology. PMID:25148833

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fruit quality traits and number of weeks of flowering in the cultivated strawberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit quality traits and dayneutrality are two major foci of several strawberry breeding programs. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers linked to these traits could improve breeding efficiency. In this work, an F1 population derived from the cross ‘Delmarvel’ × ...

  19. Natural genetic variation in whole-genome expression in Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of physiological QTL introgression.

    PubMed

    Juenger, Thomas E; Wayne, Tierney; Boles, Sandra; Symonds, V Vaughan; McKay, John; Coughlan, Sean J

    2006-04-01

    A long-standing and fundamental question in biology is how genes influence complex phenotypes. Combining near-isogenic line mapping with genome expression profiling offers a unique opportunity for exploring the functional relationship between genotype and phenotype and for generating candidate genes for future study. We used a whole-genome microarray produced with ink-jet technology to measure the relative expression level of over 21,500 genes from an Arabidopsis thaliana near-isogenic line (NIL) and its recurrent parent. The NIL material contained two introgressions (bottom of chromosome II and top of chromosome III) of the Cvi-1 ecotype in a Ler-2 ecotype genome background. Each introgression 'captures' a Cvi allele of a physiological quantitative trait loci (QTL) that our previous studies have shown increases transpiration and reduces water-use efficiency at the whole-plant level. We used a mixed model anova framework for assessing sources of expression variability and for evaluating statistical significance in our array experiment. We discovered 25 differentially expressed genes in the introgression at a false-discovery rate (FDR) cut-off of 0.20 and identified new candidate genes for both QTL regions. Several differentially expressed genes were confirmed with QRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) assays. In contrast, we found no statistically significant differentially expressed genes outside of the QTL introgressions after controlling for multiple tests. We discuss these results in the context of candidate genes, cloning QTL, and phenotypic evolution.

  20. Detection of QTL for forage yield, lodging resistance and spring vigor traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an internationally significant forage crop. Forage yield, lodging resistance and spring vigor are important agronomic traits conditioned by quantitative genetic and environmental effects. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and mo...

  1. Transcriptomics of salinity tolerance capacity in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): a comparison of gene expression profiles between divergent QTL genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Moira M.; Danzmann, Roy G.

    2013-01-01

    Osmoregulatory capabilities have played an important role in the evolution, dispersal, and diversification of vertebrates. To better understand the genetic architecture of hypo-osmoregulation in fishes and to determine which genes and biological processes affect intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance, we used mRNA sequence libraries from Arctic charr gill tissue to compare gene expression profiles in fish exhibiting divergent salinity tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) genotypes. We compared differentially expressed genes with QTL positions to gain insight about the nature of the underlying polymorphisms and examined gene expression within the context of genome organization to gain insight about the evolution of hypo-osmoregulation in fishes. mRNA sequencing of 18 gill tissue libraries produced 417 million reads, and the final reduced de novo transcriptome assembly consisted of 92,543 contigs. Families contained a similar number of differentially expressed contigs between high and low salinity tolerance capacity groups, and log2 expression ratios ranged from 10.4 to −8.6. We found that intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance capacity correlated with differential expression of immune response genes. Some differentially expressed genes formed clusters along linkage groups. Most clusters comprised gene pairs, though clusters of three, four, and eight genes were also observed. We postulated that conserved synteny of gene clusters on multiple ancestral and teleost chromosomes may have been preserved via purifying selection. Colocalization of QTL with differentially expressed genes suggests that polymorphisms in cis-regulatory elements are part of a majority of QTL. PMID:24368751

  2. Investigation and validation of the role of a QTL on SSC12 in PCV2b viremia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is known to modulate immune response leading to a susceptibility to Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD) with an impact on growth and mortality. Our previous GWAS of PCV2b experimentally infected pigs uncovered two QTL that explain 14% of the genetic variat...

  3. Development and characterization of 96 microsatellite markers suitable for QTL mapping and accession control in an Arabidopsis core collection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify plant genes involved in various key traits, QTL mapping is a powerful approach. This approach is based on the use of mapped molecular markers to identify genomic regions controlling quantitative traits followed by a fine mapping and eventually positional cloning of candidate genes. Mapping technologies using SNP markers are still rather expensive and not feasible in every laboratory. In contrast, microsatellite (also called SSR for Simple Sequence Repeat) markers are technologically less demanding and less costly for any laboratory interested in genetic mapping. Results In this study, we present the development and the characterization of a panel of 96 highly polymorphic SSR markers along the Arabidopsis thaliana genome allowing QTL mapping among accessions of the Versailles 24 core collection that covers a high percentage of the A. thaliana genetic diversity. These markers can be used for any QTL mapping analysis involving any of these accessions. We optimized the use of these markers in order to reveal polymorphism using standard PCR conditions and agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, we showed that the use of only three of these markers allows differentiating all 24 accessions which makes this set of markers a powerful tool to control accession identity or any cross between any of these accessions. Conclusion The set of SSR markers developed in this study provides a simple and efficient tool for any laboratory focusing on QTL mapping in A. thaliana and a simple means to control seed stock or crosses between accessions. PMID:24447639

  4. A major QTL for acute ethanol sensitivity in the alcohol tolerant and non-tolerant selected rat lines.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, R A; Erwin, V G; Bludeau, P; Deng, X; Fay, T; Floyd, K L; Deitrich, R A

