Science.gov

Sample records for advanced biochemical processes

  1. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  2. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Annual operating plan, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1995-02-01

    An R and D program to identify methods for the utilization and/or low cost of environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues has been established at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Laboratory work has shown that a biochemical process developed at BNL, would meet regulatory costs and environmental requirements. In this work, microorganisms which can convert insoluble species of toxic metals, including radionuclides, into soluble species, have been identified. These organisms serve as models in the development of a biochemical process in which toxic metals present in geothermal residual sludges are converted into water soluble species. The produced solution can be reinjected or processed further to concentrate and recover commercially valuable metals. After the biochemical detoxification of geothermal residual sludges, the end-products are non-toxic and meet regulatory requirements. The overall process is a technically and environmentally acceptable cost-efficient process. It is anticipated that the new biotechnology will reduce the cost of surface disposal of sludges derived from geothermal brines by 25% or better.

  3. Recent advances in biochemical technology for the processing of geothermal byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, L.

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory studies has shown the biochemical technology for treating brines/sludges generated in geothermal electric powerproduction to be promising, cost-efficient, and environmentally acceptable. For scaled-up field use, the new technology depends on the chemistry of the geothermal resources which influences choice of plant design and operating strategy. Latter has to be adaptable to high/low salinity, temperatures, quantity to be processed, and chemistry of brines and byproducts. These variables are of critical and economic importance in areas such as the Geysers and Salton Sea. The brines/sludges can also be converted into useful products. In a joint effort between industrial collaborators and BNL, several engineered processes for treating secondary and other byproducts from geothermal power production are being tested. In terms of field applications, there are several options. Some of these options are presented and discussed.

  4. Biochemical Platform Processing Integration

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this project is to facilitate deployment of enzyme-based biomass conversion technology. The immediate goal is to explore integration issues that impact process performance and to demonstrate improved performance of the lower-cost enzymes being developed by Genencor and Novozymes.

  5. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  6. Reactive Simulations for Biochemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boero, M.

    After a brief review of the hybrid QM/MM molecular dynamics scheme and its coupling to the metadynamics method, I will show how such a combination of computational tools can be used to study chemical reactions of general biological interest. Specifically, by using such a reactive hybrid paradigm, where the QM driver is a Car-Parrinello Lagrangian dynamics, we have inspected the ATP hydrolysis reaction in the anti-freezing protein known as heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70) and the unconventional propagation of protons across peptide groups in the H-path of the bovine cytochrome c oxidase. While the former represents a fundamental reaction operated by all living beings in a wealth of processes and functions, the second one is involved in cell respiration. For both systems accurate X-ray data are available, yet the actual reaction mechanism escapes experimental probes. The simulations presented here provide the complementary information missing in experiments, offer a direct insight into the reaction mechanisms at a molecular level, and allow to understand which pathways nature can follow to realize these processes fundamental to living organisms.

  7. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M.

    2013-10-01

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  8. Nonlinear biochemical signal processing via noise propagation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hyuk; Qian, Hong; Sauro, Herbert M

    2013-10-14

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced ultra-sensitivity. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  9. Biochemical processing of heavy oils and residuum

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, T.; Yablon, J.H.; Zhou, Wei-Min

    1995-05-01

    During the past several decades, the petroleum industry has adjusted gradually to accommodate the changes in market product demands, government regulations, and the quality and cost of feedstock crude oils. For example, the trends show that the demand for distillate fuels, such as diesel, as compared to gasoline are increasing. Air-quality standards have put additional demand on the processing of heavier and higher sulfur feed stocks. Thus, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments require the industry to produce greater quantities of oxygenated gasoline, and lower sulfur diesel and reformulated gasoline. Biochemical technology may play an important role in responding to these demands on the petroleum industry.

  10. Advanced Process Control Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshpande, Pradeep B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes laboratory experiments of a chemistry course on advanced process control. The equipment for the process around which these experiments were developed by the University of Louisville was constructed from data provided by Exxon Oil Company. (HM)

  11. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  12. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  13. Advanced soldering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, J.L.; Golden, J.; Frear, D.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Keicher, D.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1993-02-20

    Advanced soldering processes are discussed in a complete manner. The ability to meet the needs of electronic manufacturing, while addressing the environmental issues are challenging goals. Government regulations mandate the elimination of most solvents in solder flux removal. Alternative approaches to promoting wetting are discussed. Inert atmosphere soldering, acid vapor fluxless soldering, atomic and ionic hydrogen as reactive atmospheres, fluxless laser soldering in a controlled atmosphere are offered as soldering mechanisms for the future. Laser are discussed as alternate heat sources. Various types of lasers, advantages of lasers, and fiber optic beam delivery are considered.

  14. Advances in speech processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, A. Nejat

    1992-10-01

    The field of speech processing is undergoing a rapid growth in terms of both performance and applications and this is fueled by the advances being made in the areas of microelectronics, computation, and algorithm design. The use of voice for civil and military communications is discussed considering advantages and disadvantages including the effects of environmental factors such as acoustic and electrical noise and interference and propagation. The structure of the existing NATO communications network and the evolving Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) concept are briefly reviewed to show how they meet the present and future requirements. The paper then deals with the fundamental subject of speech coding and compression. Recent advances in techniques and algorithms for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The subject of speech synthesis is next treated where the principle objective is to produce natural quality synthetic speech from unrestricted text input. Speech recognition where the ultimate objective is to produce a machine which would understand conversational speech with unrestricted vocabulary, from essentially any talker, is discussed. Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. It is for this reason that the paper is concerned primarily with this technique.

  15. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  16. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  17. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  18. Advanced Communication Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Robert A.

    This document contains the proceedings of the workshop Advanced Communication Processing Techniques, held May 14 to 17, 1989, near Ruidoso, New Mexico. Sponsored by the Army Research Office (under Contract DAAL03-89-G-0016) and organized by the Communication Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California, the workshop had as its objective to determine those applications of intelligent/adaptive communication signal processing that have been realized and to define areas of future research. We at the Communication Sciences Institute believe that there are two emerging areas which deserve considerably more study in the near future: (1) Modulation characterization, i.e., the automation of modulation format recognition so that a receiver can reliably demodulate a signal without using a priori information concerning the signal's structure, and (2) the incorporation of adaptive coding into communication links and networks. (Encoders and decoders which can operate with a wide variety of codes exist, but the way to utilize and control them in links and networks is an issue). To support these two new interest areas, one must have both a knowledge of (3) the kinds of channels and environments in which the systems must operate, and of (4) the latest adaptive equalization techniques which might be employed in these efforts.

  19. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  20. Modeling biochemical transformation processes and information processing with Narrator

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Johannes J; Fuß, Hendrik; Palfreyman, Niall M; Dubitzky, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Background Software tools that model and simulate the dynamics of biological processes and systems are becoming increasingly important. Some of these tools offer sophisticated graphical user interfaces (GUIs), which greatly enhance their acceptance by users. Such GUIs are based on symbolic or graphical notations used to describe, interact and communicate the developed models. Typically, these graphical notations are geared towards conventional biochemical pathway diagrams. They permit the user to represent the transport and transformation of chemical species and to define inhibitory and stimulatory dependencies. A critical weakness of existing tools is their lack of supporting an integrative representation of transport, transformation as well as biological information processing. Results Narrator is a software tool facilitating the development and simulation of biological systems as Co-dependence models. The Co-dependence Methodology complements the representation of species transport and transformation together with an explicit mechanism to express biological information processing. Thus, Co-dependence models explicitly capture, for instance, signal processing structures and the influence of exogenous factors or events affecting certain parts of a biological system or process. This combined set of features provides the system biologist with a powerful tool to describe and explore the dynamics of life phenomena. Narrator's GUI is based on an expressive graphical notation which forms an integral part of the Co-dependence Methodology. Behind the user-friendly GUI, Narrator hides a flexible feature which makes it relatively easy to map models defined via the graphical notation to mathematical formalisms and languages such as ordinary differential equations, the Systems Biology Markup Language or Gillespie's direct method. This powerful feature facilitates reuse, interoperability and conceptual model development. Conclusion Narrator is a flexible and intuitive systems

  1. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  2. Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Cyanobacteria for Photosynthetic Biochemical Production

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Martin C.; Lan, Ethan I.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO2 into various chemicals. This review discusses the diversity of bioproducts synthesized by engineered cyanobacteria, the metabolic pathways used, and the current engineering strategies used for increasing their titers. PMID:26516923

  3. Advances in Metabolic Engineering of Cyanobacteria for Photosynthetic Biochemical Production.

    PubMed

    Lai, Martin C; Lan, Ethan I

    2015-01-01

    Engineering cyanobacteria into photosynthetic microbial cell factories for the production of biochemicals and biofuels is a promising approach toward sustainability. Cyanobacteria naturally grow on light and carbon dioxide, bypassing the need of fermentable plant biomass and arable land. By tapping into the central metabolism and rerouting carbon flux towards desirable compound production, cyanobacteria are engineered to directly convert CO₂ into various chemicals. This review discusses the diversity of bioproducts synthesized by engineered cyanobacteria, the metabolic pathways used, and the current engineering strategies used for increasing their titers. PMID:26516923

  4. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

    2003-11-04

    The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

  5. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  6. Applications of biochemical processes in geothermal and other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory studies aimed at the development of economically and technically feasible, and environmentally acceptable technology for the disposal of geothermal sludges and wastes have led to the development of biochemical processes which meet the above conditions. A pilot-scale plant has been constructed and used to identify process variables and optimize processing conditions. The total process is flexible and can be used in several modes of operation which include (1) solubilization and removal of many metals, including radionuclides, from brines and sludges; (2) selective removal of a few metals; (3) concentration of metals; (4) recovery of metals; and (5) recovery of salts. The end product is a silica-type material which meets regulatory requirements, while the aqueous phase meets drinking water standards and can be reinjected and/or used for irrigation. Preliminary engineering studies of the metal and salt recovery technologies have indicated that significant cost benefits could be obtained by means of combined processing. Recent accomplishments in the development of new biochemical technologies will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    1996-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  8. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Munsky, Brian; Nemenman, Ilya; Bel, Golan

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce specific complex structures from a large set of similar biochemical building blocks, many biochemical systems require high sensitivity to small molecular differences. The first and most common mqdel used to explain this high specificity is kinetic proofreading, which has been extended to a variety of systems from detection of DNA mismatch to cell signaling processes. While the specification properties of the kinetic proofreading model are well known and were studied in various contexts, very little is known about its temporal behavior. In this work, we study the dynamical properties of discrete stochastic two-branch kinetic proofreading schemes. Using the Laplace transform of the corresponding chemical master equation, we obtain an analytical solution for the completion time distribution. In particular we provide expressions for the specificity and the mean and the variance of the process completion times. We also show that, for a wide range of parameters a process distinguishing between two different products can be reduced to a much simpler three point process. Our results allow for the systematic study of the interplay between specificity and completion times as well as testing the validity of the kinetic proofreading model in biological systems.

  9. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. PMID:25313499

  10. Advanced nanoporous materials for micro-gravimetric sensing to trace-level bio/chemical molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengcheng; Li, Xinxin; Yu, Haitao; Xu, Tiegang

    2014-10-13

    Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  11. Overview of the biochemical and genetic processes in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Assis, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de; Isoldi, Mauro César

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive form of cancer, has a long latency period, and is resistant to chemotherapy. It is extremely fatal, with a mean survival of less than one year. The development of MM is strongly correlated with exposure to asbestos and with other factors, such as erionite and simian virus 40 [corrected]. Although various countries have banned the use of asbestos, MM has proven to be difficult to control and there appears to be a trend toward an increase in its incidence in the years to come. In Brazil, MM has not been widely studied from a genetic or biochemical standpoint. In addition, there have been few epidemiological studies of the disease, and the profile of its incidence has yet to be well established in the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the processes of malignant transformation, as well as the respective mechanisms of tumorigenesis, in MM.

  12. Overview of the biochemical and genetic processes in malignant mesothelioma*

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro; Isoldi, Mauro César

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive form of cancer, has a long latency period, and is resistant to chemotherapy. It is extremely fatal, with a mean survival of less than one year. The development of MM is strongly correlated with exposure to asbestos and erionite, as well as to simian virus 40. Although various countries have banned the use of asbestos, MM has proven to be difficult to control and there appears to be a trend toward an increase in its incidence in the years to come. In Brazil, MM has not been widely studied from a genetic or biochemical standpoint. In addition, there have been few epidemiological studies of the disease, and the profile of its incidence has yet to be well established in the Brazilian population. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the processes of malignant transformation, as well as the respective mechanisms of tumorigenesis, in MM. PMID:25210967

  13. Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, Joachim, V.R.; Pfender, Emil; Kortshagen, Uwe

    2005-02-28

    Plasma Processing of Advanced Materials The project had the overall objective of improving our understanding of the influences of process parameters on the properties of advanced superhard materials. The focus was on high rate deposition processes using thermal plasmas and atmospheric pressure glow discharges, and the emphasis on superhard materials was chosen because of the potential impact of such materials on industrial energy use and on the environment. In addition, the development of suitable diagnostic techniques was pursued. The project was divided into four tasks: (1) Deposition of superhard boron containing films using a supersonic plasma jet reactor (SPJR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (2) Deposition of superhard nanocomposite films in the silicon-nitrogen-carbon system using the triple torch plasma reactor (TTPR), and the characterization of the deposition process. (3) Deposition of films consisting of carbon nanotubes using an atmospheric pressure glow discharge reactor. (4) Adapting the Thomson scattering method for characterization of atmospheric pressure non-uniform plasmas with steep spatial gradients and temporal fluctuations. This report summarizes the results.

  14. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  15. Biochemical factors regulating the toughening and tenderization processes of meat.

    PubMed

    Koohmaraie, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present a brief review of the biochemical basis for longissimus toughening and tenderization processes. Also, to explore the potential technologies that can be developed based on this knowledge to reduce variation in tenderness, thus, improving consumer acceptance of meat. Results suggest that after slaughter longissimus has low to intermediate shear force values (probably tender). Rigor development-induced changes increase its shear force. Maximum toughness is observed between 12 to 24 h post mortem. The toughening process seems to occur equally in all carcasses. Post-mortem storage at refrigerated conditions tenderizes longissimus. Post-mortem tenderization is caused by enzymatic degradation of key myofibrillar and associated proteins. The function of these proteins is to maintain the structural integrity of myofibrils. Current data indicates that μ-calpain is responsible for degradation of these proteins. Unlike the toughening process, there exists a large variation in the rate and extent of tenderization which is responsible for variation in tenderness at the consumer level. Potential strategies for the control of the variation in meat tenderness are discussed.

  16. Advances in natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area.

  17. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  18. Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chang S.; Robinson, Paul R.

    "This comprehensive book by Robinson and Hsu will certainly become the standard text book for the oil refining business...[A] must read for all who are associated with oil refining." - Dr. Walter Fritsch, Senior Vice President Refining, OMV "This book covers a very advanced horizon of petroleum processing technology. For all refiners facing regional and global environmental concerns, and for those who seek a more sophisticated understanding of the refining of petroleum resources, this book has been long in coming." - Mr. Naomasa Kondo, Cosmo Oil Company, Ltd.

  19. Advanced detectors and signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greve, D. W.; Rasky, P. H. L.; Kryder, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Continued progress is reported toward development of a silicon on garnet technology which would allow fabrication of advanced detection and signal processing circuits on bubble memories. The first integrated detectors and propagation patterns have been designed and incorporated on a new mask set. In addition, annealing studies on spacer layers are performed. Based on those studies, a new double layer spacer is proposed which should reduce contamination of the silicon originating in the substrate. Finally, the magnetic sensitivity of uncontaminated detectors from the last lot of wafers is measured. The measured sensitivity is lower than anticipated but still higher than present magnetoresistive detectors.

  20. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  1. Lignin plays a negative role in the biochemical process for producing lignocellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Yang, Shihui; Ding, Shi-You

    2014-06-01

    A biochemical platform holds the most promising route toward lignocellulosic biofuels, in which polysaccharides are hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes into simple sugars and fermented to ethanol by microbes. However, these polysaccharides are cross-linked in the plant cell walls with the hydrophobic network of lignin that physically impedes enzymatic deconstruction. A thermochemical pretreatment process is often required to remove or delocalize lignin, which may also generate inhibitors that hamper enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Here we review recent advances in understanding lignin structure in the plant cell walls and the negative roles of lignin in the processes of converting biomass to biofuels. Perspectives and future directions to improve the biomass conversion process are also discussed.

