Science.gov

Sample records for advanced batteries determination

  1. Advanced battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R.B.; McWilliams, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In order to promote national security by ensuring that the United States has an adequate supply of safe, assured, affordable, and environmentally acceptable energy, the Storage Batteries Division at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, is responsible for engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for energy applications. This effort is conducted within the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing (ETD) Lead center, whose activities are coordinated by staff within the Storage Batteries Division. The ETD Project, directed by SNL, is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Systems Research, Energy Storage and Distribution Division (DOE/OESD). SNL is also responsible for technical management of the Electric Vehicle Advanced Battery Systems (EV-ABS) Development Project, which is supported by the US Department Of Energy's Office of Transportation Systems (OTS). The ETD Project is operated in conjunction with the Technology Base Research (TBR) Project, which is under the direction of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Together these two projects seek to: establish the scientific feasibility of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems, and conduct the initial engineering development on systems suitable for mobile and stationary commercial applications. 6 figs.

  2. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.; DeLuca, W.H.; Vissers, D.R. )

    1994-11-01

    The idea of battery-powered vehicles is an old one that took on new importance during the oil crisis of 1973 and after California passed laws requiring vehicles that would produce no emissions (so-called zero-emission vehicles). In this overview of battery technologies, the authors review the major existing or near-term systems as well as advanced systems being developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, this overview does not cover all the advanced batteries being developed currently throughout the world. Comparative characteristics for the following batteries are given: lead-acid; nickel/cadmium; nickel/iron; nickel/metal hydride; zinc/bromine; sodium/sulfur; sodium/nickel chloride; zinc/air; lithium/iron sulfide; and lithium-polymer.

  3. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  4. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.

  5. Determination of the lead-acid battery's dynamic response using Butler-Volmer equation for advanced battery management systems in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Budde-Meiwes, Heide; Kowal, Julia; Sarfert, Christel; Schoch, Eberhard; Königsmann, Martin; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hybrid vehicles (μH) are currently starting to dominate the European market and seize constantly growing share of other leading markets in the world. On the one hand, the additional functionality of μH reduces the CO2 emissions and improves the fuel economy, but, on the other hand, the additional stress imposed on the lead-acid battery reduces significantly its expected service life in comparison to conventional vehicles. Because of that μH require highly accurate battery state detection solutions. They are necessary to ensure the vehicle reliability requirements, prolong service life and reduce warranty costs. This paper presents an electrical model based on Butler-Volmer equation. The main novelty of the presented approach is its ability to predict accurately dynamic response of a battery considering a wide range of discharge current rates, state-of-charges and temperatures. Presented approach is fully implementable and adaptable in state-of-the-art low-cost platforms. Additionally, shown results indicate that it is applicable as a supporting tool for state-of-charge and state-of-health estimation and scalable for the different battery technologies and sizes. Validation using both static pulses and dynamic driving profile resulted in average absolute error of 124 mV regarding cranking current rate of 800 A respectively.

  6. Advanced battery development in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Shimotake, H.; Nelson, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Batteries for load-leveling and electric-vehicle applications are under development in the United States. The most difficult requirements for these applications are long cycle life, high power density, and low cost. Steady progress is being made in developing advanced batteries. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring development of sodium-sulfur, zinc-bromine, zinc-chloride, and aluminum-air batteries. Exploratory research is being conducted on a variety of cell systems, such as lithium-metal sulfide, alkali metal-sulfur, glass electrolyte, and low-temperature organic electrolyte. This paper reviews the US government effort in the development of advanced batteries and discusses some of the key systems.

  7. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  8. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results for Li-Al/FeS2 cells and bipolar battery design have shown the possibility of achieving high specific energy (210 Wh/kg) and high specific power (239 W/kg) at the cell level for an electric vehicle application. Outstanding performance is also projected for sodium/metal chloride cells having large electrolyte areas and thin positive electrodes.

  9. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.

  10. Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air. PMID:24926965

  11. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  12. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  13. Recent advances in lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Shaw, Leon L.

    2014-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg-1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li-S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li-S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li-S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li-S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li-S batteries in the near future.

  14. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  15. Advanced nickel-hydrogen spacecraft battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Standlee, D. J.; Grindstaff, B. K.

    1994-02-01

    Eagle-Picher currently has several advanced nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) cell component and battery designs under development including common pressure vessel (CPV), single pressure vessel (SPV), and dependent pressure vessel (DPV) designs. A CPV NiH2 battery, utilizing low-cost 64 mm (2.5 in.) cell diameter technology, has been designed and built for multiple smallsat programs, including the TUBSAT B spacecraft which is currently scheduled (24 Nov. 93) for launch aboard a Russian Proton rocket. An advanced 90 mm (3.5 in.) NiH2 cell design is currently being manufactured for the Space Station Freedom program. Prototype 254 mm (10 in.) diameter SPV batteries are currently under construction and initial boilerplate testing has shown excellent results. NiH2 cycle life testing is being continued at Eagle-Picher and IPV cells have currently completed more than 89,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD, 49,000 real-time LEO cycles at 30 percent DOD, 37,800 cycles under a real-time LEO profile, 30 eclipse seasons in accelerated GEO, and 6 eclipse seasons in real-time GEO testing at 75 percent DOD maximum. Nickel-metal hydride battery development is continuing for both aerospace and electric vehicle applications. Eagle-Picher has also developed an extensive range of battery evaluation, test, and analysis (BETA) measurement and control equipment and software, based on Hewlett-Packard computerized data acquisition/control hardware.

  16. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  17. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  18. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  19. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications. PMID:27268064

  20. Multilayer Approach for Advanced Hybrid Lithium Battery.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-06-28

    Conventional intercalated rechargeable batteries have shown their capacity limit, and the development of an alternative battery system with higher capacity is strongly needed for sustainable electrical vehicles and hand-held devices. Herein, we introduce a feasible and scalable multilayer approach to fabricate a promising hybrid lithium battery with superior capacity and multivoltage plateaus. A sulfur-rich electrode (90 wt % S) is covered by a dual layer of graphite/Li4Ti5O12, where the active materials S and Li4Ti5O12 can both take part in redox reactions and thus deliver a high capacity of 572 mAh gcathode(-1) (vs the total mass of electrode) or 1866 mAh gs(-1) (vs the mass of sulfur) at 0.1C (with the definition of 1C = 1675 mA gs(-1)). The battery shows unique voltage platforms at 2.35 and 2.1 V, contributed from S, and 1.55 V from Li4Ti5O12. A high rate capability of 566 mAh gcathode(-1) at 0.25C and 376 mAh gcathode(-1) at 1C with durable cycle ability over 100 cycles can be achieved. Operando Raman and electron microscope analysis confirm that the graphite/Li4Ti5O12 layer slows the dissolution/migration of polysulfides, thereby giving rise to a higher sulfur utilization and a slower capacity decay. This advanced hybrid battery with a multilayer concept for marrying different voltage plateaus from various electrode materials opens a way of providing tunable capacity and multiple voltage platforms for energy device applications.

  1. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  2. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. Fifty-five battery experts from government, industry and universities participated in the survey by providing their opinions on the use of several battery types for six space missions, and their predictions of likely technological advances that would impact the development of these batteries. The results of the survey predict that only four battery types are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the safety and reliability requirements for space applications within the next 15 years.

  3. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. F.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Christianson, C. C.; Marr, J. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  4. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  5. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  6. Reliability modelling system for analysis of advanced battery technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, C. H.; Hostick, C. J.; Nakaoka, R. K.

    1985-05-01

    Key considerations in evaluating the reliability of advanced battery technologies include the impact of cell failures on battery performance and cost. Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed interactive microcomputer based simulation models to help battery developers use cell reliability data to calculate the expected performance of new battery technologies. Key benefits of this model include its capability to estimate the effect of cell failures upon: (1) battery system discharge performance, (2) system cycle life, and (3) system economic performance (tradeoffs between capital investment and lifetime operating costs).

  7. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    application of analytical, inorganic and organic chemistry to unravel some of the puzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an extended chapter on the crucial role of the surface films on electrodes which provides an excellent introduction to the state of thinking in this field. This work is a tour de force in the application of surface analytical techniques and clearly demonstrates some of the shortcomings in the mechanism development. Several other chapters also provide ample evidence of opportunities for mechanistic determination and the chemist may be left with a rather alarming impression of a very unstable electrolyte system. However, the chapter on surface films will sound familiar to any chemist who has suffered the vagaries of a recalcitrant Grignard reaction. Since the operation of these surface films is of such importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that their formation appears to be left to serendipity. Clearly, there are great opportunities here for imaginative chemists and engineers.

  8. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  9. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Carla

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  10. Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery: Advanced Thermo-Adsorptive Battery Climate Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a low-cost, compact, high-capacity, advanced thermoadsorptive battery (ATB) for effective climate control of EVs. The ATB provides both heating and cooling by taking advantage of the materials’ ability to adsorb a significant amount of water. This efficient battery system design could offer up as much as a 30% increase in driving range compared to current EV climate control technology. The ATB provides high-capacity thermal storage with little-to-no electrical power consumption. The ATB is also looking to explore the possibility of shifting peak electricity loads for cooling and heating in a variety of other applications, including commercial and residential buildings, data centers, and telecom facilities.

  11. Recent developments and likely advances in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Andrew; Howard, Wilmont

    Advances in lithium-ion battery technology since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Amsterdam in September 2003 are reviewed. Cost and safety are still seen as important factors limiting further expansion of application of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium bis-oxalato borate electolyte salt and lithium iron phosphate cathode material are being actively investigated.

  12. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed.

  13. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  14. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium-air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium-air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium-air batteries.

  15. Advances in understanding mechanisms underpinning lithium–air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurbach, Doron; McCloskey, Bryan D.; Nazar, Linda F.; Bruce, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The rechargeable lithium–air battery has the highest theoretical specific energy of any rechargeable battery and could transform energy storage if a practical device could be realized. At the fundamental level, little was known about the reactions and processes that take place in the battery, representing a significant barrier to progress. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the chemistry and electrochemistry that govern the operation of the lithium–air battery, especially the reactions at the cathode. The mechanisms of O2 reduction to Li2O2 on discharge and the reverse process on charge are discussed in detail, as are their consequences for the rate and capacity of the battery. The various parasitic reactions involving the cathode and electrolyte during discharge and charge are also considered. We also provide views on understanding the stability of the cathode and electrolyte and examine design principles for better lithium–air batteries.

  16. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  17. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  18. Thermal batteries - Recent advances and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, K. K.; Laakso, E. R.

    A development status evaluation is presented for lithium aluminum-iron disulfide thermal battery systems employing inorganic salt eutectic electrolytes. A performance comparison is conducted between an LiAl/FeS2 battery and a similarly constructed Ca/CaCrO4 battery; it is found that the former is superior in virtue of both greater service life and greater energy density; energy densities of LiAl/FeS2 cells will with further development reach an energy density four times greater than that of the Ca/CaCrO4 type. In addition, LiAl/FeS2 batteries exhibit little or no electrical noise under low drain.

  19. Electric Ground Support Equipment Advanced Battery Technology Demonstration Project at the Ontario Airport

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Jeremy Diez; Jeffrey Wishart; James Francfort

    2013-07-01

    The intent of the electric Ground Support Equipment (eGSE) demonstration is to evaluate the day-to-day vehicle performance of electric baggage tractors using two advanced battery technologies to demonstrate possible replacements for the flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries utilized throughout the industry. These advanced battery technologies have the potential to resolve barriers to the widespread adoption of eGSE deployment. Validation testing had not previously been performed within fleet operations to determine if the performance of current advanced batteries is sufficient to withstand the duty cycle of electric baggage tractors. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. This report summarizes the work performed and data accumulated during this demonstration in an effort to validate the capabilities of advanced battery technologies. The demonstration project also grew the relationship with Southwest Airlines (SWA), our demonstration partner at Ontario International Airport (ONT), located in Ontario, California. The results of this study have encouraged a proposal for a future demonstration project with SWA.

  20. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  1. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  2. Review and recent advances in battery health monitoring and prognostics technologies for electric vehicle (EV) safety and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezvanizaniani, Seyed Mohammad; Liu, Zongchang; Chen, Yan; Lee, Jay

    2014-06-01

    As hybrid and electric vehicle technologies continue to advance, car manufacturers have begun to employ lithium ion batteries as the electrical energy storage device of choice for use in existing and future vehicles. However, to ensure batteries are reliable, efficient, and capable of delivering power and energy when required, an accurate determination of battery performance, health, and life prediction is necessary. This paper provides a review of battery prognostics and health management (PHM) techniques, with a focus on major unmet needs in this area for battery manufacturers, car designers, and electric vehicle drivers. A number of approaches are presented that have been developed to monitor battery health status and performance, as well as the evolution of prognostics modeling methods. The goal of this review is to render feasible and cost effective solutions for dealing with battery life issues under dynamic operating conditions.

  3. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  4. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  5. Hughes advanced nickel-cadmium batteries: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. Sam

    1991-01-01

    After delivering a significant data base on boilerplate and prototype advanced nickel cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cells, Hughes decided to start using the Advanced Ni/Cd batteries on several of their flight programs. The advanced cell can been operated at 80 percent depth of discharge (DOD) for more than 10 years, and possibly 15 years, in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) applications. This cell offers an important weight saving over the standard Ni/Cd cell that is usually only operated at 50 to 60 percent DOD in GEO applications. The negative and positive electrodes are manufactured using electrochemical deposition methods which reduce the sinter corrosion problems encountered by the chemical deposition process used in the standard cells. The degradable nylon separators used in standard cells was replaced by polymer impregnated Zirconia separators.

  6. A survey of advanced battery systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, Alan I.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey on advanced secondary battery systems for space applications are presented. The objectives were: to identify advanced battery systems capable of meeting the requirements of various types of space missions, with significant advantages over currently available batteries, to obtain an accurate estimate of the anticipated improvements of these advanced systems, and to obtain a consensus for the selection of systems most likely to yield the desired improvements. Few advanced systems are likely to exceed a specific energy of 150 Wh/kg and meet the additional requirements of safety and reliability within the next 15 years. The few that have this potential are: (1) regenerative fuel cells, both alkaline and solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) types for large power systems; (2) lithium-intercalatable cathodes, particularly the metal ozides intercalatable cathodes (MnO2 or CoO2), with applications limited to small spacecrafts requiring limited cycle life and low power levels; (3) lithium molten salt systems (e.g., LiAl-FeS2); and (4) Na/beta Alumina/Sulfur or metal chlorides cells. Likely technological advances that would enhance the performance of all the above systems are also identified, in particular: improved bifunctional oxygen electrodes; improved manufacturing technology for thin film lithium electrodes in combination with polymeric electrolytes; improved seals for the lithium molten salt cells; and improved ceramics for sodium/solid electrolyte cells.

  7. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed reviewmore » of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.« less

  8. Advanced analytical electron microscopy for alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Danna; Ma, Cheng; Meng, Ying Shirley; More, Karren; Chi, Miaofang

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are a leading candidate for electric vehicle and smart grid applications. However, further optimizations of the energy/power density, coulombic efficiency and cycle life are still needed, and this requires a thorough understanding of the dynamic evolution of each component and their synergistic behaviors during battery operation. With the capability of resolving the structure and chemistry at an atomic resolution, advanced analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) is an ideal technique for this task. The present review paper focuses on recent contributions of this important technique to the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes of battery materials. A detailed review of both static (ex situ) and real-time (in situ) studies will be given, and issues that still need to be addressed will be discussed.

  9. Space Station Freedom advanced photovoltaics and battery technology development planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Cox, Spruce M.; Gates, Mark T.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station Freedom (SSF) usable electrical power is planned to be built up incrementally during assembly phase to a peak of 75 kW end-of-life (EOL) shortly after Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) is achieved in 1999. This power will be provided by planar silicon (Si) arrays and nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries. The need for power is expected to grow from 75 kW to as much as 150 kW EOL during the evolutionary phase of SSF, with initial increases beginning as early as 2002. Providing this additional power with current technology may not be as cost effective as using advanced technology arrays and batteries expected to develop prior to this evolutionary phase. A six-month study sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and conducted by Boeing Defense and Space Group was initiated in Aug. 1991. The purpose of the study was to prepare technology development plans for cost effective advanced photovoltaic (PV) and battery technologies with application to SSF growth, SSF upgrade after its arrays and batteries reach the end of their design lives, and other low Earth orbit (LEO) platforms. Study scope was limited to information available in the literature, informal industry contacts, and key representatives from NASA and Boeing involved in PV and battery research and development. Ten battery and 32 PV technologies were examined and their performance estimated for SSF application. Promising technologies were identified based on performance and development risk. Rough order of magnitude cost estimates were prepared for development, fabrication, launch, and operation. Roadmaps were generated describing key issues and development paths for maturing these technologies with focus on SSF application.

  10. Advanced Redox Flow Batteries for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Xia, Guanguang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-03-19

    This report describes the status of the advanced redox flow battery research being performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Storage Systems Program. The Quarter 1 of FY2012 Milestone was completed on time. The milestone entails completion of evaluation and optimization of single cell components for the two advanced redox flow battery electrolyte chemistries recently developed at the lab, the all vanadium (V) mixed acid and V-Fe mixed acid solutions. All the single cell components to be used in future kW-scale stacks have been identified and optimized in this quarter, which include solution electrolyte, membrane or separator; carbon felt electrode and bi-polar plate. Varied electrochemical, chemical and physical evaluations were carried out to assist the component screening and optimization. The mechanisms of the battery capacity fading behavior for the all vanadium redox flow and the Fe/V battery were discovered, which allowed us to optimize the related cell operation parameters and continuously operate the system for more than three months without any capacity decay.

  11. NASA 50 amp hour nickel cadmium battery waste heat determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, V. C.

    1980-01-01

    A process for determining the waste heat generated in a 50-ampere-hour, nickel cadmium battery as a function of the discharge rate is described and results are discussed. The technique involved is essentially calibration of the battery as a heat transfer rate calorimeter. The tests are run at three different levels of battery activity, one at 40-watts of waste heat generated, one at 60, and one at 100. Battery inefficiency ranges from 14 to 18 percent at discharge rates of 284 to 588 watts, respectively and top-of-cell temperatures of 20 C.

  12. Recent advances in NiMH battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetcenko, M. A.; Ovshinsky, S. R.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Koch, J.; Zallen, A.; Mays, W.; Ouchi, T.

    Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) is a commercially important rechargeable battery technology for both consumer and industrial applications due to design flexibility, excellent energy and power, environmental acceptability and cost. [1] From the initial product introduction in 1991 of cylindrical cells having an energy of 54 Wh kg -1, today's small consumer cells have a specific energy over 100 Wh kg -1. Numerous licensed manufacturers produce a myriad of NiMH products ranging from 30 mAh button cells to a wide variety of consumer cylindrical products, prismatic cells up to 250 Ah for electric buses and 6 Ah multicell modules for hybrid electric vehicles. Power has increased from under 200 to 1200 W kg -1 commercially and up to 2000 W kg -1 at a development level [2]. Early NiMH batteries had limited operating temperatures while today's batteries can provide excellent power at cold temperatures of -30 °C and provide over 90% capacity at 70 °C. Many of these product performance advances are a result of innovations to the metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials. We will report on some of these key material advances which provide today's NiMH performance and new materials to allow higher energy, power and significant cost reduction.

  13. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  14. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  15. Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.

  16. Rechargeable batteries: advances since 1977. [Collection of US patents

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is based on US patents (including DOE patents) issued since January 1978 that deal with rechargeable batteries. It both supplies detailed technical information and can be used as a guide to the patent literature. Subjects treated are as follows: lead-acid batteries (grids, electrodes, terminals and connectors, polyolefin separators, polyvinyl chloride separators, other polymeric separators, other separators, electrolytes, venting techniques, hydrogen-oxygen recombination, general construction and fabrication), lithium batteries (metal chalcogenide cathodes, chalcogenide electrolyte compositions, chalcogenide batteries, lithium anodes, cathodes, lithium-thionyl chloride batteries, lithium-bromine batteries, electrolyte additives and other processes), sodium-sulfur batteries (general battery design, sulfur electrodes, sealing and casing design, current collectors, other processes), alkaline zinc and iron electrode batteries (silver-zinc, nickel-zinc, air-zinc, other zinc electrode processes, iron electrode batteries), zinc-halogen batteries (electrodes, electrolyte additives, other zinc-halogen batteries, zinc-manganese dioxide acid electrolyte), nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries (nickel-cadmium electrodes, other processes for nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel-hydrogen electrodes, other processes for nickel-hydrogen batteries, other nickel-containing batteries), and other battery systems (battery systems and design, other processes). (RWR)

  17. Lessons learned in acquiring new regulations for shipping advanced electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.; Hammel, C.; Altemos, E.A.

    1994-12-01

    In 1990, the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the US Department of Energy established its ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group to identify regulatory barriers to the commercialization of advanced EV battery technologies and facilitate the removal of these barriers. A Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) was formed to address the regulatory issues associated with the domestic and international shipment of these new battery technologies. The SSWG invites major industrial developers of advanced battery technologies to join as members and work closely with appropriate domestic and international regulatory authorities to develop suitable regulations and procedures for the safe transport of these new battery technologies. This paper describes the domestic and international regulatory processes for the transport of dangerous goods; reviews the status of shipping regulations for sodium-beta and lithium batteries; and delineates the lessons learned to date in this process. The sodium-beta battery family was the first category of advanced EV batteries to be addressed by the SSWG. It includes both sodium/sulfur and sodium/metal chloride batteries. Their efforts led to the establishment of a UN number (UN 3292) in the UN Recommendations, for cold cells and batteries, and establishment of a US Department of Transportation general exemption (DOT-E-10917) covering cold and hot batteries, as well as cold cells. The lessons learned for sodium-beta batteries, over the period of 1990--94, are now being applied to the development of regulations for shipping a new generation of lithium battery technologies (lithium-polymer and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide batteries).

  18. The development of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Szymborski, J.; Jungst, R.G.

    1993-10-01

    Technical advances in lead-acid battery design have created new opportunities for battery systems in telecommunications, computer backup power and vehicle propulsion power. Now the lead-acid battery has the opportunity to become a major element in the mix of technologies used by electric utilities for several power quality and energy and resource management functions within the network. Since their introduction into industrial applications, Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries have received widespread acceptance and use in critical telecommunications and computer installations, and have developed over 10 years of reliable operational history. As further enhancements in performance, reliability and manufacturing processes are made, these VRLA batteries are expanding the role of battery-based energy storage systems within utility companies portfolios. This paper discusses the rationale and process of designing, optimizing and testing VRLA batteries for specific utility application requirements.

  19. Proceedings of the tenth annual battery conference on applications and advances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This is a collection of papers presented at the 1995 Annual Battery Conference on Application and Advances. The goal of the conference is to fill the need for improved communication between the developers and users of battery systems and the designers of interfacing electronic power conversion and control components and systems. The Conference attempts to attain that goal through deliberations on issues involving the interactions between those battery and electronic systems in commercial, industrial, space and military applications.

  20. Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 2nd, California State University, Long Beach, Jan. 14-16, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, R. L. (Editor); Frank, H. A. (Editor); Pickett, D. F., Jr. (Editor); Eliash, B. M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on battery applications and advances are presented. The general topics considered include: power systems in biomedical applications, batteries in electronic and computer applications, batteries in transportation and energy systems, space power systems, aircraft power systems, applications in defense systems, battery safety issues, and quality assurance and manufacturing.

  1. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... following listing of intellectual property in the Federal Register on January 19, 2011 (76 FR 3118). A... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing...

  2. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications: Nontechnical summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, G. L.

    This paper provides an overview of the performance characteristics of the most prominent batteries under development for electric vehicles (EV's) and compares these characteristics to the USABC Mid-Term and Long-Term criteria, as well as to typical vehicle-related battery requirements. Most of the battery performance information was obtained from independent tests, conducted using simulated driving power profiles, for DOE and EPRI at Argonne National Laboratory. The EV batteries are categorized as near-term, mid-term, and long-term technologies based on their relative development status, as well as our estimate of their potential availability as commercial EV batteries. Also, the performance capabilities generally increase in going from the near-term to the mid-term and on to the long-term technologies. To date, the USABC has chosen to fund a few selected mid-term and long-term battery technologies.

  3. Magnum(R) NiCd advanced nickel-cadmium battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoles, Darren

    1995-01-01

    The Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., located in Colorado Springs, Colorado, had developed a long-life advanced Nickel-Cadmium battery cell for aerospace applications. This battery cell, known as the MAGNUM NiCd cell, offers significant life expectancy increase over traditional NiCd battery cells. In addition, it offers significant cost reduction from the Super NiCd battery cell (developed by Hughes Aircraft Company and manufactured by the Power Systems Department of Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.).

  4. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    synthesized for this investigation: dilithium 1,2,5-thiadiazolidine-3,4-dione-1,1-dioxide (Li2TDD), lithium ethyl N-trifluoroacetylcarbamate (LiETAC), lithium hexafluoroisopropoxide (LiHFI), lithium pentafluorophenolate (LiPFPO), and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazolide (LiTDI). Using crystalline solvate structure analysis and electrolyte solvation numbers, each of these lithium salts were compared to more well-characterized lithium salts, such as LiPF6 and LiBF4. From this study, links between anion structural characteristics and the anion...Li+ cation interactions (i.e., ionic association strength) were made. From the screening of the five lithium salts that were synthesized, LiTDI was determined to be a promising candidate for Li-ion battery electrolytes. Further characterization of carbonate- and mixed carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes (e.g., ionic conductivity) confirmed this to be the case. Coin cells containing LiTDI or LiPF6 electrolytes showed that cells with either electrolyte could deliver nearly identical power density at 25 °C. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and NMR suggested that the LiTDI salt and carbonate-LiTDI electrolytes are thermally stable up to at least 60 °C. Further supporting this finding, coin cells cycled at 60 °C with LiPF6 lost significantly more capacity than those with LiTDI. Therefore, LiTDI is a prime candidate for the complete replacement of LiPF6 to significantly increase Li-ion battery tolerance to heat, improving the safety characteristics. In addition to searching for new lithium salts, the effect of lithium salt concentration on electrolyte physicochemical properties was investigated. This radically different approach to modifying electrolyte properties determined that amorphous, highly concentrated carbonate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) electrolytes have drastically different behavior than more dilute electrolytes. For example, the thermal stability and anodic stability vs. a Pt

  5. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  6. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  7. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis reveals specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries.

  8. Analysis of life cycle costs for electric vans with advanced battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.; Walsh, W.J.; Miller, J.F.

    1988-11-01

    The performance of advanced Zn/Br/sub 2/, LiAl/FeS, Na/S, Ni/Fe, and Fe/Air batteries in electric vans was compared to that of tubular lead-acid technology. The MARVEL computer analysis system evaluated these batteries for the G-Van and IDSEP vehicles over two driving schedules. Each of the advanced batteries exhibited the potential for major improvements in both range and life cycle cost compared with tubular lead-acid. A sensitivity analysis revealed specific energy, battery initial cost, and cycle life to be the dominant factors in reducing life cycle cost for the case of vans powered by tubular lead-acid batteries. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  10. Batteries: An Advanced Na-FeCl2 ZEBRA Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-06-17

    Sodium-metal chloride batteries, ZEBRA, are considered as one of the most important electrochemical devices for stationary energy storage applications because of its advantages of good cycle life, safety, and reliability. However, sodium-nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries, the most promising redox chemistry in ZEBRA batteries, still face great challenges for the practical application due to its inevitable feature of using Ni cathode (high materials cost). In this work, a novel intermediate-temperature sodium-iron chloride (Na-FeCl2) battery using a molten sodium anode and Fe cathode is proposed and demonstrated. The first use of unique sulfur-based additives in Fe cathode enables Na-FeCl2 batteries can be assembled in the discharged state and operated at intermediate-temperature (<200°C). The results in this work demonstrate that intermediate-temperature Na-FeCl2 battery technology could be a propitious solution for ZEBRA battery technologies by replacing the traditional Na-NiCl2 chemistry.

  11. Nanostructured material for advanced energy storage : magnesium battery cathode development.

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, Wolfgang M.; Woan, Karran V.; Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Magnesium batteries are alternatives to the use of lithium ion and nickel metal hydride secondary batteries due to magnesium's abundance, safety of operation, and lower toxicity of disposal. The divalency of the magnesium ion and its chemistry poses some difficulties for its general and industrial use. This work developed a continuous and fibrous nanoscale network of the cathode material through the use of electrospinning with the goal of enhancing performance and reactivity of the battery. The system was characterized and preliminary tests were performed on the constructed battery cells. We were successful in building and testing a series of electrochemical systems that demonstrated good cyclability maintaining 60-70% of discharge capacity after more than 50 charge-discharge cycles.

  12. Design options for automotive batteries in advanced car electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, K.

    The need to reduce fuel consumption, minimize emissions, and improve levels of safety, comfort and reliability is expected to result in a much higher demand for electric power in cars within the next 5 years. Forecasts vary, but a fourfold increase in starting power to 20 kW is possible, particularly if automatic stop/start features are adopted to significantly reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Increases in the low-rate energy demand are also forecast, but the use of larger alternators may avoid unacceptable high battery weights. It is also suggested from operational models that the battery will be cycled more deeply. In examining possible designs, the beneficial features of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries made with compressed absorbent separators are apparent. Several of their attributes are considered. They offer higher specific power, improved cycling capability and greater vibration resistance, as well as more flexibility in packaging and installation. Optional circuits considered for dual-voltage supplies are separate batteries for engine starting (36 V) and low-power duties (12 V), and a universal battery (36 V) coupled to a d.c.-d.c. converter for a 12-V equipment. Battery designs, which can be made on commercially available equipment with similar manufacturing costs (per W h and per W) to current products, are discussed. The 36-V battery, made with 0.7 mm thick plates, in the dual-battery system weighs 18.5 kg and has a cold-cranking amp (CCA) rating of 790 A at -18°C to 21.6 V (1080 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 25.4 V). The associated, cycleable 12-V battery, provides 1.5 kW h and weighs 24.6 kg. Thus, the combined battery weight is 43.1 kg. The single universal battery, with cycling capability, weighs 45.4 kg, has a CCA rating of 810 A (441 W kg -1 at a mean voltage of 24.7 V), and when connected to the d.c.-d.c. converter at 75% efficiency provides a low-power capacity of 1.5 kW h.

  13. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  14. Advanced Intermediate-Temperature Na-S Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Kirby, Brent W.; Xu, Wu; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-11-12

    In this study, we reported an intermediate-temperature (~150°C) sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery. With a reduced operating temperature, this novel battery can potentially reduce the cost and safety issues associated with the conventional high-temperature (300~350°C) Na-S battery. A dense β"-Al2O3 solid membrane and tetraglyme were utilized as the electrolyte separator and catholyte solvent in this battery. Solubility tests indicated that cathode mixture of Na2S4 and S exhibited extremely high solubility in tetraglyme (e.g., > 4.1 M for Na2S4 + 4 S). CV scans of Na2S4 in tetraglyme revealed two pairs of redox couples with peaks at around 2.22 and 1.75 V, corresponding to the redox reactions of polysulfide species. The discharge/charge profiles of the Na-S battery showed a slope region and a plateau, indicating multiple steps and cell reactions. In-situ Raman measurements during battery operation suggested that polysulfide species were formed in the sequence of Na2S5 + S → Na2S5 + Na2S4→ Na2S4 + Na2S2 during discharge and in a reverse order during charge. This battery showed dramatic improvement in rate capacity and cycling stability over room-temperature Na-S batteries, which makes it attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  15. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  16. High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project Advanced Space-Rated Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has an agreement with China National Offshore Oil Corporation New Energy Investment Company, Ltd. (CNOOC), under the United States-China EcoPartnerships Framework, to create a bi-national entity seeking to develop technically feasible and economically viable solutions to energy and environmental issues. Advanced batteries have been identified as one of the initial areas targeted for collaborations. CWRU invited NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) personnel from the Electrochemistry Branch to CWRU to discuss various aspects of advanced battery development as they might apply to this partnership. Topics discussed included: the process for the selection of a battery chemistry; the establishment of an integrated development program; project management/technical interactions; new technology developments; and synergies between batteries for automotive and space operations. Additional collaborations between CWRU and NASA GRC's Electrochemistry Branch were also discussed.

  17. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  18. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  19. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  20. Advances in recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM) separators for lead-acid batteries—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zguris, G. C.

    Microglass separators have been used in lead-acid batteries for more than 20 years with excellent results. This type of separator (known as recombinant battery separator mat (RBSM)) has allowed valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology to become a commercial reality. When the concept of the VRLA battery was developed, the requirements of the RBSM separator were not fully known nor appreciated. In many cases, the direction charted for the separator has not been the most beneficial path to follow for separator performance and battery life. In some cases, such as the density of the separator media, experience has shown that the most correct path (low density) does not give rise to long battery life. As VRLA battery technology matures, greater pressure on cost and quality has arisen, especially with the proposed transition to 42 V automotive applications. This paper reviews some of the advances and changes in the RBSM separator made over the last 20 years, and provides some thoughts on future directions for this essential component of the VRLA battery.

  1. Advanced nickel-cadmium batteries for geosynchronous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Lim, Hong S.; Krause, Stanley J.; Verzwyvelt, Scott A.