    2009-08-01

    The Alcohol Tolerant and Alcohol Non-Tolerant rats (AT, ANT) were selectively bred for ethanol-induced ataxia as measured on the inclined plane. Here we report on a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study in an F(2) intercross population derived from inbred AT and ANT (IAT, IANT) and a follow-up study of congenics that were bred to examine one of the mapped QTLs. Over 1200 F(2) offspring were tested for inclined plane sensitivity, acute tolerance on the inclined plane, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol at regain of the righting reflex (BECRR). F(2) rats that were in the upper and lower 20% for inclined plane sensitivity were genotyped with 78 SSLP markers. Significant QTLs for inclined plane sensitivity were mapped on chromosomes 8 and 20; suggestive QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Highly significant QTLs for LORR duration (LOD = 12.4) and BECRR (LOD = 5.7) were mapped to the same locus on chromosome 1. Breeding and testing of reciprocal congenic lines confirmed the chromosome 1 LORR/BECRR QTL. A series of recombinant congenic sub-lines were bred to fine-map this QTL. Current results have narrowed the QTL to an interval of between 5 and 20 Mb. We expect to be able to narrow the interval to less than 5 Mb with additional genotyping and continued breeding of recombinant sub-congenic lines.

  5. SNP discovery and QTL mapping of Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a serious disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the cool and humid production areas of the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BSR resistance were identified in a sunflower recombinant inbr...

  6. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetics is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structura...

  7. Identification of QTL controlling high levels of partial resistance to Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot is a common biotic restraint on pea yields worldwide and genetic resistance is the most feasible method for improving pea production. This study was conducted to discover quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling genetic partial resistance to Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium s...

  8. Conditional QTL mapping of oil content in rapeseed with respect to protein content and traits related to plant development and grain yield.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianyi; Becker, Heiko C; Zhang, Dongqing; Zhang, Yaofeng; Ecke, Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is generally regarded as a character with high heritability that is negatively correlated with protein content and influenced by plant developmental and yield related traits. To evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between these traits and oil content, QTL for oil content were mapped using data on oil content and on oil content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a segregating doubled haploid population of 282 lines derived from the F(1) of a cross between the old German cultivar Sollux and the Chinese cultivar Gaoyou. The material was tested at four locations, two each in Germany and in China. QTLMapper version 1.0 was used for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additive (a) and locus pairs with additive x additive epistatic (aa) effects. Clear evidence was found for a strong genetic relationship between oil and protein content. Six QTL and nine epistatic locus pairs were found, which had pleiotropic effects on both traits. Nevertheless, two QTL were also identified, which control oil content independent from protein content and which could be used in practical breeding programs to increase oil content without affecting seed protein content. In addition, six additional QTL with small effects were only identified in the conditional mapping. Some evidence was apparent for a genetic interrelationship between oil content and the number of seeds per silique but no evidence was found for a genetic relationship between oil content and flowering time, grain filling period or single seed weight. The results indicate that for closely correlated traits conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the level of individual QTL. Furthermore, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with small effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping.

  9. Genetic dissection of fruit quality traits in the octoploid cultivated strawberry highlights the role of homoeo-QTL in their control.

    PubMed

    Lerceteau-Köhler, E; Moing, A; Guérin, G; Renaud, C; Petit, A; Rothan, C; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Fruit quality traits are major breeding targets in the Rosaceae. Several of the major Rosaceae species are current or ancient polyploids. To dissect the inheritance of fruit quality traits in polyploid fleshy fruit species, we used a cultivated strawberry segregating population comprising a 213 full-sibling F1 progeny from a cross between the variety 'Capitola' and the genotype 'CF1116'. We previously developed the most comprehensive strawberry linkage map, which displays seven homoeology groups (HG), including each four homoeology linkage groups (Genetics 179:2045-2060, 2008). The map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 19 fruit traits related to fruit development, texture, colour, anthocyanin, sugar and organic acid contents. Analyses were carried out over two or three successive years on field-grown plants. QTL were detected for all the analysed traits. Because strawberry is an octopolyploid species, QTL controlling a given trait and located at orthologous positions on different homoeologous linkage groups within one HG are considered as homoeo-QTL. We found that, for various traits, about one-fourth of QTL were putative homoeo-QTL and were localised on two linkage groups. Several homoeo-QTL could be detected the same year, suggesting that several copies of the gene underlying the QTL are functional. The detection of some other homoeo-QTL was year-dependent. Therefore, changes in allelic expression could take place in response to environmental changes. We believe that, in strawberry as in other polyploid fruit species, the mechanisms unravelled in the present study may play a crucial role in the variations of fruit quality.