  2. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of lignocellulosic biofuel production via a biochemical process: guiding technology selection and research focus.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an exergy analysis of bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic feedstock via a biochemical process to asses the overall thermodynamic efficiency and identify the main loss processes. The thermodynamic efficiency of the biochemical process was found to be 35% and the major inefficiencies of this process were identified as: the combustion of lignin for process heat and power production and the simultaneous scarification and co-fermentation process accounting for 67% and 27% of the lost exergy, respectively. These results were also compared with a previous analysis of a thermochemical process for producing biofuel. Despite fundamental differences, the biochemical and thermochemical processes considered here had similar levels of thermodynamic efficiency. Process heat and power production was the major contributor to exergy loss in both of the processes. Unlike the thermochemical process, the overall efficiency of the biochemical process largely depends on how the lignin is utilized. PMID:21036607

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of lignocellulosic biofuel production via a biochemical process: guiding technology selection and research focus.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an exergy analysis of bioethanol production process from lignocellulosic feedstock via a biochemical process to asses the overall thermodynamic efficiency and identify the main loss processes. The thermodynamic efficiency of the biochemical process was found to be 35% and the major inefficiencies of this process were identified as: the combustion of lignin for process heat and power production and the simultaneous scarification and co-fermentation process accounting for 67% and 27% of the lost exergy, respectively. These results were also compared with a previous analysis of a thermochemical process for producing biofuel. Despite fundamental differences, the biochemical and thermochemical processes considered here had similar levels of thermodynamic efficiency. Process heat and power production was the major contributor to exergy loss in both of the processes. Unlike the thermochemical process, the overall efficiency of the biochemical process largely depends on how the lignin is utilized.

  5. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  6. From wastewater to bioenergy and biochemicals via two-stage bioconversion processes: a future paradigm.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of bioenergy and biochemicals from wastewater has attracted growing and widespread interests. In this respect, two-stage bioconversion process (TSBP) offers an appealing avenue to achieve stepwise and directional substrate conversion in separated stages. Such a biosystem not only enables enhanced degradation of organics, but also favors a high product yield and quality. Various TSBRs have been developed for the production of methane, hydrogen, electricity, bioplastics, bioflocculants, biopesticides, biosurfactants and other value-added products, demonstrating marked advantages over the conventional one-stage processes. It represents a promising, and likely the sole viable, paradigm for future application. However, there are also many remaining challenges. This paper provides an overview of the various TSBPs, introduces the recent advances, and discusses the major challenges and the future perspectives for practical application. PMID:21884782

  7. A synthetic picture of intramolecular dynamics of proteins. Towards a contemporary statistical theory of biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Kurzyński, M

    1998-01-01

    An increasing body of experimental evidence indicates the slow character of internal dynamics of native proteins. The important consequence of this is that theories of chemical reactions, used hitherto, appear inadequate for description of most biochemical reactions. Construction of a contemporary, truly advanced statistical theory of biochemical processes will need simple but realistic models of microscopic dynamics of biomolecules. In this review, intended to be a contribution towards this direction, three topics are considered. First, an intentionally simplified picture of dynamics of native proteins which emerges from recent investigations is presented. Fast vibrational modes of motion, of periods varying from 10(-14) to 10(-11) s, are contrasted with purely stochastic conformational transitions. Significant evidence is adduced that the relaxation time spectrum of the latter spreads in the whole range from 10(-11) to 10(5) s or longer, and up to 10(-7) s it is practically quasi-continuous. Next, the essential ideas of the theory of reaction rates based on stochastic models of intramolecular dynamics are outlined. Special attention is paid to reactions involving molecules in the initial conformational substrates confirmed to the transition state, which is realized in actual experimental situations. And finally, the two best experimentally justified classes of models of conformational transition dynamics, symbolically referred to as "protein glass" and "protein machine", are described and applied to the interpretation of a few simple biochemical processes, perhaps the most important result reported is the demonstration of the possibility of predominance of the short initial condition-dependent stage of protein involved reactions over the main stage described by the standard kinetics. This initial stage, and not the latter, is expected to be responsible for the coupling of component reactions in the complete enzymatic cycles as well as more complex processes of

  8. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1995-05-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) is a flame assisted, open air chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The process is capable of producing textured, epitaxial coatings on single crystal substrates using low cost reagents. Combustion chemical vapor deposition is a relatively inexpensive, alternative thin film deposition process with potential to replace conventional coating technologies for certain applications. The goals of this project are to develop the CCVD process to the point that potential industrial applications can be identified and reliably assessed.

  9. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals.

  10. Biochemical Conversion Processes of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals - A Review.

    PubMed

    Brethauer, Simone; Studer, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass - such as wood, agricultural residues or dedicated energy crops - is a promising renewable feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals that is available at large scale at low cost without direct competition for food usage. Its biochemical conversion in a sugar platform biorefinery includes three main unit operations that are illustrated in this review: the physico-chemical pretreatment of the biomass, the enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates to a fermentable sugar stream by cellulases and finally the fermentation of the sugars by suitable microorganisms to the target molecules. Special emphasis in this review is put on the technology, commercial status and future prospects of the production of second-generation fuel ethanol, as this process has received most research and development efforts so far. Despite significant advances, high enzyme costs are still a hurdle for large scale competitive lignocellulosic ethanol production. This could be overcome by a strategy termed 'consolidated bioprocessing' (CBP), where enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation is integrated in one step - either by utilizing one genetically engineered superior microorganism or by creating an artificial co-culture. Insight is provided on both CBP strategies for the production of ethanol as well as of advanced fuels and commodity chemicals. PMID:26598400

  11. Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with biochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Q.; Gong, P.; Li, W.

    2015-02-01

    Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we advance the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model to simulate photosynthesis activities for discontinuous plant canopies. We separate radiation absorption into two components that are absorbed by sunlit and shaded leaves, and derive analytical solutions by integrating over the canopy layer. To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. The canopy gap probability derived from GORT differs from classic radiative transfer theory, especially when the leaf area index is high, due to leaf clumping effects. Tree characteristics such as tree density, crown shape, and canopy length affect leaf clumping and regulate radiation interception. Modeled gross primary production (GPP) for two deciduous forest stands could explain more than 80% of the variance of flux tower measurements at both near hourly and daily time scales. We also demonstrate that the ambient CO2 concentration influences daytime vegetation photosynthesis, which needs to be considered in state-of-the-art biogeochemical models. The proposed model is complementary to classic radiative transfer theory and shows promise in modeling the radiative transfer process and photosynthetic activities over discontinuous forest canopies.

  12. Advanced methods for processing ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    Combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD) is being developed for the deposition of high temperature oxide coatings. The process is being evaluated as an alternative to more capital intensive conventional coating processes. The thrusts during this reporting period were the development of the combustion CVD process for depositing lanthanum monazite, the determination of the influence of aerosol size on coating morphology, the incorporation of combustion CVD coatings into thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and related oxidation research, and continued work on the deposition of zirconia-yttria coatings.

  13. Advanced digital SAR processing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinson, L. W.; Gaffney, B. P.; Liu, B.; Perry, R. P.; Ruvin, A.

    1982-01-01

    A highly programmable, land based, real time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor requiring a processed pixel rate of 2.75 MHz or more in a four look system was designed. Variations in range and azimuth compression, number of looks, range swath, range migration and SR mode were specified. Alternative range and azimuth processing algorithms were examined in conjunction with projected integrated circuit, digital architecture, and software technologies. The advaced digital SAR processor (ADSP) employs an FFT convolver algorithm for both range and azimuth processing in a parallel architecture configuration. Algorithm performace comparisons, design system design, implementation tradeoffs and the results of a supporting survey of integrated circuit and digital architecture technologies are reported. Cost tradeoffs and projections with alternate implementation plans are presented.

  14. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  15. Advanced Materials and Processing 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Su, Chun Wei; Xia, Hui; Xiao, Pengfei

    2011-06-01

    Strain sensors made from MWNT/polymer nanocomposites / Gang Yin, Ning Hu and Yuan Li -- Shear band evolution and nanostructure formation in titanium by cold rolling / Dengke Yang, Peter D. Hodgson and Cuie Wen -- Biodegradable Mg-Zr-Ca alloys for bone implant materials / Yuncang Li ... [et al.] -- Hydroxyapatite synthesized from nanosized calcium carbonate via hydrothermal method / Yu-Shiang Wu, Wen-Ku Chang and Min Jou -- Modeling of the magnetization process and orthogonal fluxgate sensitivity of ferromagnetic micro-wire arrays / Fan Jie ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires on Ni coated silicon substrate by simple heating process / Bo Peng and Kwon-Koo Cho -- Deposition of TiOxNy thin films with various nitrogen flow rate: growth behavior and structural properties / S.-J. Cho ... [et al.] -- Observation on photoluminescence evolution in 300 KeV self-ion implanted and annealed silicon / Yu Yang ... [et al.] -- Facile synthesis of lithium niobate from a novel precursor H[symbol] / Meinan Liu ... [et al.] -- Effects of the buffer layers on the adhesion and antimicrobial properties of the amorphous ZrAlNiCuSi films / Pai-Tsung Chiang ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of ZnO nanorods by electrochemical deposition process and its photovoltaic properties / Jin-Hwa Kim ... [et al.] -- Cryogenic resistivities of NbTiAlVTaLax, CoCrFeNiCu and CoCrFeNiAl high entropy alloys / Xiao Yang and Yong Zhang -- Modeling of centrifugal force field and the effect on filling and solidification in centrifugal casting / Wenbin Sheng, Chunxue Ma and Wanli Gu -- Electrochemical properties of TiO[symbol] nanotube arrays film prepared by anodic oxidation / Young-Jin Choi ... [et al.] -- Effect of Ce additions on high temperature properties of Mg-5Sn-3Al-1Zn alloy / Byoung Soo Kang ... [et al.] -- Sono-electroless plating of Ni-Mo-P film / Atsushi Chiba, Masato Kanou and Wen-Chang Wu -- Diameter dependence of giant magneto-impedance effect in co-based melt extracted amorphous

  16. Advanced planning for ISS payload ground processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    Ground processing at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is the concluding phase of the payload/flight hardware development process and is the final opportunity to ensure safe and successful recognition of mission objectives. Planning for the ground processing of on-orbit flight hardware elements and payloads for the International Space Station is a responsibility taken seriously at KSC. Realizing that entering into this operational environment can be an enormous undertaking for a payload customer, KSC continually works to improve this process by instituting new/improved services for payload developer/owner, applying state-of-the-art technologies to the advanced planning process, and incorporating lessons learned for payload ground processing planning to ensure complete customer satisfaction. This paper will present an overview of the KSC advanced planning activities for ISS hardware/payload ground processing. It will focus on when and how KSC begins to interact with the payload developer/owner, how that interaction changes (and grows) throughout the planning process, and how KSC ensures that advanced planning is successfully implemented at the launch site. It will also briefly consider the type of advance planning conducted by the launch site that is transparent to the payload user but essential to the successful processing of the payload (i.e. resource allocation, executing documentation, etc.) .

  17. River Water Quality Model no. 1 (RWQM1): II. Biochemical process equations.

    PubMed

    Reichert, P; Borchardt, D; Henze, M; Rauch, W; Shanahan, P; Somlyódy, L; Vanrolleghem, P

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, biochemical process equations are presented as a basis for water quality modelling in rivers under aerobic and anoxic conditions. These equations are not new, but they summarise parts of the development over the past 75 years. The primary goals of the presentation are to stimulate communication among modellers and field-oriented researchers of river water quality and of wastewater treatment, to facilitate practical application of river water quality modelling, and to encourage the use of elemental mass balances for the derivation of stoichiometric coefficients of biochemical transformation processes. This paper is part of a series of three papers. In the first paper, the general modelling approach is described; in the present paper, the biochemical process equations of a complex model are presented; and in the third paper, recommendations are given for the selection of a reasonable submodel for a specific application.

  18. Cadmium--influence on biochemical processes of the human organism.

    PubMed

    Boguszewska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are too well-known environmental pollutants of particularly dangerous effect to human health. Because of their wide usage in many industrial branches they are present everywhere in the air, water and soils. Food contamination by heavy elements is hard to avoid and it is a result of environmental contamination by dusts, industrial gases, sewage, waste and coal burning processes. One of the most harmful heavy metals, widely spread in nature is cadmium. Toxic cadmium action involves free oxygen generation and inactivation of protein containing cysteine residues with -SH groups. It influences many metabolic processes causing great damage in many organs. Cadmium can also interact with some essential elements leading to their homeostasis disorders. PMID:16146140

  19. Feedstock handling and processing effects on biochemical conversion to biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Inman; Nick Nagle; Jacob Jacobson; Erin Searcy; Allison Ray

    2001-10-01

    Abating the dependence of the United States on foreign oil by reducing oil consumption and increasing biofuels usage will have far-reaching global effects. These include reduced greenhouse gas emissions and an increased demand for biofuel feedstocks. To support this increased demand, cellulosic feedstock production and conversion to biofuels (e.g. ethanol, butanol) is being aggressively researched. Thus far, research has primarily focused on optimizing feedstock production and ethanol conversion, with less attention given to the feedstock supply chain required to meet cost, quality, and quantity goals. This supply chain comprises a series of unit operations from feedstock harvest to feeding the conversion process. Our objectives in this review are (i) to summarize the peer-reviewed literature on harvest-to-reactor throat variables affecting feedstock composition and conversion to ethanol; (ii) to identify knowledge gaps; and (iii) to recommend future steps.

  20. Dynamics of biochemical processes and redox conditions in geochemically linked landscapes of oligotrophic bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The biological activity in oligotrophic peatlands at the margins of the Vasyugan Mire has been studied. It is shown found that differently directed biochemical processes manifest themselves in the entire peat profile down to the underlying mineral substrate. Their activity is highly variable. It is argued that the notion about active and inert layers in peat soils is only applicable for the description of their water regime. The degree of the biochemical activity is specified by the physical soil properties. As a result of the biochemical processes, a micromosaic aerobic-anaerobic medium is developed under the surface waterlogged layer of peat deposits. This layer contains the gas phase, including oxygen. It is concluded that the organic and mineral parts of peat bogs represent a single functional system of a genetic peat profile with a clear record of the history of its development.

  1. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  2. Activators of Biochemical and Physiological Processes in Plants Based on Fine Humic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churilov, G.; Polishuk, S.; Kutskir, M.; Churilov, D.; Borychev, S.

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the application of ultrafine humic acids as growth promoters and development of crops, for example corn. During the study we determined the optimal concentration of humic acids in ultrafine state for presowing treatment of seeds of maize. An analysis of laboratory and field tests was presented. We showed the relationship between physiological changes and biochemical processes.

  3. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook summarizes commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced photochemical oxidation (APO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and solids. Similar information from pilot- and bench-scale evaluations of APO processes is also included to supplement the...

  4. HANDBOOK ON ADVANCED NONPHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this handbook is to summarize commercial-scale system performance and cost data for advanced nonphotochemical oxidation (ANPO) treatment of contaminated water, air, and soil. Similar information from pilot-and bench-scale evaluations of ANPO processes is also inclu...

  5. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B.; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY . Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  6. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  7. Optical tweezers and multiphoton microscopies integrated photonic tool for mechanical and biochemical cell processes studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Faustino, W. M.; Fontes, A.; Fernandes, H. P.; Barjas-Castro, M. d. L.; Metze, K.; Giorgio, S.; Barbosa, L. C.; Cesar, C. L.