    1987-01-01

    A nickel cadmium battery was developed that can be operated at 80 percent depth of discharge in excess of 10 years in a geosynchronous orbit application, and has about a 30 percent weight savings per spacecraft over present nickel cadmium batteries when used with a 1000 watts eclipse load. The approach used in the development was to replace nylon separators with inert polymer impregnated zirconia, use electrochemically deposited plates in place of conventional chemically precipitated ones, and use an additive to extend negative plate lifetime. The design has undergone extensive testing using both engineering and protoflight cell configurations.

  2. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  3. Advanced materials for next generation NiMH portable, HEV and EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ovshinsky, S.R.; Dhar, S.K.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Corrigan, D.A.; Reichman, B.; Young, K.; Fierro, C.; Venkatesan, S.; Gifford, P.; Koch, J.

    1998-07-01

    While Ovonic NiMH batteries are already in high volume commercial production for portable applications, advances in materials technology have enabled performance improvements in specific energy (100 Wh/kg), specific power (600-1000 W/kg), high temperature operation, charge retention, and voltage stability. Concurrent with technology advances, Ovonic NiMH batteries have established performance and commercial milestones in electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, as well as scooter, motorcycle and bicycle applications. As important as these advances, significant manufacturing cost reductions have also occurred which allow continued growth of NiMH technology. In this paper, advances in performance, applications and cost reduction are discussed with particular emphasis on the improved proprietary metal hydride and nickel hydroxide materials that make such advances possible.

  4. Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  5. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, XC; Xia, GG; Lemmon, JP; Yang, ZG

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a beta ''-Al(2)O(3) solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 degrees C ). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Advanced hydrogen electrode for hydrogen-bromide battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosek, Jack A.; Laconti, Anthony B.

    1987-01-01

    Binary platinum alloys are being developed as hydrogen electrocatalysts for use in a hydrogen bromide battery system. These alloys were varied in terms of alloy component mole ratio and heat treatment temperature. Electrocatalyst evaluation, performed in the absence and presence of bromide ion, includes floating half cell polarization studies, electrochemical surface area measurements, X ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis and corrosion measurements. Results obtained to date indicate a platinum rich alloy has the best tolerance to bromide ion poisoning.

  7. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  8. Research Advances: Paper Batteries, Phototriggered Microcapsules, and Oil-Free Plastic Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2010-01-01

    Chemists continue to work at the forefront of materials science research. Recent advances include application of bioengineering to produce plastics from renewable biomass instead of petroleum, generation of paper-based batteries, and development of phototriggerable microcapsules for chemical delivery. In this article, the author provides summaries…

  9. An Experiment to Determine the Discharge Characteristics of Common Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2003-04-01

    An experiment is presented to investigate the discharge characteristics of common batteries using readily available equipment in an introductory physics laboratory. We used PASCO-750 science workshop interface, their two voltage sensors, and their DataStudio software to collect the data for some popular name brand AA and AAA batteries. The significant advantages are that it is relatively easy to carry out, the measurements are precise, and the topic is relevant to every day life with practical applications. It also serves as an experiment to introduce computer interfacing in data collection, as well as the Spread Sheet in data analysis and graphing. The spin off of this experiment is an accurate method to study the longevity of common batteries. Our results indicate that some of the popular name brand batteries don't last long as mentioned in their advertisements and some of the not so popular batteries are more cost effective.

  10. Organic anodes and sulfur/selenium cathodes for advanced Li and Na batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao

    To address energy crisis and environmental pollution induced by fossil fuels, there is an urgent demand to develop sustainable, renewable, environmental benign, low cost and high capacity energy storage devices to power electric vehicles and enhance clean energy approaches such as solar energy, wind energy and hydroenergy. However, the commercial Li-ion batteries cannot satisfy the critical requirements for next generation rechargeable batteries. The commercial electrode materials (graphite anode and LiCoO 2 cathode) are unsustainable, unrenewable and environmental harmful. Organic materials derived from biomasses are promising candidates for next generation rechargeable battery anodes due to their sustainability, renewability, environmental benignity and low cost. Driven by the high potential of organic materials for next generation batteries, I initiated a new research direction on exploring advanced organic compounds for Li-ion and Na-ion battery anodes. In my work, I employed croconic acid disodium salt and 2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone disodium salt as models to investigate the effects of size and carbon coating on electrochemical performance for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The results demonstrate that the minimization of organic particle size into nano-scale and wrapping organic materials with graphene oxide can remarkably enhance the rate capability and cycling stability of organic anodes in both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. To match with organic anodes, high capacity sulfur and selenium cathodes were also investigated. However, sulfur and selenium cathodes suffer from low electrical conductivity and shuttle reaction, which result in capacity fading and poor lifetime. To circumvent the drawbacks of sulfur and selenium, carbon matrixes such as mesoporous carbon, carbonized polyacrylonitrile and carbonized perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride are employed to encapsulate sulfur, selenium and selenium sulfide. The resulting composites exhibit

  11. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  12. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  13. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles.

  14. Advanced zinc-air batteries based on high-performance hybrid electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Liang, Yongye; Feng, Ju; Kim, Ji-Eun; Wang, Hailiang; Hong, Guosong; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries could be ideal energy storage devices with high energy and power density, high safety and economic viability. Active and durable electrocatalysts on the cathode side are required to catalyse oxygen reduction reaction during discharge and oxygen evolution reaction during charge for rechargeable batteries. Here we developed advanced primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries with novel CoO/carbon nanotube hybrid oxygen reduction catalyst and Ni-Fe-layered double hydroxide oxygen evolution catalyst for the cathode. These catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activity and durability in concentrated alkaline electrolytes than precious metal Pt and Ir catalysts. The resulting primary Zn-air battery showed high discharge peak power density ~265 mW cm(-2), current density ~200 mA cm(-2) at 1 V and energy density >700 Wh kg(-1). Rechargeable Zn-air batteries in a tri-electrode configuration exhibited an unprecedented small charge-discharge voltage polarization of ~0.70 V at 20 mA cm(-2), high reversibility and stability over long charge and discharge cycles. PMID:23651993

  15. Advanced battery technology for electric two-wheelers in the people's Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2009-07-22

    This report focuses on lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology applications for two- and possibly three-wheeled vehicles. The author of this report visited the People's Republic of China (PRC or China) to assess the status of Li-ion battery technology there and to analyze Chinese policies, regulations, and incentives for using this technology and for using two- and three-wheeled vehicles. Another objective was to determine if the Li-ion batteries produced in China were available for benchmarking in the United States. The United States continues to lead the world in Li-ion technology research and development (R&D). Its strong R&D program is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies, such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the U.S. Department of Defense. In Asia, too, developed countries like China, Korea, and Japan are commercializing and producing this technology. In China, more than 120 companies are involved in producing Li-ion batteries. There are more than 139 manufacturers of electric bicycles (also referred to as E-bicycles, electric bikes or E-bikes, and electric two-wheelers or ETWs in this report) and several hundred suppliers. Most E-bikes use lead acid batteries, but there is a push toward using Li-ion battery technology for two- and three-wheeled applications. Highlights and conclusions from this visit are provided in this report and summarized.

  16. Cycle Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Copper Nanowires as Advanced Conductive Agents for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Li, Xuan; Zhao, Xinyi; Feng, Jinkui; Qian, Yitai

    2015-09-01

    Copper nanowires (CuNW) are synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method and test as advanced conductive agents for lithium ion batteries. Anode prepared with CuNW and graphite show improved rate ability and excellent cycling stability even at high rate. AC-impedance of CuNW added electrode is much lower than that of electrodes containing carbon black only. This implies the CuNW could lower the electronical resistance. PMID:26716306

  18. Method of determining the open circuit voltage of a battery in a closed circuit

    DOEpatents

    Brown, William E.

    1980-01-01

    The open circuit voltage of a battery which is connected in a closed circuit is determined without breaking the circuit or causing voltage upsets therein. The closed circuit voltage across the battery and the current flowing through it are determined under normal load and then a fractional change is made in the load and the new current and voltage values determined. The open circuit voltage is then calculated, according to known principles, from the two sets of values.

  19. An assessment of research and development leadership in advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-02-01

    Due to the recently enacted California regulations requiring zero emission vehicles be sold in the market place by 1998, electric vehicle research and development (R&D) is accelerating. Much of the R&D work is focusing on the Achilles` heel of electric vehicles -- advanced batteries. This report provides an assessment of the R&D work currently underway in advanced batteries and electric vehicles in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. Although the US can be considered one of the leading countries in terms of advanced battery and electric vehicle R&D work, it lags other countries, particularly France, in producing and promoting electric vehicles. The US is focusing strictly on regulations to promote electric vehicle usage while other countries are using a wide variety of policy instruments (regulations, educational outreach programs, tax breaks and subsidies) to encourage the use of electric vehicles. The US should consider implementing additional policy instruments to ensure a domestic market exists for electric vehicles. The domestic is the largest and most important market for the US auto industry.

  20. A simple approach to the determination of the charging state of photovoltaic-powered storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, M. A.

    Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as domestic and street lighting systems, usually include a storage battery which is subjected to a daily charge/discharge cycle. During such cycle the battery chargesduring the day and loses a percentage of its charge to the load at night. A knowledge of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) during charging is important since it leads to design information about the desired size of the PV array and battery capacity to satisfy a given load. A simple approach to the theoretical determination of the battery SOC in stand-alone PV systems is presented in this paper. The approach is based on the graphical determination of the system operating points found from the intersection between the I-V curves representing the power source (PV) under varying solar radiation and temperature conditions with the I-V curves representing the load (battery) under varying SOC conditions. The study is restricted to locally manufactured lead/acid batteries used to power TV sets in some of the rural areas of Egypt. It takes into consideration the different factors affecting battery performance. Conclusions are drawn from the analysis that permit a better design of the system for full utilization of the PV output power leading to the appropriate PV size that ensures proper system operation for the designed period.

  1. Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

  2. Rational design of metal oxide nanocomposite anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Yu, Shenglan; Yuan, Tianzhi; Yan, Mi; Jiang, Yinzhu

    2015-05-01

    Metal-oxide anodes represent a significant future direction for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, their practical applications are still seriously hampered by electrode disintegration and capacity fading during cycling. Here, we report a rational design of 3D-staggered metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode directly fabricated by pulsed spray evaporation chemical vapor deposition, where various oxide nanocomponents are in a staggered distribution uniformly along three dimensions and across the whole electrode. Such a special design of nanoarchitecture combines the advantages of nanoscale materials in volume change and Li+/electron conduction as well as uniformly staggered and compact structure in atom migration during lithiation/delithiation, which exhibits high specific capacity, good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The rational design of metal-oxide nanocomposite electrode opens up new possibilities for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  3. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  4. A new class of solid oxide metal-air redox batteries for advanced stationary energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan

    study, the constituted battery of which is termed solid oxide iron-air redox battery (or SOFeARB). The first objective of this PhD work is aimed at demonstrating the proof-of-concept. By combining a commercial anode-supported tubular RSOFC and Fe-based redox couple, the first generation SOFeARB operated at 800°C has been demonstrated to produce an energy capacity of 348Wh/kg-Fe and round-trip efficiency of 91.5% over twenty stable charge/discharge cycles. Further system optimization leads to an 800°C-SOFeARB comprised of a commercial electrolyte-supported planar RSOFC and Fe-based redox couple; this configuration has become a standard testing system for later studies. The 800°C planar SOFeARBs have been investigated under various current densities and cycle durations. The results show that metal utilization plays a determining role in balancing the energy capacity and round-trip efficiency. Increasing metal utilization increases the energy capacity, but at the expense of lowered round-trip efficiency. The second objective of this work is to lower the operating temperature of SOMARBs to intermediate temperature (IT) range (e.g. 550-650°C). Two changes were made in order to enable operation at IT range: introduction of optimized Sr- and Mg- doped LaGaO3 (LSGM) based RSOFC by tape-casting and infiltration techniques, and optimization of morphology of ESU through innovative synthesis methods. The optimized battery can reach a round-trip efficiency as high as 82.5% and specific energy 91% of the theoretical value in the IT range. The third objective of this work is to improve the cyclic durability and stability of IT-SOFeARBs. The results show that the performance, reversibility and stability of a 550°C-SOFeARB can be significantly improved by nanostructuring energy storage materials synthesized from a low-cost carbothermic reaction. The 100-cycle test explicitly shows an improvement of 12.5%, 27.8% and 214% in specific energy, round-trip efficiency and stability

  5. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  6. Novel nitrogen-based organosulfur electrodes for advanced intermediate temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visco, S. J.; Dejonghe, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced secondary batteries operating at intermediate temperatures (100 to 200 C) have attracted considerable interest due to their inherent advantages (reduced corrosion and safety risks) over higher temperature systems. Current work in this laboratory has involved research on a class of intermediate temperature Na/beta double prime- alumina/RSSR batteries conceptually similar to Na/S cells, but operating within a temperature range of 100 to 150 C, and having an organosulfur rather than inorganic sulfur positive electrode. The organosulfur electrodes are based on the reversible, two electron eduction of organodisulfides to the corresponding thiolate anions, RSSR + 2 electrons yield 2RS(-), where R is an organic moiety. Among the advantages of such a generic redox couple for battery research is the ability to tailor the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of the RSSR molecule through choice of the organic moiety. The viscosity, liquidus range, dielectric constant, equivalent weight, and redox potential can in fact be verified in a largely predictable manner. The current work concerns the use of multiple nitrogen organosulfur molecules, chosen for application in Na/RSSR cells for their expected oxidizing character. In fact, a Na/RSSR cell containing one of these materials, the sodium salt of 5-mercapto 1-methyltetrazole, yielded the highest open circuit voltage obtained yet in the laboratory; 3.0 volts in the charged state and 2.6 volts at 100 percent discharge. Accordingly, the cycling behavior of a series of multiple nitrogen organodisulfides as well as polymeric organodisulfides are presented in this manuscript.

  7. An online framework for state of charge determination of battery systems using combined system identification approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Mulder, Grietus; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, an online state of charge (SoC) estimation framework is proposed, designed and implemented using the system identification approaches. The techniques are composed of cross combination between two modified nonlinear optimisation algorithms (modified Genetic Algorithm and modified Levenberg Marquardt) adapted for battery cell parameter estimation. Subsequently a linear recursive Kalman filter is employed to estimate the state parameters of the battery cell. Moreover, a newly statistical approach is developed to encounter hysteresis phenomena within the cell. The prerequisite for the SoC determination in the electrical vehicle (EV) is challenging as the battery can be composed of hundreds of cells while the load current changes dramatically inside the cells and the required elapsed time for SoC determination should be as short as possible to extend the expected lifetime of the battery pack. Thus, the accurate estimation of the SoC of the cells in a battery pack is one of the key factors for using them effectively. The framework is found to be robust, optimal and implementable in time constrained environment with acceptable accuracy.

  8. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  9. Conceptual design of electrical balance of plant for advanced battery energy storage facility. Annual report, March 1979. [20-MW, 100 MWh

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale efforts are in progress to develop advanced batteries for utility energy storage systems. Realization of the full benefits available from those systems requires development, not only of the batteries themselves, but also the ac/dc power converter, the bulk power interconnecting equipment, and the peripheral electric balance of plant equipment that integrate the battery/converter into a properly controlled and protected energy system. This study addresses these overall system aspects; although tailored to a 20-MW, 100-MWh lithium/sulfide battery system, the technology and concepts are applicable to any battery energy storage system. 42 figures, 14 tables. (RWR)

  10. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  11. Advanced cell technology for high performance Li-A1/FeS{sub 2} secondary batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G. L.

    1998-07-10

    In early 1993. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) initiated a major R and D effort to develop bipolar Li-Al/LiCl-LiBr-KBr/FeS{sub 2} batteries for electric vehicles, targeting the USABC Long-Term Goals. Significant advancements were achieved in the areas of (i) chemical purity, (ii) electrode and electrolyte additives, and (iii) peripheral seals. It was determined that key chemical constituents contained undesirable impurities. ANL developed new chemical processes for preparing Li{sub 2}S, FeS, and CoS{sub 2} that were >98.5% pure. We evaluated a large variety of electrode and electrolyte additives for reducing cell area specific impedance (ASI). Candidate positive electrode additives offered increased electronic conductivity, enhanced reaction kinetics, and/or improved porous electrode morphology. CoS{sub 2}, CuFeS{sub 2}, MgO, and graphite (fibers) were identified as the most beneficial impedance-reducing positive electrode additives. Although electronically conductive carbon and graphite additives produced measurable ASI reductions in the negative electrode, they degraded its structural integrity and were deemed impractical. Lil and LiF were identified as beneficial electrolyte additives, that enhance positive electrode kinetics. ANL refined its baseline metal/ceramic peripheral seal and increased its strength by a factor of three (achieving a safety factor >10). In parallel, ANL developed a high-strength advanced metal/ceramic seal that offers appreciable cost reductions.

  12. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdátsy, G.; Benedek, F.; Kokavecz, J.; Szabó, G.; Kornis, J.

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/°C.

  13. Improved fiber optic device for in situ determination of electrolyte stratification in lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Gajdátsy, G; Benedek, F; Kokavecz, J; Szabó, G; Kornis, J

    2009-12-01

    A three-channel, highly sensitive, fiber optic device is presented to measure acid concentration in lead-acid batteries during their operation. The refractive index and thereby the concentration of sulfuric acid is measured by a bent, silica glass fiber tip, stripped off its cladding. Sensor heads of the device are small enough to be inserted at different positions in the cell of an ordinary, flooded lead-acid battery. Measuring the concentration of the electrolyte at different depths of the battery cell, acid stratification can be accurately determined. During the test of the instrument, about 0.3 Hz temporal and 0.05 wt % concentration resolutions were achieved while the temperature drift was found to be -0.25 wt %/degrees C. PMID:20059171

  14. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  16. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  17. 76 FR 3118 - Notice of Availability of Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... acid and boric acid (US 7,524,579 B1). 5. ARL 04-29--Safer, Less Expensive Lithium Ion Batteries (US 7...). 10. ARL 09-18--Increasing Performance by Reducing Resistance in Lithium Ion Batteries. Filed with... for Next Generation 5V Li-ion Batteries. Provisional filed with USPTO on 7/6/2010 (S/N 61/...

  18. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  19. Improving the gas-chromatographic determination of the composition of the gas liberated from a battery

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, V.V.; Zubov, M.S.; Baulov, V.I.; Toguzov, B.M.

    1992-07-10

    Normally, gas chromatography is used for analyzing the gas composition that is liberated when batteries operate. Earlier work describes a gas-chromatographic technique for determining the composition of gas liberated from a battery. According to this reference, the gas is collected in an inverted burette over water. The gas is either sampled with a batching valve or with a medical syringe, which pierces the connecting vacuum hoses. The gas sample is injected into the chromatographic evaporator, and is separated on the chromatographic column into its individual components, each of which is analyzed on the detector. The method described was used to study gas liberation during the storage of charged nickel-zinc batteries. In the method described above, a high proportion of the gas specimen that accumulates and is collected in the measuring system occurs in the dead space volume. In this situation, it is very difficult to determine the liberated gas composition with a high degree of accuracy when the gas is liberated at low rates. Moreover, this method does not provide reliable system air tightness during long term operation of the batteries. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The NASA "PERS" Program: Solid Polymer Electrolyte Development for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    In fiscal year 2000, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The ultimate objective of this development program, which was referred to as the Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS), was to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative exploited both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases focused on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level. Out of a total of 38 proposals received in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) solicitation, 18 proposals (13 contracts and 5 grants) were selected for initial award to address these technical challenges. Brief summaries of technical approaches, results and accomplishments of the PERS Program development efforts are presented. With Agency support provided through FY 2004, the PERS Program efforts were concluded in 2005, as internal reorganizations and funding cuts resulted in shifting programmatic priorities within NASA. Technically, the PERS Program participants explored, to various degrees over the lifetime of the formal program, a variety of conceptual approaches for developing and demonstrating performance of a viable advanced solid polymer electrolyte possessing the desired attributes, as well as several participants addressing all components of an integrated cell configuration. Programmatically, the NASA PERS Program was very successful, even though the very challenging technical goals for achieving a viable solid polymer electrolyte material or

  1. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  2. Advanced directives. In search of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Flarey, D L

    1991-11-01

    Patients are seeking self-determination in health-care through the use of advanced directives. The author discusses advanced directives focusing on patient rights in decision making, autonomy, and the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment. Highlighted is the Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990, including strategies for its implementation in healthcare agencies.

  3. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed. PMID:27711259

  4. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  5. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  6. Recent Advances and Prospects of Cathode Materials for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xingde; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) receive significant attention for electrochemical energy storage and conversion owing to their wide availability and the low cost of Na resources. However, SIBs face challenges of low specific energy, short cycling life, and insufficient specific power, owing to the heavy mass and large radius of Na(+) ions. As an important component of SIBs, cathode materials have a significant effect on the SIB electrochemical performance. The most recent advances and prospects of inorganic and organic cathode materials are summarized here. Among current cathode materials, layered transition-metal oxides achieve high specific energies around 600 mW h g(-1) owing to their high specific capacities of 180-220 mA h g(-1) and their moderate operating potentials of 2.7-3.2 V (vs Na(+) /Na). Porous Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C nanomaterials exhibit excellent cycling performance with almost 100% retention over 1000 cycles owing to their robust structural framework. Recent emerging cathode materials, such as amorphous NaFePO4 and pteridine derivatives show interesting electrochemical properties and attractive prospects for application in SIBs. Future work should focus on strategies to enhance the overall performance of cathode materials in terms of specific energy, cycling life, and rate capability with cationic doping, anionic substitution, morphology fabrication, and electrolyte matching.

  7. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  8. Recent Progress in Self‐Supported Metal Oxide Nanoarray Electrodes for Advanced Lithium‐Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The rational design and fabrication of electrode materials with desirable architectures and optimized properties has been demonstrated to be an effective approach towards high‐performance lithium‐ion batteries (LIBs). Although nanostructured metal oxide electrodes with high specific capacity have been regarded as the most promising alternatives for replacing commercial electrodes in LIBs, their further developments are still faced with several challenges such as poor cycling stability and unsatisfying rate performance. As a new class of binder‐free electrodes for LIBs, self‐supported metal oxide nanoarray electrodes have many advantageous features in terms of high specific surface area, fast electron transport, improved charge transfer efficiency, and free space for alleviating volume expansion and preventing severe aggregation, holding great potential to solve the mentioned problems. This review highlights the recent progress in the utilization of self‐supported metal oxide nanoarrays grown on 2D planar and 3D porous substrates, such as 1D and 2D nanostructure arrays, hierarchical nanostructure arrays, and heterostructured nanoarrays, as anodes and cathodes for advanced LIBs. Furthermore, the potential applications of these binder‐free nanoarray electrodes for practical LIBs in full‐cell configuration are outlined. Finally, the future prospects of these self‐supported nanoarray electrodes are discussed.

  9. Thermal Management of Batteries in Advanced Vehicles Using Phase-Change Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G.-H.; Gonder, J.; Lustbader, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-12-01

    This Powerpoint presentation examines battery thermal management using PCM and concludes excellent performance in limiting peak temperatures at short period extensive battery use; although, vehicle designers will need to weigh the potential increase in mass and cost associated with adding PCM against the anticipated benefits.

  10. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Spacecraft Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Wright, R. Doug; Repplinger, Ron S.

    1996-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth-orbiting satellites and have accumulated more that 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard Ni-H2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV Ni-H2 technology flight heritage and database. A design performance analysis is presented at both the cell and battery level. The DPV is capable of delivering up to 76 Watthours per kilogram (Wh/kg) at the cell level and 70 Wh/kg at the full battery level. This represents a 40 percent increase in specific energy at the cell level and a 60 percent increase in specific energy at the battery level compared to current IPV Ni-H2 technology.

  11. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A.; Allu, Srikanth; Gorti, Sarma B.; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Kumar, Abhishek; Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T.; Pannala, Sreekanth; Simunovic, Srdjan; Slattery, Stuart R.; Wang, Hsin

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  12. A novel magnetic field probing technique for determining state of health of sealed lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeta; Singh, Pritpal; Vassiliou, John K.

    2012-11-01

    State of Health (SOH) is a critical index for a Sealed Lead-Acid (SLA) battery diagnostic which provides the information about battery replacement and aging effects. SOH is a complex function of chemical parameters of a battery such as stratification in electrolyte, electrode structure (sulfation and hard sulfation) in addition to electrical parameters of a battery. This paper describes a method of online determination of stratification, electrode structure, electrode polarization and current profile within the battery under the influence of a magnetic field. An AC magnetic field is used as a noninvasive tool during battery cycles. An induced emf in a secondary coil (SCV) is used as a measure of change in the magnetic field. The H+ proton density varies with change in sulfuric acid (electrolyte) concentration during battery cycles. The magnetic flux lines are affected by the density of H+ protons whose magnetic dipole moments try to align along the magnetic flux lines. The stratification is seen by a 12% decrease in magnetic flux linking from the top to the bottom of the electrolyte in a battery. Additional experimental results demonstrate the variation in magnetic flux linking which correlates with current profile across the electrode and electrode structure.

  13. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  14. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT. PMID:26295765

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT.

  16. A comparison of battery testing protocols: Those used by the U.S. advanced battery consortium and those used in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, David C.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Bennett, Taylor; Walker, Lee K.; Wang, Fang; Liu, Shiqiang; Fan, Bin; Bloom, Ira

    2016-02-01

    Two testing protocols, QC/T 743 and those used by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), were compared using cells based on LiFePO4/graphite chemistry. Differences in the protocols directly affected the data and the performance decline mechanisms deduced from the data. In all cases, the rate of capacity fade was linear with time. Overall, the testing protocols produced very similar data when the testing conditions and metrics used to define performance were similar. The choice of depth of discharge and pulse width had a direct effect on the apparent rate of resistance increased and estimated cell life. At greater percent depth of discharge (%DOD) and pulse width, the estimated life was shorter that at lower %DOD and shorter pulse width. This indicates that cells which were at the end of life based on the USABC protocol were not at end of life based on the QC/T 743 protocol by a large margin.

  17. Rational design of redox mediators for advanced Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hee-Dae; Lee, Byungju; Zheng, Yongping; Hong, Jihyun; Kim, Jinsoo; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Ko, Youngmin; Lee, Minah; Cho, Kyeongjae; Kang, Kisuk

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of effective catalysts is an important step towards achieving Li-O2 batteries with long cycle life and high round-trip efficiency. Soluble-type catalysts or redox mediators (RMs) possess great advantages over conventional solid catalysts, generally exhibiting much higher efficiency. Here, we select a series of organic RM candidates as a model system to identify the key descriptor in determining the catalytic activities and stabilities in Li-O2 cells. It is revealed that the level of ionization energies, readily available parameters from a database of the molecules, can serve such a role when comparing with the formation energy of Li2O2 and the highest occupied molecular orbital energy of the electrolyte. It is demonstrated that they are critical in reducing the overpotential and improving the stability of Li-O2 cells, respectively. Accordingly, we propose a general principle for designing feasible catalysts and report a RM, dimethylphenazine, with a remarkably low overpotential and high stability.

  18. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  19. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium–nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg−1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium–nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  20. Research, development, and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A cost and design study was conducted on the production of lead-acid batteries. The major conclusions with regard to a mature level of production, 1000 man-work hours (MWH) per year in 100 MWH installations, are the following: using vertically integrated, automated plants, and a 14 KAH cell design, it is projected that the 100 MWH battery can be manufactured for $76 per kilowatt hour (KWH). The large 10 and 14 kilowatt amphere hour (KAH) cells were found to be more economical than the small 3.4 KAH (6.5 KWH) cell. It is inferred that batteries prepared from large, cell sizes (10 and 14 KAH) will be inherently more reliable due to the reduced number of intercell connections and reduced number of cells requiring maintenance operations, compared to batteries made with small cells (3400 AH). The battery footprint energy density goal can be achieved with tiering of the 14 KAH cell and the specification of somewhat reduced aisle widths on the outside of the strings. Sensitivity studies were performed on the impact of lead price, design cycle life, materials cost reductions, and increase in active materials utilization on the cost of the 100 MWH battery.

  1. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  2. Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    Formation of a glue-nanofiller layer between grains, consisting of a middle-temperature spinel-like Lix CoO2 phase, reinforces the strength of the incoherent interfacial binding between anisotropically oriented grains by enhancing the face-to-face adhesion strength. The cathode treated with the glue-layer exhibits steady cycling performance at both room-temperature and 60 °C. These results represent a step forward in advanced lithium-ion batteries via simple cathode coating. PMID:27074141

  3. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee -Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-11

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at anmore » intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less

  4. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  5. Inverse parameter determination in the development of an optimized lithium iron phosphate - Graphite battery discharge model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Arpit; Dumitrescu, Mihaela Aneta; Destro, Matteo; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Battery models are riddled with incongruous values of parameters considered for validation. In this work, thermally coupled electrochemical model of the pouch is developed and discharge tests on a LiFePO4 pouch cell at different discharge rates are used to optimize the LiFePO4 battery model by determining parameters for which there is no consensus in literature. A discussion on parameter determination, selection and comparison with literature values has been made. The electrochemical model is a P2D model, while the thermal model considers heat transfer in 3D. It is seen that even with no phase change considered for LiFePO4 electrode, the model is able to simulate the discharge curves over a wide range of discharge rates with a single set of parameters provided a dependency of the radius of the LiFePO4 electrode on discharge rate. The approach of using a current dependent radius is shown to be equivalent to using a current dependent diffusion coefficient. Both these modelling approaches are a representation of the particle size distribution in the electrode. Additionally, the model has been thermally validated, which increases the confidence level in the selection of values of parameters.

  6. Advances in lithium-sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Quan; Liang, Xiao; Kwok, Chun Yuen; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-09-01

    Amid burgeoning environmental concerns, electrochemical energy storage has rapidly gained momentum. Among the contenders in the ‘beyond lithium’ energy storage arena, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery has emerged as particularly promising, owing to its potential to reversibly store considerable electrical energy at low cost. Whether or not Li-S energy storage will be able to fulfil this potential depends on simultaneously solving many aspects of its underlying conversion chemistry. Here, we review recent developments in tackling the dissolution of polysulfides — a fundamental problem in Li-S batteries — focusing on both experimental and computational approaches to tailor the chemical interactions between the sulfur host materials and polysulfides. We also discuss smart cathode architectures enabled by recent materials engineering, especially for high areal sulfur loading, as well as innovative electrolyte design to control the solubility of polysulfides. Key factors that allow long-life and high-loading Li-S batteries are summarized.

  7. Advances in lithium–sulfur batteries based on multifunctional cathodes and electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Quan; Liang, Xiao; Kwok, Chun Yuen; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-09-01

    Amid burgeoning environmental concerns, electrochemical energy storage has rapidly gained momentum. Among the contenders in the ‘beyond lithium’ energy storage arena, the lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery has emerged as particularly promising, owing to its potential to reversibly store considerable electrical energy at low cost. Whether or not Li–S energy storage will be able to fulfil this potential depends on simultaneously solving many aspects of its underlying conversion chemistry. Here, we review recent developments in tackling the dissolution of polysulfides — a fundamental problem in Li–S batteries — focusing on both experimental and computational approaches to tailor the chemical interactions between the sulfur host materials and polysulfides. We also discuss smart cathode architectures enabled by recent materials engineering, especially for high areal sulfur loading, as well as innovative electrolyte design to control the solubility of polysulfides. Key factors that allow long-life and high-loading Li–S batteries are summarized.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyphosphazene Materials for Advanced Lithium-Water Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme; Mark L. Stone; William F. Bauer

    2007-08-01

    Development of long-lived high-energy lithium-water batteries hinges upon developing solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with the appropriate properties. These polymer membranes paradoxically must allow lithium atoms to pass from the metallic surface, oxidize to the ionic form, and then pass through the membrane to the water outside. At the same time, the membrane must exclude all water, tramp ions, and deleterious gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. SPE membranes are the leading choice for lithium-water batteries however, because current non-membrane approaches being pursued by other research groups suffer from two insurmountable problems - storage and non-productive energy loss via direct lithium/water reaction. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigations into the transport of water and permanent gasses, such as carbon dioxide, through polyphosphazene SPE materials designed to address the challenges inherent in lithium water batteries.

  9. Advanced separator construction for long life valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. R.

    The performance of absorptive glass mat separators in valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is strongly influenced by the diameter of the fibres from which they are made. Coarser diameter fibres are beneficial for the compressive properties of separators while finer fibres maintain the uniform distribution of the electrolyte. Studies of cell compression and electrolyte stratification are reported using separators manufactured with segregated layers of fine and coarse fibres incorporated into a single sheet. This construction locates the different classes of fibre at their location of maximum effectiveness. Improvements in battery life in both cyclic and float charge applications are recorded, and compared with single layer separators.

  10. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  11. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  12. Advanced silver zinc battery development for the SRB and ET range safety subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamedes, Zoe

    1994-01-01

    This document presents in viewgraph format the design and development of silver zinc (AgZn) batteries for the solid rocket booster (SRB) and external tank (ET) range safety subsystems. Various engineering techniques, including composite separator systems, new electrode processing techniques, and new restraint techniques, were used to meet difficult requirements.