  10. A bi-dimensional genome scan for prolificacy traits in pigs shows the existence of multiple epistatic QTL

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prolificacy is the most important trait influencing the reproductive efficiency of pig production systems. The low heritability and sex-limited expression of prolificacy have hindered to some extent the improvement of this trait through artificial selection. Moreover, the relative contributions of additive, dominant and epistatic QTL to the genetic variance of pig prolificacy remain to be defined. In this work, we have undertaken this issue by performing one-dimensional and bi-dimensional genome scans for number of piglets born alive (NBA) and total number of piglets born (TNB) in a three generation Iberian by Meishan F2 intercross. Results The one-dimensional genome scan for NBA and TNB revealed the existence of two genome-wide highly significant QTL located on SSC13 (P < 0.001) and SSC17 (P < 0.01) with effects on both traits. This relative paucity of significant results contrasted very strongly with the wide array of highly significant epistatic QTL that emerged in the bi-dimensional genome-wide scan analysis. As much as 18 epistatic QTL were found for NBA (four at P < 0.01 and five at P < 0.05) and TNB (three at P < 0.01 and six at P < 0.05), respectively. These epistatic QTL were distributed in multiple genomic regions, which covered 13 of the 18 pig autosomes, and they had small individual effects that ranged between 3 to 4% of the phenotypic variance. Different patterns of interactions (a × a, a × d, d × a and d × d) were found amongst the epistatic QTL pairs identified in the current work. Conclusions The complex inheritance of prolificacy traits in pigs has been evidenced by identifying multiple additive (SSC13 and SSC17), dominant and epistatic QTL in an Iberian × Meishan F2 intercross. Our results demonstrate that a significant fraction of the phenotypic variance of swine prolificacy traits can be attributed to first-order gene-by-gene interactions emphasizing that the phenotypic effects of alleles might be strongly modulated by the

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to grilsing and late sexual maturation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandro P; Lubieniecki, Krzysztof P; Fukui, Steve; Withler, Ruth E; Swift, Bruce; Davidson, William S

    2014-02-01

    In Atlantic salmon aquaculture, early sexual maturation represents a major problem for producers. This is especially true for grilse, which mature after one sea winter before reaching a desirable harvest weight, rather than after two sea winters. Salmon maturing as grilse have a much lower market value than later maturing individuals. For this reason, most companies desire fish that grow fast and mature late. Marker-assisted selection has the potential to improve the efficiency of selection against early maturation and for late sexual maturation; however, studies identifying age of sexual maturation-related genetic markers are lacking for Atlantic salmon. Therefore, we used a 6.5K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to genotype five families from the Mainstream Canada broodstock program and search for SNPs associated with early (grilsing) or late sexual maturation. There were 529 SNP loci that were variable across all five families, and this was the set that was used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. GridQTL identified two chromosomes, Ssa10 and Ssa21, containing QTL related to grilsing. In contrast, only one QTL, on Ssa18, was found linked to late maturation in Atlantic salmon. Our previous work on these five families did not identify genome-wide significant growth-related QTL on Ssa10, Ssa21, or Ssa18. Therefore, taken together, these results suggest that both grilsing and late sexual maturation are controlled independently of one another and also from growth-related traits. The identification of genomic regions associated with grilsing or late sexual maturation provide an opportunity to incorporate this information into selective breeding programs that will enhance Atlantic salmon farming. PMID:23912817

  12. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-04-17

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp.

  13. Congenic Strains Confirm the Pleiotropic Effect of Chromosome 4 QTL on Mouse Femoral Geometry and Biomechanical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kristianto, Jasmin; Litscher, Suzanne J.; Johnson, Michael G.; Patel, Forum; Patel, Mital; Fisher, Jacqueline; Zastrow, Ryley K.; Radcliff, Abigail B.; Blank, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    A pleiotropic quantitative trait locus (QTL) for bone geometry and mechanical performance in mice was mapped to distal chromosome 4 via an intercross of recombinant congenic mice HcB-8 and HcB-23. To study the QTL in isolation, we have generated C3H.B10-(rs6355453-rs13478087) (C.B.4.3) and C3H.B10-(rs6369860-D4Mit170) (C.B.4.2) congenic strains that harbor ~20 Mb and ~3 Mb, respectively, of chromosome 4 overlapping segments from C57BL/10ScSnA (B10) within the locus on a C3H/DiSnA (C3H) background. Using 3-point bend testing and standard beam equations, we phenotyped these mice for femoral mid-diaphyseal geometry and biomechanical performance. We analyzed the results via 2-way ANOVA, using sex and genotype as factors. In the C.B.4.3 strain, we found that homozygous B10/B10 male mice had smaller cross sectional area (CSA) and reduced total displacement than homozygous C3H/C3H mice. Sex by genotype interaction was also observed for maximum load and stiffness for C3H/C3H and B10/B10 mice, respectively. In C.B.4.2 strain, we found that homozygous B10/B10 mice had lower total displacement, post-yield displacement (PYD), stiffness, yield load and maximum load than mice harboring C3H allele. Sex by genotype interaction was observed in B10/B10 mice for perimeter, outer minor axis (OMA) and CSA. There were no significant differences in tissue level mechanical performance, which suggest that the QTL acts primarily on circumferential bone size. These data confirm the prior QTL mapping data and support other work demonstrating the importance of chromosome 4 QTL on bone modeling and bone responses to mechanical loading. PMID:26849124