    2007-09-01

    The research in biomedical photonics is clearly evolving in the direction of the understanding of biological processes at the cell level. The spatial resolution to accomplish this task practically requires photonics tools. However, an integration of different photonic tools and a multimodal and functional approach will be necessary to access the mechanical and biochemical cell processes. This way we can observe mechanicaly triggered biochemical events or biochemicaly triggered mechanical events, or even observe simultaneously mechanical and biochemical events triggered by other means, e.g. electricaly. One great advantage of the photonic tools is its easiness for integration. Therefore, we developed such integrated tool by incorporating single and double Optical Tweezers with Confocal Single and Multiphoton Microscopies. This system can perform 2-photon excited fluorescence and Second Harmonic Generation microscopies together with optical manipulations. It also can acquire Fluorescence and SHG spectra of specific spots. Force, elasticity and viscosity measurements of stretched membranes can be followed by real time confocal microscopies. Also opticaly trapped living protozoas, such as leishmania amazonensis. Integration with CARS microscopy is under way. We will show several examples of the use of such integrated instrument and its potential to observe mechanical and biochemical processes at cell level.

  8. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  9. Advanced parallel processing with supercomputer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.

    1987-10-01

    This paper investigates advanced parallel processing techniques and innovative hardware/software architectures that can be applied to boost the performance of supercomputers. Critical issues on architectural choices, parallel languages, compiling techniques, resource management, concurrency control, programming environment, parallel algorithms, and performance enhancement methods are examined and the best answers are presented. The authors cover advanced processing techniques suitable for supercomputers, high-end mainframes, minisupers, and array processors. The coverage emphasizes vectorization, multitasking, multiprocessing, and distributed computing. In order to achieve these operation modes, parallel languages, smart compilers, synchronization mechanisms, load balancing methods, mapping parallel algorithms, operating system functions, application library, and multidiscipline interactions are investigated to ensure high performance. At the end, they assess the potentials of optical and neural technologies for developing future supercomputers.

  10. Advanced oxidation process sanitization of eggshell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottselig, Steven M; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Woodring, Kristy S; Coufal, Craig D; Duong, Tri

    2016-06-01

    The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery represents an important critical control point for biosecurity and pathogen reduction programs in integrated poultry production. The development of safe and effective interventions to reduce microbial contamination on the surface of eggs will be important to improve the overall productivity and microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (UV) light advanced oxidation process is a potentially important alternative to traditional sanitizers and disinfectants for egg sanitation. The H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process was demonstrated previously to be effective in reducing surface microbial contamination on eggs. In this study, we evaluated treatment conditions affecting the efficacy of H2O2/UV advanced oxidation in order to identify operational parameters for the practical application of this technology in egg sanitation. The effect of the number of application cycles, UV intensity, duration of UV exposure, and egg rotation on the recovery of total aerobic bacteria from the surface of eggs was evaluated. Of the conditions evaluated, we determined that reduction of total aerobic bacteria from naturally contaminated eggs was optimized when eggs were sanitized using 2 repeated application cycles with 5 s exposure to 14 mW cm(-2) UV light, and that rotation of the eggs between application cycles was unnecessary. Additionally, using these optimized conditions, the H2O2/UV process reduced Salmonella by greater than 5 log10 cfu egg(-1) on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs. This study demonstrates the potential for practical application of the H2O2/UV advanced oxidation process in egg sanitation and its effectiveness in reducing Salmonella on eggshell surfaces. PMID:27030693

  11. Advanced miniature processing handware for ATR applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Daud, Taher (Inventor); Thakoor, Anikumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A Hybrid Optoelectronic Neural Object Recognition System (HONORS), is disclosed, comprising two major building blocks: (1) an advanced grayscale optical correlator (OC) and (2) a massively parallel three-dimensional neural-processor. The optical correlator, with its inherent advantages in parallel processing and shift invariance, is used for target of interest (TOI) detection and segmentation. The three-dimensional neural-processor, with its robust neural learning capability, is used for target classification and identification. The hybrid optoelectronic neural object recognition system, with its powerful combination of optical processing and neural networks, enables real-time, large frame, automatic target recognition (ATR).

  12. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  13. Advanced PPA Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Aske, James; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.; Greenwood, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA s Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development work.

  14. Recent Advances on the Use of Biochemical Extracts as Filaricidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M.; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H.; Suhaimi, Anwar; Sivanandam, S.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic infection that causes a devastating public health and socioeconomic burden with an estimated infection of over 120 million individuals worldwide. The infection is caused by three closely related nematode parasites, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, which are transmitted to human through mosquitoes of Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes genera. The species have many ecological variants and are diversified in terms of their genetic fingerprint. The rapid spread of the disease and the genetic diversification cause the lymphatic filarial parasites to respond differently to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This in turn prompts the current challenge encountered in its management. Furthermore, most of the chemical medications used are characterized by adverse side effects. These complications urgently warrant intense prospecting on bio-chemicals that have potent efficacy against either the filarial worms or thier vector. In lieu of this, we presented a review on recent literature that reported the efficacy of filaricidal biochemicals and those employed as vector control agents. In addition, methods used for biochemical extraction, screening procedures, and structure of the bioactive compounds were also presented. PMID:24298292

  15. Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

  16. A thermochemical-biochemical hybrid processing of lignocellulosic biomass for producing fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanwen; Jarboe, Laura; Brown, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-12-01

    Thermochemical-biological hybrid processing uses thermochemical decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass to produce a variety of intermediate compounds that can be converted into fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation. It represents a unique opportunity for biomass conversion as it mitigates some of the deficiencies of conventional biochemical (pretreatment-hydrolysis-fermentation) and thermochemical (pyrolysis or gasification) processing. Thermochemical-biological hybrid processing includes two pathways: (i) pyrolysis/pyrolytic substrate fermentation, and (ii) gasification/syngas fermentation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these two hybrid processing pathways, including the characteristics of fermentative substrates produced in the thermochemical stage and microbial utilization of these compounds in the fermentation stage. The current challenges of these two biomass conversion pathways include toxicity of the crude pyrolytic substrates, the inhibition of raw syngas contaminants, and the mass-transfer limitations in syngas fermentation. Possible approaches for mitigating substrate toxicities are discussed. The review also provides a summary of the current efforts to commercialize hybrid processing.

  17. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  18. Chemical and biochemical transformations during the industrial process of sherry vinegar aging.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Victor; Valcárcel, Manuel; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2002-07-17

    The work described here concerns a study of the chemical and biochemical transformations in sherry vinegar during the different aging stages. The main factors that contribute to the nature and special characteristics of sherry vinegar are the raw sherry wine, the traditional process of acetic acid fermentation in butts (the solera system), and the physicochemical activity during the aging process in the solera system. A number of chemical and biochemical changes that occur during sherry vinegar aging are similar to those that take place in sherry wine during its biological activity process (where the wine types obtained are fino and manzanilla) or physicochemical activity process (to give oloroso wines). Significant increase in acetic acid levels was observed during the biological activity phase. In addition, the concentrations of tartaric, gluconic, succinic, and citric acids increased during the aging, as did levels of amino acids and acetoin. A color change was also produced during this stage. Glycerol was not consumed by acetic acid bacteria, and levels of higher alcohols decreased because of the synthesis of acetates. On the other hand, in the physicochemical phase the microbiological activity was lower. Concentrations of some cations increased because of evaporation of water through the wood. A color change was also produced in this stage. Concentrations of different amino acids decreased because of reaction with carbonyl compounds. A precipitation of potassium with tartaric acid was also observed. PMID:12105949

  19. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  20. Advanced laser processing of glass materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Obata, Kotaro; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2003-09-01

    Three kinds of advanced technologies using lasers for glass microprocessing are reviewed. Simultaneous irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser beam, which possesses extremely small laser fluence, with ultraviolet (UV) laser achieves enhanced high surface and edge quality ablation in fused silica and other hard materials with little debris deposition as well as high-speed and high-efficiency refractive index modification of fused silica (VUV-UV multiwavelength excitation processing). Metal plasma generated by the laser beam effectively assists high-quality ablation of transparent materials, resulting in surface microstructuring, high-speed holes drilling, crack-free marking, color marking, painting and metal interconnection for the various kinds of glass materials (laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA)). In the meanwhile, a nature of multiphoton absorption of femtosecond laser by transparent materials realizes fabrication of true three-dimensional microstructures embedded in photosensitive glass.

  1. Novel imazethapyr detoxification applying advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Stathis, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra G; Scrano, Laura; Lelario, Filomena; Emanuele, Lucia; Bufo, Sabino A

    2011-01-01

    Different degradation methods have been applied to assess the suitability of advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to promote mineralization of imazethapyr [(RS)-5-ethyl-2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid], a widely used imidazolinone class herbicide, the persistence of which has been demonstrated in surface and ground waters destined to human uses. Independent of the oxidation process assessed, the decomposition of imazethapyr always followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. The direct UV-irradiation (UV) of the herbicide as well as its oxidation with ozone (O₃), and hydrogen peroxide tied to UV-irradiation (H₂O₂/UV) were sufficiently slow to permit the identification of intermediate products, the formation pathway of which has been proposed. Ozonation joined to UV-irradiation (O₃/UV), ozonation joined to titanium dioxide photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV+O₃), sole photo-catalysis (TiO₂/UV), and photo-catalysis reinforced with hydrogen peroxide-oxidation (TiO₂/UV+H₂O₂) were characterized by a faster degradation and rapid formation of a lot of small molecules, which were quickly degraded to complete mineralization. The most effective oxidation methods were those using titanium dioxide photo-catalysis enhanced either by ozonation or hydrogen peroxide. Most of all, these last processes were useful to avoid the development of dangerous by-products. PMID:21726140

  2. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Kundari, Noor Anis Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  3. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundari, Noor Anis; Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10-5 Ci/m3. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod's model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0.01 hour-1.

  4. Monitoring the biochemical hydrogen and methane potential of the two-stage dark-fermentative process.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Andrea; Cantù, Cristina; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    A two-step process has been recently proposed whereby the products of biological hydrogen production processes are used as substrates for biological methane production. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a simple bench-scale batch procedure for measuring the biochemical hydrogen and methane potential of organic substances as a two-step simulated process. Glucose fermentation showed an hydrogen and methane recovery (measured as the ratio of electron equivalents recovered as hydrogen and methane and electron equivalents of the initial substrate added) from the initial substrate of 13.3% and 75.5%, respectively, that approximates mass balance closure. On the contrary, gas recoveries ranging from 61% to 75% were measured from wastes originating from the food-industry. Moreover, the results demonstrate that the substrate origins significantly influence the ratio of H(2) and CH(4) recovery.

  5. Recent advances in EEG data processing.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, L H

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that the most interesting advances in EEG signal processing are with methods based on descriptive mathematical models of the process. Formulation of auto-regressive (AR) and mixed autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) models is reviewed for the scalar and the multidimensional cases and extensions to allow time-varying coefficients are pointed out. Data processing with parametric models, DPPM, involves parameter estimation and a large number of algorithms are available. Emphasis is put on those that are simple to apply and require a modest amount of computation. A recursive algorithm by Levinson, Robinson and Durbin is well suited for estimation of the coefficients in the AR model and for tests of model order. It is applicable to both the scalar and multidimensional cases. The ARMA model can be handled by approximation of an AR model or by nonlinear optimization. Recursive estimation with AR and ARMA models is reviewed and the connection with the Kalman filter pointed out. In this way processes with time-varying properties may be handled and a stationarity index is defined. The recursive algorithms can deal with AR or ARMA models in the same way. A reformulation of the algorithm to include sparsely updated parameter estimates significantly speeds up the calculations. It will allow several EEG channels to be handled simultaneously in real time on a modern minicomputer installation. DPPM has been particularly successful in the areas of spectral analysis and detection of short transients such as spikes and sharp waves. Recently some interesting attempts have been made to apply classification algorithms to estimated parameters. A brief review is made of the main results in these areas.

  6. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  7. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields. PMID:24503715

  8. Use of the electrically-driven emulsion phase contactor in chemical and biochemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, C; DePaoli, D.W.; Scott, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    An electrically driven liquid-liquid contactor has been developed to enhance the efficiency of chemical and biochemical processes. A uniform electric field is utilized to induce a drop dispersion- coalescence cycle, producing high surface area for interfacial mass transfer under continuous-countercurrent-flow conditions. The mass- transport capability of this system has been analyzed by observing the extraction of acetic acid from water (dispersed phase) into methyl isobutyl ketone. Results showed that, due to increased efficiency of mass transfer, the electrically-driven device could be an order of magnitude smaller than a conventional contactor accomplishing the same level of separation. In the case of biochemical processes within non-aqueous environments, a biocatalyst (enzymes or bacteria) is introduced in the aqueous (dispersed) phase. The biocatalyst uses nutrients and other reactants to selectively transform species transferred from the continuous (organic) phase to the interior of the drops. An example of such system that has been investigated is the oxidation of p-cresol dissolved in toluene by aqueous-phase horseradish peroxidase.

  9. Variation in biochemical parameters in different parts of potato tubers for processing purposes.

    PubMed

    Bandana; Sharma, Vineet; Kaushik, S K; Singh, Brajesh; Raigond, Pinky

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the variation in bio-chemical parameters among eight different parts viz. bud end cortex, bud end medulla, central cortex, central medulla, pith, stem end cortex, stem end medulla and peel of potato tuber of processing varieties. Concentration of dry matter, reducing sugar, sucrose and starch content were higher in cortical region than in medullar region of stem end, bud end and central portion. Variety Kufri Chipsona-1 had maximum dry matter content in stem end cortex (SEC 30.34 %), followed by Kufri Frysona (SEC 27.71 %). Mean reducing sugar values were comparatively more in bud end cortex (BEC 111.3 mg/100 g Fresh Weight) and lowest in stem end medulla (SEM 44.05 mg/100 g FW). Bio-chemical contents varied considerably within different parts of tuber as well as in different genotypes. The information generated in this study can help processors for effective utilization of potato for various types of processing products viz., chips and French fries. PMID:27413232

  10. Variation in biochemical parameters in different parts of potato tubers for processing purposes.

    PubMed

    Bandana; Sharma, Vineet; Kaushik, S K; Singh, Brajesh; Raigond, Pinky

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the variation in bio-chemical parameters among eight different parts viz. bud end cortex, bud end medulla, central cortex, central medulla, pith, stem end cortex, stem end medulla and peel of potato tuber of processing varieties. Concentration of dry matter, reducing sugar, sucrose and starch content were higher in cortical region than in medullar region of stem end, bud end and central portion. Variety Kufri Chipsona-1 had maximum dry matter content in stem end cortex (SEC 30.34 %), followed by Kufri Frysona (SEC 27.71 %). Mean reducing sugar values were comparatively more in bud end cortex (BEC 111.3 mg/100 g Fresh Weight) and lowest in stem end medulla (SEM 44.05 mg/100 g FW). Bio-chemical contents varied considerably within different parts of tuber as well as in different genotypes. The information generated in this study can help processors for effective utilization of potato for various types of processing products viz., chips and French fries.

  11. Modeling photosynthesis of discontinuous plant canopies by linking the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer model with biochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Q.; Gong, P.; Li, W.

    2015-06-01

    Modeling vegetation photosynthesis is essential for understanding carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The radiative transfer process within plant canopies is one of the key drivers that regulate canopy photosynthesis. Most vegetation cover consists of discrete plant crowns, of which the physical observation departs from the underlying assumption of a homogenous and uniform medium in classic radiative transfer theory. Here we advance the Geometric Optical Radiative Transfer (GORT) model to simulate photosynthesis activities for discontinuous plant canopies. We separate radiation absorption into two components that are absorbed by sunlit and shaded leaves, and derive analytical solutions by integrating over the canopy layer. To model leaf-level and canopy-level photosynthesis, leaf light absorption is then linked to the biochemical process of gas diffusion through leaf stomata. The canopy gap probability derived from GORT differs from classic radiative transfer theory, especially when the leaf area index is high, due to leaf clumping effects. Tree characteristics such as tree density, crown shape, and canopy length affect leaf clumping and regulate radiation interception. Modeled gross primary production (GPP) for two deciduous forest stands could explain more than 80% of the variance of flux tower measurements at both near hourly and daily timescales. We demonstrate that ambient CO2 concentrations influence daytime vegetation photosynthesis, which needs to be considered in biogeochemical models. The proposed model is complementary to classic radiative transfer theory and shows promise in modeling the radiative transfer process and photosynthetic activities over discontinuous forest canopies.