  13. An advanced MoS2 /carbon anode for high-performance sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Luo, Chao; Gao, Tao; Langrock, Alex; Mignerey, Alice C; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-01-27

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is a promising anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries due to high specific capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, poor cycling stability, low rate capability and unclear electrochemical reaction mechanism are the main challenges for MoS2 anode in Na-ion batteries. In this study, molybdenum disulfide/carbon (MoS2 /C) nanospheres are fabricated and used for Na-ion battery anodes. MoS2 /C nanospheres deliver a reversible capacity of 520 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C and maintain at 400 mAh g(-1) for 300 cycles at a high current density of 1 C, demonstrating the best cycling performance of MoS2 for Na-ion batteries to date. The high capacity is attributed to the short ion and electron diffusion pathway, which enables fast charge transfer and low concentration polarization. The stable cycling performance and high coulombic efficiency (∼100%) of MoS2 /C nanospheres are ascribed to (1) highly reversible conversion reaction of MoS2 during sodiation/desodiation as evidenced by ex-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (2) the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer in fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) based electrolyte as demonstrated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements.

  14. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  15. Nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon sphere-decorated separators for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Wang, Guanchao; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have a distinct advantage over other rechargeable battery systems since their high specific energy and low cost. However, the diffusion of polysulfides from cathode to anode leads to poor electrochemical stability of Li-S batteries, which is a main factor that restricts their further development. Herein, for the first time we present a separator with nitrogen-doped porous hollow carbon sphere (NHC) coating, with which Li-S cells enormously improve the utilization of active material and enhance excellent electrochemical performance. An initial discharge capacity of 1656 mAh g-1 (0.2 C) and a low fading rate of 0.11% per cycle within 500 cycles (1 C) are achieved, which ascribe to the chemical and physical adsorption properties of porous and nitrogen-doped NHCs. The NHC-decorated separator is of low cost and can effectively improve energy density of Li-S cells, exhibiting potential for further development of Li-S batteries.

  16. 40 CFR 2.206 - Advance confidentiality determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), as well as the business's comments concerning the matters addressed in § 2.204(e)(4), excluding... INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.206 Advance confidentiality determinations. (a) An... demanded that a business furnish business information to EPA; (2) The business asserts that the...

  17. Modified Separator Using Thin Carbon Layer Obtained from Its Cathode for Advanced Lithium Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Naiqiang; Huang, Bicheng; Wang, Weikun; Shao, Hongyuan; Li, Chengming; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Anbang; Yuan, Keguo; Huang, Yaqin

    2016-06-29

    The realization of a practical lithium sulfur battery system, despite its high theoretical specific capacity, is severely limited by fast capacity decay, which is mainly attributed to polysulfide dissolution and shuttle effect. To address this issue, we designed a thin cathode inactive material interlayer modified separator to block polysulfides. There are two advantages for this strategy. First, the coating material totally comes from the cathode, thus avoids the additional weights involved. Second, the cathode inactive material modified separator improve the reversible capacity and cycle performance by combining gelatin to chemically bond polysulfides and the carbon layer to physically block polysulfides. The research results confirm that with the cathode inactive material modified separator, the batteries retain a reversible capacity of 644 mAh g(-1) after 150 cycles, showing a low capacity decay of about 0.11% per circle at the rate of 0.5C. PMID:27267483

  18. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  19. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential. PMID:27487940

  20. In-situ Spectroscopic and Structural Studies of Electrode Materials for Advanced Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel A Scherson

    2013-03-14

    Techniques have been developed and implemented to gain insight into fundamental factors that affect the performance of electrodes in Li and Li-ion batteries and other energy storage devices. These include experimental strategies for monitoring the Raman scattering spectra of single microparticles of carbon and transition metal oxides as a function of their state of charge. Measurements were performed in electrolytes of direct relevance to Li and Li-Ion batteries both in the static and dynamic modes. In addition, novel strategies were devised for performing conventional experiments in ultrahigh vacuum environments under conditions which eliminate effects associated with presence of impurities, using ultrapure electrolytes, both of the polymeric and ionic liquid type that display no measurable vapor pressure. Also examined was the reactivity of conventional non aqueous solvent toward ultrapure Li films as monitored in ultrahigh vacuum with external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also pursued were efforts toward developing applying Raman-scattering for monitoring the flow of charge of a real Li ion battery. Such time-resolved, spatially-resolved measurements are key to validating the results of theoretical simulations involving real electrode structures.

  1. Development of Cellulose/PVDF-HFP Composite Membranes for Advanced Battery Separators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Agubra, Victor; Alcoutlabi, Mataz; Mao, Yuanbing

    Improvements in battery technology are necessary as Li-ion batteries transition from consumer electronic to vehicular and industrial uses. An important bottle-neck in battery efficiency and safety is the quality of the separators, which prevent electric short-circuits between cathode and anode, while allowing an easy flow of ions between them. In this study, cellulose acetate was dissolved in a mixed solvent with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and the mixture was forcespun in a peudo paper making process to yield nanofibrillated nonwoven mats. The mats were soaked in NaOH/Ethanol to strip PVP and regenerate cellulose from its acetate precursor. The cellulose mats were then dipped in poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) to yield the cellulose/PVDF-HFP composte membranes. These membranes were characterized chemically through FTIR spectroscopy and solvent-stability tests, thermally through DSC, physically by stress/strain measurements along with weight-based electrolyte uptake, and electrically by AC-impedance spectroscopy combined with capacitative cycling.

  2. Highly Flexible Graphene/Mn3O4 Nanocomposite Membrane as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Gan; Jin, Dandan; Zhou, Rui; Li, Xu; Liu, Xing-Rui; Shen, Chao; Xie, Keyu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-28

    Advanced electrode design is crucial in the rapid development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging flexible electronics. Herein, we report a rational synthesis of graphene/Mn3O4 nanocomposite membranes with excellent mechanical flexibility and Li-ion storage properties. The strong interaction between the large-area graphene nanosheets and long Mn3O4 nanowires not only enables the membrane to endure various mechanical deformations but also produces a strong synergistic effect of enhanced reaction kinetics by providing enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area and reduced electron/ion transport resistance. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a freestanding anode for Li-ion batteries, which delivers a high specific capacity of ∼800 mAh g(-1) based on the total electrode mass, along with superior high-rate capability and excellent cycling stability. A flexible full Li-ion battery is fabricated with excellent electrochemical properties and high flexibility, demonstrating its great potential for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  3. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  4. Wavelet transformation to determine impedance spectra of lithium-ion rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoshinao; Yakabe, Natsuki; Isobe, Koichiro; Saito, Toshiki; Shitanda, Isao; Itagaki, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    A new analytical method is proposed to determine the electrochemical impedance of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries (LIRB) from time domain data by wavelet transformation (WT). The WT is a waveform analysis method that can transform data in the time domain to the frequency domain while retaining time information. In this transformation, the frequency domain data are obtained by the convolution integral of a mother wavelet and original time domain data. A complex Morlet mother wavelet (CMMW) is used to obtain the complex number data in the frequency domain. The CMMW is expressed by combining a Gaussian function and sinusoidal term. The theory to select a set of suitable conditions for variables and constants related to the CMMW, i.e., band, scale, and time parameters, is established by determining impedance spectra from wavelet coefficients using input voltage to the equivalent circuit and the output current. The impedance spectrum of LIRB determined by WT agrees well with that measured using a frequency response analyzer.

  5. Determination of Thermal Contact Conductance of Metal Tabs for Battery Ultrasonic Welding Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili

    2012-01-01

    A new experimental apparatus and data analysis algorithm were used to determine the thermal contact conductance between 0.2-mm-thick pure aluminum battery tabs as a function of contact pressure from 3.6 to 14.4 MPa. Specimens were sandwiched between one optically transparent and one infrared (IR) transparent glass windows, and heated up from one side by an intense short pulse of flash light. The temperature transient on the other side was measured by an IR camera. In order to determine the thermal contact conductance, two experiment configurations having different number of Al specimen layers were used. Numerical heat conduction simulations showed that the thermal contact conductance strongly depended on the ratio of the maximum temperature rise between the two configurations. Moreover, this ratio was not sensitive to the uncertainties of other thermal properties. Through the simulation results, a simple correlation between the gap conductance and the ratio was established. Therefore, once the ratio of the temperature rise between two configurations was experimentally measured, the thermal contact conductance could be readily determined from the correlation. The new method was fast and robust. Most importantly, the data analysis algorithm improved the measurement accuracy by considerably reducing the uncertainties associated with the thermophysical properties of materials and measurement system.

  6. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (<30 nm). Nanosized intermetallic SnSb compounds can exhibit improved structural stability and conductivity during charge and discharge reactions compared to the corresponding individuals (Sn and Sb particles). In the meantime, RGO sheets can tightly anchor SnSb alloy particles on the surfaces, which can not only effectively suppress the agglomeration of SnSb particles but also maintain excellent electronic conduction. Furthermore, the mechanical flexibility of the RGO phase can accommodate the volume expansion and contraction of SnSb particles during the prolonged cycling, therefore, improve the electrode integrity mechanically and electronically. All of these contribute to the electrochemical performance improvements of the RGO-SnSb nanocomposite-based electrodes in rechargeable Na-ion batteries.

  7. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Embedded MoS2 Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Lithium- and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xia, Xinhui; Wang, Yadong; Wang, Donghuang; Zhong, Yu; Tang, Wangjia; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2016-08-01

    Rational design and synthesis of advanced anode materials are extremely important for high-performance lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Herein, a simple one-step hydrothermal method is developed for fabrication of N-C@MoS2 microspheres with the help of polyurethane as carbon and nitrogen sources. The MoS2 microspheres are composed of MoS2 nanoflakes, which are wrapped by an N-doped carbon layer. Owing to its unique structural features, the N-C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit greatly enhanced lithium- and sodium-storage performances including a high specific capacity, high rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. Additionally, the developed polyurethane-assisted hydrothermal method could be useful for the construction of many other high-capacity metal oxide/sulfide composite electrode materials for energy storage.

  9. Antimony nanoparticles anchored on interconnected carbon nanofibers networks as advanced anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hongshuai; Jing, Mingjun; Yang, Yingchang; Zhang, Yan; Song, Weixin; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-06-01

    Interconnected carbon nanofibers networks (ICNNs) prepared through the carbonization of polypyrrole (PPy) precursor are utilized as conductive pathways and buffer to improve the Na storage performance of antimony (Sb) as anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The as-obtained Sb/ICNNs composite exhibits excellent cycle stability. The reversible capacity can remain 542.5 mAh g-1 with a high capacity retention of 96.7% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. And the superior rate performance is also observed, the reversible capacity can still reach 325 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 3200 mA g-1. These great electrochemical performances observed above suggest that this type of composite can be a nice option for advanced SIBs anode materials and may be extended to other active materials/ICNNs composite electrode.

  10. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials. PMID:27377263

  11. The Interplay of Al and Mg Speciation in Advanced Mg Battery Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    See, Kimberly A; Chapman, Karena W; Zhu, Lingyang; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Barile, Christopher J; Chupas, Peter J; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Mg batteries are an attractive alternative to Li-based energy storage due to the possibility of higher volumetric capacities with the added advantage of using sustainable materials. A promising emerging electrolyte for Mg batteries is the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC) which shows high Mg electrodeposition and stripping efficiencies and relatively high anodic stabilities. As prepared, MACC is inactive with respect to Mg deposition; however, efficient Mg electrodeposition can be achieved following an electrolytic conditioning process. Through the use of Raman spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, (27)Al and (35)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis, we explore the active vs inactive complexes in the MACC electrolyte and demonstrate the codependence of Al and Mg speciation. These techniques report on significant changes occurring in the bulk speciation of the conditioned electrolyte relative to the as-prepared solution. Analysis shows that the active Mg complex in conditioned MACC is very likely the [Mg2(μ-Cl)3·6THF](+) complex that is observed in the solid state structure. Additionally, conditioning creates free Cl(-) in the electrolyte solution, and we suggest the free Cl(-) adsorbs at the electrode surface to enhance Mg electrodeposition.

  12. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, A.; Gu, M.; Colby, R.; Yan, P.; Wang, C. M.; Zheng, J. M.; Xiao, J.; Genc, A.; Zhang, J. G.; Belharouak, I.; Wang, D.; Amine, K.; Thevuthasan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cations in Li-ion battery cathodes as a function of cycling is a pivotal characteristic of battery performance. The transition metal cation distribution has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical imaging techniques. Here laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) is used to map the three-dimensional distribution of Li at a sub-nanometre spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. As-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions. Cycled material has an overall loss of Li in addition to Ni-, Mn- and Li-rich regions. Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. APT results were compared to energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping with a scanning transmission electron microscope to confirm the transition metal cation distribution. PMID:26272722

  13. Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler

    This dissertation presents a series of studies aimed towards the development of a compelling and commercially viable Li-ion battery containing a non-flammable room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte. Each study builds upon the previous, culminating in the demonstration of a high energy Li-ion system approaching the 700 Wh/L energy density benchmark. We begin by tackling several major issues associated with RTIL compatibility with the battery's passive, non- electroactive components, engineering solutions to each and enabling the utilization of certain RTIL materials in high voltage Li-ion systems. Since enabling the simple use of our RTIL electrolytes, we have been able to explore RTIL compatibility with a number of attractive, next-generation electrode chemistries including the high capacity silicon (Si) anode and high voltage, high capacity lithium- manganese-rich (LMR) cathode. Each of these studies contributes to a deeper understanding of the interfacial mechanisms occurring between the RTIL materials and various electrode surfaces, in several cases resulting in unprecedented half- and full-cell performance. The accomplishments presented herein represent important progress in working towards a safer, higher performance Li-ion system.

  14. Conductive Polymer-Coated VS4 Submicrospheres As Advanced Electrode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Li, Yanlu; Yang, Jing; Tian, Jian; Xu, Huayun; Yang, Jian; Fan, Weiliu

    2016-07-27

    VS4 as an electrode material in lithium-ion batteries holds intriguing features like high content of sulfur and one-dimensional structure, inspiring the exploration in this field. Herein, VS4 submicrospheres have been synthesized via a simple solvothermal reaction. However, they quickly degrade upon cycling as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. So, three conductive polymers, polythiophene (PEDOT), polypyrrole (PPY), and polyaniline (PANI), are coated on the surface to improve the electron conductivity, suppress the diffusion of polysulfides, and modify the interface between electrode/electrolyte. PANI is the best in the polymers. It improves the Coulombic efficiency to 86% for the first cycle and keeps the specific capacity at 755 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles, higher than the cases of naked VS4 (100 mAh g(-1)), VS4@PEDOT (318 mAh g(-1)), and VS4@PPY (448 mAh g(-1)). The good performances could be attributed to the improved charge-transfer kinetics and the strong interaction between PANI and VS4 supported by theoretical simulation. The discharge voltage ∼2.0 V makes them promising cathode materials.

  15. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  16. Determination of the entropy change profile of a cylindrical lithium-ion battery by heat flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashko, K. A.; Mityakov, A. V.; Mityakov, V. Y.; Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyrhönen, J.

    2016-10-01

    The popularity of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries has increased over the recent years. Because of the strong dependence of the Li-ion battery operation characteristics on temperature, heat generation in the battery has to be taken into account. The entropy change of a Li-ion battery has a significant influence on heat generation, especially at a low C-rate current. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the entropy change profile in the estimation of heat generation. In the paper, a method to determine the entropy change (ΔS) profile by heat flux measurements of a cylindrical Li-ion cell is proposed. The method allows simultaneous measurements of the thermal diffusivity and ΔS of the cylindrical cell. The thermal diffusivity and ΔS measurements are carried out by a gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS). The comparison between the ΔS profile determined by the GHFS method with that obtained using a standard potentiometric method clearly shows that the entropy change measurements could be made by using a GHFS. Even though the uncertainty of the reported method is higher than that of the potentiometric method, a significant decrease in the experiment time compared with the potentiometric method is a major advantage of this method.

  17. Social Determinants and Health Behaviors: Conceptual Frames and Empirical Advances

    PubMed Central

    Short, Susan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Health behaviors shape health and well-being in individuals and populations. Drawing on recent research, we review applications of the widely applied “social determinants” approach to health behaviors. This approach shifts the lens from individual attribution and responsibility to societal organization and the myriad institutions, structures, inequalities, and ideologies undergirding health behaviors. Recent scholarship integrates a social determinants perspective with biosocial approaches to health behavior dynamics. Empirical advances model feedback among social, psychological and biological factors. Health behaviors are increasingly recognized as multidimensional and embedded in health lifestyles, varying over the life course and across place and reflecting dialectic between structure and agency that necessitates situating individuals in context. Advances in measuring and modeling health behaviors promise to enhance representations of this complexity. PMID:26213711

  18. Advanced digital methods for solid propellant burning rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel A.

    The work presented here is a study of a digital method for determining the combustion bomb burning rate of a fuel-rich gas generator propellant sample using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The advanced digital method, which places user defined limits on the search for the ultrasonic echo from the burning surface, is computationally faster than the previous cross correlation method, and is able to analyze data for this class of propellant that the previous cross correlation data reduction method could not. For the conditions investigated, the best fit burning rate law at 800 psi from the ultrasonic technique and advanced cross correlation method is within 3 percent of an independent analysis of the same data, and is within 5 percent of the best fit burning rate law found from parallel research of the same propellant in a motor configuration.

  19. High capacity tin-iron oxide-carbon nanostructured anode for advanced lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelli, Roberta; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    A novel nanostructured Sn-Fe2O3-C anode material, prepared by high-energy ball milling, is here originally presented. The anode benefits from a unique morphology consisting in Fe2O3 and Sn active nanoparticles embedded in a conductive buffer carbon matrix of micrometric size. Furthermore, the Sn metal particles, revealed as amorphous according to X-ray diffraction measurement, show a size lower than 10 nm by transmission electron microscopy. The optimal combination of nano-scale active materials and micrometric electrode configuration of the Sn-Fe2O3-C anode reflects into remarkable electrochemical performances in lithium cell, with specific capacity content higher than 900 mAh g-1 at 1C rate (810 mA g-1) and coulombic efficiency approaching 100% for 100 cycles. The anode, based on a combination of lithium conversion, alloying and intercalation reactions, exhibits exceptional rate-capability, stably delivering more than 400 mAh g-1 at the very high current density of 4 A g-1. In order to fully confirm the suitability of the developed Sn-Fe2O3-C material as anode for lithium ion battery, the electrode is preliminarily studied in combination with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in a full cell stably and efficiently operating with a 3.7 V working voltage and a capacity exceeding 100 mAh g-1.

  20. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part II: Operation of the negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Dumenil, S.; Alias, M.; Christin, R.; de Mascarel, A.; Perrin, M.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the recent progress in the carbon honeycomb grid technology for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries with absorptive glass-mat separators (AGM-VRLAB). The work is focused on the development of negative current collectors using industrial grade composite honeycomb precursors. The developed model AGM-VRLA cells comprised of one prototype honeycomb negative electrode and two conventional traction positive counter-electrodes show high utilisation of the negative active material and long cycle life both in high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling mode and in deep cycling mode. The analysis of the results from the cycle-life tests and the tear-down analysis indicate that the benefits delivered by the novel grids can be related to the low mesh size of the grid, low γ-coefficient, as well as the use of milled carbon fibre additive. The combination of the three, results in the reversibility of the negative active material sulfation process when the electrolyte concentration in the cells is lower than the one traditionally used in the AGM-VRLAB technology. The negative plates show no signs of irreversible degradation after more than 900 cycles in deep cycling mode and more than 2000 capacity turnovers (equivalent cycles) in HRPSoC cycling mode.

  1. Insertion compounds and composites made by ball milling for advanced sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Dugas, Romain; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozier, Patrick; Abakumov, Artem M; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-18

    Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. However, their future commercialization depends critically on control over the solid electrolyte interface formation, as well as the degree of sodiation at the positive electrode. Here we report an easily scalable ball milling approach, which relies on the use of metallic sodium, to prepare a variety of sodium-based alloys, insertion layered oxides and polyanionic compounds having sodium in excess such as the Na4V2(PO4)2F3 phase. The practical benefits of preparing sodium-enriched positive electrodes as reservoirs to compensate for sodium loss during solid electrolyte interphase formation are demonstrated by assembling full C/P'2-Na1[Fe0.5Mn0.5]O2 and C/'Na3+xV2(PO4)2F3' sodium-ion cells that show substantial increases (>10%) in energy storage density. Our findings may offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of the sodium-ion technology.

  2. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  3. Facile synthesis of nanocage Co3O4 for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Baofeng; Xiao, Feng; Huang, Zhenguo; Wang, Yijing; Richardson, Christopher; Chen, Zhixin; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-12-01

    A facile two-step annealing process is applied to synthesize nanocage Co3O4, using cobalt-based metal-organic framework as precursor and template. The as-obtained nanocages are composed of numerous Co3O4 nanoparticles. N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms show that the as-obtained Co3O4 has a porous structure with a favorable surface area of 110.6 m2 g-1. Electrochemical tests show that nanocage Co3O4 is a potential candidate as anode for lithium-ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 810 mAh g-1 was obtained after 100 cycles at a high specific current of 500 mA g-1. The material also displays good rate capability, with a reversible capacity of 1069, 1063, 850, and 720 mAh g-1 at specific current of 100, 200, 800, and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. The good electrochemical performance of nanocage Co3O4 can be attributed to its unique hierarchical hollow structure, which is maintained during electrochemical cycling.

  4. Insertion compounds and composites made by ball milling for advanced sodium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Dugas, Romain; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozier, Patrick; Abakumov, Artem M.; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been considered as potential candidates for stationary energy storage because of the low cost and wide availability of Na sources. However, their future commercialization depends critically on control over the solid electrolyte interface formation, as well as the degree of sodiation at the positive electrode. Here we report an easily scalable ball milling approach, which relies on the use of metallic sodium, to prepare a variety of sodium-based alloys, insertion layered oxides and polyanionic compounds having sodium in excess such as the Na4V2(PO4)2F3 phase. The practical benefits of preparing sodium-enriched positive electrodes as reservoirs to compensate for sodium loss during solid electrolyte interphase formation are demonstrated by assembling full C/P′2-Na1[Fe0.5Mn0.5]O2 and C/‘Na3+xV2(PO4)2F3' sodium-ion cells that show substantial increases (>10%) in energy storage density. Our findings may offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of the sodium-ion technology. PMID:26777573

  5. Hierarchical MoS2 @Carbon Microspheres as Advanced Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Yuwen; Guo, Chunli; Tang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical hybridized nanocomposites with rationally constructed compositions and structures have been considered key for achieving superior Li-ion battery performance owing to their enhanced properties, such as fast lithium ion diffusion, good collection and transport of electrons, and a buffer zone for relieving the large volume variations during cycling processes. Hierarchical MoS2 @carbon microspheres (HMCM) have been synthesized in a facile hydrothermal treatment. The structure analyses reveal that ultrathin MoS2 nanoflakes (ca. 2-5 nm) are vertically supported on the surface of carbon nanospheres. The reversible capacity of the HMCM nanocomposite is maintained at 650 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles at 1 A g(-1) . Furthermore, the capacity can reach 477 mA h g(-1) even at a high current density of 4 A g(-1) . The outstanding electrochemical performance of HMCM is attributed to the synergetic effect between the carbon spheres and the ultrathin MoS2 nanoflakes. Additionally, the carbon matrix can supply conductive networks and prevent the aggregation of layered MoS2 during the charge/discharge process; and ultrathin MoS2 nanoflakes with enlarged surface areas, which can guarantee the flow of the electrolyte, provide more active sites and reduce the diffusion energy barrier of Li(+) ions. PMID:26542735

  6. Nanostructured nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon derived from polyacrylonitrile for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohui; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S.; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doping in carbon matrix can effectively improve the wettability of electrolyte and increase electric conductivity of carbon by ensuring fast transfer of ions. We synthesized a series of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbons (CPANs) via in situ polymerization of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in SBA-15 template followed by carbonization at different temperatures. Carbonization results in the formation of ladder structure which enhances the stability of the matrix. In this study, CPAN-800, carbon matrix synthesized by the carbonization at 800 °C, was found to possess many desirable properties such as high specific surface area and pore volume, moderate nitrogen content, and highly ordered mesoporous structure. Therefore, it was used to prepare S/CPAN-800 composite as cathode material in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The S/CPAN-800 composite was proved to be an excellent material for Li-S cells which delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 1585 mAh g-1 and enhanced capacity retention of 862 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C after 100 cycles.

  7. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. PMID:27120336

  8. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  9. Green energy storage materials: advanced nanostructured materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Alok Mani; Chandrasekar, M. S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    The projected doubling of world energy consumption in the next fifty years requires certain measures to meet this demand. The ideal energy provider is reliable, efficient, with low emissions source - wind, solar, etc. The low carbon footprint of renewables is an added benefit, which makes them especially attractive during this era of environmental consciousness. Unfortunately, the intermittent nature of energy from these renewables is not suitable for the commercial and residential grid application, unless the power delivery is 24/7, with minimum fluctuation. This requires intervention of efficient electrical energy storage technology to make power generation from renewable practical. The progress to higher energy and power density especially for battery technology will push material to the edge of stability and yet these materials must be rendered safe, stable and with reliable operation throughout their long life. A major challenge for chemical energy storage is developing the ability to store more energy while maintaining stable electrode-electrolyte interface. A structural transformation occurs during charge-discharge cycle, accompanied by a volume change, degrading the microstructure over-time. The need to mitigate this volume and structural change accompanying charge-discharge cycle necessitates going to nanostructured and multifunctional materials that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the energy density and power density.

  10. Sodium titanate cuboid as advanced anode material for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Hou, Hongshuai; Yang, Xuming; Chen, Jun; Jing, Mingjun; Wu, Zhibin; Jia, Xinnan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    Sodium titanate (Na2Ti6O13) cuboid is successfully prepared and employed for anode electrode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Their sodium storage properties are presented by undertaking polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as different binders. At a current density of 0.1 C, the sodium titanate cuboid with CMC and PVDF exhibits discharge capacity of 269.5 mAh g-1 and 251.0 mAh g-1, respectively. At the 200th charge/discharge cycle, the reserved discharge capacity for Sodium titanate cuboid electrode with CMC binder is 173.6 mAh g-1, amounting to a capacity retention of 94.4%, much higher than that employing PVDF as binder (the discharge capacity of 69.3 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention of 54.1%). The rate capability test and the Coulombic efficiency data also manifest that the Sodium titanate cuboid utilizing CMC as binder is superior to the ones with PVDF. These enhanced electrochemical performance mainly derive from the strong cohesive strength of CMC binder and the swellability of PVDF binder, verifying the importance of a binder to the optimization of sodium storage behavior.

  11. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  12. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  13. Recent advances in nanocrystalline intermetallic tin compounds for the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, Ricardo; Nwokeke, Uche G.; Nacimiento, Francisco; Lavela, Pedro; Tirado, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Intermetallic compounds of tin and first-row transition metals have been considered as potential anode materials for Li-ion batteries that could improve the performance of pure tin. Particularly, the solids dispersed at the nano scale provide interesting behavior. Thus CoSn, FeSn2 and CoSn3 nanocrystalline samples have been obtained at low temperatures. As compared with micrometric particles of CoSn, significantly higher reversible capacities are found for nanocrystalline CoSn. For nanocrystalline CoSn3 maximum reversible capacities of 690 mAh g-1 were observed in lithium test cells. Nanocrystalline products in the series CoSn2-FeSn2 could be prepared by chemical reduction in polyol solvents using a "one-pot" method. Superparamagnetic nanocrystalline FeSn2 delivers reversible capacities of ca. 600 mAhg-1 by the formation of LixSn phases and superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles. A comparison between the properties of nano- FeSn2 and micro-FeSn2 shows a significantly better electrochemical behavior and electrode stability for the nanocrystalline material. For Fe1-xCoxSn2 solid solutions with x= 0.25, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8, particle diameters of about 20 nm and different morphologies were obtained. The substitution of iron by cobalt induces a contraction of the unit cell volume and the hyperfine parameters of the 57Fe Mössbauer spectra reveal a superparamagnetic behavior. The intermediate compositions exhibit better electrochemical performance than the limit compositions CoSn2 and FeSn2. To improve the performance of CoSnx intermetallics, composites in which the nanocrystalline intermetallic material is embedded in an amorphous layer based on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer were used. The PAN shell contributes to stabilize the intermetallic phases upon electrochemical cycling.

  14. Effect of LEO cycling on 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    An advanced 125 Ah individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell, is to store and deliver energy for long term, low earth-orbit (LEO) spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick, (3) use of serrated edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management, and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion. Six 125 Ah flight cells based on this design were fabricated by Eagle-Picher. Three of the cells contain all of the advanced features (test cells) and three are the same as the test cells except they don't have catalyst on the wall wick (control cells). All six cells are in the process of being evaluated in a LEO cycle life test. The cells have accumulated about 4700 LEO cycles (60 percent DOD 10 C). There have been no cell failures, the catalyzed wall wick cells however, are performing better.

  15. How the systems approach is determining automotive battery design and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Jean; Stephany, Jean-Marie; Sheppelman, Todd

    Today, the battery in a vehicle system is specific and designed as a single, stand-alone vehicle product. Traditionally, customer specifications were the driving force behind battery design and application requirements. This method is not able to comprehend the fluctuating requirements of real-time, vehicle systems. Growing competition in the automotive market is increasing customer needs and expectations in regards to cost, weight, size efficiency, time-to-market, and quality of the products and systems. System engineering is a service that Delco Remy, as an electrical power system supplier, offers to help their customers secure gains in the market place. System development and application engineering is essential for the development of performance-optimized components that meet the systems and total vehicle cost, reliability and timing objectives. The battery integration must be managed through the electrical power system during the complete vehicle development process in order to increase ultimately customer satisfaction.

  16. Polarization curve measurements combined with potential probe sensing for determining current density distribution in vanadium redox-flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maik; Bredemeyer, Niels; Tenhumberg, Nils; Turek, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Potential probes are applied to vanadium redox-flow batteries for determination of effective felt resistance and current density distribution. During the measurement of polarization curves in 100 cm2 cells with different carbon felt compression rates, alternating potential steps at cell voltages between 0.6 V and 2.0 V are applied. Polarization curves are recorded at different flow rates and states of charge of the battery. Increasing compression rates lead to lower effective felt resistances and a more uniform resistance distribution. Low flow rates at high or low state of charge result in non-linear current density distribution with high gradients, while high flow rates give rise to a nearly linear behavior.

  17. Hydrogen determination in chemically delithiated lithium ion battery cathodes by prompt gamma activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Emilio, II

    2007-12-01

    Lithium ion batteries, due to their relatively high energy density, are now widely used as the power source for portable electronics. Commercial lithium ion cells currently employ layered LiCoO2 as a cathode but only 50% of its theoretical capacity can be utilized. The factors that cause the limitation are not fully established in the literature. With this perspective, prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has been employed to determine the hydrogen content in various oxide cathodes that have undergone chemical extraction of lithium (delithiation). The PGAA data is complemented by data obtained from atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), redox titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass spectroscopy to better understand the capacity limitations and failure mechanisms of lithium ion battery cathodes. As part of this work, the PGAA facility has been redesigned and reconstructed. The neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds have been reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Detection limits for elements have also been improved. Special attention was given to the experimental setup including potential sources of error and system calibration for the detection of hydrogen. Spectral interference with hydrogen arising from cobalt was identified and corrected for. Limits of detection as a function of cobalt mass present in a given sample are also discussed. The data indicates that while delithiated layered Li1- xCoO2, Li1-xNi 1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, and Li1- xNi0.5Mn0.5O2 take significant amounts of hydrogen into the lattice during deep extraction, orthorhombic Li 1-xMnO2, spinel Li1- xMn2O4, and olivine Li1- xFePO4 do not. Layered LiCoO2, LiNi 0.5Mn0.5O2, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2 have been further analyzed to assess their relative chemical instabilities while undergoing stepped chemical delithiation. Each system takes increasing amounts of protons at lower lithium contents. The differences are attributed to the relative chemical instabilities of the various cathodes

  18. Advances in understanding Giardia: determinants and mechanisms of chronic sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, R. Balfour

    2015-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan that is the most common cause of intestinal parasitic infection in children living in resource-limited settings. The pathogenicity of Giardia has been debated since the parasite was first identified, and clinical outcomes vary across studies. Among recent perplexing findings are diametrically opposed associations between Giardia and acute versus persistent diarrhea and a poorly understood potential for long-term sequelae, including impaired child growth and cognitive development. The mechanisms driving these protean clinical outcomes remain elusive, but recent advances suggest that variability in Giardia strains, host nutritional status, the composition of microbiota, co-infecting enteropathogens, host genetically determined mucosal immune responses, and immune modulation by Giardia are all relevant factors influencing disease manifestations after Giardia infection. PMID:26097735

  19. Advanced stellar compass onboard autonomous orbit determination, preliminary performance.

    PubMed

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John L; Jørgensen, Peter S; Denver, Troelz

    2004-05-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide; certainly the European Space Agency (SMART Program) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the cost of deep space missions. From past experience, it appears that navigation is the Achilles heel of deep space missions. Performed on ground, this imposes considerable constraints on the entire system and limits operations. This makes it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, furthermore, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, to date, ground navigation has been the only viable solution. The technology breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the advanced stellar compass (ASC), might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, onboard, and without a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performance obtained during the ground testing in August 2002 at the Mauna Kea Observatories. The main goals were: (1) to assess the robustness of the method in solving autonomously, onboard, the position lost-in-space problem; (2) to assess the preliminary accuracy achievable with a single planet and a single observation; (3) to verify the autonomous navigation (AutoNav) module could be implemented into an ASC without degrading the attitude measurements; and (4) to identify the areas of development and consolidation. The results obtained are very encouraging. PMID:15220158

  20. Advanced stellar compass onboard autonomous orbit determination, preliminary performance.

    PubMed

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John L; Jørgensen, Peter S; Denver, Troelz

    2004-05-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide; certainly the European Space Agency (SMART Program) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the cost of deep space missions. From past experience, it appears that navigation is the Achilles heel of deep space missions. Performed on ground, this imposes considerable constraints on the entire system and limits operations. This makes it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, furthermore, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, to date, ground navigation has been the only viable solution. The technology breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the advanced stellar compass (ASC), might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, onboard, and without a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performance obtained during the ground testing in August 2002 at the Mauna Kea Observatories. The main goals were: (1) to assess the robustness of the method in solving autonomously, onboard, the position lost-in-space problem; (2) to assess the preliminary accuracy achievable with a single planet and a single observation; (3) to verify the autonomous navigation (AutoNav) module could be implemented into an ASC without degrading the attitude measurements; and (4) to identify the areas of development and consolidation. The results obtained are very encouraging.