  14. New investigations around CYP11A1 and its possible involvement in an androstenone QTL characterised in Large White pigs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previously, in boars with extreme androstenone levels, differential expression of the CYP11A1 gene in the testes has been characterised. CYP11A1 is located in a region where a QTL influencing boar fat androstenone levels has been detected in a Large White pig population. Clarifying the role of CYP11A1 in boar taint is important because it catalyses the initial step of androstenone synthesis and also of steroid synthesis. Results A genome-wide association study located CYP11A1 at approximately 1300 kb upstream from SNP H3GA0021967, defining the centre of the region containing the QTL for androstenone variation. In this study, we partially sequenced the CYP11A1 gene and identified several new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within it. Characterisation of one animal, heterozygous for CYP11A1 testicular expression but homozygous for a haplotype of a large region containing CYP11A1, revealed that variation of CYP11A1 expression is probably regulated by a mutation located downstream from the SNP H3GA0021967. We analysed CYP11A1 expression in LW families according to haplotypes of the QTL region's centre. Effects of haplotypes on CYP11A1 expression and on androstenone accumulation were not concordant. Conclusion This study shows that testicular expression of CYP11A1 is not solely responsible for the QTL influencing boar fat androstenone levels. As a conclusion, we propose to refute the hypothesis that a single mutation located near the centre of the QTL region could control androstenone accumulation in fat by regulating the CYP11A1 expression. PMID:21504607

  15. Mapping with RAD (restriction-site associated DNA) markers to rapidly identify QTL for stem rust resistance in Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Pfender, W F; Saha, M C; Johnson, E A; Slabaugh, M B

    2011-05-01

    A mapping population was created to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola in Lolium perenne. A susceptible and a resistant plant were crossed to produce a pseudo-testcross population of 193 F(1) individuals. Markers were produced by the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) process, which uses massively parallel and multiplexed sequencing of reduced-representation libraries. Additional simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers were combined with the RAD markers to produce maps for the female (738 cM) and male (721 cM) parents. Stem rust phenotypes (number of pustules per plant) were determined in replicated greenhouse trials by inoculation with a field-collected, genetically heterogeneous population of urediniospores. The F(1) progeny displayed continuous distribution of phenotypes and transgressive segregation. We detected three resistance QTL. The most prominent QTL (qLpPg1) is located near 41 cM on linkage group (LG) 7 with a 2-LOD interval of 8 cM, and accounts for 30-38% of the stem rust phenotypic variance. QTL were detected also on LG1 (qLpPg2) and LG6 (qLpPg3), each accounting for approximately 10% of phenotypic variance. Alleles of loci closely linked to these QTL originated from the resistant parent for qLpPg1 and from both parents for qLpPg2 and qLpPg3. Observed quantitative nature of the resistance may be due to partial-resistance effects against all pathogen genotypes, or qualitative effects completely preventing infection by only some genotypes in the genetically mixed inoculum. RAD markers facilitated rapid construction of new genetic maps in this outcrossing species and will enable development of sequence-based markers linked to stem rust resistance in L. perenne. PMID:21344184

  16. Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps) genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad) and susceptible (‘Sloan’) genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for resistance to P. sojae

  17. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate

  18. Genetic Mapping and QTL Analysis of Growth-Related Traits in Pinctada fucata Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaoguo; He, Maoxian

    2014-01-01

    The pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata), is one of the marine bivalves that is predominantly cultured for pearl production. To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth-related traits. One F1 family, which included the two parents, 48 largest progeny and 50 smallest progeny, was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq). With low coverage data, 1956.53 million clean reads and 86,342 candidate RAD loci were generated. A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM), with 14 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 1.41 cM. The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified using the single-marker analysis, nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test. Parameters included three for shell height, six for shell length, five for shell width, four for hinge length, 11 for total weight, eight for soft tissue weight and two for shell weight. The QTL peak loci for shell height, shell length and shell weight were all located in linkage group 6. The genotype frequencies of most QTL peak loci showed significant differences between the large subpopulation and the small subpopulation (P<0.05). These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-Seq as a tool for generation of QTL-targeted and genome-wide marker data in the non-model animal, P. fucata, and its possible utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:25369421

  19. Evaluation of BTA1 and BTA5 QTL Regions for Growth and Carcass Traits in American and Korean Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. W.; Raney, N. E.; Ernst, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Previously identified QTL regions on BTA1 and BTA5 were investigated to validate the QTL regions and to identify candidate genes for growth and carcass traits in commercial cattle populations from the USA and Korea. Initially, a total of 8 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers in the BTA1 and 5 QTL regions were used for Chi-square tests to compare the frequencies of individual alleles between high and low phenotypic groups for the US (Michigan Cattleman’s Association/Michigan State University; MCA/MSU) cattle. For a subsequent study, 24 candidate genes containing missense mutations and located within the QTL regions based on bovine genome sequence data were analyzed for genotyping in the two commercial cattle populations. Re-sequencing analyses confirmed 18 public missense SNPs and identified 9 new SNPs. Seventeen of these SNPs were used for genotyping of the MCA/MSU cattle (n = 98) and Korean native cattle (n = 323). On BTA1, UPK1B, HRG, and MAGEF1 polymorphisms residing between BM1312 and BMS4048 were significantly associated with growth and carcass traits in one or both of the MCA/MSU and Korean populations. On BTA5, ABCD2, IL22 and SNRPF polymorphisms residing between BL4 and BR2936 were associated with marbling and backfat traits in one or both of the MCA/MSU and Korean cattle populations. These results suggested that BTA 1 and 5 QTL regions may be segregating in both Korean Hanwoo and USA commercial cattle populations and DNA markers tested in this study may contribute to the identification of positional candidate genes for marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25049512

  20. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    PubMed

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  1. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of growth-related traits in Pinctada fucata using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoguo; He, Maoxian