  12. Pharmacological Findings on the Biochemical Bases of Memory Processes: A General View

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H.; Bevilaqua, Lia R. M.

    2004-01-01

    We have advanced considerably in the past 2 to 3 years in understanding the molecular mechanisms of consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of memories, particularly of fear memory. This advance was mainly due to pharmacological studies in many laboratories using localized brain injections of molecularly specific substances. One area in which significant advances have been made is in understanding that many different brain structures are involved in different memories, and that often several brain regions are involved in processing the same memory. These regions can cooperate or compete with each other, depending on circumstances that are beginning to be identified quite clearly. Another aspect in which major advances were made was retrieval and post-retrieval events, especially extinction, pointing to new therapeutic approaches to fearmotivated mental disorders. PMID:15656267

  13. Pharmacological findings on the biochemical bases of memory processes: a general view.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Medina, Jorge H; Bevilaqua, Lia R M

    2004-01-01

    We have advanced considerably in the past 2 to 3 years in understanding the molecular mechanisms of consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of memories, particularly of fear memory. This advance was mainly due to pharmacological studies in many laboratories using localized brain injections of molecularly specific substances. One area in which significant advances have been made is in understanding that many different brain structures are involved in different memories, and that often several brain regions are involved in processing the same memory. These regions can cooperate or compete with each other, depending on circumstances that are beginning to be identified quite clearly. Another aspect in which major advances were made was retrieval and post-retrieval events, especially extinction, pointing to new therapeutic approaches to fear-motivated mental disorders.

  14. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  15. Biochemical aspects of overtraining in endurance sports : the metabolism alteration process syndrome.

    PubMed

    Petibois, Cyril; Cazorla, Georges; Poortmans, Jacques-Rémi; Déléris, Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that endurance overtraining could result from successive and cumulative alterations in metabolism, which become chronic during training. The onset of this process is a biochemical alteration in carbohydrate (saccharide) metabolism. During endurance exercises, the amount of saccharide chains from two blood glycoproteins (alpha(2)-macroglobulin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein) was found to have decreased, i.e. concentrations of these proteins remained unchanged but their quality changed. These saccharide chains were probably used for burning liver glycogen stores during exercise. This step was followed by alterations in lipid metabolism. The most relevant aspect of this step was that the mean chain length of blood fatty acids decreased, i.e. the same amount of fatty acids were found within the blood, but overtrained individuals presented shorter fatty acids than well-trained individuals. This suggests that alterations appeared in the liver synthesis of long-chain fatty acids or that higher peroxidation of blood lipoparticles occurred. For the final step of this overtraining process, it was found that these dysfunctions in carbohydrate/lipid metabolism led to the higher use of amino acids, which probably resulted from protein catabolism. The evolution of three protein concentrations (alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, alpha(2)-macroglobulin and IgG(3)) correlated with this amino acid concentration increase, suggesting a specific catabolism of these proteins. At this time only, overtraining was clinically diagnosed through conventional symptoms. Therefore, this process described successive alterations in exercise metabolism that shifted from the main energetic stores of exercise (carbohydrates and lipids) towards molecular pools (proteins) normally not substantially used for the energetic supply of skeletal muscles. Now, a general biochemical model of the overtraining process may be proposed which includes most of the previously identified metabolic

  16. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  17. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  18. Advanced reburning with new process enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.; Payne, R.; Moyeda, D.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced Reburning (AR) is a synergistic integration of reburning and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) which can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by over 85% from boilers and furnaces. Reburning is used to set up conditions which optimize the performance of SNCR including broadening of the temperature window and reduction of ammonia slip. AR has been tested extensively at pilot scale as part of two DOE projects. Recently, two AR improvements have been developed and tested at bench scale: reagent injection into the reburning zone and specific promoters which enhance NO{sub x} control, broaden the SNCR temperature window, and further reduce ammonia slip. The reburning zone reagent injection can be used to eliminate the injection of urea or ammonia SNCR agents thus significantly reducing total capital cost. Alternately, two injection stages can be used to increase NO{sub x} control to 95%. This paper presents the results of pilot and bench scale tests of both the AR and the new process enhancements. Plans for additional development and a full scale field evaluation are discussed.

  19. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  20. Current Advances in the Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Thiazolidinediones

    PubMed Central

    Alemán-González-Duhart, D.; Tamay-Cach, F.; Álvarez-Almazán, S.

    2016-01-01

    The present review summarizes the current advances in the biochemical and physiological aspects in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). DM2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, triggering the abnormal activation of physiological pathways such as glucose autooxidation, polyol's pathway, formation of advance glycation end (AGE) products, and glycolysis, leading to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines, which are responsible for the micro- and macrovascular complications of the disease. The treatment of DM2 has been directed toward the reduction of hyperglycemia using different drugs such as insulin sensitizers, as the case of TZDs, which are able to lower blood glucose levels and circulating triglycerides by binding to the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as full agonists. When TZDs interact with PPARγ, the receptor regulates the transcription of different genes involved in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and adipogenesis. However, TZDs exhibit some adverse effects such as fluid retention, weight gain, hepatotoxicity, plasma-volume expansion, hemodilution, edema, bone fractures, and congestive heart failure, which limits their use in DM2 patients. PMID:27313601

  1. A thermochemical-biochemical hybrid processing of lignocellulosic biomass for producing fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanwen; Jarboe, Laura; Brown, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2015-12-01

    Thermochemical-biological hybrid processing uses thermochemical decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass to produce a variety of intermediate compounds that can be converted into fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation. It represents a unique opportunity for biomass conversion as it mitigates some of the deficiencies of conventional biochemical (pretreatment-hydrolysis-fermentation) and thermochemical (pyrolysis or gasification) processing. Thermochemical-biological hybrid processing includes two pathways: (i) pyrolysis/pyrolytic substrate fermentation, and (ii) gasification/syngas fermentation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these two hybrid processing pathways, including the characteristics of fermentative substrates produced in the thermochemical stage and microbial utilization of these compounds in the fermentation stage. The current challenges of these two biomass conversion pathways include toxicity of the crude pyrolytic substrates, the inhibition of raw syngas contaminants, and the mass-transfer limitations in syngas fermentation. Possible approaches for mitigating substrate toxicities are discussed. The review also provides a summary of the current efforts to commercialize hybrid processing. PMID:26492814

  2. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  3. Foundations of a query and simulation system for the modeling of biochemical and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Antoniotti, M; Park, F; Policriti, A; Ugel, N; Mishra, B

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of large amounts of data, produced as (numerical) traces of in vivo, in vitro and in silico experiments, has become a central activity for many biologists and biochemists. Recent advances in the mathematical modeling and computation of biochemical systems have moreover increased the prominence of in silico experiments; such experiments typically involve the simulation of sets of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE), e.g., Generalized Mass Action systems (GMA) and S-systems. In this paper we reason about the necessary theoretical and pragmatic foundations for a query and simulation system capable of analyzing large amounts of such trace data. To this end, we propose to combine in a novel way several well-known tools from numerical analysis (approximation theory), temporal logic and verification, and visualization. The result is a preliminary prototype system: simpathica/xssys. When dealing with simulation data simpathica/xssys exploits the special structure of the underlying DAE, and reduces the search space in an efficient way so as to facilitate any queries about the traces. The proposed system is designed to give the user possibility to systematically analyze and simultaneously query different possible timed evolutions of the modeled system.

  4. Advanced Reduction Processes: A New Class of Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP. PMID:23840160

  5. Current advances in molecular, biochemical, and computational modeling analysis of microalgal triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Sangram K; Carbonaro, Nicole; Park, Rudolph; Miller, Stephen M; Thorpe, Ian; Li, Yantao

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are highly reduced energy storage molecules ideal for biodiesel production. Microalgal TAG biosynthesis has been studied extensively in recent years, both at the molecular level and systems level through experimental studies and computational modeling. However, discussions of the strategies and products of the experimental and modeling approaches are rarely integrated and summarized together in a way that promotes collaboration among modelers and biologists in this field. In this review, we outline advances toward understanding the cellular and molecular factors regulating TAG biosynthesis in unicellular microalgae with an emphasis on recent studies on rate-limiting steps in fatty acid and TAG synthesis, while also highlighting new insights obtained from the integration of multi-omics datasets with mathematical models. Computational methodologies such as kinetic modeling, metabolic flux analysis, and new variants of flux balance analysis are explained in detail. We discuss how these methods have been used to simulate algae growth and lipid metabolism in response to changing culture conditions and how they have been used in conjunction with experimental validations. Since emerging evidence indicates that TAG synthesis in microalgae operates through coordinated crosstalk between multiple pathways in diverse subcellular destinations including the endoplasmic reticulum and plastids, we discuss new experimental studies and models that incorporate these findings for discovering key regulatory checkpoints. Finally, we describe tools for genetic manipulation of microalgae and their potential for future rational algal strain design. This comprehensive review explores the potential synergistic impact of pathway analysis, computational approaches, and molecular genetic manipulation strategies on improving TAG production in microalgae.

  6. Current advances in molecular, biochemical, and computational modeling analysis of microalgal triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lenka, Sangram K; Carbonaro, Nicole; Park, Rudolph; Miller, Stephen M; Thorpe, Ian; Li, Yantao

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are highly reduced energy storage molecules ideal for biodiesel production. Microalgal TAG biosynthesis has been studied extensively in recent years, both at the molecular level and systems level through experimental studies and computational modeling. However, discussions of the strategies and products of the experimental and modeling approaches are rarely integrated and summarized together in a way that promotes collaboration among modelers and biologists in this field. In this review, we outline advances toward understanding the cellular and molecular factors regulating TAG biosynthesis in unicellular microalgae with an emphasis on recent studies on rate-limiting steps in fatty acid and TAG synthesis, while also highlighting new insights obtained from the integration of multi-omics datasets with mathematical models. Computational methodologies such as kinetic modeling, metabolic flux analysis, and new variants of flux balance analysis are explained in detail. We discuss how these methods have been used to simulate algae growth and lipid metabolism in response to changing culture conditions and how they have been used in conjunction with experimental validations. Since emerging evidence indicates that TAG synthesis in microalgae operates through coordinated crosstalk between multiple pathways in diverse subcellular destinations including the endoplasmic reticulum and plastids, we discuss new experimental studies and models that incorporate these findings for discovering key regulatory checkpoints. Finally, we describe tools for genetic manipulation of microalgae and their potential for future rational algal strain design. This comprehensive review explores the potential synergistic impact of pathway analysis, computational approaches, and molecular genetic manipulation strategies on improving TAG production in microalgae. PMID:27321475

  7. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Advanced Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Dale

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour advanced statistical process control (SPC) and quality improvement course designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding quality systems; (2) knowing the process; (3) solving quality problems; and (4)…

  8. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  9. Landauer in the Age of Synthetic Biology: Energy Consumption and Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Pankaj; Lang, Alex H.; Schwab, David J.

    2016-03-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to design sophisticated synthetic cellular circuits that can perform complex computations and information processing tasks in response to specific inputs. The tremendous advances in our ability to understand and manipulate cellular information processing networks raises several fundamental physics questions: How do the molecular components of cellular circuits exploit energy consumption to improve information processing? Can one utilize ideas from thermodynamics to improve the design of synthetic cellular circuits and modules? Here, we summarize recent theoretical work addressing these questions. Energy consumption in cellular circuits serves five basic purposes: (1) increasing specificity, (2) manipulating dynamics, (3) reducing variability, (4) amplifying signal, and (5) erasing memory. We demonstrate these ideas using several simple examples and discuss the implications of these theoretical ideas for the emerging field of synthetic biology. We conclude by discussing how it may be possible to overcome these limitations using "post-translational" synthetic biology that exploits reversible protein modification.

  10. 2D Model for Diffusion of Oxygen with Biochemical Reaction During Biofilm Formation Process in Static Aqueous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puyate, Y. T.; Rim-Rukeh, A.

    A 2D model that describes diffusion of oxygen with biochemical reaction during biofilm formation process in static aqueous medium is presented. The analysis is based on X60 steel placed at the bottom of a container containing produced water inoculated with Leptothrix discophora (iron-oxidizing bacteria). These bacteria form biofilms on the exposed surfaces of the metal. The biofilm-microorganisms absorb oxygen from the produced water through biochemical reaction, resulting in transfer of oxygen from the bulk liquid phase to the biofilm. Predictions of the model are compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained.

  11. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kenneth A.; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  12. Recent advances in imaging subcellular processes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Janetopoulos, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology came about with the ability to first visualize cells. As microscopy techniques advanced, the early microscopists became the first cell biologists to observe the inner workings and subcellular structures that control life. This ability to see organelles within a cell provided scientists with the first understanding of how cells function. The visualization of the dynamic architecture of subcellular structures now often drives questions as researchers seek to understand the intricacies of the cell. With the advent of fluorescent labeling techniques, better and new optical techniques, and more sensitive and faster cameras, a whole array of questions can now be asked. There has been an explosion of new light microscopic techniques, and the race is on to build better and more powerful imaging systems so that we can further our understanding of the spatial and temporal mechanisms controlling molecular cell biology. PMID:27408708

  13. Challenge to advanced materials processing with lasers in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-02-01

    Japan is one of the most advanced countries in manufacturing technology, and lasers have been playing an important role for advancement of manufacturing technology in a variety of industrial fields. Contribution of laser materials processing to Japanese industry is significant for both macroprocessing and microprocessing. The present paper describes recent trend and topics of industrial applications in terms of the hardware and the software to show how Japanese industry challenges to advanced materials processing using lasers, and national products related to laser materials processing are also briefly introduced.

  14. Molecullar and biochemical effect of alcohlic extract of Alpinia galanga on rat spermatogenesis process

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mahta; Shahdadi, Vahid; Nazari Boron, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alpinia galanga (A. galanga) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family has anti-oxidant effects in animals and humans body and often is used as medicament or part of medicaments in Asian folk medicine for various applications. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular and biochemical influence of alcoholic extract from the rhizomes of A. galangal on the spermatogenesis process in male rat. Materials and Methods: Forty five Wistar male rats were divided into three groups, control (n=15) and two tested groups (n=30). Alcoholic extract (5%) of plant was given by oral route at doses of 100 and 300 mg/day for 56 days and spermatogenesis parameters, hormone changes and expression level of the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) gene were assessed. Results: Methanol extract of A. galanga increased serum testosterones level significantly in both treated groups in comparison with control group (p<0.05). Besides, the percentage of sperm viability and motility in both tested groups were significantly increased. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH hormone, morphology and weight were affected in both treated groups. With 300 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed. Sperm motility was increased in two treated groups whereas testis weight was decreased in treated groups. Real time analysis of treated cells of testis showed increase level of mRNA related to CREM gene involved in spermatogenesis process after 56 days induction. Conclusion: It is concluded that application of ethanolic extract of A. galanga significantly increased sperm percentage, viability, motility and testosterone hormone. This suggested that this plant may be promising in enhancing sperm healthy parameters. PMID:25709632

  15. Biochemical and microbial changes during the storage of minimally processed cantaloupe.

    PubMed

    Lamikanra, O; Chen, J C; Banks, D; Hunter, P A

    2000-12-01

    The effect of storage time on pH, titratable acidity, degrees Brix, organic acids, sugars, amino acids, and color of minimally processed cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. cv. Mission) was determined at 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Changes in most of the biochemical parameters with storage time were relatively slow at the lower temperature. At 20 degrees C, a 17% loss in soluble solids and a 2-fold increase in acidity occurred after 2 days. Organic acid content also increased considerably with time at this temperature as a result of the production of lactic acid. Oxalic, citric, malic, and succinic acids were the organic acids, and glucose, fructose, and sucrose were the sugars present in the freshly cut cantaloupe. Malic acid concentration decreased concurrently with lactic acid production indicating the possible involvement of anaerobic malo-lactic fermentation along with sugar utilization by lactic acid bacteria. The effect of storage on microbial growth was determined at 4, 10, and 20 degrees C. Gram-negative stained rods grew at a slower rate at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C than the Gram-positive mesophilic bacteria that dominated microorganism growth at 20 degrees C. Eighteen amino acids were identified in fresh cantaloupe: aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, serine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, arginine, threonine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, phenyl alanine, and lysine. The dominant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, and alanine. Total amino acid content decreased rapidly at 20 degrees C, but only a slight decrease occurred at 4 degrees C after prolonged storage. Changes in lightness (L), chroma, and hue at both temperatures indicate the absence of browning reactions. The results indicate the potential use of lactic acid and lactic acid bacteria as quality control markers in minimally processed fruits. PMID:11141266

  16. Study on advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Kang G.; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    1992-01-01

    Issues related to the reliability of a redundant system with large main memory are addressed. In particular, the Fault-Tolerant Processor (FTP) for Advanced Launch System (ALS) is used as a basis for our presentation. When the system is free of latent faults, the probability of system crash due to nearly-coincident channel faults is shown to be insignificant even when the outputs of computing channels are infrequently voted on. In particular, using channel error maskers (CEMs) is shown to improve reliability more effectively than increasing the number of channels for applications with long mission times. Even without using a voter, most memory errors can be immediately corrected by CEMs implemented with conventional coding techniques. In addition to their ability to enhance system reliability, CEMs--with a low hardware overhead--can be used to reduce not only the need of memory realignment, but also the time required to realign channel memories in case, albeit rare, such a need arises. Using CEMs, we have developed two schemes, called Scheme 1 and Scheme 2, to solve the memory realignment problem. In both schemes, most errors are corrected by CEMs, and the remaining errors are masked by a voter.