  1. Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Edward V. Thomas; Kevin L. Gering; Gary L. Henriksen; Vincent S. Battaglia; David Howell

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program has completed performance testing of the second generation of lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells, with a baseline and variant chemistry, were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOCs) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar- and accelerated-life cells were clamped at an open-circuit voltage corresponding to the designated SOC and were subjected to a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells were continuously pulsed using a profile that was centered around 60% SOC. Life testing was interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which were used to quantify changes in cell degradation as a function of aging. The RPTs generally consisted of C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The rate of cell degradation generally increased with increasing test temperature, and SOC. It was also usually slowest for the calendar-life cells and fastest for the accelerated-life cells. Detailed capacity-, power-, and impedance-based performance results are reported.

  2. Advances in determining abdominal aortic aneurysm size and growth.

    PubMed

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Lioudaki, Stella; Pantidis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Ioannou, Christos V

    2016-02-28

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common pathology in the aging population of the developed world which carries a significant mortality in excess of 80% in case of rupture. Aneurysmal disease probably represents the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention and therefore the ability to accurately and reproducibly record aneurysm size and growth over time is of outmost importance. In the same time that imaging techniques may be limited by intra- and inter-observer variability and there may be inconsistencies due to different modalities [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT)], rapid technologic advancement have taken aortic imaging to the next level. Digital imaging, multi-detector scanners, thin slice CT and most- importantly the ability to perform 3-dimensional reconstruction and image post-processing have currently become widely available rendering most of the imaging modalities used in the past out of date. The aim of the current article is to report on various imaging methods and current state of the art techniques used to record aneurysm size and growth. Moreover we aim to emphasize on the future research directions and report on techniques which probably will be widely used and incorporated in clinical practice in the near future. PMID:26981224

  3. Advances in determining abdominal aortic aneurysm size and growth

    PubMed Central

    Kontopodis, Nikolaos; Lioudaki, Stella; Pantidis, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, George; Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Ioannou, Christos V

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common pathology in the aging population of the developed world which carries a significant mortality in excess of 80% in case of rupture. Aneurysmal disease probably represents the only surgical condition in which size is such a critical determinant of the need for intervention and therefore the ability to accurately and reproducibly record aneurysm size and growth over time is of outmost importance. In the same time that imaging techniques may be limited by intra- and inter-observer variability and there may be inconsistencies due to different modalities [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT)], rapid technologic advancement have taken aortic imaging to the next level. Digital imaging, multi-detector scanners, thin slice CT and most- importantly the ability to perform 3-dimensional reconstruction and image post-processing have currently become widely available rendering most of the imaging modalities used in the past out of date. The aim of the current article is to report on various imaging methods and current state of the art techniques used to record aneurysm size and growth. Moreover we aim to emphasize on the future research directions and report on techniques which probably will be widely used and incorporated in clinical practice in the near future. PMID:26981224

  4. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  5. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  6. Lithium salts for advanced lithium batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    DOE PAGES

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M.; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-06-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions andmore » conditions within such cells. Furthermore, this review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.« less

  7. Fitness test profiles as determined by the Eurofit Test Battery in elite female Gaelic football players.

    PubMed

    Keane, Annette; Scott, Mark A; Dugdill, Lindsey; Reilly, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Gaelic Football is the main sport in Ireland and has potential for use as a means of fitness in health promotion contexts. The present study entailed a cross-sectional comparison of performances in a motor test battery between elite female players and an age-matched reference group. The aim was to identify the fitness items that characterize top performers in the game. Altogether, 83 women aged 18-29 participated in the study and completed a series of tests consisting of 8 items in the Eurofit Test Battery. The profiles of the 2 groups were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Four of the test items contributed to group discrimination (endurance, flexibility, trunk strength, and limb speed). Based on percentage difference, the most prominent discriminator was the estimated VO2max (mean 49.9+/-4.2 vs. 39.7+/-6.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Grip strength and agility were also significantly superior in the Gaelic Football players (p<0.05), who had significantly lower body fat values (23.3+/-2.3%) than the reference group (27.2+/-3.6%). The use of the Eurofit Test battery in games players was confirmed as were the multifactorial requirements of fitness for women playing this sport. It was concluded that elite Gaelic Football at top level is characterized mainly by high aerobic fitness, but a holistic training program is needed to cover the multiple fitness requirements of the game. Practical applications include the use of this game for health-related purposes.

  8. Determination of transport properties and optimization of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Sarah Grace

    We have adapted the method of restricted diffusion to measure diffusion coefficients in lithium-battery electrolytes using Ultra-Violent-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption. The use of UV-Vis absorption reduces the likelihood of side reactions. Here we describe the measurement of the diffusion coefficient in lithium-battery electrolytic solutions. The diffusion coefficient is seen to decrease with increasing concentration according to the following: D = 3.018·10-5 exp(-0.357c), for LiPF 6 in acetonitrile and D = 2.582·10-5 exp(-2.856c) for LiPF6 in EC:DEC (with D in cm2/s and c in moles per liter). This technique may be useful for any liquid solution with a UV-active species of D greater than 10-6 cm2/s. Activity coefficients were measured in concentration cell and melting-point-depression experiments. Results from concentration-cell experiments are presented for solutions of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) as well as in a 1:1 by weight solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). Heat capacity results are also presented. The thermodynamic factor of LiPF6 solutions in EC varies between ca. 1.33 and ca. 6.10 in the concentration range ca. 0.06 to 1.25 M (which appears to be a eutectic point). We show that the solutions of LiPF6 investigated are not ideal but that an assumption of ideality for these solutions may overestimate the specific energy of a lithium-ion cell by only 0.6%. The thermodynamic and transport properties that we have measured are used in a system model. We have used this model to optimize the design of an asymmetric-hybrid system. This technology attempts to bridge the gap in energy density between a battery and supercapacitor. In this system, the positive electrode stores charge through a reversible, nonfaradaic adsorption of anions on the surface. The negative electrode is nanostructured Li4Ti 5O12, which reversibly intercalates lithium. We use the properties that we have measured in a system

  9. Recent Experimental Advances to Determine (noble) Gases in Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.; Huxol, S.; Mächler, L.; Maden, C.; Vogel, N.; Tomonaga, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In aquatic systems noble gases, radon, and bio-geochemically conservative transient trace gases (SF6, CFCs) are frequently applied to determine water residence times and to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions. Recent experimental breakthroughs now enable ● to apply the well-established concepts of terrestrial noble gas geochemistry in waters to the minute water amounts stored in sediment pore space and in fluid inclusions (A), ● to determine gas exchange processes on the bio-geochemical relevant time scales of minutes - hours (B), and ● to separate diffusive and advective gas transport in soil air (C). A. Noble-gas analysis in water samples (< 1 g) facilitates determining the solute transport in the pore space and identifying the origin of bio- and geogenic fluids in (un) consolidated sediments [1]. Advanced techniques that combine crushing and sieving speleothem samples in ultra-high-vacuum to a specific grain size allow to separate air and water-bearing fluid inclusions and thus enables noble-gas-based reconstruction of environmental conditions from water masses as small as 1mg [2]. B. The coupling of noble gas analysis with approaches of gas chromatography permits combined analysis of noble gases and other gases species (e.g., SF6, CFCs, O2, N2) from a single water sample. The new method substantially improves ground water dating by SF6 and CFCs as excess air is quantified from the same sample and hence can adequately be corrected for [3]. Portable membrane-inlet mass spectrometers enable the quasi-continuous and real-time analysis of noble gases and other dissolved gases directly in the field, allowing, for instance, quantification of O2 turnover rates on small time scales [4]. C. New technical developments perfect 222Rn analysis in water by the synchronous the determination of the short-lived 220Rn. The combined 220,222Rn analysis sheds light on the emanation behaviour of radon by identifying soil water content to be the crucial

  10. Determining Pain Detection and Tolerance Thresholds Using an Integrated, Multi-Modal Pain Task Battery

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Justin L.; Okkerse, Pieter; van Amerongen, Guido; Groeneveld, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Human pain models are useful in the assessing the analgesic effect of drugs, providing information about a drug's pharmacology and identify potentially suitable therapeutic populations. The need to use a comprehensive battery of pain models is highlighted by studies whereby only a single pain model, thought to relate to the clinical situation, demonstrates lack of efficacy. No single experimental model can mimic the complex nature of clinical pain. The integrated, multi-modal pain task battery presented here encompasses the electrical stimulation task, pressure stimulation task, cold pressor task, the UVB inflammatory model which includes a thermal task and a paradigm for inhibitory conditioned pain modulation. These human pain models have been tested for predicative validity and reliability both in their own right and in combination, and can be used repeatedly, quickly, in short succession, with minimum burden for the subject and with a modest quantity of equipment. This allows a drug to be fully characterized and profiled for analgesic effect which is especially useful for drugs with a novel or untested mechanism of action. PMID:27166581

  11. Battery analyzer for electric golf carts

    SciTech Connect

    Sharber, J.M.

    1982-02-09

    A battery tester for testing individual batteries on an electrically driven vehicle such that as the vehicle is in motion , the condition of each battery in a series connected power source maybe analyzed. The device briefly comprises indicator device such as the meter and connection devices to isolate individual battery to determine the voltage of each battery as the vehicle is being driven.

  12. A study of advanced magnesium-based hydride and development of a metal hydride thermal battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chengshang

    Metal hydrides are a group of important materials known as energy carriers for renewable energy and thermal energy storage. A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides is studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilizes a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The hot hydride that is identified and developed is catalyzed MgH2 due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics. TiV0.62Mn1.5, TiMn2, and LaNi5 alloys are selected as the matching cold hydride. A systematic experimental survey is carried out in this study to compare a wide range of additives including transitions metals, transition metal oxides, hydrides, intermetallic compounds, and carbon materials, with respect to their effects on dehydrogenation properties of MgH2. The results show that additives such as Ti and V-based metals, hydride, and certain intermetallic compounds have strong catalytic effects. Solid solution alloys of magnesium are exploited as a way to destabilize magnesium hydride thermodynamically. Various elements are alloyed with magnesium to form solid solutions, including indium and aluminum. Thermodynamic properties of the reactions between the magnesium solid solution alloys and hydrogen are investigated, showing that all the solid solution alloys that are investigated in this work have higher equilibrium hydrogen pressures than that of pure magnesium. Cyclic stability of catalyzed MgH2 is characterized and analyzed using a PCT Sievert-type apparatus. Three systems, including MgH2-TiH 2, MgH2-TiMn2, and MgH2-VTiCr, are examined. The hydrogenating and dehydrogenating kinetics at 300°C are stable after 100 cycles. However, the low temperature (25°C to 150°C) hydrogenation kinetics suffer a severe degradation during hydrogen cycling. Further experiments confirm that the low temperature kinetic degradation can be mainly related the extended hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions. Proof

  13. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  14. Updated status of conductance/capacity correlation studies to determine the state-of-health of automotive and stand-by lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, D. O.; Hlavac, M. J.; McShane, S. J.

    1994-02-01

    For the past seven years, Midtronics has developed and manufactured battery conductance testers for determining the condition of automotive batteries. This paper presents a further refinement of the technology. Studies by automobile manufacturers, automotive battery manufacturers, as well as testing by Midtronics and an independent test laboratory have established the utility of conductance technology in evaluating the condition of automotive batteries, even at very low states-of-charge. The use of conductance to determine the state-of-health of stand-by batteries has attracted increasing worldwide interest among both battery manufacturers and users. Attention has focused first on the area of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries (VRBs) for which there are no reliable diagnostics other than a cumbersome discharge test. Several recent studies have demonstrated the validity of conductance testing as an accurate predictor of battery capacity in railroad, electric power utility, stand-by power and telecommunications applications. Other benefits includes: (1) for the first time, tests have resulted in the accumulation and publication of large quantities of actual capacity data for individual valve-regulated cells and batteries that will serve as a standard against which conductance results can be compared; (2) results of these capacity tests have shown both unusually wide-spread capacity variation and significant numbers of premature capacity failures in valve-regulated cells over a wide range of applications in telecommunications, UPS, photovoltaic and railroad signaling systems; these failures have appeared to occur without regard to specific manufacturers, design, application or use environment; (3) in addition, both users and manufacturers have generally become more knowledgeable of performance characteristics, ageing mechanisms and failure modes of valve-regulated cells, so that it is now clearly recognized that the number of serious failure modes significantly

  15. Assessment of Potential for Batteries in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    Different battery technologies for energy storage in space missions were examined. One of the best ways of the possibilities of high energy density batteries were determined by looking at more conventional batteries (i.e., lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, etc.). The theoretical specific energy density for state of the art batteries and the usable energy density for a reasonable life expectancy are outlined. The most mature of these couples is lead acid, which achieves nearly 20% of its theoretical capacity. The nickel-cadmium couple, has matured to where the active capacity is 17% of its theoretical capacity. The achievements are used to measure the practicality of more advanced batteries and to estimate what is needed for future high power space systems.

  16. An Historical Summary and Prospects for the Future of Spacecraft Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Subjects covered in this report include a historical evolution of batteries in space, evolution and status of nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries, present applications, future applications and advanced batteries for future missions.

  17. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicles (EVs); a market predicted to be potentially ten times greater than that of consumer electronics. In fact, only Liion batteries can meet the requirements for PHEVs as set by the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), although they still fall slightly short of EV goals. In the case of Li-ion batteries, the trade-off between power and energy shown in Figure 1 is a function both of device design and the electrode materials that are used. Thus, a high power battery (e.g., one intended for an HEV) will not necessarily contain the same electrode materials as one designed for high energy (i.e., for an EV). As is shown in Figure 1, power translates into acceleration, and energy into range, or miles traveled, for vehicular uses. Furthermore, performance, cost, and abuse-tolerance requirements for traction batteries differ considerably from those for consumer electronics batteries. Vehicular applications are particularly sensitive to cost; currently, Li-ion batteries are priced at about $1000/kWh, whereas the USABC goal is $150/kWh. The three most expensive components of a Li-ion battery, no matter what the configuration, are the cathode, the separator, and the electrolyte. Reduction of cost has been one of the primary driving forces for the investigation of new cathode materials to replace expensive LiCoO{sub 2}, particularly for vehicular applications. Another extremely important factor is safety under abuse conditions such as overcharge. This is particularly relevant for the large battery packs intended for vehicular uses, which are designed with multiple cells wired in series arrays. Premature failure of one cell in a string may cause others to go into overcharge during passage of current. These considerations have led to the development of several different types of cathode materials, as will be covered in the next section. Because there is not yet one ideal material that can meet

  18. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  19. Advanced energy storage for space applications: A follow-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1994-01-01

    Viewgraphs on advanced energy storage for space applications are presented. Topics covered include: categories of space missions using batteries; battery challenges; properties of SOA and advanced primary batteries; lithium primary cell applications; advanced rechargeable battery applications; present limitations of advanced battery technologies; and status of Li-TiS2, Ni-MH, and Na-NiCl2 cell technologies.

  20. Quantitative and Qualitative Determination of Polysulfide Species in the Electrolyte of a Lithium-Sulfur Battery using HPLC ESI/MS with One-Step Derivatization

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-01-29

    The polysulfide species dissolved in aprotic solvents can be separated and analyzed by reverse phase (RP) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in tandem with electrospray-mass spectroscopy. The relative distribution of polysulfide species in the electrolyte recovered from Li-S batteries is quantitatively and reliably determined for the first time.

  1. Advanced hybrid battery with a magnesium metal anode and a spinel LiMn2O4 cathode.

    PubMed

    Pan, Baofei; Feng, Zhenxing; Sa, Niya; Han, Sang-Don; Ma, Qing; Fenter, Paul; Vaughey, John T; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-08-01

    Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes are developed, which exhibit excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)) on an aluminum current collector, enabling the successful coupling of several state-of-the-art lithium-ion intercalation cathodes (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) with magnesium metal anodes. The Mg-LiMn2O4 battery delivers an initial discharge capacity of about 106 mA h g(-1) with a working voltage of around 2.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)), highlighting the highest working voltage of rechargeable batteries with magnesium metal anodes to date. PMID:27439946

  2. Advanced hybrid battery with a magnesium metal anode and a spinel LiMn2O4 cathode.

    PubMed

    Pan, Baofei; Feng, Zhenxing; Sa, Niya; Han, Sang-Don; Ma, Qing; Fenter, Paul; Vaughey, John T; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-08-01

    Two Mg-Li dual salt hybrid electrolytes are developed, which exhibit excellent oxidative stability up to around 3.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)) on an aluminum current collector, enabling the successful coupling of several state-of-the-art lithium-ion intercalation cathodes (LiMn2O4, LiCoO2 and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2) with magnesium metal anodes. The Mg-LiMn2O4 battery delivers an initial discharge capacity of about 106 mA h g(-1) with a working voltage of around 2.8 V (vs. Mg/Mg(2+)), highlighting the highest working voltage of rechargeable batteries with magnesium metal anodes to date.

  3. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2016-01-01

    Lithium–sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium–sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles. PMID:27762261

  4. Simultaneous determination of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides using a battery-operated portable filter pack sampler.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Mirai; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Koshikawa, Masami K; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2006-01-01

    We developed a method to analyze atmospheric SO(x) (particulate SO(4)(2-)+ gaseous SO(2)) and NO(x) (NO + NO(2)) simultaneously using a battery-operated portable filter pack sampler. NO(x) determination using a filter pack method is new. SO(x) and NO(x) were collected on a Na(2)CO(3) filter and PTIO (2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl) + TEA (triethanolamine) filters (6 piled sheets), respectively. Aqueous solutions were then used to extract pollutants trapped by the filters and the resulting extracts were pre-cleaned (e.g. elimination of PTIO) and analyzed for sulfate and nitrite by ion chromatography. Recoveries of SO(2) and NO(x) from standard pollutant gases and consistency of the field data with those from other instrumental methods were examined to evaluate our method. SO(x) and NO(x) could be analyzed accurately with determination limits of 0.2 ppbv and 1.0 ppbv (as daily average concentrations), respectively. The sampler can determine SO(x) and NO(x) concentrations at mountainous or remote sites without needing an electric power supply.

  5. [Advance in study on zearalenone's toxicity and determination].

    PubMed

    He, Qing-Hua; Xu, Yang

    2005-07-01

    The article is intended to introduce the zearalenone's toxicity, determination methods and prevention. Zearalenone is one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins produces by Fusarium Species, it is harm to animals and human. And it can induce human liver cancer,carcinoma of tesis esophagus cancer. Now we use high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, thin layer chromatography, non-toxicity determinations to detect it.

  6. Encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon as binder-free monolithic anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Guoqiang; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Silicon monoxide, a promising silicon-based anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries, has recently attracted much attention for its high theoretical capacity, good cycle stability, low cost, and environmental benignity. Currently, the most critical challenge is to improve its low initial coulombic efficiency and significant volume changes during the charge-discharge processes. Herein, we report a binder-free monolithic electrode structure based on directly encapsulating micro-nano Si/SiOx particles into conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks to form monolithic, multi-core, cross-linking composite matrices. We utilize micro-nano Si/SiOx reduced by high-energy ball-milling SiO as active materials, and conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon formed by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile both as binders and conductive agents. Owing to the high electrochemical activity of Si/SiOx and the good mechanical resiliency of conjugated nitrogen-doped carbon backbones, this specific composite structure enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO and accommodates its large volume expansion, as well as its good ionic and electronic conductivity. The annealed Si/SiOx/polyacrylonitrile composite electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical properties, including a high initial reversible capacity (2734 mA h g-1 with 75% coulombic efficiency), stable cycle performance (988 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles), and good rate capability (800 mA h g-1 at 1 A g-1 rate). Because the composite is naturally abundant and shows such excellent electrochemical performance, it is a promising anode candidate material for lithium-ion batteries. The binder-free monolithic architectural design also provides an effective way to prepare other monolithic electrode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GM’s Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team

  8. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications.

  9. Synergistically Enhanced Polysulfide Chemisorption Using a Flexible Hybrid Separator with N and S Dual-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Coating for Advanced Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balach, Juan; Singh, Harish K; Gomoll, Selina; Jaumann, Tony; Klose, Markus; Oswald, Steffen; Richter, Manuel; Eckert, Jürgen; Giebeler, Lars

    2016-06-15

    Because of the outstanding high theoretical specific energy density of 2600 Wh kg(-1), the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as a promising candidate for post lithium-ion battery systems eligible to meet the forthcoming market requirements. However, its commercialization on large scale is thwarted by fast capacity fading caused by the Achilles' heel of Li-S systems: the polysulfide shuttle. Here, we merge the physical features of carbon-coated separators and the unique chemical properties of N and S codoped mesoporous carbon to create a functional hybrid separator with superior polysulfide affinity and electrochemical benefits. DFT calculations revealed that carbon materials with N and S codoping possess a strong binding energy to high-order polysulfide species, which is essential to keep the active material in the cathode side. As a result of the synergistic effect of N, S dual-doping, an advanced Li-S cell with high specific capacity and ultralow capacity degradation of 0.041% per cycle is achieved. Pushing our simple-designed and scalable cathode to a highly increased sulfur loading of 5.4 mg cm(-2), the Li-S cell with the functional hybrid separator can deliver a remarkable areal capacity of 5.9 mAh cm(-2), which is highly favorable for practical applications. PMID:27225061

  10. Li(+)-conductive polymer-embedded nano-Si particles as anode material for advanced Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Zeng, Shi; Qian, Jianfeng; Wang, Yadong; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2014-03-12

    Si has been considered as a promising alternative anode for next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs), but the commercial application of Si anodes is still limited due to their poor cyclability. In this paper, we propose a new strategy to enhance the long-term cyclability of Si anode by embedding nano-Si particles into a Li(+)-conductive polymer to form a Si/polymer composite with core-shell structure, in which nano-Si cores act as active Li-storage phase and the polymeric matrix serves not only as a strong buffer to accommodate the volume change, but also as a protection barrier to prevent the direct contact of Si surface with electrolyte, so as to maintain the mechanical integrity of Si anode and suppress the repeated destruction and construction of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the Si surface. To realize this strategy, we synthesize a Si/PPP (polyparaphenylene) composite simply by ball-milling the Si nanoparticles with PPP polymer that has n-doping activity. Our experimental results demonstrate that the thus-prepared Si/PPP composite exhibits a high capacity of 3184 mA h g(-1) with an initial coulombic efficiency of 78%, an excellent rate capability with a considerably high capacity of 1670 mA h g(-1) even at a very high rate of 16 A g(-1), and a long-term cyclability with 60% capacity retention over 400 cycles, showing a great prospect for battery application. In addition, this structural design could be adopted to other Li-storable metals or alloys for developing cycle-stable anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  11. Advances in the Determination of Nucleic Acid Conformational Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Loïc; Yang, Shan; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2014-04-01

    Conformational changes in nucleic acids play a key role in the way genetic information is stored, transferred, and processed in living cells. Here, we describe new approaches that employ a broad range of experimental data, including NMR-derived chemical shifts and residual dipolar couplings, small-angle X-ray scattering, and computational approaches such as molecular dynamics simulations to determine ensembles of DNA and RNA at atomic resolution. We review the complementary information that can be obtained from diverse sets of data and the various methods that have been developed to combine these data with computational methods to construct ensembles and assess their uncertainty. We conclude by surveying RNA and DNA ensembles determined using these methods, highlighting the unique physical and functional insights obtained so far.

  12. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability.

  13. Bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Yu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Ding, Shujiang; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2014-11-17

    Despite the great advantages of hollow structures as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, one apparent common drawback which is often criticized is their compromised volumetric energy density due to the introduced hollow interior. Here, we design and synthesize bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles to reduce the excessive hollow interior space while retaining the general advantages of hollow structures. As a result, the tap density can be increased about 30 %. The as-prepared bowl-like SnO2 @carbon hollow particles with conformal carbon support exhibit excellent lithium storage properties in terms of high capacity, stable cyclability and excellent rate capability. PMID:25251871

  14. Allylic ionic liquid electrolyte-assisted electrochemical surface passivation of LiCoO2 for advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Junyoung; Yim, Taeeun; Park, Jang Hoon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Lee, Sang Young; Kim, Young Gyu; Oh, Seung M.

    2014-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolytes have attracted much attention for use in advanced, safe lithium-ion batteries (LIB) owing to their nonvolatility, high conductivity, and great thermal stability. However, LIBs containing RTIL-electrolytes exhibit poor cyclability because electrochemical side reactions cause problematic surface failures of the cathode. Here, we demonstrate that a thin, homogeneous surface film, which is electrochemically generated on LiCoO2 from an RTIL-electrolyte containing an unsaturated substituent on the cation (1-allyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, AMPip-TFSI), can avert undesired side reactions. The derived surface film comprised of a high amount of organic species from the RTIL cations homogenously covered LiCoO2 with a <25 nm layer and helped suppress unfavorable thermal reactions as well as electrochemical side reactions. The superior performance of the cell containing the AMPip-TFSI electrolyte was further elucidated by surface, electrochemical, and thermal analyses. PMID:25168309

  15. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao

    2016-10-01

    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  16. Thin Dielectric Film Thickness Determination by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, A. C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by nonspecialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark-field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods has been steadily improved reaching now into the sub-Ångstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this article, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this article is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  17. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  18. Development of advanced batteries at Argonne National Laboratory. Summary report for 1979. [Li-Al/LiCl-KCl/FeS or FeS/sub 2/, 40 kWh; also Ca-Si/FeS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    A summary for 1979 of Argonne National Laboratory's program on the development of advanced batteries is presented. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications. The principal cells under investigation at present are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of Li-Al alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte; the cell operating temperature is 400 to 500/sup 0/C. A small effort on the development of a calcium/metal sulfide cell is also being conducted. During 1979, cell and battery development work continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40-kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. to ANL for testing. During heat-up, one of the modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program, completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 9 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Effects of Carbon Structure and Surface Oxygen on the Carbon's Performance as the Anode in Lithium-Ion Battery Determined

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2000-01-01

    Four carbon materials (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were tested electrochemically at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to determine their performance in lithium-ion batteries. They were formed as shown in the figure. This process caused very little carbon loss. Products C1 and C3 contained very little oxygen because of the final overnight heating at 540 C. Products C2 and C4, on the other hand, contained small amounts of basic oxide. The electrochemical test involved cycles of lithium intercalation and deintercalation using C/saturated LiI-50/50 (vol %) ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)/Li half cell. The cycling test, which is summarized in the table, resulted in three major conclusions. The capacity of the carbon with a basic oxide surface converges to a constant 1. value quickly (within 4 cycles), possibly because the oxide prevents solvent from entering the carbon structure and, therefore, prolongs the carbon s cycle life. Under certain conditions, the disordered carbon can store more lithium than its 2. precursor. These samples and their precursor can intercalate at 200 mA/g and deintercalate at 3. a rate of 2000 mA/g without significant capacity loss.

  20. Three-Dimensional Branched TiO2 Architectures in Controllable Bloom for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaofu; Qu, Dandan; Jiang, Yun; Xiong, Wan-Sheng; Sang, Hong-Qian; He, Rong-Xiang; Tai, Qidong; Chen, Bolei; Liu, Yumin; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-08-10

    Three-dimensional branched TiO2 architectures (3D BTA) with controllable morphologies were synthesized via a facile template-free one-pot solvothermal route. The volume ratio of deionized water (DI water) and diethylene glycol in solvothermal process is key to the formation of 3D BTA assembled by nanowire-coated TiO2 dendrites, which combines the advantages of 3D hierarchical structure and 1D nanoscale building blocks. Benefiting from such unique structural features, the BTA in full bloom achieved significantly increased specific surface areas and shortened Li(+) ion/electrons diffusion pathway. The lithium-ion batteries based on BTA in full bloom exhibited remarkably enhanced reversible specific capacity and rate performance, attributing to the high contact area with the electrolyte and the short solid state diffusion pathway for Li(+) ion/electrons promoting lithium insertion and extraction. PMID:27420343

  1. Single electrospun porous NiO-ZnO hybrid nanofibers as anode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Wang, Xinghui; Qiao, Li; Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Xiuwan; Zheng, Yunxian; He, Deyan

    2013-04-01

    Porous NiO-ZnO hybrid nanofibers were prepared by a single-nozzle electrospinning technique combined with subsequent heating treatment. The resultant nanofibers are composed of interconnected primary nanocrystals and numerous nanopores with heterostructures between NiO and ZnO. Such characteristics of the structure can lead to excellent electrochemical performances when the nanofiber was evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The porous NiO-ZnO nanofiber electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 949 mA h g(-1) after 120 cycles at 0.2 A g(-1), and maintains around 707 mA h g(-1) at a current density as high as 3.2 A g(-1). Even after cycling at high rates, the electrode still retains a high discharge capacity of up to 1185 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 A g(-1).

  2. Solvothermal preparation of tin phosphide as a long-life anode for advanced lithium and sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; Zhang, Hongzhe; Xu, Liqiang; Ma, Lanbing; Chen, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) nanoparticles with different sizes are synthesized via a facile solvothermal method at 180 °C for 10 h. The as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have an average size of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, their size could be easily controlled by the solvent ratio. The long cycle stability and rate performance of the as-obtained Sn4P3 nanoparticles have been tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries for the first time. Electrochemical measurements show that the Sn4P3 nanoparticles with a smallest size give the best cycling and rate performances. They deliver a discharge capacity of 612 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles and could still maintain 442 mAh g-1 after 320 cycles at the current density of 100 mA g-1 within voltage limit of 0.01-3.0 V. Even after 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the specific capacity still could be remained at 315 mAh g-1. The improved electrochemical performances of Sn4P3 electrode might be largely attributed to their small-size. Furthermore, the as-prepared Sn4P3 nanoparticles have also been tested as an anode material for Na-ion batteries, this Sn4P3 anode can deliver a reversible capacity of 305 mAh g-1 after 10 cycles at the current density of 50 mA g-1.

  3. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  4. Thermal parameters determination of battery cells by local heat flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashko, K. A.; Mityakov, A. V.; Pyrhönen, J.; Mityakov, V. Y.; Sapozhnikov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    A new approach to define of the thermal parameters, such as heat capacity and through-plane thermal conductivity, of pouch-type cells is introduced. Application of local heat flux measurement with a gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS) allows determination of the cell thermal parameters in different surface points of the cell. The suggested method is not cell destructive as it does not require deep discharge of the cell or application of any charge/discharge cycles during the measurements of the thermal parameters of the cell. The complete procedure is demonstrated on a high-power lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cell, and it is verified on a sample with well-known thermal parameters. A comparison of the experimental results with conventional thermal characterization methods shows an acceptably low error. The dependence of the cell thermal parameters on the state of charge (SoC) and measurement points on the surface was studied by the proposed measurement approach.

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  7. Hierarchical sulfur-impregnated hydrogenated TiO2 mesoporous spheres comprising anatase nanosheets with highly exposed (001) facets for advanced Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Changzhou; Zhu, Siqi; Cao, Hui; Hou, Linrui; Lin, Jingdong

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we purposefully designed hierarchical hydrogenated TiO2 spheres (HTSs) constructed from ultrathin anatase nanosheets with highly exposed (001) facets, and further utilized them as an efficient encapsulated host of sulfur species for advanced Li-S batteries (LSBs). Strikingly, the as-fabricated hybrid S/HTSs cathode exhibited high Coulombic efficiency (>94%), exceptional long cycling performance (capacity decay of ˜0.399% per cycle at 0.5 C), and large reversible discharge capacity (˜579 mAh g-1 at 2.0 C) at high C rates, benefiting from better electronic conductivity, smaller charge transfer resistance and strong chemical bonding between {{{{S}}}n}2- and the reduced (001) facets of HTSs, according to experimental measurements and systematical theoretical calculations. More significantly, our in-depth insights into the mechanism involved in the hybrid S/HTSs could efficiently guide future design, optimization and synthesis of other metal oxide-based matrixes with specific exposed crystal facets for next-generation advanced LSBs.