    2014-01-01

    The pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata), is one of the marine bivalves that is predominantly cultured for pearl production. To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth-related traits. One F1 family, which included the two parents, 48 largest progeny and 50 smallest progeny, was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq). With low coverage data, 1956.53 million clean reads and 86,342 candidate RAD loci were generated. A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM), with 14 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 1.41 cM. The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified using the single-marker analysis, nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test. Parameters included three for shell height, six for shell length, five for shell width, four for hinge length, 11 for total weight, eight for soft tissue weight and two for shell weight. The QTL peak loci for shell height, shell length and shell weight were all located in linkage group 6. The genotype frequencies of most QTL peak loci showed significant differences between the large subpopulation and the small subpopulation (P<0.05). These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-Seq as a tool for generation of QTL-targeted and genome-wide marker data in the non-model animal, P. fucata, and its possible utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  2. Identification of QTL in soybean underlying resistance to herbivory by Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica, Newman).

    PubMed

    Yesudas, C R; Sharma, H; Lightfoot, D A

    2010-07-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was one of the most important legume crops in the world in 2010. Japanese beetles (JB; Popillia japonica, Newman) in the US were an introduced and potentially damaging insect pest for soybean. JBs are likely to spread across the US if global warming occurs. Resistance to JB in soybean was previously reported only in plant introductions. The aims here were to identify loci underlying resistance to JB herbivory in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Essex x Forrest cultivars (EF94) and to correlate those with loci with factors that confer insect resistance in soybean cultivars. The RIL population was used to map 413 markers, 238 satellite markers and 177 other DNA markers. Field data were from two environments over 2 years. Pest severity (PS) measured defoliation on a 0-9 scale. Pest incidence (PI) was the percentage of plants within each RIL with beetles on them. Antibiosis and antixenosis data were from feeding assays with detached leaves in petri plates. Five QTL were detected for the mean PS field trait (16% < R (2) < 27%). The loci were within the intervals Satt632-A2D8 on linkage group (LG) A2 (chromosome 8); Satt583-Satt415 on LG B1 (11); Satt009-Satt530 on LG N (3); and close to two markers OB02_140 (LG E; 20 cM from Satt572) and OZ15_150 LG (19 cM from Satt291 C2). Two QTL were detected for the mean PI field trait (16% < R (2) < 18%) close to Satt385 on LG A1 and Satt440 on LG I. The no choice feeding studies detected three QTL that were significant; two for antixenosis (22% < R (2) < 24%) between Satt632-A2D8 on LG A2 (8) and Sat_039-Satt160 on LG F (13); and a major locus effect (R (2) = 54%) for antibiosis on LG D2 (17) between Satt464-Satt488. Therefore, loci underlying resistance to JB herbivory were a mixture of major and minor gene effects. Some loci were within regions underlying resistance to soybean cyst nematode (LGs A2 and I) and root knot nematode (LG F) but not other major loci underlying

  3. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

    PubMed

    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI < 10). Seventeen and three RILs infected with Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively, had mean adjusted cyst counts of zero. Unique and novel QTL, which derived resistance from G. soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of

  4. QTL mapping of partial resistance in winter wheat to Stagonospora nodorum blotch.

    PubMed

    Czembor, Pawel C; Arseniuk, Edward; Czaplicki, Andrzej; Song, Qijiang; Cregan, Perry B; Ueng, Peter P

    2003-08-01

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch is an important foliar and glume disease in cereals. Inheritance of resistance in wheat appears to be quantitative. To date, breeding of partially resistant cultivars has been the only effective way to combat this pathogen. The partial resistance components, namely length of incubation period, disease severity, and length of latent period, were evaluated on a population of doubled haploids derived from a cross between the partially resistant Triticum aestivum 'Liwilla' and susceptible Triticum aestivum 'Begra'. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment and the fifth leaf was examined. Molecular analyses were based on bulked segregant analyses using 240 microsatellite markers. Four QTLs were significantly associated with partial resistance components and were located on chromosomes 2B, 3B, 5B, and 5D. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 14 to 21% for incubation period, from 16 to 37% for disease severity, and from 13 to 28% for latent period,

  5. QTL analysis of cadmium and zinc accumulation in the heavy metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Deniau, A X; Pieper, B; Ten Bookum, W M; Lindhout, P; Aarts, M G M; Schat, H

    2006-09-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (Tc; 2n = 14) is a natural Zn, Cd and Ni hyperaccumulator species belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It shares 88% DNA identity in the coding regions with Arabidopsis thaliana (At) (Rigola et al. 2006). Although the physiology of heavy metal (hyper)accumulation has been intensively studied, the molecular genetics are still largely unexplored. We address this topic by constructing a genetic map based on AFLP markers and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). To establish a genetic map, an F(2) population of 129 individuals was generated from a cross between a plant from a Pb/Cd/Zn-contaminated site near La Calamine, Belgium, and a plant from a comparable site near Ganges (GA), France. These two accessions show different degrees of Zn and, particularly, Cd accumulation. We analyzed 181 AFLP markers (of which 4 co-dominant) and 13 co-dominant EST sequences-based markers and mapped them to seven linkage groups (LGs), presumably corresponding to the seven chromosomes of T. caerulescens. The total length of the genetic map is 496 cM with an average density of one marker every 2.5 cM. This map was used for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping in the F(2). For Zn as well as Cd concentration in root we mapped two QTLs. Three QTLs and one QTL were mapped for Zn and Cd concentration in shoot, respectively. These QTLs explain 23.8-60.4% of the total variance of the traits measured. We found only one common locus (LG6) for Zn and Cd (concentration in root) and one common locus for shoot and root concentrations of Zn (LG1) and of Cd (LG3). For all QTLs, the GA allele increased the trait value except for two QTLs for Zn accumulation in shoot (LG1 and LG4) and one for Zn concentration in root (LG1). PMID:16850314