  17. Optical Multiple Access Network (OMAN) for advanced processing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.; Park, Eugene; Ivancic, William D.; Sherman, Bradley D.

    1991-01-01

    An OMAN breadboard for exploring advanced processing satellite circuit switch applications is introduced. Network architecture, hardware trade offs, and multiple user interference issues are presented. The breadboard test set up and experimental results are discussed.

  18. Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts: Organic Solar Cell that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  19. Cold plasma processing technology makes advances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold plasma (AKA nonthermal plasma, cool plasma, gas plasma, etc.) is a rapidly maturing antimicrobial process being developed for applications in the food industry. A wide array of devices can be used to create cold plasma, but the defining characteristic is that they operate at or near room temper...

  20. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  1. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  2. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  3. Advances in the shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, E.L.; Cremer, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a dry-feed, oxygen-blown, entrained flow coal gasification process which has the capability to convert virtually any coal or petroleum coke into a clean medium Btu synthesis gas, or syngas, consisting predominantly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. In SCGP, high pressure nitrogen or recycled syngas is used to pneumatically convey dried, pulverized coal to the gasifier. The coal enters the gasifier through diametrically opposed burners where it reacts with oxygen at temperatures in excess of 2500{degrees}F. The gasification temperature is maintained to ensure that the mineral matter in the coal is molten and will flow smoothly down the gasifier wall and out the slag tap. Gasification conditions are optimized, depending on coal properties, to achieve the highest coal to gas conversion efficiency, with minimum formation of undesirable byproducts.

  4. Technology advances for Space Shuttle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M. J.; Mollakarimi, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the major initial tasks of the Space Systems Integration and Operations Research Applications (SIORA) Program was the application of automation and robotics technology to all aspects of the Shuttle tile processing and inspection system. The SIORA Program selected a nonlinear systems engineering methodology which emphasizes a team approach for defining, developing, and evaluating new concepts and technologies for the operational system. This is achieved by utilizing rapid prototyping testbeds whereby the concepts and technologies can be iteratively tested and evaluated by the team. The present methodology has clear advantages for the design of large complex systems as well as for the upgrading and evolution of existing systems.

  5. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  6. Advances in Processing of Bulk Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galassi, Carmen

    The development of ferroelectric bulk materials is still under extensive investigation, as new and challenging issues are growing in relation to their widespread applications. Progress in understanding the fundamental aspects requires adequate technological tools. This would enable controlling and tuning the material properties as well as fully exploiting them into the scale production. Apart from the growing number of new compositions, interest in the first ferroelectrics like BaTiO3 or PZT materials is far from dropping. The need to find new lead-free materials, with as high performance as PZT ceramics, is pushing towards a full exploitation of bariumbased compositions. However, lead-based materials remain the best performing at reasonably low production costs. Therefore, the main trends are towards nano-size effects and miniaturisation, multifunctional materials, integration, and enhancement of the processing ability in powder synthesis. Also, in control of dispersion and packing, to let densification occur in milder conditions. In this chapter, after a general review of the composition and main properties of the principal ferroelectric materials, methods of synthesis are analysed with emphasis on recent results from chemical routes and cold consolidation methods based on the colloidal processing.

  7. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  8. Investigation on biochemical compositional changes during the microbial fermentation process of Fu brick tea by LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Wang, Wei; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2015-11-01

    Fu brick tea (FBT) is a unique post-fermented tea product which is fermented with fungi during the manufacturing process. In this study, we investigated the biochemical compositional changes occurring during the microbial fermentation process (MFP) of FBT based on non-targeted LC-MS, which was a comprehensive and unbiased methodology. Our data analysis took a two-phase approach: (1) comparison of FBT with other tea products using PCA analysis to exhibit the characteristic effect of MFP on the formation of Fu brick tea and (2) comparison of tea samples throughout the MFP of FBT to elucidate the possible key metabolic pathways produced by the fungi. Non-targeted LC-MS analysis clearly distinguished FBT with other tea samples and highlighted some interesting metabolic pathways during the MFP including B ring fission catechin. Our study demonstrated that those fungi had a significant influence on the biochemical profiles in the FBT and consequently contributed to its unique quality.

  9. Integration of advanced nuclear materials separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Worl, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Berg, J.M.; Neu, M.P.; Reilly, S.D.; Buelow, S.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has examined the fundamental chemistry of plutonium that affects the integration of hydrothermal technology into nuclear materials processing operations. Chemical reactions in high temperature water allow new avenues for waste treatment and radionuclide separation.Successful implementation of hydrothermal technology offers the potential to effective treat many types of radioactive waste, reduce the storage hazards and disposal costs, and minimize the generation of secondary waste streams. The focus has been on the chemistry of plutonium(VI) in solution with carbonate since these are expected to be important species in the effluent from hydrothermal oxidation of Pu-containing organic wastes. The authors investigated the structure, solubility, and stability of the key plutonium complexes. Installation and testing of flow and batch hydrothermal reactors in the Plutonium Facility was accomplished. Preliminary testing with Pu-contaminated organic solutions gave effluent solutions that readily met discard requirements. A new effort in FY 1998 will build on these promising initial results.

  10. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  11. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities.

  12. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  13. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  14. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  15. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity.

  16. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. PMID:25694619

  17. Ocean acidification induces biochemical and morphological changes in the calcification process of large benthic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Martina; Uthicke, Sven; Pandolfi, John M

    2015-03-22

    Large benthic foraminifera are significant contributors to sediment formation on coral reefs, yet they are vulnerable to ocean acidification. Here, we assessed the biochemical and morphological impacts of acidification on the calcification of Amphistegina lessonii and Marginopora vertebralis exposed to different pH conditions. We measured growth rates (surface area and buoyant weight) and Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities and calculated shell density using micro-computer tomography images. In A. lessonii, we detected a significant decrease in buoyant weight, a reduction in the density of inner skeletal chambers, and an increase of Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities at pH 7.6 when compared with ambient conditions of pH 8.1. By contrast, M. vertebralis showed an inhibition in Mg-ATPase activity under lowered pH, with growth rate and skeletal density remaining constant. While M. vertebralis is considered to be more sensitive than A. lessonii owing to its high-Mg-calcite skeleton, it appears to be less affected by changes in pH, based on the parameters assessed in this study. We suggest difference in biochemical pathways of calcification as the main factor influencing response to changes in pH levels, and that A. lessonii and M. vertebralis have the ability to regulate biochemical functions to cope with short-term increases in acidity. PMID:25694619

  18. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Hardware technology survey and projections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Richard

    1991-01-01

    The major goals of this effort are as follows: (1) to examine technology insertion options to optimize Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) performance in the Advanced Launch System (ALS) environment; (2) to examine the AIPS concepts to ensure that valuable new technologies are not excluded from the AIPS/ALS implementations; (3) to examine advanced microprocessors applicable to AIPS/ALS, (4) to examine radiation hardening technologies applicable to AIPS/ALS; (5) to reach conclusions on AIPS hardware building blocks implementation technologies; and (6) reach conclusions on appropriate architectural improvements. The hardware building blocks are the Fault-Tolerant Processor, the Input/Output Sequencers (IOS), and the Intercomputer Interface Sequencers (ICIS).

  19. Advanced Process Technology: Combi Materials Science and Atmospheric Processing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Process Technology and Advanced Concepts -- High-Throughput Combi Material Science and Atmospheric Processing that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

  20. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  1. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit; Saunders, Chris B.; Barnard, John W.; Lopata, Vince J.; Kremers, Walter; McDougall, Tom E.; Chung, Minda; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres, and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties.

  2. Microeconomics of advanced process window control for 50-nm gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chen, Xuemei; Falessi, Georges; Garvin, Craig; Hankinson, Matt; Lev, Amir; Levy, Ady; Slessor, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    Fundamentally, advanced process control enables accelerated design-rule reduction, but simple microeconomic models that directly link the effects of advanced process control to profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we derive these links using a simplified model for the rate of profit generated by the semiconductor manufacturing process. We use it to explain why and how microprocessor manufacturers strive to avoid commoditization by producing only the number of dies required to satisfy the time-varying demand in each performance segment. This strategy is realized using the tactic known as speed binning, the deliberate creation of an unnatural distribution of microprocessor performance that varies according to market demand. We show that the ability of APC to achieve these economic objectives may be limited by variability in the larger manufacturing context, including measurement delays and process window variation.

  3. Advanced Instruction: Facilitation of Individual Learning Processes in Large Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putz, Claus; Intveen, Geesche

    2009-01-01

    By supplying various combinations of advanced instructions and different forms of exercises individual learning processes within the impartation of basic knowledge can be activated and supported at best. The fundamentals of our class "Introduction to spatial-geometric cognition using CAD" are constructional inputs, which systematically induce the…

  4. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  5. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  6. Evaluation of advanced oxidation process for the treatment of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, S.B. II ); Peyton, G.R. ); Rice, L.E. . Kansas City Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process utilizing ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and hydrogen peroxide was selected for the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons, particularly trichlorethene and 1,2-dichlorethene, from groundwater underlying the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant. Since the performance of this process for the removal of organics from groundwater is not well-documented, an evaluation was initiated to determine the performance of the treatment plant, document the operation and maintenance costs experience, and evaluate contaminant removal mechanisms. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  8. Economically viable biochemical processes for the advanced rural biorefinery and downstream recovery operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural biorefineries offer an alternative to traditional ethanol production by providing the opportunity to produce fuel on site to reduce costs associated with biomass transportation thus making the fuel economically viable. Widespread installation of rural biorefineries could lead to increased upt...

  9. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  10. On the estimation of robustness and filtering ability of dynamic biochemical networks under process delays, internal parametric perturbations and external disturbances.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Chen, Po-Wei

    2009-12-01

    Inherently, biochemical regulatory networks suffer from process delays, internal parametrical perturbations as well as external disturbances. Robustness is the property to maintain the functions of intracellular biochemical regulatory networks despite these perturbations. In this study, system and signal processing theories are employed for measurement of robust stability and filtering ability of linear and nonlinear time-delay biochemical regulatory networks. First, based on Lyapunov stability theory, the robust stability of biochemical network is measured for the tolerance of additional process delays and additive internal parameter fluctuations. Then the filtering ability of attenuating additive external disturbances is estimated for time-delay biochemical regulatory networks. In order to overcome the difficulty of solving the Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI), the global linearization technique is employed to simplify the measurement procedure by a simple linear matrix inequality (LMI) method. Finally, an example is given in silico to illustrate how to measure the robust stability and filtering ability of a nonlinear time-delay perturbative biochemical network. This robust stability and filtering ability measurement for biochemical network has potential application to synthetic biology, gene therapy and drug design. PMID:19788895

  11. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  12. Advanced titanium alloys and processes for minimally invasive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, H. J.; Qazi, Javaid

    2005-11-01

    Major advances continue to be made in enhancing patient care while at the same time attempting to slow ever-rising health costs. Among the most innovative of these advances are minimally invasive surgical techniques, which allow patients to undergo life-saving and quality-of-life enhancing surgery with minimized risk and substantially reduced hospital stays. Recently this approach was introduced for orthopedic procedures (e.g., during total hip replacement surgery). In this instance, the implantable devices will bear the same loads and will therefore be subject to higher stress. This paper provides a brief overview of several potential approaches for developing new advanced titanium alloys and processes that should provide substantial benefit for this application in minimally invasive devices.

  13. Effect of thermal processing on the biochemical constituents of green mussel (Perna viridis) in Tin-free-steel cans.

    PubMed

    Biji, K B; Shamseer, R M; Mohan, C O; Ravishankar, C N; Mathew, S; Gopal, T K S

    2015-10-01

    The effect of thermal processing on the biochemical constituents of green mussel (Pernaviridis) in brine was investigated. Depurated mussel samples were thermal processed in tin-free steel cans (TFS) at F0 8.43. The time temperature data was collected during heat processing using EVAL data recorder and heat penetration characteristics were determined using formula method. The total process time was 27.48 min and the processed cans were found to be commercially sterile. The mineral composition of processed mussel was significantly higher than raw samples. The instrumental texture analysis indicated that product become soft after thermal processing.The thermal process led to a significant decrease in total amino acid and fatty acid content of the samples. Even though the samples showed a decrease in amino acid and fatty acid composition after thermal processing, the mussel meat was nutritionally well balanced with respect to essential anino acids and fatty acids.Hence the product can be considered as a food source with high quality protein and fat to fulfil consumer's requirements.Based on sensory analysis, the processed products were found acceptable during the study period.

  14. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  15. Sequence-controlled RNA self-processing: computational design, biochemical analysis, and visualization by AFM

    PubMed Central

    Petkovic, Sonja; Badelt, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Delcea, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Reversible chemistry allowing for assembly and disassembly of molecular entities is important for biological self-organization. Thus, ribozymes that support both cleavage and formation of phosphodiester bonds may have contributed to the emergence of functional diversity and increasing complexity of regulatory RNAs in early life. We have previously engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme that shows how ribozymes may have circularized or extended their own length by forming concatemers. Using the Vienna RNA package, we now optimized this hairpin ribozyme variant and selected four different RNA sequences that were expected to circularize more efficiently or form longer concatemers upon transcription. (Two-dimensional) PAGE analysis confirms that (i) all four selected ribozymes are catalytically active and (ii) high yields of cyclic species are obtained. AFM imaging in combination with RNA structure prediction enabled us to calculate the distributions of monomers and self-concatenated dimers and trimers. Our results show that computationally optimized molecules do form reasonable amounts of trimers, which has not been observed for the original system so far, and we demonstrate that the combination of theoretical prediction, biochemical and physical analysis is a promising approach toward accurate prediction of ribozyme behavior and design of ribozymes with predefined functions. PMID:25999318

  16. Resonance electron attachment to plant hormones and its likely connection with biochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Modelli, Alberto

    2014-01-21

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of salicylic acid (I) and its derivatives 3-hydroxy- (II) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (III), 5-cloro salicylic acid (IV) and methyl salicylate (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy. The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I–V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The most intense negative fragment produced by DEA to isomers I–III is the dehydrogenated molecular anion [M–H]{sup −}, mainly formed at incident electron energies around 1 eV. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method was also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo.