  8. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  9. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, J.L. )

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  11. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  12. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g−1 and 84% at 150 mA g−1 over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g−1 (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g−1, respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  13. Advanced technology development program for lithium-ion batteries : thermal abuse performance of 18650 Li-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Crafts, Chris C.; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; McBreen, James.; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2004-03-01

    Li-ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles currently being designed for the FreedomCAR (Freedom Cooperative Automotive Research) program. These cells offer superior performance in terms of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are the basis of battery systems for both gasoline and fuel cell based hybrids. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial application in hybrid electric vehicles. The thermal behavior of commercial and prototype cells has been measured under varying conditions of cell composition, age and state-of-charge (SOC). The thermal runaway behavior of full cells has been measured along with the thermal properties of the cell components. We have also measured gas generation and gas composition over the temperature range corresponding to the thermal runaway regime. These studies have allowed characterization of cell thermal abuse tolerance and an understanding of the mechanisms that result in cell thermal runaway.

  14. Advanced aqueous rechargeable lithium battery using nanoparticulate LiTi2(PO4)3/C as a superior anode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Jiang, Yifan; Wang, Haiyan; Yao, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; He, Kejian; Liu, Suqin; Tang, Yougen; Liu, Younian; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Poor cycling performance arising from the instability of anode is still a main challenge for aqueous rechargeable lithium batteries (ARLB). In the present work, a high performance LiTi2(PO4)3/C composite has been achieved by a novel and facile preparation method associated with an in-situ carbon coating approach. The LiTi2(PO4)3/C nanoparticles show high purity and the carbon layer is very uniform. When used as an anode material, the ARLB of LiTi2(PO4)3/C//LiMn2O4 delivered superior cycling stability with a capacity retention of 90% after 300 cycles at 30 mA g(-1) and 84% at 150 mA g(-1) over 1300 cycles. It also demonstrated excellent rate capability with reversible discharge capacities of 115 and 89 mAh g(-1) (based on the mass of anode) at 15 and 1500 mA g(-1), respectively. The superior electrochemical properties should be mainly ascribed to the high performance of LiTi2(PO4)3/C anode, benefiting from its nanostructure, high-quality carbon coating, appropriate crystal structure and excellent electrode surface stability as verified by Raman spectra, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. PMID:26035774

  15. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structural degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.

  16. Hierarchical Co@C Nanoflowers: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties as an Advanced Negative Material for Alkaline Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Zichao; Cao, Bingqiang; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-11-01

    Hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers have been facilely synthesized via a simple route based on a low-temperature solid-phase reaction. The obtained hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers, each constructed of a number of nanosheets, display a three-dimensional architecture with an average grain size of about 300 nm. The electrochemical properties of the Co@C nanoflowers as the negative material for Ni/Co cells have been systemically researched. In particular, Co@C material exhibits high discharge-specific capacity and good cycling stability. The discharge-specific capacity of our Co@C-3 electrode can reach 612.1 mA h g(-1), and the specific capacity of 415.3 mA h g(-1) is retained at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) after 120 cycles, indicating its great potential for high-performance Ni/Co batteries. Interestingly, the as-synthesized Co@C electrode also exhibits favorable rate capability. These desirable properties can be attributed to porous pathways, which allow fast transportation of ions and electrons and easy accessibility to the electrolyte. The dominant electrochemical mechanism of Co@C can be attributed to the reduction-oxidation reaction between metallic cobalt and cobalt hydroxide in alkaline solution. PMID:26460934

  17. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structuralmore » degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.« less

  18. Anatase TiO2@C composites with porous structure as an advanced anode material for Na ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhian; Du, Ke; Lai, Yanqing; Fang, Jing; Li, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a facile strategy to synthesize the porous structure TiO2@C composites through a two-step method, in which the precursor of MIL-125(Ti) was firstly prepared by solvent thermal method and then calcined under inert atmosphere. When employed as anodes for Na ion batteries, TiO2@C composites can exhibit a superior cyclability with a reversible sodium storage capacity of 148 mAh g-1 at the current density 0.5 A g-1 after 500 cycles and an excellent rate performance with a capacity of 88.9 mAh g-1 even the current reached to 2.5 A g-1 due to the dispersion of anatase TiO2 throughout amorphous carbon matrix and the synergistic effect between the anatase TiO2 nanocrystals and carbon matrix, which can availably enhance the electric conductivity and alleviate the volumetric variation of TiO2 during the insertion/extraction process of Na+.

  19. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  20. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  1. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  2. The 1982 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics concerned with advanced battery technology are addressed including lithium cell and battery safety developments, mathematical modelling, charge control of aerospace power systems, and the application of nickel hydrogen cells/batteries vis-a-vis nickel cadmium cells/batteries.

  3. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  4. Lithium-Ion Polymer Rechargeable Battery Developed for Aerospace and Military Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, orman H.

    1999-01-01

    A recently completed 3 -year project funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under the Technology Reinvestment Program has resulted in the development and scaleup of new lithium-ion polymer battery technology for military and aerospace applications. The contractors for this cost-shared project were Lockheed Martin Missiles & Space and Ultralife Batteries, Inc. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided contract management and technical oversight. The final products of the project were a portable 15-volt (V), 10-ampere-hour (A-hr) military radio battery and a 30-V, 50-A-hr marine/aerospace battery. Lewis will test the 50-A-hr battery. The new lithium-ion polymer battery technology offers a threefold or fourfold reduction in mass and volume, relative to today s commonly used nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This is of special importance for orbiting satellites. It has been determined for a particular commercial communications satellite that the replacement of 1 kg of battery mass with 1 kg of transponder mass could increase the annual revenue flow by $100 000! Since this lithium-ion polymer technology offers battery mass reductions on the order of hundreds of kilograms for some satellites, the potential revenue increases are impressive.

  5. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2– vacancies (vs. all O2– ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29–x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g–1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g–1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g–1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g–1 and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  6. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O2- vacancies (vs. all O2- ions). The electronic conductivity and Li+ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 286 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g-1 with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g-1 and 74.7%.

  7. Defective Ti2Nb10O27.1: an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunfu; Yu, Shu; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Wang, Guizhen; Yu, Lei; Li, Yanfang; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    To explore anode materials with large capacities and high rate performances for the lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, defective Ti2Nb10O27.1 has been prepared through a facile solid-state reaction in argon. X-ray diffractions combined with Rietveld refinements indicate that Ti2Nb10O27.1 has the same crystal structure with stoichiometric Ti2Nb10O29 (Wadsley-Roth shear structure with A2/m space group) but larger lattice parameters and 6.6% O(2-) vacancies (vs. all O(2-) ions). The electronic conductivity and Li(+)ion diffusion coefficient of Ti2Nb10O27.1 are at least six orders of magnitude and ~2.5 times larger than those of Ti2Nb10O29, respectively. First-principles calculations reveal that the significantly enhanced electronic conductivity is attributed to the formation of impurity bands in Ti2Nb10O29-x and its conductor characteristic. As a result of the improvements in the electronic and ionic conductivities, Ti2Nb10O27.1 exhibits not only a large initial discharge capacity of 329 mAh g(-1) and charge capacity of 286 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C but also an outstanding rate performance and cyclability. At 5 C, its charge capacity remains 180 mAh g(-1) with large capacity retention of 91.0% after 100 cycles, whereas those of Ti2Nb10O29 are only 90 mAh g(-1) and 74.7%. PMID:26632883

  8. Lewis Research Center battery overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite; the Space Station Freedom (SSF) photovoltaic power module division; Ni/H2 battery and cell design; individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell testing SSF support; the LeRC Electrochemical Technology Branch; improved design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells; advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells; a lightweight nickel-hydrogen cell; bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development and technology; aerospace nickel-metal hydride cells; the NASA Sodium-Sulfur Cell Technology Flight Experiment; and the lithium-carbon dioxide battery thermodynamic model.

  9. Cognitive Processing Determinants of Item Difficulty on the Verbal Subtests of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen Janice

    A model of verbal performance was developed which defined cognitive processes thought to underlie performance on the Word Knowledge and Paragraph Comprehension subtests of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The items from two forms of these ASVAB verbal subtests were rated on five conceptualized cognitive storage processes:…

  10. Double-Nanocarbon Synergistically Modified Na3V2(PO4)3: An Advanced Cathode for High-Rate and Long-Life Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Li, Hui; Guo, Ziyang; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhihong; Xu, Qunjie; Liu, Haimei; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-22

    An advanced cathode material, nitrogen-doped carbon-coated Na3V2(PO4)3 hybriding with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite, namely double-nanocarbon synergistically modified Na3V2(PO4)3 of sodium ion battery, was fabricated through a simple sol-gel approach. According to the systemical analysis of experimental results on this composite structure, it is found that N-doping not only increases Na-ion migration velocity across the carbon-coated layer but also improves the electric conductivity of the carbon layer. More importantly, the CNTs 3D conducting network could significantly accelerate the electron transport between multiple particles of Na3V2(PO4)3, due to the intimate contacts between active materials and CNTs. Consenquently, the electrochemical properties of this double-nanocarbon-modified Na3V2(PO4)3 are significantly enhanced, especially the high-rate capability and long cycle life. For instance, its initial capacity of 94.5 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C decreases to 70 mAh g(-1) at 70 C, and the capacity retention is 74%. Moreover, when dischage rate increases to a higher 30 C, the capacity retention is still as high as 87% after 300 cycles.

  11. Double-Nanocarbon Synergistically Modified Na3V2(PO4)3: An Advanced Cathode for High-Rate and Long-Life Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Li, Hui; Guo, Ziyang; Wang, Cong; Li, Zhihong; Xu, Qunjie; Liu, Haimei; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-22

    An advanced cathode material, nitrogen-doped carbon-coated Na3V2(PO4)3 hybriding with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite, namely double-nanocarbon synergistically modified Na3V2(PO4)3 of sodium ion battery, was fabricated through a simple sol-gel approach. According to the systemical analysis of experimental results on this composite structure, it is found that N-doping not only increases Na-ion migration velocity across the carbon-coated layer but also improves the electric conductivity of the carbon layer. More importantly, the CNTs 3D conducting network could significantly accelerate the electron transport between multiple particles of Na3V2(PO4)3, due to the intimate contacts between active materials and CNTs. Consenquently, the electrochemical properties of this double-nanocarbon-modified Na3V2(PO4)3 are significantly enhanced, especially the high-rate capability and long cycle life. For instance, its initial capacity of 94.5 mAh g(-1) at 0.2 C decreases to 70 mAh g(-1) at 70 C, and the capacity retention is 74%. Moreover, when dischage rate increases to a higher 30 C, the capacity retention is still as high as 87% after 300 cycles. PMID:27257712

  12. Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) in a Community College Setting: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery; Alkan, Ersan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the initial implementation process of Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) in a northern California community college. Focus groups of students, faculty, and administrators were conducted in the spring of 2008, as well as observations of several planning meetings in the spring and summer of 2008. The community…

  13. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  14. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM

  15. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  16. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  17. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory's Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy's. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  18. Battery testing at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.

    1993-03-25

    Argonne National Laboratory`s Analysis & Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) tests advanced batteries under simulated electric and hybrid vehicle operating conditions. The ADL facilities also include a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, in a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The battery evaluations and post-test examinations help identify factors that limit system performance and life, and the most-promising R&D approaches for overcoming these limitations. Since 1991, performance characterizations and/or life evaluations have been conducted on eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/S, Zn/Br, Ni/MH, Ni/Zn, Ni/Cd, Ni/Fe, and lead-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy`s. Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE/OTT/EHP), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Transportation Program. The results obtained are discussed.

  19. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle; ODonnell, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of NASA's Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to: develop, maintain and provide tools for the validation and assessment of aerospace battery technologies; accelerate the readiness of technology advances and provide infusion paths for emerging technologies; provide NASA projects with the required database and validation guidelines for technology selection of hardware and processes relating to aerospace batteries; disseminate validation and assessment tools, quality assurance, reliability, and availability information to the NASA and aerospace battery communities; and ensure that safe, reliable batteries are available for NASA's future missions.

  20. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  1. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  2. Green Template-Free Synthesis of Hierarchical Shuttle-Shaped Mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 Microrods with Enhanced Lithium Storage for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linrui; Hua, Hui; Lian, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhu, Siqi; Yuan, Changzhou

    2015-09-01

    In the work, a facile and green two-step synthetic strategy was purposefully developed to efficiently fabricate hierarchical shuttle-shaped mesoporous ZnFe2 O4 microrods (MRs) with a high tap density of ∼0.85 g cm(3) , which were assembled by 1D nanofiber (NF) subunits, and further utilized as a long-life anode for advanced Li-ion batteries. The significant role of the mixed solvent of glycerin and water in the formation of such hierarchical mesoporous MRs was systematically investigated. After 488 cycles at a large current rate of 1000 mA g(-1) , the resulting ZnFe2 O4 MRs with high loading of ∼1.4 mg per electrode still preserved a reversible capacity as large as ∼542 mAh g(-1) . Furthermore, an initial charge capacity of ∼1150 mAh g(-1) is delivered by the ZnFe2 O4 anode at 100 mA g(-1) , resulting in a high Coulombic efficiency of ∼76 % for the first cycle. The superior Li-storage properties of the as-obtained ZnFe2 O4 were rationally associated with its mesoprous micro-/nanostructures and 1D nanoscaled building blocks, which accelerated the electron transportation, facilitated Li(+) transfer rate, buffered the large volume variations during repeated discharge/charge processes, and provided rich electrode-electrolyte sur-/interfaces for efficient lithium storage, particularly at high rates.

  3. Li-Ion Battery Cathodes: Enhancing Interfacial Bonding between Anisotropically Oriented Grains Using a Glue-Nanofiller for Advanced Li-Ion Battery Cathode (Adv. Mater. 23/2016).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejung; Lee, Sanghan; Cho, Hyeon; Kim, Junhyeok; Lee, Jieun; Park, Suhyeon; Joo, Se Hun; Kim, Su Hwan; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Song, Hyun-Kon; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Cho, Jaephil

    2016-06-01

    The formation of a spinel Lix CoO2 layer in a Ni-rich secondary particle for lithium-ion batteries is reported by S. K. Kwak, J. Cho, and co-workers on page 4705, who find that the spinel-like Lix CoO2 layer, between layered primary particles, can enhance the mechanical strength of secondary particles by enhancing the interfacial binding energy among the grains. Moreover, the layer can effectively protect the unstable surface of the primary particles and offers a fast electron-ion pathway, resulting in overall enhancements of stability and kinetics in battery performance. PMID:27281047

  4. USABC Development of 12 Volt Battery for Start-Stop Application: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tataria, H.; Gross, O.; Bae, C.; Cunningham, B.; Barnes, J. A.; Deppe, J.; Neubauer, J.

    2015-02-01

    Global automakers are accelerating the development of fuel efficient vehicles, as a part of meeting regional regulatory CO2 emissions requirements. The micro hybrid vehicles with auto start-stop functionality are considered economical solutions for the stringent European regulations. Flooded lead acid batteries were initially considered the most economical solution for idle-stop systems. However, the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at lower state-of-charge (SOC) was limiting the life of the batteries. While improved lead-acid batteries with AGM and VRLA features have improved battery longevity, they do not last the life of the vehicle. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (or USABC, a consortium of GM, Ford, and Chrysler) analyzed energy storage needs for a micro hybrid automobile with start-stop capability, and with a single power source. USABC has analyzed the start-stop behaviors of many drivers and has developed the requirements for the start-stop batteries (Table 3). The testing procedures to validate the performance and longevity were standardized and published. The guideline for the cost estimates calculations have also been provided, in order to determine the value of the newly developed modules. The analysis effort resulted in a set of requirements which will help the battery manufacturers to develop a module to meet the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) micro hybrid vehicle requirements. Battery developers were invited to submit development proposals and two proposals were selected for 50% cost share with USABC/DOE.

  5. Sodium-Oxygen Batteries: A Comparative Review from Chemical and Electrochemical Fundamentals to Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yadegari, Hossein; Sun, Qian; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-09-01

    Alkali metal-oxygen (Li-O2 , Na-O2 ) batteries have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their high theoretical energy densities, comparable to gasoline, making them attractive candidates for application in electrical vehicles. However, the limited cycling life and low energy efficiency (high charging overpotential) of these cells hinder their commercialization. The Li-O2 battery system has been extensively studied in this regard during the past decade. Compared to the numerous reports of Li-O2 batteries, the research on Na-O2 batteries is still in its infancy. Although, Na-O2 batteries show a number of attractive properties such as low charging overpotential and high round-trip energy efficiency, their cycling life is currently limited to a few tens of cycles. Therefore, understanding the chemistry behind Na-O2 cells is critical towards enhancing their performance and advancing their development. Chemical and electrochemical reactions of Na-O2 batteries are reviewed and compared with those of Li-O2 batteries in the present review, as well as recent works on the chemical composition and morphology of the discharge products in these batteries. Furthermore, the determining kinetics factors for controlling the chemical composition of the discharge products in Na-O2 cells are discussed and the potential research directions toward improving Na-O2 cells are proposed.

  6. Study of advanced techniques for determining the long term performance of components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The application of existing and new technology to the problem of determining the long-term performance capability of liquid rocket propulsion feed systems is discussed. The long term performance of metal to metal valve seats in a liquid propellant fuel system is stressed. The approaches taken in conducting the analysis are: (1) advancing the technology of characterizing components through the development of new or more sensitive techniques and (2) improving the understanding of the physical of degradation.

  7. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  8. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  9. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  10. Battery resource assessment. Subtask 2.5: Battery manufacturing capability recycling of battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemsler, P.

    1981-02-01

    Studies were conducted on the recycling of advanced battery system components for six different battery systems. These include: nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, zinc/bromine, sodium/sulfur, and lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide. For each battery system, one or more processes were developed which would permit recycling of the major or active materials. Each recycle process was designed to produce a product material which can be used directly as a raw material by the battery manufacturer. Metal recoverabilities are in the range of 93 to 95% for all processes. In each case, capital and operating costs were developed for a recycling plant which processes 100,000 electric vehicle batteries per year.

  11. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  12. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  13. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…

  14. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The search for advanced measurement techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants was conducted in several parts. A comprehensive survey of the existing measurement and testing technology for determining material-propellant interactions was performed. Selections were made from those existing techniques which were determined could meet or be made to meet the requirements. Areas of refinement or changes were recommended for improvement of others. Investigations were also performed to determine the feasibility and advantages of developing and using new techniques to achieve significant improvements over existing ones. The most interesting demonstration was that of the new technique, the volatile metal chelate analysis. Rivaling the neutron activation analysis in terms of sensitivity and specificity, the volatile metal chelate technique was fully demonstrated.

  15. In Situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Rama Sesha; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic structural and chemical evolution at solid-liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe a solid-liquid interface under reaction conditions. We describe the creation and usage of in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid-liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to be depleted of the salt anions and with reduced concentration of Li(+) ions, essentially leading to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributing to the overpotential of the cell. This observation provides unprecedented molecular level dynamic information on the initial formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The present work also ultimately opens new avenues for implanting the in situ liquid SIMS concept to probe the chemical reaction process that intimately involves solid-liquid interface, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization. PMID:26287361

  16. In Situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Rama Sesha; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic structural and chemical evolution at solid-liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe a solid-liquid interface under reaction conditions. We describe the creation and usage of in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid-liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to be depleted of the salt anions and with reduced concentration of Li(+) ions, essentially leading to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributing to the overpotential of the cell. This observation provides unprecedented molecular level dynamic information on the initial formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The present work also ultimately opens new avenues for implanting the in situ liquid SIMS concept to probe the chemical reaction process that intimately involves solid-liquid interface, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization.

  17. Health hazard evaluation determination report No. HE 80-41-730, Alaska Husky Battery, Inc. , Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Apol, A.G.

    1980-08-01

    Environmental and medical surveys were conducted on January 7 and 10, 1980, to evaluate lead (7439921) exposure among employees engaged in the manufacture of lead acid storage batteries at Alaska Husky Battery, Incorporated (SIC-3691) in Anchorage, Alaska. The evaluation was requested by the owner on behalf of the seven affected workers. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 41 to 75 micrograms per deciliter measured at the NIOSH laboratory, and from 39 to 69 micrograms per deciliter measured at a NIOSH contract laboratory exceeding the recommended limit of 40 micrograms per deciliter. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations from 2,000 to 11,100 microgram per liter of red blood cells were well above the normal range of 220 to 870. The 8 hour time weighted average breathing zone air lead on concentrations ranged from 41 to 1,700 (1,700) micrograms per cubic meter. Six of the eight samples exceeded the OSHA standard of 50 micrograms per cubic meter. The four greatest concentrations occurred during the pasting operation. The author concludes that employees are exposed to hazardous concentrations of lead dust and fume. He recommends that engineering controls and better work practices be implemented, that appropriate respirators be used, that each work area be vacuumed or washed on a regular basis, that no food, drinks, or cigarettes be consumed in the work area, that a changing room be provided that protective gloves be used by workers handling the paste, and that blood lead concentrations be monitored monthly.

  18. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  19. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.

    1990-01-01

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The R D and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50--300 kW/kg specific power and 80--130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1--10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl{sub 2} primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Negative electrodes for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dahbi, Mouad; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Kubota, Kei; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Research interest in Na-ion batteries has increased rapidly because of the environmental friendliness of sodium compared to lithium. Throughout this Perspective paper, we report and review recent scientific advances in the field of negative electrode materials used for Na-ion batteries. This paper sheds light on negative electrode materials for Na-ion batteries: carbonaceous materials, oxides/phosphates (as sodium insertion materials), sodium alloy/compounds and so on. These electrode materials have different reaction mechanisms for electrochemical sodiation/desodiation processes. Moreover, not only sodiation-active materials but also binders, current collectors, electrolytes and electrode/electrolyte interphase and its stabilization are essential for long cycle life Na-ion batteries. This paper also addresses the prospect of Na-ion batteries as low-cost and long-life batteries with relatively high-energy density as their potential competitive edge over the commercialized Li-ion batteries.

  1. Advance care planning in nursing homes: pre- and post-Patient Self-Determination Act.

    PubMed Central

    Castle, N G; Mor, V

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify resident and organizational factors associated with the use of advance care plans pre- and post-implementation of the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA), and (2) to identify changes (pre- and post-implementation of the PSDA) in the relationship between these factors and the use of advance care plans. DESIGN: Complex, multistage cluster sampling. SETTING: Ten states were selected for variation in geographic location, Medicaid reimbursement rate, and average staffing patterns. Participants were 4,215 nursing home residents in 268 facilities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders in 1990, and 12 resident and organizational factors were associated with their use in 1993. Five factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: activities of daily living (ADL) scores, race, cognitive performance scale (CPS) scores, full-time equivalent (FTE) nurse aides per resident, and bed size. Ten resident and organizational factors were associated with use of do-not-hospitalize (DNH) orders in 1990 and six resident and organizational factors were associated with DNH orders in 1993. Four factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: legal guardian, FTE LPNs per resident, Medicaid census, and forprofit ownership. Five resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of living wills in 1990 and seven resident and organizational factors were associated with the use of living wills in 1993. Four factors showed a significant change from 1990 to 1993: ADL scores, race, length of stay, and for-profit ownership. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the PSDA may have been successful in increasing the use of advance care plans and in changing the types of residents who use advance care plans. However, they also show that the use of advance care plans is associated with organizational characteristics, indicating that some types of facilities

  2. Evaluation of battery packs for liquid microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teal, Walter B., Jr.; Avellini, Barbara A.

    1995-05-01

    The Navy clothing and Textile Research Facility conducted a literature and industry survey to determine the best commercially available battery technology for use with liquid microclimate cooling systems (MCS), and a laboratory evaluation of a battery pack utilizing that technology. Nickel/cadmium batteries were determined to be the best battery technology commercially available at the present time. However, several other battery technologies are nearing commercialization and may be available in the near future.

  3. Overview of NASA battery technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebling, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's technology program in batteries for space applications are presented. Program elements include: (1) advanced ambient temperature alkaline secondaries, which are primarily nickel-cadmium cells in batteries; (2) a toroidal nickel cadmium secondaries with multi-kilowatt-hour storage capacity primarily for lower orbital applications; (3) ambient temperature lithium batteries, both primary and secondaries, primarily silver hydrogen and high-capacity nickel hydrogen.

  4. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  5. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Operation Management Optimization Using Robust Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosiu, Julian O.; Deligiannis, Frank; DiStefano, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    In recent years following several spacecraft battery anomalies, it was determined that managing the operational factors of NASA flight NiCd rechargeable battery was very important in order to maintain space flight battery nominal performance. The optimization of existing flight battery operational performance was viewed as something new for a Taguchi Methods application.

  6. Advances in Biosensors, Chemosensors and Assays for the Determination of Fusarium Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xialu; Guo, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The contaminations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grains and related products, and the exposure in human body are considerable concerns in food safety and human health worldwide. The common Fusarium mycotoxins include fumonisins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For this reason, simple, fast and sensitive analytical techniques are particularly important for the screening and determination of Fusarium mycotoxins. In this review, we outlined the related advances in biosensors, chemosensors and assays based on the classical and novel recognition elements such as antibodies, aptamers and molecularly imprinted polymers. Application to food/feed commodities, limit and time of detection were also discussed. PMID:27231937

  7. Pyro-synthesis of a high rate nano-Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode with mixed morphology for advanced Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jungwon; Mathew, Vinod; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Sungjin; Song, Jinju; Im, Won Bin; Han, Junhee; Lee, Jeong Yong; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) cathode for lithium battery applications was synthesized by a polyol-assisted pyro-synthesis. The polyol in the present synthesis acts not only as a solvent, reducing agent and a carbon source but also as a low-cost fuel that facilitates a combustion process combined with the release of ultrahigh exothermic energy useful for nucleation process. Subsequent annealing of the amorphous particles at 800°C for 5 h is sufficient to produce highly crystalline LVP/C nanoparticles. A combined analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) patterns was used to determine the unit cell parameters of the prepared LVP/C. Electron microscopic studies revealed rod-type particles of length ranging from nanometer to micrometers dispersed among spherical particles with average particle-sizes in the range of 20–30 nm. When tested for Li-insertion properties in the potential windows of 3–4.3 and 3–4.8 V, the LVP/C cathode demonstrated initial discharge capacities of 131 and 196 mAh/g (~100% theoretical capacities) at 0.15 and 0.1 C current densities respectively with impressive capacity retentions for 50 cycles. Interestingly, the LVP/C cathode delivered average specific capacities of 125 and 90 mAh/g at current densities of 9.6 C and 15 C respectively within the lower potential window. PMID:24509825

  8. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  9. Experimental method for determination of bending and torsional rigidities of advanced composite laminates

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Takenori

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental method for the determination of the bending and torsional rigidities of advanced fiber composite laminates with the aid of laser holographic interferometry. The proposed method consists of a four-point bending test and a resonance test. The bending rigidity ratio (D{sub 12}/D{sub 22}) can be determined from the fringe patterns of the four-point bending test. The bending rigidities (D{sub 11} and D{sub 22}) and the torsional rigidity (D{sub 66}) are calculated from the natural frequencies of cantilever plates of the resonance test. The test specimens are carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates. The adequacy of the experimental method is confirmed by comparing the measured rigidities with the theoretical values obtained from classical lamination theory (CLT) by using the measured tensile properties. The results show that the present method can be used to evaluate the rigidities of orthotropic laminates with reasonably good accuracy.

  10. Determining coniferous forest cover and forest fragmentation with NOAA-9 advanced very high resolution radiometer data

    SciTech Connect

    Ripple, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    NOAA-9 satellite data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in conjunction with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data to determine the proportion of closed canopy conifer forest cover in the Cascade Range of Oregon. A closed canopy conifer map, as determined from the MSS, was registered with AVHRR pixels. Regression was used to relate closed canopy conifer forest cover to AVHRR spectral data. A two-variable (band) regression model accounted for more variance in conifer cover than the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spectral signatures of various conifer successional stages were also examined. A map of Oregon was produced showing the proportion of closed canopy conifer cover for each AVHRR pixel. The AVHRR was responsive to both the percentage of closed canopy conifer cover and the successional stage in these temperate coniferous forests in this experiment.

  11. Recent advances in Employing Molecular Modelling to Determine the Specificity of Glycan-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Oliver C.; Woods, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Impressive improvements in docking performance can be achieved by applying energy bonuses to poses in which glycan hydroxyl groups occupy positions otherwise preferred by bound waters. In addition, inclusion of glycosidic conformational energies allows unlikely glycan conformations to be appropriately penalized. A method for predicting the binding specificity of glycan-binding proteins has been developed, which is based on grafting glycan branches onto a minimal binding determinant in the binding site. Grafting can be used either to screen virtual libraries of glycans, such as the known glycome, or to identify docked poses of minimal binding determinants that are consistent with specificity data. The reviewed advances allow accurate modelling of carbohydrate-protein 3D co-complexes, but challenges remain in ranking the affinity of congeners. PMID:25108191

  12. Determining coniferous forest cover and forest fragmentation with NOAA-9 advanced very high resolution radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    NOAA-9 satellite data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in conjunction with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data to determine the proportion of closed canopy conifer forest cover in the Cascade Range of Oregon. A closed canopy conifer map, as determined from the MSS, was registered with AVHRR pixels. Regression was used to relate closed canopy conifer forest cover to AVHRR spectral data. A two-variable (band) regression model accounted for more variance in conifer cover than the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spectral signatures of various conifer successional stages were also examined. A map of Oregon was produced showing the proportion of closed canopy conifer cover for each AVHRR pixel. The AVHRR was responsive to both the percentage of closed canopy conifer cover and the successional stage in these temperate coniferous forests in this experiment.

  13. Extended Kalman filtering for battery management systems of LiPB-based HEV battery packs. Part 2. Modeling and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plett, Gregory L.

    Battery management systems in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs must estimate values descriptive of the pack's present operating condition. These include: battery state of charge, power fade, capacity fade, and instantaneous available power. The estimation mechanism must adapt to changing cell characteristics as cells age and therefore provide accurate estimates over the lifetime of the pack. In a series of three papers, we propose a method, based on extended Kalman filtering (EKF), that is able to accomplish these goals on a lithium ion polymer battery pack. We expect that it will also work well on other battery chemistries. These papers cover the required mathematical background, cell modeling and system identification requirements, and the final solution, together with results. In order to use EKF to estimate the desired quantities, we first require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of a cell. In this paper we "evolve" a suitable model from one that is very primitive to one that is more advanced and works well in practice. The final model includes terms that describe the dynamic contributions due to open-circuit voltage, ohmic loss, polarization time constants, electro-chemical hysteresis, and the effects of temperature. We also give a means, based on EKF, whereby the constant model parameters may be determined from cell test data. Results are presented that demonstrate it is possible to achieve root-mean-squared modeling error smaller than the level of quantization error expected in an implementation.

  14. A new paradigm on battery powered embedded system design based on User-Experience-Oriented method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Wu, Yue

    2014-03-01

    The battery sustainable time has been an active research topic recently for the development of battery powered embedded products such as tablets and smart phones, which are determined by the battery capacity and power consumption. Despite numerous efforts on the improvement of battery capacity in the field of material engineering, the power consumption also plays an important role and easier to ameliorate in delivering a desirable user-experience, especially considering the moderate advancement on batteries for decades. In this study, a new Top-Down modelling method, User-Experience-Oriented Battery Powered Embedded System Design Paradigm, is proposed to estimate the target average power consumption, to guide the hardware and software design, and eventually to approach the theoretical lowest power consumption that the application is still able to provide the full functionality. Starting from the 10-hour sustainable time standard, average working current is defined with battery design capacity and set as a target. Then an implementation is illustrated from both hardware perspective, which is summarized as Auto-Gating power management, and from software perspective, which introduces a new algorithm, SleepVote, to guide the system task design and scheduling.

  15. Experiment and simulation of the fabrication process of lithium-ion battery cathodes for determining microstructure and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forouzan, Mehdi M.; Chao, Chien-Wei; Bustamante, Danilo; Mazzeo, Brian A.; Wheeler, Dean R.

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication process of Li-ion battery electrodes plays a prominent role in the microstructure and corresponding cell performance. Here, a mesoscale particle dynamics simulation is developed to relate the manufacturing process of a cathode containing Toda NCM-523 active material to physical and structural properties of the dried film. Particle interactions are simulated with shifted-force Lennard-Jones and granular Hertzian functions. LAMMPS, a freely available particle simulator, is used to generate particle trajectories and resulting predicted properties. To make simulations of the full film thickness feasible, the carbon binder domain (CBD) is approximated with μm-scale particles, each representing about 1000 carbon black particles and associated binder. Metrics for model parameterization and validation are measured experimentally and include the following: slurry viscosity, elasticity of the dried film, shrinkage ratio during drying, volume fraction of phases, slurry and dried film densities, and microstructure cross sections. Simulation results are in substantial agreement with experiment, showing that the simulations reasonably reproduce the relevant physics of particle arrangement during fabrication.