  6. Mapping and characterization of FLC homologs and QTL analysis of flowering time in Brassica oleracea.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Sakamoto, K; Kikuchi, R; Saito, A; Togashi, E; Kuginuki, Y; Matsumoto, S; Hirai, M

    2007-02-01

    The FLC gene product is an inhibitor of flowering in Arabidopsis. FLC homologs in Brassica species are thought to control vernalization. We cloned four FLC homologs (BoFLCs) from Brassica oleracea. Three of these, BoFLC1, BoFLC3 and BoFLC5, have been previously characterized. The fourth novel sequence displayed 98% sequence homology to the previously identified gene BoFLC4, but also showed 91% homology to BrFLC2 from Brassica rapa. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this clone belongs to the FLC2 clade. Therefore, we designated this gene BoFLC2. Based on the segregation of RFLP, SRAP, CAPS, SSR and AFLP loci, a detailed linkage map of B. oleracea was constructed in the F(2) progeny obtained from a cross of B. oleracea cv. Green Comet (broccoli; non-vernalization type) and B. oleracea cv. Reiho (cabbage; vernalization type), which covered 540 cM, 9 major linkage groups. Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling flowering time were detected. BoFLC1, BoFLC3 and BoFLC5 were not linked to the QTLs controlling flowering time. However, the largest QTL effect was located in the region where BoFLC2 was mapped. Genotyping of F(2 )plants at the BoFLC2 locus showed that most of the early flowering plants were homozygotes of BoFLC-GC, whereas most of the late- and non-flowering plants were homozygotes of BoFLC-Rei. The BoFLC2 homologs present in plants of the non-vernalization type were non-functional, due to a frameshift in exon 4. Moreover, duplications and deletions of BoFLC2 were detected in broccoli and a rapid cycling line, respectively. These results suggest that BoFLC2 contributes to the control of flowering time in B. oleracea.

  7. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection for Resistance to White Tip Disease in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Gao, Cunyi; Du, Linlin; Feng, Hui; Wang, Lijiao; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Wei, Lihui; Fan, Yongjian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of resistance to white tip disease (WTDR) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was analyzed with an artificial inoculation test in a segregating population derived from the cross between Tetep, a highly resistant variety that was identified in a previous study, and a susceptible cultivar. Three resistance-associated traits, including the number of Aphelenchoides besseyi (A. besseyi) individuals in 100 grains (NA), the loss rate of panicle weight (LRPW) and the loss rate of the total grains per panicle (LRGPP) were analyzed for the detection of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in the population after construction of a genetic map. Six QTLs distributed on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9 were mapped. qNA3 and qNA9, conferring reproduction number of A. besseyi in the panicle, accounted for 16.91% and 12.54% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. qDRPW5a and qDRPW5b, associated with yield loss, were located at two adjacent marker intervals on chromosome 5 and explained 14.15% and 14.59% of the total phenotypic variation and possessed LOD values of 3.40 and 3.39, respectively. qDRPW9 was considered as a minor QTL and only explained 1.02% of the phenotypic variation. qLRGPP5 contributed to the loss in the number of grains and explained 10.91% of the phenotypic variation. This study provides useful information for the breeding of resistant cultivars against white tip disease in rice. PMID:25162680

  8. [The construction of the genetic map and QTL locating analysis on chromosome 2 in swine].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan-Chun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zheng, Rong; Yu, Li; Su, Yu-Hong; Liu, Gui-Lan

    2002-01-01

    The study constructed the genetic linkage map of porcine chromosome 2 and further analysis of quantitative trait loci was conducted. The results of the study demonstrated that all 7 microsatellite loci we chose were with relatively high polymorphism, and its polymorphic information content was from 0.40182 to 0.58477. The genetic map we constructed for resource family was 152.9 cM in length, with the order of all loci highly consistent with the USDA map. All marker intervals were longer than USDA map with the interval between marker Sw2516 and Sw1201 as an exception. Furthermore, we conducted QTLs locating analysis by combining the genetic map with the phenotypic data. QTLs affecting lively estimated traits such as lean meat percentage, were located at 60-65 cM on chromosome 2, while QTLs for the height and marbling of Longissmus dorsi muscle were located at 20 cM and 55 cM, respectively Among them, QTL for estimated lean meat percentage was significant at chromosome-wise level (P < 0.01) and was responsible for 21.55% of the phenotypic variance. QTLs for the height and marbling of Longissmus dorsi muscle were responsible for 10.12% and 10.97% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The additive and dominance effect of lively estimated traits were in the inverse tendency, while the QTL for the height of Longissmus dorsi muscle had its additive and dominance effect in the same tendency and was with advantageous allele in Large White. The QTLs we detected had relatively large effect on phenotype and built a basis for molecular marker assisted selection and breeding.