  17. Resonance electron attachment to plant hormones and its likely connection with biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A; Modelli, Alberto

    2014-01-21

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of salicylic acid (I) and its derivatives 3-hydroxy- (II) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (III), 5-cloro salicylic acid (IV) and methyl salicylate (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy. The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The most intense negative fragment produced by DEA to isomers I-III is the dehydrogenated molecular anion [M-H](-), mainly formed at incident electron energies around 1 eV. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method was also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo. PMID:25669385

  18. Sequence-controlled RNA self-processing: computational design, biochemical analysis, and visualization by AFM.

    PubMed

    Petkovic, Sonja; Badelt, Stefan; Block, Stephan; Flamm, Christoph; Delcea, Mihaela; Hofacker, Ivo; Müller, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Reversible chemistry allowing for assembly and disassembly of molecular entities is important for biological self-organization. Thus, ribozymes that support both cleavage and formation of phosphodiester bonds may have contributed to the emergence of functional diversity and increasing complexity of regulatory RNAs in early life. We have previously engineered a variant of the hairpin ribozyme that shows how ribozymes may have circularized or extended their own length by forming concatemers. Using the Vienna RNA package, we now optimized this hairpin ribozyme variant and selected four different RNA sequences that were expected to circularize more efficiently or form longer concatemers upon transcription. (Two-dimensional) PAGE analysis confirms that (i) all four selected ribozymes are catalytically active and (ii) high yields of cyclic species are obtained. AFM imaging in combination with RNA structure prediction enabled us to calculate the distributions of monomers and self-concatenated dimers and trimers. Our results show that computationally optimized molecules do form reasonable amounts of trimers, which has not been observed for the original system so far, and we demonstrate that the combination of theoretical prediction, biochemical and physical analysis is a promising approach toward accurate prediction of ribozyme behavior and design of ribozymes with predefined functions.

  19. Resonance electron attachment to plant hormones and its likely connection with biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A; Modelli, Alberto

    2014-01-21

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of salicylic acid (I) and its derivatives 3-hydroxy- (II) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (III), 5-cloro salicylic acid (IV) and methyl salicylate (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy. The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The most intense negative fragment produced by DEA to isomers I-III is the dehydrogenated molecular anion [M-H](-), mainly formed at incident electron energies around 1 eV. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method was also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo.

  20. Resonance electron attachment to plant hormones and its likely connection with biochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Modelli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0-6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of salicylic acid (I) and its derivatives 3-hydroxy- (II) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (III), 5-cloro salicylic acid (IV) and methyl salicylate (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy. The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0-14 eV energy range. The most intense negative fragment produced by DEA to isomers I-III is the dehydrogenated molecular anion [M-H]-, mainly formed at incident electron energies around 1 eV. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method was also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo.

  1. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  2. Model-based advanced process control of coagulation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C W; Shariff, R; Stanley, S J; Smith, D W; Zhang, Q; Saumer, E D

    2002-01-01

    The drinking water treatment industry has seen a recent increase in the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for process modelling and offline process control tools and applications. While conceptual frameworks for integrating the ANN technology into the real-time control of complex treatment processes have been proposed, actual working systems have yet to be developed. This paper presents development and application of an ANN model-based advanced process control system for the coagulation process at a pilot-scale water treatment facility in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The system was successfully used to maintain a user-defined set point for effluent quality, by automatically varying operating conditions in response to changes in influent water quality. This new technology has the potential to realize significant operational cost saving for utilities when applied in full-scale applications.

  3. Process development status report for advanced manufacturing projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, J.R.; Homan, D.A.

    1990-03-30

    This is the final status report for the approved Advanced Manufacturing Projects for FY 1989. Five of the projects were begun in FY 1987, one in FY 1988, and one in FY 1989. The approved projects cover technology areas in welding, explosive material processing and evaluation, ion implantation, and automated manufacturing. It is expected that the successful completion of these projects well result in improved quality and/or reduced cost for components produced by Mound. Those projects not brought to completion will be continued under Process development in FY 1990.

  4. Smelting Associated with the Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, J-M.; Jeong, M-S.; Lee, W-K.; Cho, S-H.; Seo, C-S.; Park, S-W.

    2004-10-03

    The smelting process associated with the advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was studied by using surrogate materials. Considering the vaporization behaviors of input materials, the operation procedure of smelting was set up as (1) removal of residual salts, (2) melting of metal powder, and (3) removal of dross from a metal ingot. The behaviors of porous MgO crucible during smelting were tested and the chemical stability of MgO in the salt-being atmosphere was confirmed.

  5. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  6. Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J; Ringdal, F; Harris, D B

    2007-02-09

    The principal objective of this two-year study is to develop and test a new advanced, automatic approach to seismic detection/location using array processing. We address a strategy to obtain significantly improved precision in the location of low-magnitude events compared with current fully-automatic approaches, combined with a low false alarm rate. We have developed and evaluated a prototype automatic system which uses as a basis regional array processing with fixed, carefully calibrated, site-specific parameters in conjuction with improved automatic phase onset time estimation. We have in parallel developed tools for Matched Field Processing for optimized detection and source-region identification of seismic signals. This narrow-band procedure aims to mitigate some of the causes of difficulty encountered using the standard array processing system, specifically complicated source-time histories of seismic events and shortcomings in the plane-wave approximation for seismic phase arrivals at regional arrays.

  7. Advances in process intensification through multifunctional reactor engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes critical to process intensification and implementation in commercial applications. Physics of the heat and mass transfer and chemical kinetics and how these processes are ultimately scaled were investigated. Specifically, we progressed the knowledge and tools required to scale a multifunctional reactor for acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation to industrial dimensions. Understanding such process intensification strategies is crucial to improving the energy efficiency and profitability of multifunctional reactors, resulting in a projected energy savings of 100 trillion BTU/yr by 2020 and a substantial reduction in the accompanying emissions.

  8. Pollution balance method and the demonstration of its application to minimizing waste in a biochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Hilaly, A.K.; Sikdar, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    In this study, the authors introduced several modifications to the WAR (waste reduction) algorithm developed earlier. These modifications were made for systematically handling sensitivity analysis and various tasks of waste minimization. A design hierarchy was formulated to promote appropriate waste reduction tasks at designated levels of the hierarchy. A sensitivity coefficient was used to measure the relative impacts of process variables on the pollution index of a process. The use of the WAR algorithm was demonstrated by a fermentation process for making penicillin.

  9. A graphene superficial layer for the advanced electroforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hokyun; Park, Mina; Lee, Seungmin; Bae, Sukang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Ha, Jun-Seok; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil. We also demonstrated that the electroformed free-standing Cu thin films could be utilized for patterning microstructures and incorporated onto a flexible substrate for LEDs. This innovative process could be beneficial for the advancement of flexible electronics and optoelectronics, which require a wide range of mechanical and physical properties.Advances in electroplating technology facilitate the progress of modern electronic devices, including computers, microprocessors and other microelectronic devices. Metal layers with high electrical and thermal conductivities are essential for high speed and high power devices. In this paper, we report an effective route to fabricate free-standing metal films using graphene as a superficial layer in the electroforming process. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on a Cu foil was used as a template, which provides high electrical conductivity and low adhesive force with the template, thus enabling an effective electroforming process. The required force for delamination of the electroplated Cu layer from graphene is more than one order smaller than the force required for removing graphene from the Cu foil

  10. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  11. Bridging Microstructure, Properties and Processing of Polymer Based Advanced Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a guest editorial for a special issue in Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. The papers collected in this special issue emphasize significant challenges, current approaches and future strategies necessary to advance the development of polymer-based materials. They were partly presented at the symposium of 'Bridging microstructure, properties and processing of polymer based advanced materials' in the TMS 2011 annual conference meeting, which was held in San Diego, US, on Feb 28 to March 3, 2011. This symposium was organized by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (USA) and the Institute of Mechanics of Fluids and Solids of the University of Strasbourg (France). The organizers were D.S. Li, S. Ahzi, and M. Khaleel.

  12. Advanced Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) Reactor and Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Hadley, Neal M.; Dahl, Roger W.; Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Miller, Lee; Medlen, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Design and development of a second generation Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) reactor is currently underway as part of NASA's Atmosphere Revitalization Resource Recovery effort. By recovering up to 75% of the hydrogen currently lost as methane in the Sabatier reactor effluent, the PPA helps to minimize life support resupply costs for extended duration missions. To date, second generation PPA development has demonstrated significant technology advancements over the first generation device by doubling the methane processing rate while, at the same time, more than halving the required power. One development area of particular interest to NASA system engineers is fouling of the PPA reactor with carbonaceous products. As a mitigation plan, NASA MSFC has explored the feasibility of using an oxidative plasma based upon metabolic CO2 to regenerate the reactor window and gas inlet ports. The results and implications of this testing are addressed along with the advanced PPA reactor development.

  13. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  14. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  15. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  16. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  17. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  18. Walk-through survey report: control technology for fermentation processes at Novo Biochemical Industries, Inc. , Franklinton, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, K.F.

    1983-09-01

    A walkthrough survey of control technology for fermentation processes at Novo Biochemical Industries, Incorporated (SIC-2869), Franklinton, North Carolina was conducted in June, 1983. The company produced two industrial enzymes, alpha-amylase and amyl glucosidase, from microbial strains of Bacillus and Aspergillus. Engineering controls included enclosure of the production process and local exhaust ventilation of all bag dumping stations. Employee contact with the production process was minimal except for equipment maintenance and manual broth sample extraction. The majority of the large scale processes were computer controlled or monitored. All employees were required to maintain a clean work environment. The company used a computerized preventive-maintenance program. Routine industrial hygiene monitoring for active aerosilized liquid enzymes was conducted. The company had a relatively complete medical and biological monitoring program. Appropriate personal-protective equipment was required in all departments of the facility. The company employed a standardized procedure for entering a deep tank reactor vessel. The author concludes that the company employs state of the art technology and provides a work environment that minimizes potential exposure to microorganisms, process chemical intermediates, and biological products. An indepth survey of the facility is recommended.

  19. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  20. Highlighting earthworm contribution in uplifting biochemical response for organic matter decomposition during vermifiltration processing sewage sludge: Insights from proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Wang, Yin; Xu, Ting; Yang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    A vermifilter (VF) was steadily operated to explore the mechanism of lower microbial biomass and higher enzymatic activities due to the presence of earthworms, with a conventional biofilter (BF) as a control. The analysis of 2-DE indicated that 432 spots and 488 spots were clearly detected in the VF and BF biofilm. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS revealed that six differential up-regulated proteins, namely Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Molecular chaperone GroEL, ATP synthase subunit alpha, Flagellin, Chaperone protein HtpG and ATP synthase subunit beta, changed progressively. Based on Gene Ontology annotation, these differential proteins mainly performed 71.38% ATP binding and 16.23% response to stress functions. Taken the VF process performance merits into considerations, it was addressed that earthworm activities biochemically strengthened energy releasing of the microbial metabolism in an uncoupled manner.

  1. Highlighting earthworm contribution in uplifting biochemical response for organic matter decomposition during vermifiltration processing sewage sludge: Insights from proteomics.

    PubMed

    Xing, Meiyan; Wang, Yin; Xu, Ting; Yang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    A vermifilter (VF) was steadily operated to explore the mechanism of lower microbial biomass and higher enzymatic activities due to the presence of earthworms, with a conventional biofilter (BF) as a control. The analysis of 2-DE indicated that 432 spots and 488 spots were clearly detected in the VF and BF biofilm. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF/TOF MS revealed that six differential up-regulated proteins, namely Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Molecular chaperone GroEL, ATP synthase subunit alpha, Flagellin, Chaperone protein HtpG and ATP synthase subunit beta, changed progressively. Based on Gene Ontology annotation, these differential proteins mainly performed 71.38% ATP binding and 16.23% response to stress functions. Taken the VF process performance merits into considerations, it was addressed that earthworm activities biochemically strengthened energy releasing of the microbial metabolism in an uncoupled manner. PMID:27287202

  2. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  3. Advanced process control with design-based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Hong, Jongkyun; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong; Hasebe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2007-03-01

    K1 factor for development and mass-production of memory devices has been decreased down to below 0.30 in recent years. Process technology has responded with extreme resolution enhancement technologies (RET) and much more complex OPC technologies than before. ArF immersion lithography is expected to remain the major patterning technology through under 35 nm node, where the degree of process difficulties and the sensitivity to process variations grow even higher. So, Design for manufacturing (DFM) is proposed to lower the degree of process difficulties and advanced process control (APC) is required to reduce the process variations. However, both DFM and APC need much feed-back from the wafer side such as hot spot inspection results and total CDU measurements at the lot, wafer, field and die level. In this work, we discuss a new design based metrology which can compare SEM image with CAD data and measure the whole CD deviations from the original layouts in a full die. It can provide the full information of hot spots and the whole CD distribution diagram of various transistors in peripheral regions as well as cell layout. So, it is possible to analyze the root cause of the CD distribution of some specific transistors or cell layout, such as OPC error, mask CDU, lens aberrations or etch process variation and so on. The applications of this new inspection tool will be introduced and APC using the analysis result will be presented in detail.

  4. Biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with osteoporosis and advanced cancer involving the bone.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Serge; Farooki, Azeez

    2011-02-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) has been hypothesized to result in part from a relative "oversuppression" of normal physiologic bone remodeling at the jaw brought about by bisphosphonate therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover give readily measurable information on integrated systemic bone remodeling activity, as measured by blood and urine assays. The intra- and interassay variability of most currently available assays is less than 10%, although many biological factors can influence levels of bone turnover markers. Bone turnover markers may show a dynamic response to changes in clinical status for a given disease state. Elevated bone turnover on and off treatment appears to predict adverse clinical consequences in both osteoporosis and cancer. Bisphosphonates effectively decrease the level of the bone turnover markers with a pattern depending on the marker, the bisphosphonate, the dose regimen, and the disease. However, long-term (10-year) treatment with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis does not appear to result in a progressive decline in bone turnover, as measured by markers and bone histology. The effects of long-term (greater than 2 years) treatment with monthly intravenous bisphosphonates on bone turnover markers in cancer are unknown. Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy appears to allow a recovery of bone turnover, which is related to the bisphosphonate, the duration of therapy, and the disease being treated. At this time, data are limited with regard to the utility of bone turnover markers in assessing risk for ONJ and whether bone marker-directed bisphosphonate holidays would be useful in prevention or treatment of ONJ.

  5. H Scan/AHP advanced technology proposal evaluation process

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.; Valladares, M.R.S. de

    1996-10-01

    It is anticipated that a family of high value/impact projects will be funded by the Hydrogen Program to field test hydrogen technologies that are at advanced stages of development. These projects will add substantial value to the Program in several ways, by: demonstrating successful integration of multiple advanced technologies, providing critical insight on issues of larger scale equipment design, construction and operations management, yielding cost and performance data for competitive analysis, refining and deploying enhanced safety measures. These projects will be selected through a competitive proposal evaluation process. Because of the significant scope and funding levels of projects at these development phases, Program management has indicated the need for an augmented proposal evaluation strategy to ensure that supported projects are implemented by capable investigative teams and that their successful completion will optimally advance programmatic objectives. These objectives comprise a complex set of both quantitative and qualitative factors, many of which can only be estimated using expert judgment and opinion. To meet the above need, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energetics Inc. have jointly developed a proposal evaluation methodology called H Scan/AHP. The H Scan component of the process was developed by NREL. It is a two-part survey instrument that substantially augments the type and scope of information collected in a traditional proposal package. The AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) component was developed by Energetics. The AHP is an established decision support methodology that allows the Program decision makers to evaluate proposals relatively based on a unique set of weighted criteria that they have determined.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  7. Metrology aspects of SIMS depth profiling for advanced ULSI processes

    SciTech Connect

    Budrevich, Andre; Hunter, Jerry

    1998-11-24

    As the semiconductor industry roadmap passes through the 0.1 {mu}m technology node, the junction depth of the transistor source/drain extension will be required to be less than 20 nm and the well doping will be near 1.0 {mu}m in depth. The development of advanced ULSI processing techniques requires the evolution of new metrology tools to ensure process capability. High sensitivity (ppb) coupled with excellent depth resolution (1 nm) makes SIMS the technique of choice for measuring the in-depth chemical distribution of these dopants with high precision and accuracy. This paper will discuss the issues, which impact the accuracy and precision of SIMS measurements of ion implants (both shallow and deep). First this paper will discuss common uses of the SIMS technique in the technology development and manufacturing of advanced ULSI processes. In the second part of this paper the ability of SIMS to make high precision measurements of ion implant depth profiles will be studied.