  16. High power bipolar lead-acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan

    1991-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), with interest in advanced energy storage systems, is involved in the development of a unique lead acid battery design. This battery utilizes the same combination of lead and lead dioxide active materials present in the automobile starting battery. However, it can provide 2 to 10 times the power while minimizing volume and weight. The typical starting battery is described as a monopolar type using one current collector for both the positive and negative plate of adjacent cells. Specific power as high as 2.5 kW/kg was projected for 30 second periods with as many as 2000 recharge cycles.

  17. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  18. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  19. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  20. The 2004 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Topics covered include: Super NiCd(TradeMark) Energy Storage for Gravity Probe-B Relativity Mission; Hubble Space Telescope 2004 Battery Update; The Development of Hermetically Sealed Aerospace Nickel-Metal Hydride Cell; Serial Charging Test on High Capacity Li-Ion Cells for the Orbiter Advanced Hydraulic Power System; Cell Equalization of Lithium-Ion Cells; The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics; Identification and Treatment of Lithium Battery Cell Imbalance under Flight Conditions; Battery Control Boards for Li-Ion Batteries on Mars Exploration Rovers; Cell Over Voltage Protection and Balancing Circuit of the Lithium-Ion Battery; Lithium-Ion Battery Electronics for Aerospace Applications; Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit; Lithium Ion Battery Cell Bypass Circuit Test Results at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory; High Capacity Battery Cell By-Pass Switches: High Current Pulse Testing of Lithium-Ion; Battery By-Pass Switches to Verify Their Ability to Withstand Short-Circuits; Incorporation of Physics-Based, Spatially-Resolved Battery Models into System Simulations; A Monte Carlo Model for Li-Ion Battery Life Projections; Thermal Behavior of Large Lithium-Ion Cells; Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells; High Rate Designed 50 Ah Li-Ion Cell for LEO Applications; Evaluation of Corrosion Behavior in Aerospace Lithium-Ion Cells; Performance of AEA 80 Ah Battery Under GEO Profile; LEO Li-Ion Battery Testing; A Review of the Feasibility Investigation of Commercial Laminated Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells for Space Applications; Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program; Panasonic Small Cell Testing for AHPS; Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study; Low-Earth-Orbit and Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit Testing of 80 Ah Batteries under Real-Time Profiles; Update on Development of Lithium-Ion Cells for Space Applications at JAXA; Foreign Comparative Technology: Launch Vehicle Battery Cell Testing; 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer

  1. Recent advances in determining protein and amino acid requirements in humans.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2012-08-01

    During the past 25 years a significant amount of research has been conducted to determine amino acid requirements in humans. This is primarily due to advancements in the application of stable isotopes to examine amino acid requirements. The indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method has emerged as a robust and minimally invasive technique to identify requirements. The IAAO method is based on the concept that when one indispensable dietary amino acid (IDAA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then the excess of all other IDAA, including the indicator amino acid, will be oxidized. With increasing intakes of the limiting amino acid, IAAO will decrease, reflecting increasing incorporation into protein. Once the requirement for the limiting amino acid is met there will be no further change in the indicator oxidation. The IAAO method has been systematically applied to determine most IDAA requirements in adults. The estimates are comparable to the values obtained using the more elaborate 24h-indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (24h-IAAO/IAAB) model. Due to its non-invasive nature the IAAO method has also been used to determine requirements for amino acids in neonates, children and in disease. The IAAO model has recently been applied to determine total protein requirements in humans. The IAAO method is rapid, reliable and has been used to determine amino acid requirements in different species, across the life cycle and in disease. The recent application of IAAO to determine protein requirements in humans is novel and has significant implications for dietary protein intake recommendations globally.

  2. Lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabano, J.-P.

    The physical principles and technology of commercial Li batteries operating at ambient temperatures are reviewed in chapters contributed by international specialists. An overview of Li battery systems is presented, and organic and inorganic electrolytes are characterized in terms of properties, structure, conductivity, Li stability, and film formation. Individual chapters are devoted to Li/CuO cells; cells with Pb, Bi, Pb/Bi, or Bi/Cu oxides; Li/FeS2, Li/CuS, Li/MnO2, Li/CF, Li/Ag2CrO4, Li/AgBi(CrO4)2, Li/V2O5, Li/SO2, and Li/oxyhalide cells, secondary Li cells, and solid-electrolyte Li cells. Graphs and tables of performance parameters and drawings and photographs of typical batteries are included. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  3. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  4. The position of the in vitro micronucleus test within the battery of screening for genotoxic potential determination and the regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Marzin, D

    1997-08-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test is available to demonstrate the clastogenic and aneugenic potencies of chemicals. This test is easier to evaluate than metaphase analysis and, although used routinely by some laboratories as a prescreening test for the determination of chromosomal mutation induction potency, it has not been recognised by regulatory authorities as a test to be included in the battery of assays for human risk assessment. This limitation is due to the lack of a fixed protocol, a limited data bank, particularly in the case of clastogens, and to the lack of sufficient robust interlaboratory validation studies. If we aim to recognize this test in the form of an OECD guideline and to introduce it as an alternative to in vitro metaphase analysis in cell culture, it is necessary to begin a collaborative study in order to determine the best protocol which is valid for the detection of all clastogens as well as to determine clearly the limits of the test. The use of this in vitro test as a prescreening assay could be very useful as it takes structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities into account and is simpler to perform than in vitro metaphase analysis.

  5. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  6. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for Advanced Test Reactor LEU Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen; Michael A. Lehto; Noel R. Duckwitz

    2012-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), located in the ATR Complex of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. The ATR is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) matrix (UAlx) in an aluminum sandwich plate cladding. The National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) strategic mission includes efforts to reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material at civilian sites around the world. Converting research reactors from using HEU to low-enriched uranium (LEU) was originally started in 1978 as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Within this strategic mission, GTRI has three goals that provide a comprehensive approach to achieving this mission: The first goal, the driver for the modification that is the subject of this determination, is to convert research reactors from using HEU to LEU. Thus the mission of the ATR LEU Fuel Conversion Project is to convert the ATR and Advanced Test Reactor Critical facility (ATRC) (two of the six U.S. High-Performance Research Reactors [HPRR]) to LEU fuel by 2017. The major modification criteria evaluation of the project pre-conceptual design identified several issues that lead to the conclusion that the project is a major modification.

  7. NASA aerospace flight battery systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    The major objective of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is to provide NASA with the policy and posture to increase and ensure the safety, performance and reliability of batteries for space power systems. The program plan has been modified in the past year to reflect changes in the agency's approach to battery related problems that are affecting flight programs. Primary attention in the Battery Program is being devoted to the development of an advanced nickel-cadmium cell design and the qualification of vendors to produce cells for flight programs. As part of a unified Battery Program, the development of a nickel-hydrogen standard and primary cell issues are also being pursued to provide high performance NASA Standards and space qualified state-of-the-art primary cells. The resolution of issues is being addressed with the full participation of the aerospace battery community.

  8. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  9. Determining advanced recycling fees and subsidies in "E-scrap" reverse supply chains.

    PubMed

    Hong, I-Hsuan; Ke, Jhih-Sian

    2011-06-01

    Primarily due to environmental concerns and legislative mandates, the disposition of end-of-life (EOL) electronics products has attracted much attention. Advanced recycling fees (ARFs) and government subsidies may play important roles in encouraging or curtailing the flows of recycled items. We present a Stackelberg-type model to determine ARFs and socially optimal subsidy fees in decentralized reverse supply chains where each entity independently acts according to its own interests. The model consists of one leader (the government) and two followers (a group of manufacturers, importers, and sellers (MISs) and a group of recyclers). To maximize social welfare, the government determines the ARFs paid by MIS and the subsidy fees for recyclers when MIS sells new products and recyclers process EOL products. We find that MIS and recyclers behave at the equilibrium status by choosing optimal selling quantity in the market and optimal reward money for customers bringing EOL products to recyclers. Under this approach the two fees achieve the maximum of social welfare at the equilibrium status, while both MIS and recyclers gain the maximum of profits. For comparative purposes, we also develop a conceptual model describing the current practice by which ARFs and the subsidy fees are determined on the basis of fund balance between revenues and costs along with recycling operations. We conclude that our results outperform current practice.

  10. Flexible Batteries: Hierarchical Assemblies of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultraflexible Li-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shahab; Copic, Davor; George, Chandramohan; De Volder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An advanced battery architecture composed of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) current collectors is used to mitigate stresses in flexible batteries. On Page 6705, C. George, M. De Volder, and co-workers describe the fabrication process and characteristics of this new generation of ultraflexible batteries, which show high rate and cyclablility. These batteries may find applications in the powering of flexible displays and logics. PMID:27511532

  11. Flexible Batteries: Hierarchical Assemblies of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultraflexible Li-Ion Batteries (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shahab; Copic, Davor; George, Chandramohan; De Volder, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An advanced battery architecture composed of 3D carbon nanotube (CNT) current collectors is used to mitigate stresses in flexible batteries. On Page 6705, C. George, M. De Volder, and co-workers describe the fabrication process and characteristics of this new generation of ultraflexible batteries, which show high rate and cyclablility. These batteries may find applications in the powering of flexible displays and logics.

  12. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  13. Mycotoxin Determination in Foods Using Advanced Sensors Based on Antibodies or Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Qi; Li, Peiwu

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination threatens health and life of humans and animals throughout the food supply chains. Many of the mycotoxins have been proven to be carcinogens, teratogens and mutagens. The reliable and sensitive sensing methods are requested to monitor mycotoxin contamination. Advanced sensors based on antibodies or aptamers boast the advantages of high sensitivity and rapidity, and have been used in the mycotoxin sensing. These sensors are miniaturized, thereby lowering costs, and are applicable to high-throughput modes. In this work, the latest developments in sensing strategies for mycotoxin determination were critically discussed. Optical and electrochemical sensing modes were compared. The sensing methods for single mycotoxin or multiple mycotoxins in food samples were reviewed, along with the challenges and the future of antibody or aptamer-based sensors. This work might promote academic studies and industrial applications for mycotoxin sensing. PMID:27529281

  14. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanostructured materials for advanced energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jin

    The performance of advanced energy storage devices is intimately connected to the designs of electrodes. To enable significant developments in this research field, we need detailed information and knowledge about how the functions and performances of the electrodes depend on their chemical compositions, dimensions, morphologies, and surface properties. This thesis presents my successes in synthesizing and characterizing electrode materials for advanced electrochemical energy storage devices, with much attention given to understanding the operation and fading mechanism of battery electrodes, as well as methods to improve their performances and stabilities. This dissertation is presented within the framework of two energy storage technologies: lithium ion batteries and lithium oxygen batteries. The energy density of lithium ion batteries is determined by the density of electrode materials and their lithium storage capabilities. To improve the overall energy densities of lithium ion batteries, silicon has been proposed to replace lithium intercalation compounds in the battery anodes. However, with a ~400% volume expansion upon fully lithiation, silicon-based anodes face serious capacity degradation in battery operation. To overcome this challenge, heteronanostructure-based Si/TiSi2 were designed and synthesized as anode materials for lithium ion batteries with long cycling life. The performance and morphology relationship was also carefully studied through comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional heteronanostructure-based silicon anodes. Lithium oxygen batteries, on the other hand, are devices based on lithium conversion chemistries and they offer higher energy densities compared to lithium ion batteries. However, existing carbon based electrodes in lithium oxygen batteries only allow for battery operation with limited capacity, poor stability and low round-trip efficiency. The degradation of electrolytes and carbon electrodes have been found to both contribute

  15. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  16. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  17. A Battery Health Monitoring Framework for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Chetan Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Batteries have seen an increased use in electric ground and air vehicles for commercial, military, and space applications as the primary energy source. An important aspect of using batteries in such contexts is battery health monitoring. Batteries must be carefully monitored such that the battery health can be determined, and end of discharge and end of usable life events may be accurately predicted. For planetary rovers, battery health estimation and prediction is critical to mission planning and decision-making. We develop a model-based approach utilizing computaitonally efficient and accurate electrochemistry models of batteries. An unscented Kalman filter yields state estimates, which are then used to predict the future behavior of the batteries and, specifically, end of discharge. The prediction algorithm accounts for possible future power demands on the rover batteries in order to provide meaningful results and an accurate representation of prediction uncertainty. The framework is demonstrated on a set of lithium-ion batteries powering a rover at NASA.

  18. Recent advances in the determination of a high spatial resolution geopotential model using chronometric geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, Guillaume; Guerlin, Christine; Bize, Sébastien; Wolf, Peter; Delva, Pacôme; Panet, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    Current methods to determine the geopotential are mainly based on indirect approaches using gravimetric, gradiometric and topographic data. Satellite missions (GRACE, GOCE) have contributed significantly to improve the knowledge of the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution of about 90 km, but it is not enough to access, for example, to the geoid variation in hilly regions. While airborne and ground-based gravimeters provide the high resolution, the problem of these technics is that the accuracy is hampered by the heterogeneous coverage of gravity data (ground and offshore). Recent technological advances in atomic clocks are opening new perspectives in the determination of the geopotential. To date, the best of them reach a stability of 1.6×10-18 (NIST, RIKEN + Univ. Tokyo) in just 7 hours of integration, an accuracy of 2.0×10-18 (JILA). Using the relation of the relativistic gravitational redshift, this corresponds to a determination of geopotential differences at the 0.1 m²/s² level (or 1 cm in geoid height). In this context, the present work aims at evaluating the contribution of optical atomic clocks for the determination of the geopotential at high spatial resolution. To do that, we have studied a test area surrounding the Massif Central in the middle of southern of France. This region, consists in low mountain ranges and plateaus, is interesting because, the gravitational field strength varies greatly from place to place at high resolution due to the relief. Here, we present the synthetic tests methodology: generation of synthetic gravity and potential data, then estimation of the potential from these data using the least-squares collocation and assessment of the clocks contribution. We shall see how the coverage of the data points (realistic or not) can affect the results, and discuss how to quantify the trade-off between the noise level and the number of data points used.

  19. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. PMID:21394791

  20. Advances in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy Structure Determination applied to Sub-tomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Russo, Christopher J; Löwe, Jan; Passmore, Lori A; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2015-09-01

    Recent innovations in specimen preparation, data collection, and image processing have led to improved structure determination using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we explore some of these advances to improve structures determined using electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. We implement a new three-dimensional model for the contrast transfer function, and use this in a regularized likelihood optimization algorithm as implemented in the RELION program. Using direct electron detector data, we apply both single-particle analysis and sub-tomogram averaging to analyze radiation-induced movements of the specimen. As in single-particle cryo-EM, we find that significant sample movements occur during tomographic data acquisition, and that these movements are substantially reduced through the use of ultrastable gold substrates. We obtain a sub-nanometer resolution structure of the hepatitis B capsid, and show that reducing radiation-induced specimen movement may be central to attempts at further improving tomogram quality and resolution.

  1. Advances in Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy Structure Determination applied to Sub-tomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Russo, Christopher J; Löwe, Jan; Passmore, Lori A; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2015-09-01

    Recent innovations in specimen preparation, data collection, and image processing have led to improved structure determination using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Here we explore some of these advances to improve structures determined using electron cryotomography (cryo-ET) and sub-tomogram averaging. We implement a new three-dimensional model for the contrast transfer function, and use this in a regularized likelihood optimization algorithm as implemented in the RELION program. Using direct electron detector data, we apply both single-particle analysis and sub-tomogram averaging to analyze radiation-induced movements of the specimen. As in single-particle cryo-EM, we find that significant sample movements occur during tomographic data acquisition, and that these movements are substantially reduced through the use of ultrastable gold substrates. We obtain a sub-nanometer resolution structure of the hepatitis B capsid, and show that reducing radiation-induced specimen movement may be central to attempts at further improving tomogram quality and resolution. PMID:26256537

  2. An analytical framework for determining life cycle cost implications of the advanced launch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, William K.

    1988-12-01

    The product of this research effort was a simplified cost analysis tool that can be used to determine life cycle costs for the Advanced Launch System. The major objective was to develop a tool that would allow quick analysis of proposals and provide data input in a timely fashion. This effort produced a core program that can be used to determine life cycle costs as a function of system components, production infrastructures, reliability assumptions and flexible mission models. The life cycle cost model can operate in either a deterministic or stochastic mode depending on user inputs. An additional effort modeled the production infrastructure using a network flow system. This system modeled the flow of the basic vehicle components from initial production through final launch. The analysis tool uses a commercially available spreadsheet package available for most personal computers. The analyst using this program operates in a user-friendly environment that simplifies data input and problem formulation. The user has a wide variety of output formats and graphics options that simplify report generation.

  3. An Overview of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program is an agency-wide effort aimed at ensuring the quality, safety, reliability and performance of flight battery systems for NASA applications. The program provides for the validation of primary and secondary cell and battery level technology advances to ensure their availability and readiness for use in NASA missions. It serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization and incorporation of these advances into mission applications. The program is led by the Glenn Research Center and involves funded task activities at each of the NASA mission centers and JPL. The overall products are safe, reliable, high quality batteries for mission applications. The products are defined along three product lines: 1. Battery Systems Technology - Elements of this task area cover the systems aspects of battery operation and generally apply across chemistries. This includes the development of guidelines documents, the establishment and maintenance of a central battery database that serves a central repository for battery characterization and verification test data from tests performed under the support of this program, the NASA Battery Workshop, and general test facility support. 2. Secondary Battery Technology - l h s task area focuses on the validation of battery technology for nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion secondary battery systems. Standardized test regimes are used to validate the quality of a cell lot or cell design for flight applications. In this area, efforts are now concentrated on the validation and verification of lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. 3. Primary Battery Technology - The safety and reliability aspects for primary lithium battery systems that are used in manned operations on the Shuttle and International Space Station are addressed in the primary battery technology task area. An overview of the task areas

  4. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  5. Advances in GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, S.; Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Mervart, L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA mission GRAIL inherits its concept from the GRACE mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is leading to huge improvements in our understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss the latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese GNSS Software. We present our recent solutions up to d/o 200, where KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) were used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. We detail our parametrization in terms of pseudo-stochastic pulses and empirical accelerations, which allows for high quality results even while using a simple model of non-gravitational forces and pre-GRAIL a priori fields. Moreover, we present our latest advances towards the computation of a lunar gravity field with improved spatial resolution.As a further extension of our processing, the GNI1B positions are replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar gravity field. Based on Doppler data, we perform orbit determination by solving six initial orbital elements, dynamical parameters, and stochastic parameters in daily arcs using least squares-adjustment. The pseudo-stochastic parameters are estimated to absorb deficiencies in our dynamical modeling (e.g. due to non-gravitational forces). DSN Doppler and KBRR data are then used together with an appropriate weighting for a combined orbit determination process. We present our latest results in the orbit determination of GRAIL over the primary mission phase (PM, March-May 2012) and eventually present

  6. Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be

  7. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  8. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  9. Optimization-based power management of hybrid power systems with applications in advanced hybrid electric vehicles and wind farms with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borhan, Hoseinali

    Modern hybrid electric vehicles and many stationary renewable power generation systems combine multiple power generating and energy storage devices to achieve an overall system-level efficiency and flexibility which is higher than their individual components. The power or energy management control, "brain" of these "hybrid" systems, determines adaptively and based on the power demand the power split between multiple subsystems and plays a critical role in overall system-level efficiency. This dissertation proposes that a receding horizon optimal control (aka Model Predictive Control) approach can be a natural and systematic framework for formulating this type of power management controls. More importantly the dissertation develops new results based on the classical theory of optimal control that allow solving the resulting optimal control problem in real-time, in spite of the complexities that arise due to several system nonlinearities and constraints. The dissertation focus is on two classes of hybrid systems: hybrid electric vehicles in the first part and wind farms with battery storage in the second part. The first part of the dissertation proposes and fully develops a real-time optimization-based power management strategy for hybrid electric vehicles. Current industry practice uses rule-based control techniques with "else-then-if" logic and look-up maps and tables in the power management of production hybrid vehicles. These algorithms are not guaranteed to result in the best possible fuel economy and there exists a gap between their performance and a minimum possible fuel economy benchmark. Furthermore, considerable time and effort are spent calibrating the control system in the vehicle development phase, and there is little flexibility in real-time handling of constraints and re-optimization of the system operation in the event of changing operating conditions and varying parameters. In addition, a proliferation of different powertrain configurations may

  10. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  11. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.

  12. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  13. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  14. NASA Handbook for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, James D.; Gopalakrishna, M. Rao; Yi, Thomas Y.

    1993-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries are finding more applications in the aerospace energy storage. Since 1983, NiH2 batteries have become the primary energy storage system used for Geosynchronous-Orbit (GEO) Satellites. The first NASA application for NiH2 batteries was the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Hubble Space Telescope Satellite launched in 1990. The handbook was prepared as a reference book to aid in the application of this technology. That is, to aid in the cell and battery design, procurement, testing, and handling of NiH2 batteries. The design of individual pressure vessel NiH2 cells is covered in Chapter l. LEO and GEO applications and their requirements are discussed in Chapter 2. The design of NiH2 batteries for both GEO and LEO applications is discussed in Chapter 3. Advanced design concepts such as the common pressure vessel and bipolar NiH2 batteries are described in Chapter 4. Performance data are presented in Chapter 5. Storage and handling of the NiH2 cells and batteries are discussed in Chapter 6. Standard test procedures are presented in Chapter 7. Cell and battery procurements are discussed in Chapter 8. Finally, safety procedures are discussed in Chapter 9.

  15. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  16. Advances towards reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany Server, R.; Martens, D.; Jans, K.; Bienstman, P.; Hill, D.

    2016-03-01

    Through further development, integration and validation of micro-nano-bio and biophotonics systems FP7 CanDo is developing an instrument that will permit highly reproducible and reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood for two key societal challenges, early and low cost anti-cancer drug efficacy determination and cancer diagnosis/monitoring. A cellular link between the primary malignant tumour and the peripheral metastases, responsible for 90% of cancerrelated deaths, has been established in the form of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the relatively short survival time of CTCs in peripheral blood means that their detection is indicative of tumour progression thereby providing in addition to a prognostic value an evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early recognition of tumour progression in theranostics. In cancer patients however blood concentrations are very low (=1 CTC/1E9 cells) and current detection strategies are too insensitive, limiting use to prognosis of only those with advanced metastatic cancer. Similarly, problems occur in therapeutics with anti-cancer drug development leading to lengthy and costly trials often preventing access to market. The novel cell separation/Raman analysis technologies plus nucleic acid based molecular characterization of the CanDo platform will provide an accurate CTC count with high throughput and high yield meeting both key societal challenges. Being beyond the state of art it will lead to substantial share gains not just in the high end markets of drug discovery and cancer diagnostics but due to modular technologies also in others. Here we present preliminary DNA hybridization sensing results.

  17. Advances in clinical determinants and neurological manifestations of B vitamin deficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Sechi, GianPietro; Sechi, Elia; Fois, Chiara; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    B vitamin deficiency is a leading cause of neurological impairment and disability throughout the world. Multiple B vitamin deficiencies often coexist, and thus an understanding of the complex relationships between the different biochemical pathways regulated in the brain by these vitamins may facilitate prompter diagnosis and improved treatment. Particular populations at risk for multiple B vitamin deficiencies include the elderly, people with alcoholism, patients with heart failure, patients with recent obesity surgery, and vegetarians/vegans. Recently, new clinical settings that predispose individuals to B vitamin deficiency have been highlighted. Moreover, other data indicate a possible pathogenetic role of subclinical chronic B vitamin deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In light of these findings, this review examines the clinical manifestations of B vitamin deficiency and the effect of B vitamin deficiency on the adult nervous system. The interrelationships of multiple B vitamin deficiencies are emphasized, along with the clinical phenotypes related to B vitamin deficiencies. Recent advances in the clinical determinants and diagnostic clues of B vitamin deficiency, as well as the suggested therapies for B vitamin disorders, are described.

  18. Advances in clinical determinants and neurological manifestations of B vitamin deficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Sechi, GianPietro; Sechi, Elia; Fois, Chiara; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    B vitamin deficiency is a leading cause of neurological impairment and disability throughout the world. Multiple B vitamin deficiencies often coexist, and thus an understanding of the complex relationships between the different biochemical pathways regulated in the brain by these vitamins may facilitate prompter diagnosis and improved treatment. Particular populations at risk for multiple B vitamin deficiencies include the elderly, people with alcoholism, patients with heart failure, patients with recent obesity surgery, and vegetarians/vegans. Recently, new clinical settings that predispose individuals to B vitamin deficiency have been highlighted. Moreover, other data indicate a possible pathogenetic role of subclinical chronic B vitamin deficiency in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In light of these findings, this review examines the clinical manifestations of B vitamin deficiency and the effect of B vitamin deficiency on the adult nervous system. The interrelationships of multiple B vitamin deficiencies are emphasized, along with the clinical phenotypes related to B vitamin deficiencies. Recent advances in the clinical determinants and diagnostic clues of B vitamin deficiency, as well as the suggested therapies for B vitamin disorders, are described. PMID:27034475

  19. Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples with advanced mercury analyzer: method validation.

    PubMed

    Azemard, Sabine; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a simple, fast and cost-effective method for determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in marine samples. All important parameters influencing the sample preparation process were investigated and optimized. Full validation of the method was performed in accordance to the ISO-17025 (ISO/IEC, 2005) and Eurachem guidelines. Blanks, selectivity, working range (0.09-3.0ng), recovery (92-108%), intermediate precision (1.7-4.5%), traceability, limit of detection (0.009ng), limit of quantification (0.045ng) and expanded uncertainty (15%, k=2) were assessed. Estimation of the uncertainty contribution of each parameter and the demonstration of traceability of measurement results was provided as well. Furthermore, the selectivity of the method was studied by analyzing the same sample extracts by advanced mercury analyzer (AMA) and gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC-AFS). Additional validation of the proposed procedure was effectuated by participation in the IAEA-461 worldwide inter-laboratory comparison exercises. PMID:25624245

  20. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  1. Bipolar-Battery Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1988-01-01

    Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.

  2. AGEING PROCEDURES ON LITHIUM BATTERIES IN AN INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION CONTEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey R. Belt; Ira Bloom; Mario Conte; Fiorentino Valerio Conte; Kenji Morita; Tomohiko Ikeya; Jens Groot

    2010-11-01

    The widespread introduction of electrically-propelled vehicles is currently part of many political strategies and introduction plans. These new vehicles, ranging from limited (mild) hybrid to plug-in hybrid to fully-battery powered, will rely on a new class of advanced storage batteries, such as those based on lithium, to meet different technical and economical targets. The testing of these batteries to determine the performance and life in the various applications is a time-consuming and costly process that is not yet well developed. There are many examples of parallel testing activities that are poorly coordinated, for example, those in Europe, Japan and the US. These costs and efforts may be better leveraged through international collaboration, such as that possible within the framework of the International Energy Agency. Here, a new effort is under development that will establish standardized, accelerated testing procedures and will allow battery testing organizations to cooperate in the analysis of the resulting data. This paper reviews the present state-of-the-art in accelerated life testing in Europe, Japan and the US. The existing test procedures will be collected, compared and analyzed with the goal of international collaboration.

  3. Determining toxicity of leachates from Florida municipal solid waste landfills using a battery-of-tests approach.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marnie L; Bitton, Gabriel; Townsend, Timothy; Booth, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity and physicochemical parameters of municipal solid-waste (MSW) landfill leachates from six sites in north and north-central Florida, United States, were determined. Landfill leachates are complex mixtures of organic and inorganic constituents. Leachate toxicity was assayed using the acute C. dubia (48-h) and Microtoxtrade mark (15-min) assays and the chronic S. capricornutum (96-h) assay. The landfill leachates were shown to be highly toxic to both C. dubia and S. capricornutum with an EC(50) < 10% and < 15%, respectively. However, Microtoxtrade mark was not as sensitive to the leachates. Based on these results, the assays were ranked for their sensitivities to the landfill leachates; C. dubia > S. capricornutum > Microtoxtrade mark. Chemical analyses showed high concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and salts in the landfill leachates but low concentrations of heavy metals. The toxicity of the landfill leachates varied between the sites sampled and within each of the landfill sites. A significant relationship was found between the total ammonia content of the leachates and toxicity as determined by the C. dubia and S. capricornutum assays. Although the chemical constituents in Florida MSW landfill leachates may be more dilute, the toxicity of the leachates is equivalent to that from industrial waste landfills.

  4. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  5. Improved performance of electrodes based on carbonized olive stones/S composites by impregnating with mesoporous TiO2 for advanced Lisbnd S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Noelia; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    Carbons obtained from biomass have attracted a lot of attention for use as electrodes for Li-ion batteries. Less attention has been paid to their use in Lisbnd S batteries in spite of the higher energy densities. Here, we optimized the electrochemical properties of an activated carbon (OSAC) obtained from olive stones with the help of mesoporous TiO2. The OSAC@TiO2/S hybrid composite exhibited improved electrochemical performance compared with the OSAC/S composite. The presence of TiO2 increased the delivered capacity of the cell by more than 60%, and the rate capability was notably improved. The cell could operate at current densities of 3350 mA g-1 (2 C), releasing an average capacity of 500 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency close to 100%. This improvement in the electrochemical performance is attributed to the sorbent properties of TiO2 towards Li polysulfides and its facility to insert Li, which enhances the electronic and ionic conductivity of the hybrid composite.

  6. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  7. A facile hydrothermal recovery of nano sealed MnO2 particle from waste batteries: An advanced material for electrochemical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylarappa, M.; Venkata Lakshmi, V.; Vishnu Mahesh, K. R.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Raghavendra, N.

    2016-09-01

    This work deliberates a method for manganese (Mn) recovery as manganese oxide obtained by leaching of waste batteries with 3M sulphuric acid. The Experimental test for the recovery of Mn present within the waste dry cell batteries were carried out by a reductive leachant. Elemental composition of leached sample was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Surface morphology of the recovered MnO2 was examined by using Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition was confirmed from X-ray Diffractro meter (XRD). The obtained leached solution was treated with 4M NaOH, yielded to Manganese Dioxide with high extraction degree, while it do not touches the Zn content within the solutions. The recovered samples were characterized using XRD, EDAX, SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The electrochemical properties of the as-recovered sample from leached solution was examined used cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Remarkably, the 80 wt.% MnO2 displays reversibility, diffusion constant, smaller equivalent series resistance and charge transfer resistance in 0.5M NaOH showed superior results as compared to alternative electrolytes. The ideal capacitive behaviour of MnO2 electrode and nano particle was applied to photocatalytic degradation of dyes.

  8. Advanced hyphenated chromatographic-mass spectrometry in mycotoxin determination: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometric techniques are essential for advanced research in food safety and environmental monitoring. These fields are important for securing the health of humans and animals, and for ensuring environmental security. Mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi, are major contaminants of agricultural products, food and feed, biological samples, and the environment as a whole. Mycotoxins can cause cancers, nephritic and hepatic diseases, various hemorrhagic syndromes, and immune and neurological disorders. Mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can provoke trade conflicts, resulting in massive economic losses. Risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals generally depends on clear identification and reliable quantitation in diversified matrices. Pioneering work on mycotoxin quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS) was performed in the early 1970s. Now, unambiguous confirmation and quantitation of mycotoxins can be readily achieved with a variety hyphenated techniques that combine chromatographic separation with MS, including liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC). With the advent of atmospheric pressure ionization, LC-MS has become a routine technique. Recently, the co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same sample has drawn an increasing amount of attention. Thus, modern analyses must be able to detect and quantitate multiple mycotoxins in a single run. Improvements in tandem MS techniques have been made to achieve this purpose. This review describes the advanced research that has been done regarding mycotoxin determination using hyphenated chromatographic-MS techniques, but is not a full-circle survey of all the literature published on this topic. The present work provides an overview of the various hyphenated chromatographic-MS-based strategies that have been applied to mycotoxin analysis, with a focus on recent developments. The use of chromatographic-MS to measure levels of mycotoxins, including

  9. Common determinants of body size and eye size in chickens from an advanced intercross line.

    PubMed

    Prashar, Ankush; Hocking, Paul M; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Fan, Qiao; Saw, Seang Mei; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2009-06-15

    Myopia development is characterised by an increased axial eye length. Therefore, identifying factors that influence eye size may provide new insights into the aetiology of myopia. In humans, axial length is positively correlated to height and weight, and in mice, eye weight is positively correlated with body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eye size and body size in chickens from a genetic cross in which alleles with major effects on eye and body size were segregating. Chickens from a cross between a layer line (small body size and eye size) and a broiler line (large body and eye size) were interbred for 10 generations so that alleles for eye and body size would have the chance to segregate independently. At 3 weeks of age, 510 chicks were assessed using in vivo high resolution A-scan ultrasonography and keratometry. Equatorial eye diameter and eye weight were measured after enucleation. The variations in eye size parameters that could be explained by body weight (BW), body length (BL), head width (HW) and sex were examined using multiple linear regression. It was found that BW, BL and HW and sex together predicted 51-56% of the variation in eye weight, axial length, corneal radius, and equatorial eye diameter. By contrast, the same variables predicted only 22% of the variation in lens thickness. After adjusting for sex, the three body size parameters predicted 45-49% of the variation in eye weight, axial length, corneal radius, and eye diameter, but only 0.4% of the variation in lens thickness. In conclusion, about half of the variation in eye size in the chickens of this broiler-layer advanced intercross line is likely to be determined by pleiotropic genes that also influence body size. Thus, mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that determine body size may be useful in understanding the genetic determination of eye size (a logical inference of this result is that the 20 or more genetic variants that have recently

  10. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  11. Neural Network Modeling of the Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery System

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.G.; O'Gorman, C.C.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-10-29

    Battery systems have traditionally relied on extensive build and test procedures for product realization. Analytical models have been developed to diminish this reliance, but have only been partially successful in consistently predicting the performance of battery systems. The complex set of interacting physical and chemical processes within battery systems has made the development of analytical models a significant challenge. Advanced simulation tools are needed to more accurately model battery systems which will reduce the time and cost required for product realization. Sandia has initiated an advanced model-based design strategy to battery systems, beginning with the performance of lithiumhhionyl chloride cells. As an alternative approach, we have begun development of cell performance modeling using non-phenomenological models for battery systems based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs are inductive models for simulating input/output mappings with certain advantages over phenomenological models, particularly for complex systems. Among these advantages is the ability to avoid making measurements of hard to determine physical parameters or having to understand cell processes sufficiently to write mathematical functions describing their behavior. For example, ANN models are also being studied for simulating complex physical processes within the Li/SOC12 cell, such as the time and temperature dependence of the anode interracial resistance. ANNs have been shown to provide a very robust and computationally efficient simulation tool for predicting voltage and capacity output for Li/SOC12 cells under a variety of operating conditions. The ANN modeling approach should be applicable to a wide variety of battery chemistries, including rechargeable systems.