  9. QTL analysis of popping fold and the consistency of QTLs under two environments in popcorn.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ling; Dong, Yong-Bin; Niu, Su-Zhen

    2006-08-01

    Popping fold (PF) is the most important quality trait in popcorn. In this study, a total of 259 F2:3 families, derived from the cross between a dent corn inbred Dan232 and a popcorn inbred N04, were evaluated for their popping folds in replicated experiments under two environments. Of 613 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs screened, 183 pairs were selected to construct a genetic linkage map with the genetic distance of 1,762.2 cM (centimorgan) and on average 9.63 cM every marker. Quantative trait loci (QTL) were identified, and their genetic effects were estimated using CIM (composite interval mapping) method. The interactions among QTLs detected were calculated using MIM (multiple interval mapping) method. In all, 22 QTLs were detected, and only 5 of them were common under two environments. Contribution to phenotypic variation of a single QTL varied from 3.07% to 12.84%, and total contributions of all QTLs under two environments were 66.46% and 51.90%, respectively. Three QTLs (qPF-6-1, qPF-8-1 and qPF-1-3) with more than 10% contributions were observed. The additive effects were larger than dominant effects for most QTLs. The amount of QTLs showing additive, partially dominant, dominant and over-dominant effects were 4, 5, 0, 2 in spring sowing and 2, 5, 2, 2 in summer sowing, respectively. There were only 2.60% pairs of QTLs or maker intervals expressing AA, DA or DD interactions. PMID:16939007

  10. Mapping QTL for popping expansion volume in popcorn with simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-J; Bernardo, R; Ohm, H W

    2003-02-01

    Popping expansion volume is the most important quality trait in popcorn ( Zea mays L.), but its genetics is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for popping expansion volume in a popcorn x dent corn cross, and to compare the predicted efficiencies of phenotypic selection, marker-based selection, and marker-assisted selection for popping expansion volume. Of 259 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs screened, 83 pairs were polymorphic between the H123 (dent corn) and AG19 (popcorn) parental inbreds. Popping test data were obtained for 160 S(1) families developed from the [AG19(H123 x AG19)] BC(1) population. The heritability ( h(2)) for popping expansion volume on an S(1) family mean basis was 0.73. The presence of the gametophyte factor Ga1(s) in popcorn complicates the analysis of popcorn x dent corn crosses. But, from a practical perspective, the linkage between a favorable QTL allele and Ga1(s) in popcorn will lead to selection for the favorable QTL allele. Four QTLs, on chromosomes 1S, 3S, 5S and 5L, jointly explained 45% of the phenotypic variation. Marker-based selection for popping expansion volume would require less time and work than phenotypic selection. But due to the high h(2) of popping expansion volume, marker-based selection was predicted to be only 92% as efficient as phenotypic selection. Marker-assisted selection, which comprises index selection on phenotypic and marker scores, was predicted to be 106% as efficient as phenotypic selection. Overall, our results suggest that phenotypic selection will remain the preferred method for selection in popcorn x dent corn crosses. PMID:12589541

  11. [The construction of the genetic map and QTL locating analysis on chromosome 2 in swine].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan-Chun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zheng, Rong; Yu, Li; Su, Yu-Hong; Liu, Gui-Lan

    2002-01-01

    The study constructed the genetic linkage map of porcine chromosome 2 and further analysis of quantitative trait loci was conducted. The results of the study demonstrated that all 7 microsatellite loci we chose were with relatively high polymorphism, and its polymorphic information content was from 0.40182 to 0.58477. The genetic map we constructed for resource family was 152.9 cM in length, with the order of all loci highly consistent with the USDA map. All marker intervals were longer than USDA map with the interval between marker Sw2516 and Sw1201 as an exception. Furthermore, we conducted QTLs locating analysis by combining the genetic map with the phenotypic data. QTLs affecting lively estimated traits such as lean meat percentage, were located at 60-65 cM on chromosome 2, while QTLs for the height and marbling of Longissmus dorsi muscle were located at 20 cM and 55 cM, respectively Among them, QTL for estimated lean meat percentage was significant at chromosome-wise level (P < 0.01) and was responsible for 21.55% of the phenotypic variance. QTLs for the height and marbling of Longissmus dorsi muscle were responsible for 10.12% and 10.97% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. The additive and dominance effect of lively estimated traits were in the inverse tendency, while the QTL for the height of Longissmus dorsi muscle had its additive and dominance effect in the same tendency and was with advantageous allele in Large White. The QTLs we detected had relatively large effect on phenotype and built a basis for molecular marker assisted selection and breeding. PMID:12645259

  12. Linkage Analysis and QTL Mapping Using SNP Dosage Data in a Tetraploid Potato Mapping Population

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Christine A.; McLean, Karen; Bryan, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    New sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled researchers to generate high density SNP genotype data for mapping populations. In polyploid species, SNP data usually contain a new type of information, the allele dosage, which is not used by current methodologies for linkage analysis and QTL mapping. Here we extend existing methodology to use dosage data on SNPs in an autotetraploid mapping population. The SNP dosages are inferred from allele intensity ratios using normal mixture models. The steps of the linkage analysis (testing for distorted segregation, clustering SNPs, calculation of recombination fractions and LOD scores, ordering of SNPs and inference of parental phase) are extended to use the dosage information. For QTL analysis, the probability of each possible offspring genotype is inferred at a grid of locations along the chromosome from the ordered parental genotypes and phases and the offspring dosages. A normal mixture model is then used to relate trait values to the offspring genotypes and to identify the most likely locations for QTLs. These methods are applied to analyse a tetraploid potato mapping population of parents and 190 offspring, genotyped using an Infinium 8300 Potato SNP Array. Linkage maps for each of the 12 chromosomes are constructed. The allele intensity ratios are mapped as quantitative traits to check that their position and phase agrees with that of the corresponding SNP. This analysis confirms most SNP positions, and eliminates some problem SNPs to give high-density maps for each chromosome, with between 74 and 152 SNPs mapped and between 100 and 300 further SNPs allocated to approximate bins. Low numbers of double reduction products were detected. Overall 3839 of the 5378 polymorphic SNPs can be assigned putative genetic locations. This methodology can be applied to construct high-density linkage maps in any autotetraploid species, and could also be extended to higher autopolyploids. PMID:23704960