  8. Biochemical computation for spine structural plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Jun; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    The structural plasticity of dendritic spines is considered to be essential for various forms of synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The process is mediated by a complex signaling network consisting of numerous species of molecules. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the biochemical signaling is regulated in a complicated manner due to geometrical restrictions from the unique morphology of the dendritic branches and spines. Recent advances in optical techniques have enabled the exploration of the spatiotemporal aspects of the signal regulations in spines and dendrites and have provided many insights into the principle of the biochemical computation that underlies spine structural plasticity. PMID:26139370

  9. Pharmacokinetic factors influencing risk assessment: saturation of biochemical processes and cofactor depletion.

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, D D; Stevens, J T

    1994-01-01

    Models generally consider risk to be a function of the hazard (toxicity) and exposure (dose). That function is best described by the dose response of the toxic effect. For any risk assessment system to be effective, it should consider that dose-response relationship. Saturation phenomena often produce nonlinear dose curves, and any risk assessment system should be able to address such effects. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics offer an approach to deal with these nonlinear responses. Some historic risk models and common saturable processes are discussed. The impact of maximum tolerated dose (MTD) on risk evaluation and the kinetics of some saturable processes are considered. Specific examples have been selected to demonstrate the importance of saturation of processes in assessing the hazard of chemicals. PMID:7737037

  10. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1997-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule.

  11. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1997-04-15

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule. 6 figs.

  12. A flexible architecture for advanced process control solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faron, Kamyar; Iourovitski, Ilia

    2005-05-01

    Advanced Process Control (APC) is now mainstream practice in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Over the past decade and a half APC has evolved from a "good idea", and "wouldn"t it be great" concept to mandatory manufacturing practice. APC developments have primarily dealt with two major thrusts, algorithms and infrastructure, and often the line between them has been blurred. The algorithms have evolved from very simple single variable solutions to sophisticated and cutting edge adaptive multivariable (input and output) solutions. Spending patterns in recent times have demanded that the economics of a comprehensive APC infrastructure be completely justified for any and all cost conscious manufacturers. There are studies suggesting integration costs as high as 60% of the total APC solution costs. Such cost prohibitive figures clearly diminish the return on APC investments. This has limited the acceptance and development of pure APC infrastructure solutions for many fabs. Modern APC solution architectures must satisfy the wide array of requirements from very manual R&D environments to very advanced and automated "lights out" manufacturing facilities. A majority of commercially available control solutions and most in house developed solutions lack important attributes of scalability, flexibility, and adaptability and hence require significant resources for integration, deployment, and maintenance. Many APC improvement efforts have been abandoned and delayed due to legacy systems and inadequate architectural design. Recent advancements (Service Oriented Architectures) in the software industry have delivered ideal technologies for delivering scalable, flexible, and reliable solutions that can seamlessly integrate into any fabs" existing system and business practices. In this publication we shall evaluate the various attributes of the architectures required by fabs and illustrate the benefits of a Service Oriented Architecture to satisfy these requirements. Blue

  13. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  14. Diffusion and formation of microtubule asters: physical processes versus biochemical regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Dogterom, M; Maggs, A C; Leibler, S

    1995-01-01

    Microtubule asters forming the mitotic spindle are assembled around two centrosomes through the process of dynamic instability in which microtubules alternate between growing and shrinking states. By modifying the dynamics of this assembly process, cell cycle enzymes, such as cdc2 cyclin kinases, regulate length distributions in the asters. It is believed that the same enzymes control the number of assembled microtubules by changing the "nucleating activity" of the centrosomes. Here we show that assembly of microtubule asters may be strongly altered by effects connected with diffusion of tubulin monomers. Theoretical analysis of a simple model describing assembly of microtubule asters clearly shows the existence of a region surrounding the centrosome depleted in GTP tubulin. The number of assembled microtubules may in some cases be limited by this depletion effect rather than by the number of available nucleation sites on the centrosome. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7624308

  15. BioNetSim: a Petri net-based modeling tool for simulations of biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junhui; Li, Li; Wu, Xiaolin; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2012-03-01

    BioNetSim, a Petri net-based software for modeling and simulating biochemistry processes, is developed, whose design and implement are presented in this paper, including logic construction, real-time access to KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), and BioModel database. Furthermore, glycolysis is simulated as an example of its application. BioNetSim is a helpful tool for researchers to download data, model biological network, and simulate complicated biochemistry processes. Gene regulatory networks, metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and kinetics of cell interaction are all available in BioNetSim, which makes modeling more efficient and effective. Similar to other Petri net-based softwares, BioNetSim does well in graphic application and mathematic construction. Moreover, it shows several powerful predominances. (1) It creates models in database. (2) It realizes the real-time access to KEGG and BioModel and transfers data to Petri net. (3) It provides qualitative analysis, such as computation of constants. (4) It generates graphs for tracing the concentration of every molecule during the simulation processes. PMID:22410784

  16. Integrated metrology: an enabler for advanced process control (APC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Claus; Pfitzner, Lothar; Ryssel, Heiner

    2001-04-01

    Advanced process control (APC) techniques become more and more important as short innovation cycles in microelectronics and a highly competitive market requires cost-effective solutions in semiconductor manufacturing. APC marks a paradigm shift from statistically based techniques (SPC) using monitor wafers for sampling measurement data towards product wafer control. The APC functionalities including run-to-run control, fault detection, and fault analysis allow to detect process drifts and excursions at an early stage and to minimize the number of misprocessed wafers. APC is being established as part of factory control systems through the definition of an APC framework. A precondition for APC is the availability of sensors and measurement methods providing the necessary wafer data. This paper discusses integrated metrology as an enabler for APC and demonstrates practical implementations in semiconductor manufacturing.

  17. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, T.E.; Cook, A.; Ferris, D.D.

    1995-11-01

    This research and development project is one of three seeking to develop advanced, cost-effective, coal cleaning processes to help industry comply with 1990 Clean Air Act Regulations. The specific goal for this project is to develop a cycloning technology that will beneficiate coal to a level approaching 85% pyritic sulfur rejection while retaining 85% of the parent coal`s heating value. A clean coal ash content of less than 6% and a moisture content, for both clean coal and reject, of less than 30% are targeted. The process under development is a physical, gravimetric-based cleaning system that removes ash bearing mineral matter and pyritic sulfur. Since a large portion of the Nation`s coal reserves contain significant amounts of pyrite, physical beneficiation is viewed as a potential near-term, cost effective means of producing an environmentally acceptable fuel.

  18. Integration of Advanced Simulation and Visualization for Manufacturing Process Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chenn; Wang, Jichao; Tang, Guangwu; Moreland, John; Fu, Dong; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The integration of simulation and visualization can provide a cost-effective tool for process optimization, design, scale-up and troubleshooting. The Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation (CIVS) at Purdue University Northwest has developed methodologies for such integration with applications in various manufacturing processes. The methodologies have proven to be useful for virtual design and virtual training to provide solutions addressing issues on energy, environment, productivity, safety, and quality in steel and other industries. In collaboration with its industrial partnerships, CIVS has provided solutions to companies, saving over US38 million. CIVS is currently working with the steel industry to establish an industry-led Steel Manufacturing Simulation and Visualization Consortium through the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology AMTech Planning Grant. The consortium focuses on supporting development and implementation of simulation and visualization technologies to advance steel manufacturing across the value chain.

  19. Advanced biological unit processes for domestic water recycling.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, B; Laine, A L; Stephenson, T; Judd, S J

    2001-01-01

    The potential of advanced biological unit operations for the recycling of grey and black waters has been evaluated. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) demonstrated the greatest efficacy towards water recycling in terms of all the quality determinants. Both the biologically aerated filter (BAF) and the MBR were able to effectively treat the organic and physical pollutants in all the types of wastewater tested. The main difference was observed in terms of the microbiological quality, measured as total coliforms. The open bed structure of the BAF enabled passage of coliforms whereas the complete barrier of the MBR produced a non detectable level in the effluent. The MBR process complied with commonly adopted water recycling quality standards for the all determinants during the grey water trials and failed only in terms of total coliform counts once black water had been introduced into the feed. The MBR was seen as a particularly suitable advanced biological process as it was very effective at stabilising out the considerable load variations encountered during the trial.

  20. Integration of advanced oxidation technologies and biological processes: recent developments, trends, and advances.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Gelareh Bankian; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2004-01-01

    The greatest challenge of today's wastewater treatment technology is to optimize the use of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The choice of the process and/or integration of the processes depend strongly on the wastewater characteristics, concentrations, and the desired efficiencies. It has been observed by many investigators that the coupling of a bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) could reduce the final concentrations of the effluent to the desired values. However, optimizing the total cost of the treatment is a challenge, as AOPs are much more expensive than biological processes alone. Therefore, an appropriate design should not only consider the ability of this coupling to reduce the concentration of organic pollutants, but also try to obtain the desired results in a cost effective process. To consider the total cost of the treatment, the residence time in biological and photochemical reactors, the kinetic rates, and the capital and operating costs of the reactors play significant roles. In this study, recent developments and trends (1996-2003) on the integration of photochemical and biological processes for the degradation of problematic pollutants in wastewater have been reviewed. The conditions to get the optimum results from this integration have also been considered. In most of the studies, it has been shown that the integrated processes were more efficient than individual processes. However, slight changes in the configuration of the reactors, temperature, pH, treatment time, concentration of the oxidants, and microorganism's colonies could lead to a great deviation in results. It has also been demonstrated that the treatment cost in both reactors is a function of time, which changes by the flow rate. The minimum cost in the coupling of the processes cannot be achieved unless considering the best treatment time in chemical and biological reactors individually.

  1. Application of advanced oxidation processes for TNT removal: A review.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Kaidar; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Cassir, Michel; Bermond, Alain

    2010-06-15

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring drastic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated waters to generate treated waters which could be easily reused or released into the environment without any harmful effects. TNT is among the most highly suspected explosive compounds that interfere with groundwater system due to its high toxicity and low biodegradability. The present work is an overview of the literature on TNT removal from polluted waters and soils and, more particularly, its treatability by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Among the remediation technologies, AOPs constitute a promising technology for the treatment of wastewaters containing non-easily biodegradable organic compounds. Data concerning the degradation of TNT reported during the period 1990-2009 are evaluated in this review. Among the AOPs, the following techniques are successively debated: processes based on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)+UV, Fenton, photo-Fenton and Fenton-like processes), photocatalysis, processes based on ozone (O(3), O(3)+UV) and electrochemical processes. Kinetic constants related to TNT degradation and the different mechanistic degradation pathways are discussed. Possible future treatment strategies, such as, coupling AOP with biological treatment is also considered as a mean to improve TNT remediation efficiency and kinetic.

  2. Nutritional, biochemical and cytogenotoxicity studies on wasted fat released from chicken during grilling process.

    PubMed

    Hassan, G M; Magda, R A; Awad, A A

    2010-10-01

    Some physico-chemical properties of fat released from chicken during grilling process were evaluated and the results showed that refractive index and saponification values were not affected by grilling process. However, serious increases in oxidative deterioration parameters and color were noticed. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of grilled fat on body weight, liver function, chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus formation in rats. Eight-week-old Swiss male albino rats, weighing approximately 90 g were used in this study. Rats were fed on a diet containing grilled fat for two months showed insignificant decrease in body weight compared to the control except, the eighth week (last weighing). The serum analysis should that aspartate transaminase (AST), cholesterol, creatinine and urea levels increased significantly whereas, alanine transaminase (ALT), and triglyceride levels were not affected. Also, cytogenetic analysis showed various types of chromosomal aberrations, i.e., chromatide breaks, ring chromosome, fragment chromosome, and end to end association chromosomes and insignificant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells.

  3. Biochemical and ultrastructural effects of monensin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) processing in human leukemic HL-60 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, D.T.; Kinkade J.M. Jr.; Parmley, R.T.

    1986-05-01

    Pulse-chase experiments using /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-PAGE fluorography were used to study the effects of monensin (1 ..mu..M) on the post-translational processing and packaging of MPO into azurophil granules (AG). After 20 hr, maturation of MPO was inhibited by 80% and a large intermediate accumulated. Electron microscopy of treated cells revealed striking changes in morphology (formation of large vacuoles with small electron dense cores in the Golgi region) and staining patterns for complex glycoconjugates (PA-TCH-SP) and sulfate (HID), indicating qualitative changes in granule and Golgi characteristics. The distribution of DAB-reactive peroxidase was relatively unchanged. Subcellular fractionation using Percoll density gradient centrifugation showed labeled MPO remained in a lower density region and did not chase into higher density AG as seen with untreated cells. These data indicate that monensin inhibits both the maturation of MPO and the AG. Further studies are required to determine how closely these two processes are related.

  4. Nutritional, biochemical and cytogenotoxicity studies on wasted fat released from chicken during grilling process.

    PubMed

    Hassan, G M; Magda, R A; Awad, A A

    2010-10-01

    Some physico-chemical properties of fat released from chicken during grilling process were evaluated and the results showed that refractive index and saponification values were not affected by grilling process. However, serious increases in oxidative deterioration parameters and color were noticed. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effect of grilled fat on body weight, liver function, chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus formation in rats. Eight-week-old Swiss male albino rats, weighing approximately 90 g were used in this study. Rats were fed on a diet containing grilled fat for two months showed insignificant decrease in body weight compared to the control except, the eighth week (last weighing). The serum analysis should that aspartate transaminase (AST), cholesterol, creatinine and urea levels increased significantly whereas, alanine transaminase (ALT), and triglyceride levels were not affected. Also, cytogenetic analysis showed various types of chromosomal aberrations, i.e., chromatide breaks, ring chromosome, fragment chromosome, and end to end association chromosomes and insignificant increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells. PMID:20600526

  5. γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. Cellular Localization, Processing, and Biochemical Properties1

    PubMed Central

    Storozhenko, Sergei; Belles-Boix, Enric; Babiychuk, Elena; Hérouart, Didier; Davey, Mark W.; Slooten, Luit; Van Montagu, Marc; Inzé, Dirk; Kushnir, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutathione (GSH) degradation in the γ-glutamyl cycle in mammals. A cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis homolog for γ-GT was overexpressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. A high level of the membrane-bound γ-GT activity was localized outside the cell in transgenic plants. The overproduced enzyme was characterized by a high affinity to GSH and was cleaved post-translationally in two unequal subunits. Thus, Arabidopsis γ-GT is similar to the mammalian enzymes in enzymatic properties, post-translational processing, and cellular localization, suggesting analogous biological functions as a key enzyme in the catabolism of GSH. PMID:11891265

  6. Effects of processing on biochemical and rheological properties of wheat gluten proteins.

    PubMed

    Hayta, M; Alpaslan, M

    2001-10-01

    Protein solubility increases during mixing at water absorption suitable for bread doughs. The changes that result from heat treatment may be much greater than the differences normally found among wheat varieties. Sheeting brings about a reduction in the gluten content and increase in gel protein content of doughs. This may be due to increase in temperature during sheeting as a result of work input to the dough resulting in protein denaturation. Drying at higher temperatures causes denaturation of pasta dough protein. In addition, it has been shown that high temperatures contribute to the formation of the protein network. During extrusion processing proteins are denatured and chemical bonds are weakened as result of heat and shear through the extruder. PMID:11715340

  7. [Initiation and inhibition of free-radical processes in biochemical peroxidase systems: a review].

    PubMed

    Metelitsa, D I; Karaseva, E I

    2007-01-01

    The role of complexes containing oxygen or peroxide in monooxygenase systems and models thereof, as well as in peroxidase- and quasi-peroxidase-catalyzed processes, has been reviewed. Pathways of conversion of these intermediate complexes involving single-electron (radical) and two-electron (heterolytic) mechanisms are dealt with. Coupled peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of aromatic amines and phenols is analyzed; inhibition and activation of peroxidase-catalyzed reactions are characterized quantitatively. Oxidation of chromogenic substrates (ABTS, OPD, and TMB) in the presence of phenolic inhibitors or polydisulfides of substituted phenols is characterized by inhibition constants (Ki, micromol). Activation of peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of the same substrates is characterized by the degree (coefficient) of activation (alpha, M(-1)), which was determined for 2-aminothiazole, melamine, tetrazole, and its 5-substituted derivatives. Examples of applied use of peroxidase-catalyzed enzyme and model systems are given (oxidation of organic compounds, chemical analysis, enzyme immunoassay, tests for antioxidant activity of biological fluids).