  12. Lightweight, direct-radiating nickel hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalfe, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Two battery module configurations were developed which, in addition to integrating cylindrical nickel hydrogen (NiH2) cells into batteries, provide advances in the means of mounting, monitoring and thermal control of these cells. The main difference between the two modules is the physical arrangement of the cells: vertical versus horizontal. Direct thermal radiation to deep space is accomplished by substituting the battery structure for an exterior spacecraft panel. Unlike most conventional nickel-cadmium (NiCd) and NiH2 batteries, the cells are not tightly packed together; therefore ancillary heat conducting media to outside radiating areas, and spacecraft deck reinforcements for high mass concentration are not necessary. Testing included electrical characterization and a comprehensive regime of environmental exposures. The designs are flexible with respect to quantity and type of cells, orbit altitude and period, power demand profile, and the extent of cell parameter monitoring. This paper compares the characteristics of the two battery modules and summarizes their performance.

  13. Impacts of EV battery production and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Singh, M.

    1996-06-01

    Electric vehicles batteries use energy and produce environmental residuals when they are produced and recycled. This study estimates, for four selected battery types (sodium-sulfur, nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium, and advanced lead-acid), the impacts of production and recycling of the materials used in electric vehicle batteries. These impacts are compared, with special attention to the locations of the emissions. It is found that the choice among batteries for electric vehicles involves tradeoffs among impacts. Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are similar, for example, but energy requirements for the production of cadmium electrodes may be higher than those for metal hydride electrodes, while the latter may be more difficult to recycle.

  14. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  15. Battery Storage Evaluation Tool, version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-02

    The battery storage evaluation tool developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to run a one-year simulation to evaluate the benefits of battery storage for multiple grid applications, including energy arbitrage, balancing service, capacity value, distribution system equipment deferral, and outage mitigation. This tool is based on the optimal control strategies to capture multiple services from a single energy storage device. In this control strategy, at each hour, a lookahead optimization is first formulated and solved to determine the battery base operating point. The minute-by-minute simulation is then performed to simulate the actual battery operation.

  16. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  17. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  18. Core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as an advanced cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rui; Yang, Jinlong; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Pan, Feng

    2016-01-18

    We report the formation of core-shell nano-FeS2@N-doped graphene as a novel cathode material and its mechanism for use in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. A benefit of the amount of FeS2 nano-crystals as the core for Li-ion storage with high capacity and using coated N-doped graphene as the shell is that FeS2@N-graphene exhibits a remarkable specific energy (950 W h kg(-1) at 0.15 kW g(-1)) and higher specific power (543 W h kg(-1) at 2.79 kW g(-1)) than commercial rechargeable LIB cathodes, as well as stable cycling performance (∼600 W h kg(-1) at 0.75 kW g(-1) after 400 cycles).

  19. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  20. A quantitative comparative analysis of Advancement via Independent Determination (AVID) in Texas middle schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Krystal Astra

    The "Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) program was designed to provide resources and strategies that enable underrepresented minority students to attend 4-year colleges" (AVID Center, 2013, p. 2). These students are characterized as the forgotten middle in that they have high test scores, average-to-low grades, minority or low socioeconomic status, and will be first-generation college students (AVID, 2011). Research indicates (Huerta, Watt, & Butcher, 2013) that strict adherence to 11 program components supports success of students enrolled in AVID, and AVID certification depends on districts following those components. Several studies (AVID Center, 2013) have investigated claims about the AVID program through qualitative analyses; however, very few have addressed this program quantitatively. This researcher sought to determine whether differences existed between student achievement and attendance rates between AVID and non-AVID middle schools. To achieve this goal, the researcher compared eighth-grade science and seventh- and eighth-grade mathematics scores from the 2007 to 2011 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and overall attendance rates in demographically equivalent AVID and non-AVID middle schools. Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) reports from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) were used to obtain 2007 to 2011 TAKS results and attendance information for the selected schools. The results indicated a statistically significant difference between AVID demonstration students and non-AVID students in schools with similar CI. No statistically significant differences were found on any component of the TAKS for AVID economically disadvantaged students. The mean scores indicated an achievement gap between non-AVID and AVID demonstration middle schools. The findings from the other three research questions indicated no statistically significant differences between AVID and non-AVID student passing rates on the seventh- and eighth

  1. Design of a thermophotovoltaic battery substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Edward F.; Becker, Frederick E.; Shukla, Kailash C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1999-03-01

    Many military platforms that currently use the BA-5590 primary battery or the BB-390A/U rechargeable battery are limited in performance by low storage capacity and long recharge times. Thermo Power Corporation, with team members JX Crystals and Essential Research Inc. is developing an advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) battery substitute that will provide higher storage capacity, lower weight, and instantaneous recharging (by refueling). The TPV battery substitute incorporates several advanced design features including: an evacuated and sealed enclosure for the emitter and PV cells to minimize unwanted convection heat transfer from the emitter to PV cells; selective tungsten emitter with a well matched gallium antimonide PV cell receiver; optical filter to recycle nonconvertible radiant energy; and a silicon carbide thermal recuperator to recover thermal energy from exhaust gases.

  2. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  3. ILZRO-sponsored field data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of VRLA batteries in stationary applications

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; Moseley, P.T.; Butler, P.C.

    1998-09-01

    Although valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have served in stationary applications for more than a decade, proprietary concerns of battery manufacturers and users and varying approaches to record-keeping have made the data available on performance and life relatively sparse and inconsistent. Such incomplete data are particularly detrimental to understanding the cause or causes of premature capacity loss (PCL) reported in VRLA batteries after as little as two years of service. The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project to characterize relationships between batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; and recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. This paper, prepared before preliminary conclusions were possible, presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users; discusses the analytic approach; presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that emerge in the early analysis of the data; and previews the functionality of the database being constructed. The presentation of this paper will include preliminary results and information regarding the follow-on workshop for the study.

  4. Energy impacts in producing and recycling EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article reports that choosing the best EV battery involves more than a quest for greater range per charge, as total energy cycle assessment of batteries demonstrates. Much has been written about the performance characteristics of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, but information about materials and the production and recycling processes is not as readily available. Such information has not been the primary focus of interest, since designs and processes are still under development, and much of the information is proprietary. An overview of four electric vehicle batteries--advanced lead/acid, sodium/sulfur, nickel/cadmium and nickel/metal hydride--highlights significant differences in energy consumption during production and recycling of materials used in the batteries. Certain realities apply to these batteries, despite their technical distinctions. First, and most obvious, the batteries will make up a significant fraction, 20--40%, of vehicle mass. Impacts are increased because some batteries with lifetimes shorter than the vehicle`s will need replacement at least once. Another insight is that battery recyclability is being considered at the design stage because the electric vehicle is being born green, that is, environmentally benign from the onset. In contrast to the small consumer cells now simply being shredded, EV batteries will be large enough to warrant disassembly and material segregation as the first step in recycling. Electrode and electrolyte materials in advanced batteries are nonstandard in the automotive industry, so process information is not readily available.

  5. Advanced Methods for Determining Prediction Uncertainty in Model-Based Prognostics with Application to Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Sankararaman, Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Prognostics is centered on predicting the time of and time until adverse events in components, subsystems, and systems. It typically involves both a state estimation phase, in which the current health state of a system is identified, and a prediction phase, in which the state is projected forward in time. Since prognostics is mainly a prediction problem, prognostic approaches cannot avoid uncertainty, which arises due to several sources. Prognostics algorithms must both characterize this uncertainty and incorporate it into the predictions so that informed decisions can be made about the system. In this paper, we describe three methods to solve these problems, including Monte Carlo-, unscented transform-, and first-order reliability-based methods. Using a planetary rover as a case study, we demonstrate and compare the different methods in simulation for battery end-of-discharge prediction.

  6. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  7. The Kendrick Battery: Sensitivity to Survival Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared residualized Kendrick Battery scores, measures of affect, and measures of organicity among 53 elderly persons to determine measures' ability to differentiate elderly persons who survived and those who did not. Results suggest that Kendrick Battery subtests, measures of depression and organicity, in combination with length of…

  8. From a historic review to horizons beyond: lithium-sulphur batteries run on the wheels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In terms of sustainable development and environmental issues, the design and fabrication of efficient energy storage devices will be more critical in the future than at any time in the past. Li-S batteries are promising candidates for such a purpose due to their high specific capacity and low environmental impact. This review has systematically retraced the advances in the field of Li-S batteries over the past half century and highlighted the main breakthroughs in a number of areas, covering the mechanism determination, cathode engineering, theoretical simulation, and electrolyte tailoring and anode protection. Furthermore, we discuss the remaining challenges towards their practical application. It is expected that Li-S batteries with 3D inter-connected or conformal assemblies will surpass new horizons in the coming years.

  9. It`s the battery, stupid

    SciTech Connect

    Moskal, B.S.

    1994-10-03

    Electric cars in California by 1998 are seen to run on lead-acid batteries, carrying two people about 50 miles on a hot day. Performance may not approach near that of a family car but with an advanced battery, consumers may realize satisfactory performance. However, this would entail overwhelming costs and, chances are, the electric vehicle would fail in the US market. In addition to the fact that a 2% zero emissions vehicle by 1998 in California would not affect air quality, battery technology has yet to be commercially viable. Current models of leading automakers are described.

  10. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  11. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  12. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

    SciTech Connect

    Posthumus, K.J.C.M.; Schillemans, R.A.A.; Kluiters, E.C.

    1996-11-01

    Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

  13. Sodium-Oxygen Battery: Steps Toward Reality.

    PubMed

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Li, Chunmei; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Carrasco, Javier; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-04-01

    Rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries are receiving significant interest as a possible alternative to current state of the art lithium ion batteries due to their potential to provide higher gravimetric energies, giving significantly lighter or longer-lasting batteries. Recent advances suggest that the Na-O2 battery, in many ways analogous to Li-O2 yet based on the reversible formation of sodium superoxide (NaO2), has many advantages such as a low charge overpotential (∼100 mV) resulting in improved efficiency. In this Perspective, we discuss the current state of knowledge in Na-O2 battery technology, with an emphasis on the latest experimental studies, as well as theoretical models. We offer special focus on the principle outstanding challenges and issues and address the advantages/disadvantages of the technology when compared with Li-O2 batteries as well as other state-of-the-art battery technologies. We finish by detailing the direction required to make Na-O2 batteries both commercially and technologically viable.

  14. Sodium-Oxygen Battery: Steps Toward Reality.

    PubMed

    Landa-Medrano, Imanol; Li, Chunmei; Ortiz-Vitoriano, Nagore; Ruiz de Larramendi, Idoia; Carrasco, Javier; Rojo, Teófilo

    2016-04-01

    Rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries are receiving significant interest as a possible alternative to current state of the art lithium ion batteries due to their potential to provide higher gravimetric energies, giving significantly lighter or longer-lasting batteries. Recent advances suggest that the Na-O2 battery, in many ways analogous to Li-O2 yet based on the reversible formation of sodium superoxide (NaO2), has many advantages such as a low charge overpotential (∼100 mV) resulting in improved efficiency. In this Perspective, we discuss the current state of knowledge in Na-O2 battery technology, with an emphasis on the latest experimental studies, as well as theoretical models. We offer special focus on the principle outstanding challenges and issues and address the advantages/disadvantages of the technology when compared with Li-O2 batteries as well as other state-of-the-art battery technologies. We finish by detailing the direction required to make Na-O2 batteries both commercially and technologically viable. PMID:26961215

  15. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  16. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  17. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  18. Membrane Protein Structure Determination Using Crystallography and Lipidic Mesophases - Recent Advances and Successes

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Martin; Li, Dianfan; Dukkipati, Abhiram

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor in complex with an agonist and its cognate G protein has just recently been solved. It is now possible to explore in molecular detail the means by which this paradigmatic transmembrane receptor binds agonist, communicates the impulse or signalling event across the membrane and sets in motion a series of G protein-directed intracellular responses. The structure was determined using crystals of the ternary complex grown in a rationally designed lipidic mesophase by the so-called in meso method. The method is proving to be particularly useful in the G protein-coupled receptor field where the structures of thirteen distinct receptor types have been solved in the past five years. In addition to receptors, the method has proven useful with a wide variety of integral membrane protein classes that include bacterial and eukaryotic rhodopsins, a light harvesting complex II (LHII), photosynthetic reaction centers, cytochrome oxidases, β-barrels, an exchanger, and an integral membrane peptide. This attests to the versatility and range of the method and supports the view that the in meso method should be included in the arsenal of the serious membrane structural biologist. For this to happen however, the reluctance in adopting it attributable, in part, to the anticipated difficulties associated with handling the sticky, viscous cubic mesophase in which crystals grow must be overcome. Harvesting and collecting diffraction data with the mesophase-grown crystals is also viewed with some trepidation. It is acknowledged that there are challenges associated with the method. Over the years, we have endeavored to establish how the method works at a molecular level and to make it user-friendly. To these ends, tools for handling the mesophase in the pico- to nano-liter volume range have been developed for highly efficient crystallization screening in manual and robotic modes. Methods have been implemented for evaluating the functional

  19. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-01

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g-1 in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g-1 at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g-1 at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities.Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior

  20. Metal coordination polymer derived mesoporous Co3O4 nanorods with uniform TiO2 coating as advanced anodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongbo; Ang, Huixiang; Ding, Xianguang; Tan, Huiteng; Guo, Guile; Qu, Genlong; Yang, Yonggang; Zheng, Junwei; Yan, Qingyu; Gu, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural stability during cycling.In this work, a one-dimensional Co3O4@TiO2 core-shell electrode material with superior electrochemical performance is fabricated by a convenient and controllable route. The approach involves two main steps: the homogeneous deposition of polydopamine and TiO2 layers in sequence on the cobalt coordination polymer and the thermal decomposition of the polymer matrix. The as-prepared electrode material can achieve excellent electrochemical properties and stability as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, such as a high specific capacity of 1279 mA h g-1, good cycling stability (around 803 mA h g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles), and stable rate performance (around 520 mA h g-1 at a current density of 1000 mA g-1). This dramatic electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the excellent structural characteristics, which could improve the electrical conductivity and lithium ion mobility, as well as electrolyte permeability and architectural

  1. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  2. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-01

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries. PMID:26278438

  3. Lithium-sulfur batteries: electrochemistry, materials, and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ya-Xia; Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-12-01

    With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, Li-S batteries have become attractive candidates for the next-generation high-energy rechargeable Li batteries because of their high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. Starting from a brief history of Li-S batteries, this Review introduces the electrochemistry of Li-S batteries, and discusses issues resulting from the electrochemistry, such as the electroactivity and the polysulfide dissolution. To address these critical issues, recent advances in Li-S batteries are summarized, including the S cathode, Li anode, electrolyte, and new designs of Li-S batteries with a metallic Li-free anode. Constructing S molecules confined in the conductive microporous carbon materials to improve the cyclability of Li-S batteries serves as a prospective strategy for the industry in the future.

  4. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm-2 and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×1010 cells mL-1 did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms. PMID:26070088

  5. Bacterial Acclimation Inside an Aqueous Battery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dexian; Chen, Baoling; Chen, P

    2015-01-01

    Specific environmental stresses may lead to induced genomic instability in bacteria, generating beneficial mutants and potentially accelerating the breeding of industrial microorganisms. The environmental stresses inside the aqueous battery may be derived from such conditions as ion shuttle, pH gradient, free radical reaction and electric field. In most industrial and medical applications, electric fields and direct currents are used to kill bacteria and yeast. However, the present study focused on increasing bacterial survival inside an operating battery. Using a bacterial acclimation strategy, both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were acclimated for 10 battery operation cycles and survived in the battery for over 3 days. The acclimated bacteria changed in cell shape, growth rate and colony color. Further analysis indicated that electrolyte concentration could be one of the major factors determining bacterial survival inside an aqueous battery. The acclimation process significantly improved the viability of both bacteria E. coli and B. subtilis. The viability of acclimated strains was not affected under battery cycle conditions of 0.18-0.80 mA cm(-2) and 1.4-2.1 V. Bacterial addition within 1.0×10(10) cells mL(-1) did not significantly affect battery performance. Because the environmental stress inside the aqueous battery is specific, the use of this battery acclimation strategy may be of great potential for the breeding of industrial microorganisms.

  6. Phase-change enabled 2D Li3V2(PO4)3/C submicron sheets for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Ni, Xiao; Feng, Kai; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2016-09-01

    The exploration of cathode materials with high capacity and power, fast charge/discharge rate, long lifespan and broad temperature adaptability is a challenge for the practical application of lithium ion batteries. Here, submicro-sheet Li3V2(PO4)3/C (LVP/C) cathode materials have been successfully synthesized via a simple and universal phase-change method. This designed melting process increases the crystallinity and decreases the Li+ diffusion distance, which effectively enhances the cycling stability and rate performances of the LVP/C cathode materials. The LVP/C cathode materials exhibit high discharge specific capacity of 130 mAh g-1 in the first cycle. The capacity retention is almost 100% after 100 cycles. In addition, at 10 C, more than 80% of initial discharge capacity is retained after 800 cycles, indicating excellent cycle performance at high rate. Moreover, the synthesized LVP/C materials perform excellent low-temperature properties. At -20 °C, the specific capacity can reach 105 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C. This study provides a novel template-free synthesis method for nano/micro materials.

  7. 3D dual-confined sulfur encapsulated in porous carbon nanosheets and wrapped with graphene aerogels as a cathode for advanced lithium sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Li, Jianyang; Gao, Xianfeng; Wen, Zhenhai; Yuan, Chris; Chen, Junhong

    2016-04-21

    Although lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical specific energy and low cost, their practical applications have been severely hindered by poor cycle life, inadequate sulfur utilization, and the insulating nature of sulfur. Here, we report a rationally designed Li-S cathode with a dual-confined configuration formed by confining sulfur in 2D carbon nanosheets with an abundant porous structure followed by 3D graphene aerogel wrapping. The porous carbon nanosheets act as the sulfur host and suppress the diffusion of polysulfide, while the graphene conductive networks anchor the sulfur-adsorbed carbon nanosheets, providing pathways for rapid electron/ion transport and preventing polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the hybrid electrode exhibits superior electrochemical performance, including a large reversible capacity of 1328 mA h g(-1) in the first cycle, excellent cycling stability (maintaining a reversible capacity of 647 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C after 300 cycles) with nearly 100% Coulombic efficiency, and a high rate capability of 512 mA h g(-1) at 8 C for 30 cycles, which is among the best reported rate capabilities. PMID:27029963

  8. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm−3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g−1 at a specific current of 200 mA g−1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g−1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g−1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g−1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc. PMID:26754468

  9. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs. PMID:27015357

  10. A general method of fabricating flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite aerogels as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guobo; Shi, Nan; Hess, Michael; Chen, Xi; Cheng, Wei; Fan, Tongxiang; Niederberger, Markus

    2015-04-28

    High-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), such as spinel-type metal oxides, generally suffer from poor Li(+) and e(-) conductivities. Their drastic crystal structure and volume changes, as a result of the conversion reaction mechanism with Li, severely impede the high-rate and cyclability performance toward their practical application. In this article, we present a general and facile approach to fabricate flexible spinel-type oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite aerogels as binder-free anodes where the spinel nanoparticles (NPs) are integrated in an interconnected rGO network. Benefiting from the hierarchical porosity, conductive network and mechanical stability constructed by interpenetrated rGO layers, and from the pillar effect of NPs in between rGO sheets, the hybrid system synergistically enhances the intrinsic properties of each component, yet is robust and flexible. Consequently, the spinel/rGO composite aerogels demonstrate greatly enhanced rate capability and long-term stability without obvious capacity fading for 1000 cycles at high rates of up to 4.5 A g(-1) in the case of CoFe2O4. This electrode design can successfully be applied to several other spinel ferrites such as MnFe2O4, Fe3O4, NiFe2O4 or Co3O4, all of which lead to excellent electrochemical performances.

  11. Advanced Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12/rGO Composites with Increased Surface Lithium Storage Capability for High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Hao, Tingting; Osgood, Hannah; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Li; Cui, Luxia; Song, Xi-Ming; Ogoke, Ogechi; Wu, Gang

    2016-04-13

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are attractive anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of their unique electrochemical properties. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method in preparation of a nanocomposite anode consisting of well-dispersed mesoporous LTO particles onto rGO. An important reaction step involves glucose as a novel linker agent and reducing agent during the synthesis. It was found to prevent the aggregation of LTO particles, and to yield mesoporous structures in nanocomposites. Moreover, GO is reduced to rGO by the hydroxyl groups on glucose during the hydrothermal process. When compared to previously reported LTO/graphene electrodes, the newly prepared LTO/rGO nanocomposite has mesoporous characteristics and provides additional surface lithium storage capability, superior to traditional LTO-based materials for LIBs. These unique properties lead to markedly improved electrochemical performance. In particular, the nanocomposite anode delivers an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 193 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and superior rate performance capable of retaining a capacity of 168 mA h g(-1) at 30 C between 1.0 and 2.5 V. Therefore, the newly prepared mesoporous LTO/rGO nanocomposite with increased surface lithium storage capability will provide a new opportunity to develop high-power anode materials for LIBs.

  12. Coated/Sandwiched rGO/CoSx Composites Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks/GO as Advanced Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dongming; Huang, Gang; Zhang, Feifei; Qin, Yuling; Na, Zhaolin; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Limin

    2016-01-22

    Rational composite materials made from transition metal sulfides and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are highly desirable for designing high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, rGO-coated or sandwiched CoSx composites are fabricated through facile thermal sulfurization of metal-organic framework/GO precursors. By scrupulously changing the proportion of Co(2+) and organic ligands and the solvent of the reaction system, we can tune the forms of GO as either a coating or a supporting layer. Upon testing as anode materials for LIBs, the as-prepared CoSx -rGO-CoSx and rGO@CoSx composites demonstrate brilliant electrochemical performances such as high initial specific capacities of 1248 and 1320 mA h g(-1) , respectively, at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) , and stable cycling abilities of 670 and 613 mA h g(-1) , respectively, after 100 charge/discharge cycles, as well as superior rate capabilities. The excellent electrical conductivity and porous structure of the CoSx /rGO composites can promote Li(+) transfer and mitigate internal stress during the charge/discharge process, thus significantly improving the electrochemical performance of electrode materials.

  13. Integrating 3D Flower-Like Hierarchical Cu2NiSnS4 with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Advanced Anode Materials for Na-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuang; Wang, Sai; Li, Lin; Zhu, Yun-hai; Zhang, Xin-bo; Yan, Jun-min

    2016-04-13

    Development of an anode material with high performance and low cost is crucial for implementation of next-generation Na-ion batteries (NIBs) electrode, which is proposed to meet the challenges of large scale renewable energy storage. Metal chalcogenides are considered as promising anode materials for NIBs due to their high theoretical capacity, low cost, and abundant sources. Unfortunately, their practical application in NIBs is still hindered because of low conductivity and morphological collapse caused by their volume expansion and shrinkage during Na(+) intercalation/deintercalation. To solve the daunting challenges, herein, we fabricated novel three-dimensional (3D) Cu2NiSnS4 nanoflowers (CNTSNs) as a proof-of-concept experiment using a facile and low-cost method. Furthermore, homogeneous integration with reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGNs) endows intrinsically insulated CNTSNs with superior electrochemical performances, including high specific capacity (up to 837 mAh g(-1)), good rate capability, and long cycling stability, which could be attributed to the unique 3D hierarchical structure providing fast ion diffusion pathway and high contact area at the electrode/electrolyte interface.

  14. Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Highly Cross-Linked Polymer Films for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Separators.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngmin; Kim, Byung Gon; Pak, Kwanyong; Han, Sung Jae; Song, Heon-Sik; Choi, Jang Wook; Im, Sung Gap

    2015-08-26

    We report an initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process to coat polyethylene (PE) separators in Li-ion batteries with a highly cross-linked, mechanically strong polymer, namely, polyhexavinyldisiloxane (pHVDS). The highly cross-linked but ultrathin pHVDS films can only be obtained by a vapor-phase process, because the pHVDS is insoluble in most solvents and thus infeasible with conventional solution-based methods. Moreover, even after the pHVDS coating, the initial porous structure of the separator is well preserved owing to the conformal vapor-phase deposition. The coating thickness is delicately controlled by deposition time to the level that the pore size decreases to below 7% compared to the original dimension. The pHVDS-coated PE shows substantially improved thermal stability and electrolyte wettability. After incubation at 140 °C for 30 min, the pHVDS-coated PE causes only a 12% areal shrinkage (versus 90% of the pristine separator). The superior wettability results in increased electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, leading to significantly improved rate performance. The current approach is applicable to a wide range of porous polymeric separators that suffer from thermal shrinkage and poor electrolyte wetting.

  15. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm-3), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 200 mA g-1. Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g-1 after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g-1, about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g-1) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  16. The effect of annealing on a 3D SnO2/graphene foam as an advanced lithium-ion battery anode.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ran; Zhang, Yangyang; Chen, Zhihang; Duan, Huanan; Xu, Biyi; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-12

    3D annealed SnO2/graphene sheet foams (ASGFs) are synthesized by in situ self-assembly of graphene sheets prepared by mild chemical reduction. L-ascorbyl acid is used to effectively reduce the SnO2 nanoparticles/graphene oxide colloidal solution and form the 3D conductive graphene networks. The annealing treatment contributes to the formation of the Sn-O-C bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets, which improves the electrochemical performance of the foams. The ASGF has features of typical aerogels: low density (about 19 mg cm(-3)), smooth surface and porous structure. The ASGF anodes exhibit good specific capacity, excellent cycling stability and superior rate capability. The first reversible specific capacity is as high as 984.2 mAh g(-1) at a specific current of 200 mA g(-1). Even at the high specific current of 1000 mA g(-1) after 150 cycles, the reversible specific capacity of ASGF is still as high as 533.7 mAh g(-1), about twice as much as that of SGF (297.6 mAh g(-1)) after the same test. This synthesis method can be scaled up to prepare other metal oxides particles/ graphene sheet foams for high performance lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysts, etc.

  17. A Comparison of the BAT and BDAE-SF Batteries in Determining the Linguistic Ability in Greek-Speaking Patients with Broca's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the validity and reliability of the Bilingual Aphasia Test as a measure of language impairment in a Greek-speaking Broca's aphasic population and to investigate relationships with the same aphasic group's performance on the Greek version of the short form of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination battery, mainly…

  18. 75 FR 21367 - Advanced Electronics, Inc.; Boston, MA; Notice of Negative Determination on Remand

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Advanced Electronics, Inc.; Boston, MA; Notice of Negative.... United States Secretary of Labor (Court No. 06-00337). On July 18, 2006, the Department issued a Negative... August 4, 2006 (71 FR 44320). Prior to separation, the subject workers produced printed circuit...

  19. Review of recent advances in analytical techniques for the determination of neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Maura; Li, Qiang; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Methods and advances for monitoring neurotransmitters in vivo or for tissue analysis of neurotransmitters over the last five years are reviewed. The review is organized primarily by neurotransmitter type. Transmitter and related compounds may be monitored by either in vivo sampling coupled to analytical methods or implanted sensors. Sampling is primarily performed using microdialysis, but low-flow push-pull perfusion may offer advantages of spatial resolution while minimizing the tissue disruption associated with higher flow rates. Analytical techniques coupled to these sampling methods include liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, enzyme assays, sensors, and mass spectrometry. Methods for the detection of amino acid, monoamine, neuropeptide, acetylcholine, nucleoside, and soluable gas neurotransmitters have been developed and improved upon. Advances in the speed and sensitivity of these methods have enabled improvements in temporal resolution and increased the number of compounds detectable. Similar advances have enabled improved detection at tissue samples, with a substantial emphasis on single cell and other small samples. Sensors provide excellent temporal and spatial resolution for in vivo monitoring. Advances in application to catecholamines, indoleamines, and amino acids have been prominent. Improvements in stability, sensitivity, and selectivity of the sensors have been of paramount interest. PMID:19800472

  20. Advanced techniques for determining long term compatibility of materials with propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. L.; Stebbins, J. P.; Smith, A. W.; Pullen, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    A method for the prediction of propellant-material compatibility for periods of time up to ten years is presented. Advanced sensitive measurement techniques used in the prediction method are described. These include: neutron activation analysis, radioactive tracer technique, and atomic absorption spectroscopy with a graphite tube furnace sampler. The results of laboratory tests performed to verify the prediction method are presented.

  1. Zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.; Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1981-01-01

    A zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method of redirecting the electrical current around a failed battery module. The battery plant includes a power conditioning unit, a plurality of battery modules connected electrically in series to form battery strings, a plurality of battery strings electrically connected in parallel to the power conditioning unit, and a bypass switch for each battery module in the battery plant. The bypass switch includes a normally open main contact across the power terminals of the battery module, and a set of normally closed auxiliary contacts for controlling the supply of reactants electrochemically transformed in the cells of the battery module. Upon the determination of a failure condition, the bypass switch for the failed battery module is energized to close the main contact and open the auxiliary contacts. Within a short time, the electrical current through the battery module will substantially decrease due to the cutoff of the supply of reactants, and the electrical current flow through the battery string will be redirected through the main contact of the bypass switch.

  2. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Self-supported Zn3P2 nanowire arrays grafted on carbon fabrics as an advanced integrated anode for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwu; Gan, Lin; Guo, Kai; Ke, Linbo; Wei, Yaqing; Li, Huiqiao; Shen, Guozhen; Zhai, Tianyou

    2016-04-01

    We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as-synthesized integrated anode and the commercial LiFePO4 cathode, and shows striking lithium storage performances very close to the half cells: a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g-1, a long cycle life of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and an ultrahigh rate performance of ca. 300 mA h g-1 even at 20 A g-1. Considering the excellent lithium storage performances of coin-type half cells as well as flexible full cells, the as-prepared carbon cloth grafted well-aligned Zn3P2 nanowire arrays would be a promising integrated anode for flexible LIB full cell devices.We, for the first time, successfully grafted well-aligned binary lithium-reactive zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) nanowire arrays on carbon fabric cloth by a facile CVD method. When applied as a novel self-supported binder-free anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) integrated anode shows excellent electrochemical performances: a highly reversible initial lithium storage capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 with a coulombic efficiency of up to 88%, a long lifespan of over 200 cycles without obvious decay, and a high rate capability of ca. 400 mA h g-1 capacity retention at an ultrahigh rate of 15 A g-1. More interestingly, a flexible LIB full cell is assembled based on the as

  4. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg(-1)(total electrode) while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg(-1)(total electrode), which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices.

  5. All-graphene-battery: bridging the gap between supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Haegyeom; Park, Kyu-Young; Hong, Jihyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we propose an advanced energy-storage system: all-graphene-battery. It operates based on fast surface-reactions in both electrodes, thus delivering a remarkably high power density of 6,450 W kg−1total electrode while also retaining a high energy density of 225 Wh kg−1total electrode, which is comparable to that of conventional lithium ion battery. The performance and operating mechanism of all-graphene-battery resemble those of both supercapacitors and batteries, thereby blurring the conventional distinction between supercapacitors and batteries. This work demonstrates that the energy storage system made with carbonaceous materials in both the anode and cathode are promising alternative energy-storage devices. PMID:24923290

  6. Chromosome conservation among the advanced pecorans and determination of the primitive bovid karyotype.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D S; Derr, J N; Womack, J E

    1994-01-01

    Extensive monobrachial QFH-band homologies were found among cattle (Bovidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Masai giraffe (Giraffidae), and mule and whitetail deer (Cervidae). The deer species had identical karyotypes (2n = 70, NAA = 70). Interfamily comparisons demonstrated that cattle (2n = 60, NAA = 58) and pronghorn (2n = 58, NAA = 60) were karyotypically the most similar. The giraffe possessed a 2n = 30, NAA = 54, and differed from the other artiodactyls by having a preponderance of biarmed autosomes. The primarily acrocentric deer karyotypes showed several chromosome arm disruptions relative to the other species. Comparative cytogenetic data among the advanced pecorans strongly suggest that the 2n = 60, NAA = 58 karyotype found in several species of the tribe Bovini is probably near the primitive condition for the Bovidae. However, the ancestral conditions of the sex chromosomes within the Bovidae and among the advanced pecorans remain in question. PMID:8014460

  7. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumley, Robert L.; Hardin, Jasper E.; MacDowall, Randy D.; Burke, Andrew F.