  13. QTL mapping of agronomic traits in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc) Trotter

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Kyung; Graznak, Elizabeth; Breseghello, Flavio; Tefera, Hailu; Sorrells, Mark E

    2007-01-01

    Background Tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] is the major cereal crop in Ethiopia. Tef is an allotetraploid with a base chromosome number of 10 (2n = 4× = 40) and a genome size of 730 Mbp. The goal of this study was to identify agronomically important quantitative trait loci (QTL) using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from an inter-specific cross between E. tef and E. pilosa (30-5). Results Twenty-two yield-related and morphological traits were assessed across eight different locations in Ethiopia during the growing seasons of 1999 and 2000. Using composite interval mapping and a linkage map incorporating 192 loci, 99 QTLs were identified on 15 of the 21 linkage groups for 19 traits. Twelve QTLs on nine linkage groups were identified for grain yield. Clusters of more than five QTLs for various traits were identified on seven linkage groups. The largest cluster (10 QTLs) was identified on linkage group 8; eight of these QTLs were for yield or yield components, suggesting linkage or pleotrophic effects of loci. There were 15 two-way interactions of loci to detect potential epistasis identified and 75% of the interactions were derived from yield and shoot biomass. Thirty-one percent of the QTLs were observed in multiple environments; two yield QTLs were consistent across all agro-ecology zones. For 29.3% of the QTLs, the alleles from E. pilosa (30-5) had a beneficial effect. Conclusion The extensive QTL data generated for tef in this study will provide a basis for initiating molecular breeding to improve agronomic traits in this staple food crop for the people of Ethiopia. PMID:17565675

  14. Genetic mapping and identification of QTL for earliness in the globe artichoke/cultivated cardoon complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Asteraceae species Cynara cardunculus (2n = 2x = 34) includes the two fully cross-compatible domesticated taxa globe artichoke (var. scolymus L.) and cultivated cardoon (var. altilis DC). As both are out-pollinators and suffer from marked inbreeding depression, linkage analysis has focussed on the use of a two way pseudo-test cross approach. Results A set of 172 microsatellite (SSR) loci derived from expressed sequence tag DNA sequence were integrated into the reference C. cardunculus genetic maps, based on segregation among the F1 progeny of a cross between a globe artichoke and a cultivated cardoon. The resulting maps each detected 17 major linkage groups, corresponding to the species’ haploid chromosome number. A consensus map based on 66 co-dominant shared loci (64 SSRs and two SNPs) assembled 694 loci, with a mean inter-marker spacing of 2.5 cM. When the maps were used to elucidate the pattern of inheritance of head production earliness, a key commercial trait, seven regions were shown to harbour relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL). Together, these QTL accounted for up to 74% of the overall phenotypic variance. Conclusion The newly developed consensus as well as the parental genetic maps can accelerate the process of tagging and eventually isolating the genes underlying earliness in both the domesticated C. cardunculus forms. The largest single effect mapped to the same linkage group in each parental maps, and explained about one half of the phenotypic variance, thus representing a good candidate for marker assisted selection. PMID:22621324

  15. Detection and validation of QTL affecting bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. Using microsatellites genome scan we have previously detected significant and suggestive QTL with major effects on the phenotypic variation of survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum...

  16. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits.

    PubMed

    Bert, P-F; Jouan, I; Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D; Serre, F; Philippon, J; Nicolas, P; Vear, F

    2003-06-01

    Seed weight and oil content are important properties of cultivated sunflower under complex genetic and environmental control, and associated with morphological and developmental characteristics such as plant height or flowering dates. Using a genetic map with 290 markers for a cross between two inbred sunflower lines and 2 years of observations on F3 families, QTL controlling seed weight, oil content, plant height, plant lodging, flowering dates, maturity dates and delay from flowering to maturity were detected. QTL detected were compared between the F2 and F3 generations and between the 2 years of testing for the F3 families in 1997 and 1999. Some of the QTL controlling seed weight overlapped with those controlling oil content. Several other co-localisations of QTL controlling developmental or morphological characteristics were observed and the relationships between the traits were also shown by correlation analyses. The relationships between all these traits and with resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are discussed.

  17. Integrated Metabolo-Transcriptomics Reveals Fusarium Head Blight Candidate Resistance Genes in Wheat QTL-Fhb2

    PubMed Central

    Dhokane, Dhananjay; Karre, Shailesh; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C.; McCartney, Curt

    2016-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars. Though more than 100 QTLs imparting FHB resistance have been reported, none discovered the specific genes localized within the QTL region, nor the underlying mecha