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227).

  8. ERC nickel cadium battery performance tests and comparisons with lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Crumley, R.L.; Hardin, J.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A battery pack consisting of eighteen 6-V, roll-bonded nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, manufactured by Energy Research Corporation (ERC), was evaluated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program for electric vehicle applications. The purpose of the testing was to determine the capacity and performance characteristics of the battery pack and to obtain data which would permit direct comparison with other selected EV application batteries. Laboratory charge/discharge characterization and vehicle dynamometer tests were performed with the NiCd battery pack in the Battery and Dynamometer Laboratories of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Research Center. Testing was done in accordance with the Electric Vehicle Test Procedures of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J227). 8 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  10. Exploratory battery technology development report for FY90

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, N.J.; Butler, P.C.; Akhil, A.A.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Freese, J.M.; Lott, S.E.

    1991-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, manages the Utility Battery Exploratory Technology Development Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses and development of advanced rechargeable batteries for stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1990. 82 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. USABC electric vehicle Battery Test Procedures Manual. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This manual summarizes the procedural information needed to perform the battery testing being sponsored by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This information provides the structure and standards to be used by all testing organizations, including the USABC developers, national laboratories, or other relevant test facilities.

  12. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  13. Alternator control for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  14. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  15. Aluminum-air batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Behrin, E.; Cooper, J.F.

    1981-02-23

    The aluminum-air battery is an advanced electrochemical energy source in the early stages of development. The battery is potentially capable of providing an electric vehicle with the range, acceleration, and rapid refueling capability of today's automobile. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory leads this DOE-funded program with a major part of the research being conducted by industrial laboratories. Peak cell energy yields above 4 kWh/kg-Al and peak power densities greater than 6 kW/m/sup 2/ have been demonstrated in single cells. Projected energy density and power density of a complete vehicle battery are greater than 300 Wh/kg and 150 W/kg. The concept, technical status, development strategy, and the results of battery and vehicle analyses are reviewed.

  16. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  17. Life-cycle energy analyses of electric vehicle storage batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D.; Morse, T.; Patel, P.; Patel, S.; Bondar, J.; Taylor, L.

    1980-12-01

    Nickel-zinc, lead-acid, nickel-iron, zinc-chlorine, sodium-sulfur (glass electrolyte), sodium-sulfur (ceramic electrolyte), lithium-metal sulfide, and aluminum-air batteries were studied in order to evaluate the energy used to produce the raw materials and to manufacture the battery, the energy consumed by the battery during its operational life, and the energy that could be saved from the recycling of battery materials into new raw materials. The value of the life cycle analysis approach is that it includes the various penalties and credits associated with battery production and recycling, which enables a more accurate determination of the system's ability to reduce the consumption of scarce fuels. Battery component materials, the energy requirements for battery production, and credits for recycling are described. The operational energy for an electric vehicle and the procedures used to determine it are discussed.

  18. Advances in the determination of hindered amine light stabilizers - A review.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Christian W; Himmelsbach, Markus

    2016-08-24

    Within this paper we discuss analytical strategies for the characterization and quantitation of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) an important sub-group of polymer additives. For the determination of monomeric HALS a range of mature and reliable techniques exists, allowing their determination in polymer extracts. If qualitative or semi-quantitative information suffices, certain techniques are capable of sampling directly from the polymer surface with limited or no sample preparation. Different strategies for the determination of complex oligomeric HALS in extracts from polymer samples are discussed. Here, approaches providing only a sum parameter including all HALS oligomers have been distinguished from more sophisticated technologies allowing the determination of single oligomers, their degradation and by-products. Particularly, the latter issue is facing increased interest as it provides important information for polymers aging studies. A tabulated overview provides comprehensive information on different analytical techniques suitable for HALS determination. PMID:27496993

  19. Advances in the determination of hindered amine light stabilizers - A review.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Christian W; Himmelsbach, Markus

    2016-08-24

    Within this paper we discuss analytical strategies for the characterization and quantitation of hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) an important sub-group of polymer additives. For the determination of monomeric HALS a range of mature and reliable techniques exists, allowing their determination in polymer extracts. If qualitative or semi-quantitative information suffices, certain techniques are capable of sampling directly from the polymer surface with limited or no sample preparation. Different strategies for the determination of complex oligomeric HALS in extracts from polymer samples are discussed. Here, approaches providing only a sum parameter including all HALS oligomers have been distinguished from more sophisticated technologies allowing the determination of single oligomers, their degradation and by-products. Particularly, the latter issue is facing increased interest as it provides important information for polymers aging studies. A tabulated overview provides comprehensive information on different analytical techniques suitable for HALS determination.

  20. Methods for thermodynamic evaluation of battery state of health

    DOEpatents

    Yazami, Rachid; McMenamin, Joseph; Reynier, Yvan; Fultz, Brent T

    2013-05-21

    Described are systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and battery systems and for characterizing the state of health of electrodes and battery systems. Measurement of physical attributes of electrodes and batteries corresponding to thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions permit determination of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and battery systems, such as energy, power density, current rate, cycle life and state of health. Also provided are systems and methods for charging a battery according to its state of health.

  1. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  2. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  3. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  4. Overview of Sandia`s Electric Vehicle Battery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.P.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  5. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  6. Battery Review Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-02-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  7. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  8. Determination of the Absolute Stereochemistry of Secondary Alcohols: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Wickramasinghe M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which can be completed in five four-hour laboratory sessions, including two synthesis (alpha-phenylbutyric and alpha-phenylbutyric acid anhydride) and determining the absolute stereochemistry of secondary alcohols using the synthetic products. (JN)

  9. Determinants of Quality Care and Mortality for Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer in Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Camacho, Fabian; Cantrell, Leigh A.; Anderson, Roger T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Outcomes for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer are influenced by receipt of all indicated components of quality care: early diagnosis and receipt of external beam radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and brachytherapy. We performed an observational cohort study to evaluate receipt of quality cancer care and mortality after cancer diagnosis among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer in Virginia. We queried the Virginia state cancer registry to identify patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB-IVA cervical cancer who were diagnosed during 2002 to 2012. We evaluated the influence of tumor-related, demographic, and geospatial factors on the receipt of indicated therapies and mortality. Treatment quality score of 0 to 3 was defined based upon the extent of receipt of the components of indicated therapy. A total of 1048 patients were identified; 33.1% received all 3 components of treatment and only 54.0% received brachytherapy. Predictors of higher quality score included younger age group versus 66+ years at diagnosis (18–42 odds ratio [OR] = 12.3, 95% confidence interval: 6.6, 23.0; 42–53 OR = 5.6, CI: 3.3, 9.5; 53–66 OR = 5.5, CI: 3.3, 9.1), lower tumor stages versus IVA (IB2 OR = 3.3, CI: 1.8, 6.2; II OR = 2.7, CI: 1.6, 4.5; IIIx OR = 2.1, CI: 1.3, 3.6), and treatment at a high-volume facility (OR 2.2, CI: 1.2, 4.2). Predictors of increased mortality included earlier year of diagnosis, higher tumor stage, treatment at a lower volume facility, and lower treatment quality score. In a cohort of locally advanced cervical cancer patients in Virginia, we identified a low rate of receipt of complete quality care for cervical cancer and a strong effect of facility volume on quality treatment and survival. Further research is needed to develop strategies to improve access to quality treatment and outcomes for cervical cancer. PMID:26937934

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  12. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  13. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  14. Determining women's sexual self-schemas through advanced computerized text analysis.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia M; Boyd, Ryan L; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-08-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women's sexual self-schemas. Participants (n=239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants' descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history.

  15. Determining women's sexual self-schemas through advanced computerized text analysis.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia M; Boyd, Ryan L; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-08-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women's sexual self-schemas. Participants (n=239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants' descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. PMID:26146161

  16. Iron-air battery development program

    SciTech Connect

    Buzzelli, E.S.; Liu, C.T.; Bryant, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The progress and status of the research and development program on the iron-air advanced technology battery system at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the period June 1978-December 1979 are described. This advanced battery system is being developed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. Testing and evaluation of 100 cm/sup 2/ size cells was undertaken while individual iron and air electrode programs continued. Progress is reported in a number of these study areas. Results of the improvements made in the utilization of the iron electrode active material coupled with manufacturing and processing studies related to improved air electrodes continue to indicate that a fully developed iron-air battery system will be capable of fulfilling the performance requirements for commuter electric vehicles.

  17. Exide eyeing technology for high-powered battery

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Exide Corp. said recently it may soon produce a graphite battery with more than three times the power of today's most advanced production batteries--but with half their weight, far smaller size, and only a third the cost. The Reading-based Exide, the world's largest maker of lead-acid batteries, said it has preliminarily agreed to pay $20 million for a controlling interest in Lion Compact Energy, a privately held company that's researching dual-graphite battery technology said to be cleaner cheaper and more efficient. Exide hopes to turn the technology into the products; it said initial applications include smaller battery-operated devices such as cell phones, cameras, laptop computers, power tools and certain military equipment. Larger devices would follow, and could include wheel chairs, motorcycles, replacement for lead-acid batteries in cars and trucks and, potentially, all-electric vehicles.

  18. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  19. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  20. Battery technologies for large-scale stationary energy storage.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β″-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical. PMID:22432629

  1. Battery technologies for large-scale stationary energy storage.

    PubMed

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β″-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  2. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  3. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Advanced Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by a Steady-state Laser Heat-flux Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The development of low conductivity and high temperature capable thermal barrier coatings requires advanced testing techniques that can accurately and effectively evaluate coating thermal conductivity under future high-performance and low-emission engine heat-flux conditions. In this paper, a unique steady-state CO2 laser (wavelength 10.6 microns) heat-flux approach is described for determining the thermal conductivity and conductivity deduced cyclic durability of ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coating systems at very high temperatures (up to 1700 C) under large thermal gradients. The thermal conductivity behavior of advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings for metallic and Si-based ceramic matrix composite (CMC) component applications has also been investigated using the laser conductivity approach. The relationships between the lattice and radiation conductivities as a function of heat flux and thermal gradient at high temperatures have been examined for the ceramic coating systems. The steady-state laser heat-flux conductivity approach has been demonstrated as a viable means for the development and life prediction of advanced thermal barrier coatings for future turbine engine applications.

  5. Advanced liquid and solid extraction procedures for ultratrace determination of rhenium by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizera, J.; Kučera, J.; Řanda, Z.; Lučaníková, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) procedures for determination of Re at the ultratrace level based on use of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and extraction chromatography (EXC) have been developed. Two different LLE procedures were used depending on the way of sample decomposition using either 2-butanone or tetraphenylarsonium chloride in CHCl3. EXC employed new solid extractant materials prepared by incorporation of the liquid trioctyl-methyl-ammonium chloride into an inert polyacrylonitrile matrix. The RNAA procedures presented have been compared and applied for Re determination in several biological and environmental reference materials.

  6. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Advanced Technology Development Program for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Gen 2 Performance Evaluation Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen; Chet Motloch; Ira D. Bloom; Vince Battaglia; Ganesan Nagasubramanian; Tien Q. Duong

    2003-02-01

    The Advanced Technology Development Program is currently evaluating the performance of the second generation of Lithium-ion cells (i.e., Gen 2 cells). The 18650-size Gen 2 cells consist of a baseline chemistry and one variant chemistry. These cells were distributed over a matrix consisting of three states-of-charge (SOC) (60, 80, and 100% SOC), four temperatures (25, 35, 45, and 55°C), and three life tests (calendar-, cycle-, and accelerated-life). The calendar-life cells are clamped at an opencircuit voltage corresponding to 60% SOC and undergo a once-per-day pulse profile. The cycle-life cells are continuously pulsed using a profile that is centered around 60% SOC. The accelerated-life cells are following the calendar-life test procedures, but using the cycle-life pulse profile. Life testing is interrupted every four weeks for reference performance tests (RPTs), which are used to quantify changes in capacity, resistance, and power. The RPTs consist of a C1/1 and C1/25 static capacity tests, a low-current hybrid pulse power characterization test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at 60% SOC. Capacity-, power-, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based performance results are reported.

  7. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints. PMID:26262660

  8. Status of the DOE battery and electrochemical technology program. III

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1982-02-01

    This report reviews the status of the Department of Energy Subelement on Electrochemical Storage Systems. It emphasizes material presented at the Fourth US Department of Energy Battery and Electrochemical Contractors' Conference, held June 2-4, 1981. The conference stressed secondary batteries, however, the aluminum/air mechanically rechargeable battery and selected topics on industrial electrochemical processes were included. The potential contributions of the battery and electrochemical technology efforts to supported technologies: electric vehicles, solar electric systems, and energy conservation in industrial electrochemical processes, are reviewed. The analyses of the potential impact of these systems on energy technologies as the basis for selecting specific battery systems for investigation are noted. The battery systems in the research, development, and demonstration phase discussed include: aqueous mobile batteries (near term) - lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, zinc/nickel-oxide; advanced batteries - aluminum/air, iron/air, zinc/bromine, zinc/ferricyanide, chromous/ferric, lithium/metal sulfide, sodium/sulfur; and exploratory batteries - lithium organic electrolyte, lithium/polymer electrolyte, sodium/sulfur (IV) chloroaluminate, calcium/iron disulfide, lithium/solid electrolyte. Supporting research on electrode reactions, cell performance modeling, new battery materials, ionic conducting solid electrolytes, and electrocatalysis is reviewed. Potential energy saving processes for the electrowinning of aluminum and zinc, and for the electrosynthesis of inorganic and organic compounds are included.

  9. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    PubMed

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-01

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints.

  10. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  11. 10 CFR 830 Major Modification Determination for the Advanced Test Reactor Remote Monitoring and Management Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Bohachek, Randolph Charles

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR; TRA-670), which is located in the ATR Complex at Idaho National Laboratory, was constructed in the 1960s for the purpose of irradiating reactor fuels and materials. Other irradiation services, such as radioisotope production, are also performed at ATR. While ATR is safely fulfilling current mission requirements, assessments are continuing. These assessments intend to identify areas to provide defense–in-depth and improve safety for ATR. One of the assessments performed by an independent group of nuclear industry experts recommended that a remote accident management capability be provided. The report stated that: “contemporary practice in commercial power reactors is to provide a remote shutdown station or stations to allow shutdown of the reactor and management of long-term cooling of the reactor (i.e., management of reactivity, inventory, and cooling) should the main control room be disabled (e.g., due to a fire in the control room or affecting the control room).” This project will install remote reactor monitoring and management capabilities for ATR. Remote capabilities will allow for post scram reactor management and monitoring in the event the main Reactor Control Room (RCR) must be evacuated.

  12. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  13. Development status of a sealed bipolar lead/acid battery for high-power battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. L.; Rowlette, J. J.; Drake, E. D.

    A sealed bipolar lead/acid (SBLA) battery is being developed by Arias Research Associates (ARA) which will offer a number of important advantages in applications requiring high power densities. These applications include electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), electrically-heated catalysts (EHCs) for automobiles, utility-power peak-shaving, and others. The advantages of the SBLA over other types of batteries will by significantly higher power density, together with good energy density, high cycle life, high voltage density, low production cost and zero maintenance. In addition, the lead/acid battery represents a technology which is familiar and accepted by Society, is recyclable within the existing infrastructure, and does not raise the safety concerns of many other new batteries (e.g., fire, explosion and toxic gases). This paper briefly reviews the basic design concepts and issues of the SBLA battery technology, various quasi-bipolar approaches and the results of ARA's development work during the past four years. Performance data are given based on both in-house and independent testing of ARA laboratory test batteries. In addition, performance projections and other characteristics are given for three ARA SBLA battery designs, which are compared with other batteries in three example applications: UPS, EHCs, and EVs. The most notable advantages of the SBLA battery are substantial reductions in product size and weight for the UPS, smaller packaging and longer life for the EHC, and higher vehicle performance and lower cost for the EV, compared to both existing and advanced EV batteries.

  14. Recent advances in methods and techniques for freshness quality determination and evaluation of fish and fish fillets: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun-Hu; Sun, Da-Wen; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The freshness quality of fish plays an important role in human health and the acceptance of consumers as well as in international fishery trade. Recently, with food safety becoming a critical issue of great concern in the world, determination and evaluation of fish freshness is much more significant in research and development. This review renovates and concentrates recent advances of evaluating methods for fish freshness as affected by preharvest and postharvest factors and highlights the determination methods for fish freshness including sensory evaluation, microbial inspection, chemical measurements of moisture content, volatile compounds, protein changes, lipid oxidation, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decomposition (K value), physical measurements, and foreign material contamination detection. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these methods and techniques are compared and discussed and some viewpoints about the current work and future trends are also presented.

  15. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  16. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  17. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  18. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  19. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  20. International Lead Zinc Research Organization-sponsored field-data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in stationary applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. A.; Moseley, P. T.; Butler, P. C.

    The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project with the following aims: to characterize relationships between valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; to establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; to identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; to identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; to recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. In the first phase of this project, ILZRO has contracted with Energetics to identify and survey manufacturers and users of VRLA batteries for stationary applications (including electric utilities, telecommunications companies, and government facilities). The confidential survey is collecting the service conditions of specific applications and performance records for specific VRLA technologies. From the data collected, Energetics is constructing a database of the service histories and analyzing the data to determine trends in performance for particular technologies in specific service conditions. ILZRO plans to make the final report of the analysis and a version of the database (that contains no proprietary information) available to ILZRO members, participants in the survey, and participants in a follow-on workshop for stakeholders in VRLA reliability. This paper presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users, discusses the analytic approach, presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that have emerged in the early analysis of the data, and previews the functionality of the database being constructed.

  1. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-05

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice.

  2. Disentangling determinants of egg size in the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) using an advanced phylogenetic comparative method.

    PubMed

    Davis, Robert B; Javoiš, J; Pienaar, J; Õunap, E; Tammaru, T

    2012-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic comparative study assessing the evolutionary determinants of egg size in the moth family Geometridae. These moths were found to show a strong negative allometric relationship between egg size and maternal body size. Using recently developed comparative methods based on an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we show that maternal body size explains over half the variation in egg size. However, other determinants are less clear: ecological factors, previously hypothesized to affect egg size, were not found to have a considerable influence in the Geometridae. The limited role of such third factors suggests a direct causal link between egg size and body size rather than an indirect correlation mediated by some ecological factors. Notably, no large geometrid species lay small eggs. This pattern suggests that maternal body size poses a physical constraint on egg size, but within these limits, there appears to be a rather invariable selection for larger eggs.

  3. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  4. Determinants of quality of life in advanced kidney disease: time to screen?

    PubMed

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Brown, Edwina A

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of older patients with end stage renal disease is on the increase. This group of patients have multiple comorbidities and a high symptom burden. Dialysis can be life sustaining for such patients. But it is often at the expense of quality of life, which starts to decline early in the pathway of chronic kidney disease. Quality of life is also important to patients and is a major determinant in decisions regarding renal replacement. As a result, validated patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly used to assess quality of life in renal patients. Cognitive impairment, depression, malnutrition and function decline are non-renal determinants of quality of life and mortality. They are under-recognised in the renal population but are potentially treatable, if not preventable. This review article discusses aetio-pathogenesis, prevalence and impact of these four outcomes, advocating regular screening for early identification and management.

  5. Determining the geographical origin of Sechium edule fruits by multielement analysis and advanced chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Melisa J; Fechner, Diana C; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Pellerano, Roberto G

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the determination and evaluation of the major and trace element composition (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn) of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz fruits collected from four different places of production in Corrientes province, Argentina. Element concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after microwave digestion. The accuracy was confirmed with standard reference material of spinach leaves (NIST, 1570a) and spiking tests. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (kNN), partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to the results for discriminating the geographical origin of S. edule fruits. Finally, the LDA method was found to perform best with up to 90% accuracy rate based on the following elements: Ca, Ba, Cu, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn.

  6. Advancing Sustainability through Urban Green Space: Cultural Ecosystem Services, Equity, and Social Determinants of Health.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Viniece; Larson, Lincoln; Yun, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Urban green spaces provide an array of benefits, or ecosystem services, that support our physical, psychological, and social health. In many cases, however, these benefits are not equitably distributed across diverse urban populations. In this paper, we explore relationships between cultural ecosystem services provided by urban green space and the social determinants of health outlined in the United States Healthy People 2020 initiative. Specifically, we: (1) explore connections between cultural ecosystem services and social determinants of health; (2) examine cultural ecosystem services as nature-based health amenities to promote social equity; and (3) recommend areas for future research examining links between urban green space and public health within the context of environmental justice. PMID:26861365

  7. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence trace mercury determination by trapping complexation: Application in advanced oxidation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custo, Graciela; Litter, Marta I.; Rodríguez, Diana; Vázquez, Cristina

    2006-11-01

    It is well known that Hg species cause high noxious effects on the health of living organisms even at very low levels (5 μg/L). Quantification of this element is an analytical challenge due to the peculiar physicochemical properties of all Hg species. The regulation of the maximal allowable Hg concentration led to search for sensitive methods for its determination. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence is a proved instrumental analytical tool for the determination of trace elements. In this work, the use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence for Hg quantification is investigated. However, experimental determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence requires depositing a small volume of sample on the reflector and evaporation of the solvent until dryness to form a thin film. Because of volatilization of several Hg forms, a procedure to capture these volatile species in liquid samples by using complexing agents is proposed. Acetate, oxalic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid and ammonium pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate were assayed for trapping the analytes into the solution during the preparation of the sample and onto the reflector during total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements. The proposed method was applied to evaluate Hg concentration during TiO 2-heterogeneous photocatalysis, one of the most known advanced oxidation technologies. Advanced oxidation technologies are processes for the treatment of effluents in waters and air that involve the generation of very active oxidative and reductive species. In heterogeneous photocatalysis, Hg is transformed to several species under ultraviolet illumination in the presence of titanium dioxide. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was demonstrated to be applicable in following the extent of the heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction by determining non-transformed Hg in the remaining solution.

  8. A systematic review to determine reliability and usefulness of the field-based test batteries for the assessment of physical fitness in adolescents - The ASSO Project.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonino; Jemni, Moném; Thomas, Ewan; Patti, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Ramos Roque, Joana; Palma, Antonio; Mammina, Caterina; Tabacchi, Garden

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to investigate the main field-based tests, used alone or included in sport or fitness batteries, for the assessment of health- and skill-related physical fitness components in adolescents. Different scientific databases were searched through using the selected key words related to physical fitness and its components for adolescence. The search focused on original articles and reviews/meta-analyses using valid, reproducible and feasible tests that fit within the school environment. A total of 100 scientific manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis. The present systematic review pointed out 5 fitness tests that well adapt to the evaluation of the components of physical fitness of adolescents within a school environment: the 20 m shuttle run test for cardio-respiratory endurance; the handgrip strength test for upper body maximal strength; the standing broad jump test for lower body maximal strength; the sit-up test to exhaustion for muscular endurance and the 4×10 m shuttle run test for speed, agility and coordination. These fitness tests have been finally selected and incorporated into the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention - Fitness Test Battery (ASSO-FTB), and will be adopted within the ASSO Project for evaluation purposes. This instrument could be also provided to teachers and people working in schools in order to assess physical fitness of adolescents over time and prevent obesity and related diseases.

  9. Advanced Structural Determination of Diterpene Esters Using Molecular Modeling and NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Gallard, Jean-François; Dumontet, Vincent; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Iorga, Bogdan I; Paolini, Julien; Litaudon, Marc

    2015-10-23

    Three new jatrophane esters (1-3) were isolated from Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. semiperfoliata, including an unprecedented macrocyclic jatrophane ester bearing a hemiketal substructure, named jatrohemiketal (3). The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 and their relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined unambiguously through an original strategy combining NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Conformational search calculations were performed for the four possible diastereomers 3a-3d differing in their C-6 and C-9 stereocenters, and the lowest energy conformer was used as input structure for geometry optimization. The prediction of NMR parameters ((1)H and (13)C chemical shifts and (1)H-(1)H coupling constants) by density functional theory (DFT) calculations allowed identifying the most plausible diastereomer. Finally, the stereostructure of 3 was solved by comparison of the structural features obtained by molecular modeling for 3a-3d with NMR-derived data (the values of dihedral angles deduced from the vicinal proton-proton coupling constants ((3)JHH) and interproton distances determined by ROESY). The methodology described herein provides an efficient way to solve or confirm structural elucidation of new macrocyclic diterpene esters, in particular when no crystal structure is available.

  10. Rodent Habitat on ISS: Advances in Capability for Determining Spaceflight Effects on Mammalian Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Ronca, A.; Taylor, E.; Beegle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent research is a valuable essential tool for advancing biomedical discoveries in life sciences on Earth and in space. The National Research Counsel's Decadal survey (1) emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, new flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA ARC to support commercial and government-sponsored research. The flight phases of two separate spaceflight missions (Rodent Research-1 and Rodent Research-2) have been completed and new capabilities are in development. The first flight experiments carrying 20 mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4; Rodent Research-1 was dedicated to achieving both NASA validation and CASIS science objectives, while Rodent Reesearch-2 extended the period on orbit to 60 days. Groundbased control groups (housed in flight hardware or standard cages) were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers previously trained in animal handling transferred mice from the Transporter into Habitats under simultaneous veterinary supervision by video streaming and were deemed healthy. Health and behavior of all mice on the ISS was monitored by video feed on a daily basis, and post-flight quantitative analyses of behavior were performed. The 10 mice from RR-1 Validation (16wk old, female C57Bl6/J) ambulated freely and actively throughout the Habitat, relying heavily on their forelimbs for locomotion. The first on-orbit dissections of mice were performed successfully, and high quality RNA (RIN values>9) and liver enzyme activities were obtained, validating the quality of sample recovery. Post-flight sample analysis revealed that body weights of FLT animals did not differ from ground controls (GC) housed in the same hardware, or vivarium controls (VIV) housed in standard cages. Organ weights analyzed post

  11. Advanced Residuals Analysis for Determining the Number of PARAFAC Components in Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Cuss, Chad W; Guéguen, Céline; Andersson, Per; Porcelli, Don; Maximov, Trofim; Kutscher, Liselott

    2016-02-01

    Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) has facilitated an explosion in research connecting the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to its functions and biogeochemical cycling in natural and engineered systems. However, the validation of robust PARAFAC models using split-half analysis requires an oft unrealistically large number (hundreds to thousands) of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and models with too few components may not adequately describe differences between DOM. This study used self-organizing maps (SOM) and comparing changes in residuals with the effects of adding components to estimate the number of PARAFAC components in DOM from two data sets: MS (110 EEMs from nine leaf leachates and headwaters) and LR (64 EEMs from the Lena River). Clustering by SOM demonstrated that peaks clearly persisted in model residuals after validation by split-half analysis. Plotting the changes to residuals was an effective method for visualizing the removal of fluorophore-like fluorescence caused by increasing the number of PARAFAC components. Extracting additional PARAFAC components via residuals analysis increased the proportion of correctly identified size-fractionated leaf leachates from 56.0 ± 0.8 to 75.2 ± 0.9%, and from 51.7 ± 1.4 to 92.9 ± 0.0% for whole leachates. Model overfitting was assessed by considering the correlations between components, and their distributions amongst samples. Advanced residuals analysis improved the ability of PARAFAC to resolve the variation in DOM fluorescence, and presents an enhanced validation approach for assessing the number of components that can be used to supplement the potentially misleading results of split-half analysis.

  12. Advanced Residuals Analysis for Determining the Number of PARAFAC Components in Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Cuss, Chad W; Guéguen, Céline; Andersson, Per; Porcelli, Don; Maximov, Trofim; Kutscher, Liselott

    2016-02-01

    Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) has facilitated an explosion in research connecting the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to its functions and biogeochemical cycling in natural and engineered systems. However, the validation of robust PARAFAC models using split-half analysis requires an oft unrealistically large number (hundreds to thousands) of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and models with too few components may not adequately describe differences between DOM. This study used self-organizing maps (SOM) and comparing changes in residuals with the effects of adding components to estimate the number of PARAFAC components in DOM from two data sets: MS (110 EEMs from nine leaf leachates and headwaters) and LR (64 EEMs from the Lena River). Clustering by SOM demonstrated that peaks clearly persisted in model residuals after validation by split-half analysis. Plotting the changes to residuals was an effective method for visualizing the removal of fluorophore-like fluorescence caused by increasing the number of PARAFAC components. Extracting additional PARAFAC components via residuals analysis increased the proportion of correctly identified size-fractionated leaf leachates from 56.0 ± 0.8 to 75.2 ± 0.9%, and from 51.7 ± 1.4 to 92.9 ± 0.0% for whole leachates. Model overfitting was assessed by considering the correlations between components, and their distributions amongst samples. Advanced residuals analysis improved the ability of PARAFAC to resolve the variation in DOM fluorescence, and presents an enhanced validation approach for assessing the number of components that can be used to supplement the potentially misleading results of split-half analysis. PMID:26783366

  13. Progress in Modeling and Simulation of Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of batteries, in conjunction with theory and experiment, are important research tools that offer opportunities for advancement of technologies that are critical to electric motors. The development of data from the application of these tools can provide the basis for managerial and technical decision-making. Together, these will continue to transform batteries for electric vehicles. This collection of nine papers presents the modeling and simulation of batteries and the continuing contribution being made to this impressive progress, including topics that cover: * Thermal behavior and characteristics * Battery management system design and analysis * Moderately high-fidelity 3D capabilities * Optimization Techniques and Durability As electric vehicles continue to gain interest from manufacturers and consumers alike, improvements in economy and affordability, as well as adoption of alternative fuel sources to meet government mandates are driving battery research and development. Progress in modeling and simulation will continue to contribute to battery improvements that deliver increased power, energy storage, and durability to further enhance the appeal of electric vehicles.

  14. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described. PMID:22524506

  15. Anti-Idling Battery for Truck Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kelly

    2011-09-30

    In accordance to the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001036, the objective of this project was to develop an advanced high voltage lithium-ion battery for use in an all-electric HVAC system for Class-7-8 heavy duty trucks. This system will help heavy duty truck drivers meet the tough new anti-idling laws being implemented by over 23 states. Quallion will be partnering with a major OEM supplier of HVAC systems to develop this system. The major OEM supplier will provide Quallion the necessary interface requirements and HVAC hardware to ensure successful testing of the all-electric system. At the end of the program, Quallion will deliver test data on three (3) batteries as well as test data for the prototype HVAC system. The objectives of the program are: (1) Battery Development - Objective 1 - Define battery and electronics specifications in preparation for building the prototype module. (Completed - summary included in report) and Objective 2 - Establish a functional prototype battery and characterize three batteries in-house. (Completed - photos and data included in report); (2) HVAC Development - Objective 1 - Collaborate with manufacturers to define HVAC components, layout, and electronics in preparation for establishing the prototype system. (Completed - photos and data included in report) and Objective 2 - Acquire components for three functional prototypes for use by Quallion. (Completed - photos and data included in report).

  16. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  19. Polyacrylonitrile block copolymers for the preparation of a thin carbon coating around TiO2 nanorods for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oschmann, Bernd; Bresser, Dominic; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Fischer, Karl; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Herein, a new method for the realization of a thin and homogenous carbonaceous particle coating, made by carbonizing RAFT polymerization derived block copolymers anchored on anatase TiO2 nanorods, is presented. These block copolymers consist of a short anchor block (based on dopamine) and a long, easily graphitizable block of polyacrylonitrile. The grafting of such block copolymers to TiO2 nanorods creates a polymer shell, which can be visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermal treatment at 700 °C converts the polyacrylonitrile block to partially graphitic structures (as determined by Raman spectroscopy), establishing a thin carbon coating (as determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, analysis). The carbon-coated TiO2 nanorods show improved electrochemical performance in terms of achievable specific capacity and, particularly, long-term cycling stability by reducing the average capacity fading per cycle from 0.252 mAh g(-1) to only 0.075 mAh g(-1) .

  20. Polyacrylonitrile block copolymers for the preparation of a thin carbon coating around TiO2 nanorods for advanced lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oschmann, Bernd; Bresser, Dominic; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Fischer, Karl; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2013-11-01

    Herein, a new method for the realization of a thin and homogenous carbonaceous particle coating, made by carbonizing RAFT polymerization derived block copolymers anchored on anatase TiO2 nanorods, is presented. These block copolymers consist of a short anchor block (based on dopamine) and a long, easily graphitizable block of polyacrylonitrile. The grafting of such block copolymers to TiO2 nanorods creates a polymer shell, which can be visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermal treatment at 700 °C converts the polyacrylonitrile block to partially graphitic structures (as determined by Raman spectroscopy), establishing a thin carbon coating (as determined by transmission electron microscopy, TEM, analysis). The carbon-coated TiO2 nanorods show improved electrochemical performance in terms of achievable specific capacity and, particularly, long-term cycling stability by reducing the average capacity fading per cycle from 0.252 mAh g(-1) to only 0.075 mAh g(-1) . PMID:24115201