  8. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt; Groten, Will; Judzis, Arvids; Foley, Richard; Smith, Larry; Cross, Will; Vogt, T.

    2011-06-27

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  9. Advances in Process Intensification through Multifunctional Reactor Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy; Evans, Lindsay; Miller, Jim; Cooper, Marcia; Torczynski, John; Pena, Donovan; Gill, Walt

    2011-02-01

    This project was designed to advance the art of process intensification leading to a new generation of multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow. Experimental testing was performed in order to fully characterize the hydrodynamic operating regimes associated with pulse flow for implementation in commercial applications. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operated a pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiment for operation with and investigation of pulse flow operation. Validation-quality data sets of the fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, and chemical kinetics were acquired and shared with Chemical Research and Licensing (CR&L). Experiments in a two-phase air-water system examined the effects of bead diameter in the packing, and viscosity. Pressure signals were used to detect pulsing. Three-phase experiments used immiscible organic and aqueous liquids, and air or nitrogen as the gas phase. Hydrodynamic studies of flow regimes and holdup were performed for different types of packing, and mass transfer measurements were performed for a woven packing. These studies substantiated the improvements in mass transfer anticipated for pulse flow in multifunctional reactors for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process. CR&L developed packings for this alkylation process, utilizing their alkylation process pilot facilities in Pasadena, TX. These packings were evaluated in the pilot-scale multifunctional reactor experiments established by Sandia to develop a more fundamental understanding of their role in process intensification. Lummus utilized the alkylation technology developed by CR&L to design and optimize the full commercial process utilizing multifunctional reactors containing the packings developed by CR&L and evaluated by Sandia. This hydrodynamic information has been developed for multifunctional chemical reactors utilizing pulse flow, for the acid-catalyzed C4 paraffin/olefin alkylation process, and is now accessible for use in

  10. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  11. Recent Advances in Marine Enzymes for Biotechnological Processes.

    PubMed

    Lima, R N; Porto, A L M

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, new trends in the food and pharmaceutical industries have increased concern for the quality and safety of products. The use of biocatalytic processes using marine enzymes has become an important and useful natural product for biotechnological applications. Bioprocesses using biocatalysts like marine enzymes (fungi, bacteria, plants, animals, algae, etc.) offer hyperthermostability, salt tolerance, barophilicity, cold adaptability, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, and stereoselectivity. Currently, enzymatic methods are used to produce a large variety of products that humans consume, and the specific nature of the enzymes including processing under mild pH and temperature conditions result in fewer unwanted side-effects and by-products. This offers high selectivity in industrial processes. The marine habitat has been become increasingly studied because it represents a huge source potential biocatalysts. Enzymes include oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases that can be used in food and pharmaceutical applications. Finally, recent advances in biotechnological processes using enzymes of marine organisms (bacterial, fungi, algal, and sponges) are described and also our work on marine organisms from South America, especially marine-derived fungi and bacteria involved in biotransformations and biodegradation of organic compounds. PMID:27452170

  12. An In Vitro Evaluation of Biochemical Processes Involved in Lead-Induced Changes on Ram Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, P; Maroto-Morales, A; García-Álvarez, O; Garde, J J; Mateo, R

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb(2+) ) is a toxic heavy metal which interferes with several physiological processes regulated by Ca(2+) , including those characterized by changes of the membrane stability and the motility of spermatozoa necessary for the fertilization of the oocyte. In this study, ejaculated sperm from six rams (Ovis aries) have been incubated in vitro with or without 50 ng Pb(2+) /ml during 30 min and in the presence or absence of three different potential modulators of the effects of Pb(2+) on changes in the sperm membrane before fertilization: charybdotoxin, quinacrine and staurosporine. Sperm samples incubated with Pb(2+) have shown significant reductions in acrosome integrity and sperm viability and an increase in progressive movement. None of the studied potential modulators had a protective effect against Pb(2+) action. On the contrary, Pb(2+) -incubated sperm in the presence of staurosporine had lower acrosome integrity, and lower sperm viability was observed when spermatozoa were incubated with Pb(2+) + charybdotoxin. Quinacrine was the only tested substance capable of increasing the concentration of Pb(2+) in spermatozoa; thus, the enhancement of Pb(2+) effects produced by staurosporine and charybdotoxin was not produced by an increased uptake of Pb(2+) by spermatozoa. However, the increase of intracellular Pb(2+) in those spermatozoa incubated with quinacrine did not result in an adverse effect on sperm motility or viability although the acrosome integrity was negatively affected. PMID:27095430

  13. [Application of BAF-BAC process in advanced treatment of secondary effluent of refinery processing factory].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangjin; Sun, Changhong; Ma, Jianju; Qin, Yongsheng

    2003-11-01

    To find a new advanced technology for wastewater reuse in refinery processing factory, a pilot test using BAF-BAC process was carried out. The results revealed that when the COD concentration of the influent was less than 130 mg/L and BAF filtration rate was lower than 4.24 m/h, the average effluent COD concentration of BAF-BAC process was less than 50 mg/L, average turbidity was 4.46 NTU. At the same time this process has some effective removal rate on ammonia-nitrogen.

  14. Combining Advanced Oxidation Processes: Assessment Of Process Additivity, Synergism, And Antagonism

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Robert W.; Sharma, M.P.; Gbadebo Adewuyi, Yusuf

    2007-07-01

    This paper addresses the process interactions from combining integrated processes (such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), biological operations, air stripping, etc.). AOPs considered include: Fenton's reagent, ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide, ozone (O{sub 3}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), sonication/acoustic cavitation, among others. A critical review of the technical literature has been performed, and the data has been analyzed in terms of the processes being additive, synergistic, or antagonistic. Predictions based on the individual unit operations are made and compared against the behavior of the combined unit operations. The data reported in this paper focus primarily on treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. (authors)

  15. Can arsenates replace phosphates in natural biochemical processes? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Jissy, A K; Datta, Ayan

    2013-07-18

    A bacterial strain, GFAJ-1 was recently proposed to be substituting arsenic for phosphorus to sustain its growth. We have performed theoretical calculations for analyzing this controversial hypothesis by examining the addition of phosphate to ribose and glucose. Dispersion corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in small molecules and QM/MM calculations on clusters derived from crystal structure are performed on structures involved in phosphorylation, considering both phosphates and arsenates. The exothermicity as well as the activation barriers for phosphate and arsenate transfer were examined. Quantum mechanical studies reveal that the relative stability of the products decrease marginally with successive substitution of P with As. However, simultaneously, the transition state barriers decrease with P replacement. This indicates that, kinetically, addition of As is more facile. Pseudorotation barriers for the pentavalent intermediates formed during the nucleophilic attack are also analyzed. A monotonic increase in barriers is observed for pseudorotation with the successive replacement of phosphorus with arsenic in methyl-DHP. A glucokinase crystal structure was chosen to construct a model system for QM/MM calculations. Free energy of the reaction (ΔG) reduces by less than 2.0 kcal/mol and the activation barrier (ΔG(‡)) decreases by ∼1 kcal/mol on arsenic incorporation. Thus, both DFT and QM/MM calculations show that arsenic can readily substitute phosphorus in key biomolecules. Secondary kinetic isotope effects for phosphorylation mechanism obtained by QM/MM calculations are also reported. The solvent kinetic isotopic effects (SKIE) for ATP and ATP (As) are calculated to be 5.81 and 4.73, respectively. A difference of ∼1.0 in SKIE suggests that it should be possible to experimentally determine the As-phosphorylation process.

  16. Processing and Preparation of Advanced Stirling Convertors for Extended Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Cornell, Paggy A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Company (LMSC), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. NASA GRC is supporting the development of the ASRG by providing extended operation of several Sunpower Inc. Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs). In the past year and a half, eight ASCs have operated in continuous, unattended mode in both air and thermal vacuum environments. Hardware, software, and procedures were developed to prepare each convertor for extended operation with intended durations on the order of tens of thousands of hours. Steps taken to prepare a convertor for long-term operation included geometry measurements, thermocouple instrumentation, evaluation of working fluid purity, evacuation with bakeout, and high purity charge. Actions were also taken to ensure the reliability of support systems, such as data acquisition and automated shutdown checkouts. Once a convertor completed these steps, it underwent short-term testing to gather baseline performance data before initiating extended operation. These tests included insulation thermal loss characterization, low-temperature checkout, and full-temperature and power demonstration. This paper discusses the facilities developed to support continuous, unattended operation, and the processing results of the eight ASCs currently on test.

  17. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Arzner, K.; Benz, A. O.; Browning, P.; Dauphin, C.; Emslie, A. G.; Fletcher, L.; Kontar, E. P.; Mann, G.; Onofri, M.; Petrosian, V.; Turkmani, R.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2011-09-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  18. Secondary hospital wastewater detoxification and disinfection by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Machado, E L; Kist, L T; Schmidt, R; Hoeltz, J M; Dalberto, D; Alcayaga, E L A

    2007-10-01

    Secondary hospital wastewater treatment was investigated as an alternative to detoxification and disinfection after anaerobic digestion in a hospital located in southern Brazil. Tertiary and secondary effluents were assessed by general parameters. The use of advanced oxidation processes (UV/O3 and UV/TiO2/O3) showed potential capacity for disinfection and detoxification of wastewater effluents. The UV/TiO2/O3 method yielded the best results, decreasing toxicity of EC50 = 65 to nontoxic levels, also reducing MPN/100ml of 1.1 x 10(6) to values less than 2 and increasing wastewater biodegradability. The low energetic consumption of the proposed UV/TiO2/O3 method can be considered operationally advantageous.

  19. Advanced information processing system: Inter-computer communication services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Masotto, Tom; Sims, J. Terry; Whittredge, Roy; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to document the functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Inter-Computer Communications Services (ICCS) of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS). An introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS and to present an overview of the ICCS. An overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a brief description of the AIPS software is given. The guarantees of the ICCS are provided, and the ICCS is described as a seven-layered International Standards Organization (ISO) Model. The ICCS functional requirements, functional design, and detailed specifications as well as each layer of the ICCS are also described. A summary of results and suggestions for future work are presented.

  20. Evaluation methodologies for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schabowsky, R. S., Jr.; Gai, E.; Walker, B. K.; Lala, J. H.; Motyka, P.

    1984-01-01

    The system concept and requirements for an Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are briefly described, but the emphasis of this paper is on the evaluation methodologies being developed and utilized in the AIPS program. The evaluation tasks include hardware reliability, maintainability and availability, software reliability, performance, and performability. Hardware RMA and software reliability are addressed with Markov modeling techniques. The performance analysis for AIPS is based on queueing theory. Performability is a measure of merit which combines system reliability and performance measures. The probability laws of the performance measures are obtained from the Markov reliability models. Scalar functions of this law such as the mean and variance provide measures of merit in the AIPS performability evaluations.

  1. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  2. Role of pyro-chemical processes in advanced fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawada, Hosadu Parameswara; Fukuda, Kosaku

    2005-02-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) of Minor Actinides (MAs) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) arising out of the back-end of the fuel cycle would be one of the key-steps in any future sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. Pyro-chemical separation methods would form a critical stage of P&T by recovering long-lived elements and thus reducing the environmental impact by the back-end of the fuel-cycle. This paper attempts to overview global developments of pyro-chemical process that are envisaged in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Research and development needs for molten-salt electro-refining as well as molten salt extraction process that are foreseen as partitioning methods for spent nuclear fuels such as oxide, metal and nitride fuels from thermal or fast reactors; high level liquid waste from back-end fuel cycle as well as targets from sub-critical Accelerator Driven Sub-critical reactors would be addressed. The role of high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides in defining efficiency of recovery or separation of minor actinides from other fission products such as lanthanides will also be illustrated. In addition, the necessity for determination of accurate high temperature thermodynamic data of minor actinides would be discussed.

  3. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; Marconcini, Mattia; Tilton, James C.; Trianni, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  4. The influence of advanced processing on PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.; Schnittgrund, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    High thermal gradient casting of PWA 1480 was evaluated as an avenue for reducing the size of casting porosity. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was also employed for the elimination of casting pores. An alternate to the standard PWA 1480 coating plus diffusion bonding aging heat treatment cycle was also evaluated for potential improvements in the properties of interest to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) application. Microstructural changes associated with the high thermal gradient casting process were quantified by measurement of the size and density of the casting porosity, the amount of retained casting eutectic, and dendrite arm spacings. The results of the advanced processing have shown an improvement in material microstructure due to high thermal gradient casting. Improved homogeneity of PWA 1480 is advantageous in providing an improved solution heat treatment window and, potentially, easier HIP. High thermal gradient casting improves fatigue life by reducing casting pore size. The alternate heat treatment improves the balance of strength and ductility which appears to improve low cycle fatigue life, but with a reduction in short time stress rupture life. Based upon these tests, hot isostatic pressing appears to afford further improvements in cyclic life, though additional evaluation is suggested. Development of the alternate heat treatment is not recommended due to the reduced stress rupture capability and the need to develop a new properties data base. High thermal gradient casting and HIP are recommended for application to single crystal castings.

  5. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  6. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  7. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE OF ADVANCED SPENT FUEL CONDITIONING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    MARLOW, JOHNNA B.; LEE, SANG Y.; THOMAS, KENNETH E.; MILLER, MICHAEL C.; KIM, H.D.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is a pyro-metallurgical spent fuel conditioning technology that is under development by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KAERl has been developing this technology to resolve the high-level waste (HLW) disposition problem since 1997 and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2008. The proposed concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique that converts spent nuclear fuels into a single set of disposal metal forms to reduce the volume and simplify the qualification process. The goal of the project is to recover more than 99% of the actinides in metallic form from oxide spent fuel in a proliferation-resistant manner. With this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, decreasing the burden of the final disposal in terms of size, safety, and cost. The success of the ACP will depend on a number of factors. One key factor is 'proliferation resistance,' and it should be judged by the manner in which it addresses issues of proliferation concern. In this paper, the proliferation resistance of the ACP technology has been analyzed. The intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation resistance features of the ACP technology were examined for the pilot-scale ACP facility based on the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee's TOPS (Task Force on Technology Opportunities for Increasing the Proliferation Resistance of Global Civilian Nuclear Power System) metrics. It was found that the ACP system was more proliferation-resistant than aqueous technologies. The ACP as envisioned in current process flow is not capable of separating plutonium, and significant additional steps would be required to create a pathway to produce plutonium. However, like other processes, it could be modified to directly obtain weapon-usable materials. In this paper, several options are suggested for modification of the process or facility design in order to reduce the

  8. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  9. Advanced landfill leachate treatment using iron-carbon microelectrolysis- Fenton process: Process optimization and column experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhijun; Deng, Yongchao; Liu, Jun; Yi, Kaixin

    2016-11-15

    A novel hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor was proposed for the pretreatment of mature landfill leachate. This reactor, combining microelectrolysis with Fenton process, revealed high treatment efficiency. The operating variables, including Fe-C dosage, H2O2 concentration and initial pH, were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM), regarding the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and biochemical oxygen demand: chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) as the responses. The highest COD removal (74.59%) and BOD5/COD (0.50) was obtained at optimal conditions of Fe-C dosage 55.72g/L, H2O2 concentration 12.32mL/L and initial pH 3.12. Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight (MW) distribution demonstrated that high molecular weight fractions such as refractory fulvic-like substances in leachate were effectively destroyed during the combined processes, which should be attributed to the combination oxidative effect of microelectrolysis and Fenton. The fixed-bed column experiments were performed and the breakthrough curves at different flow rates were evaluated to determine the practical applicability of the combined process. All these results show that the hydrogen peroxide-enhanced iron-carbon (Fe-C) microelectrolysis reactor is a promising and efficient technology for the treatment of mature landfill leachate. PMID:27450338

  10. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  11. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  12. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  13. Anvil Forecast Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Hood, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to create a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) that indicates the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. The tool creates a graphic depicting the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on the average of the upper level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 n mi standoff circles centered at the location of interest, as well as one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 sector width based on a previous AMU study that determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 of the upper-level wind direction. The AMU was then tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SMG later requested the tool be updated to provide more flexibility and quicker access to model data. This presentation describes the work performed by the AMU to transition the tool into AWIPS, as well as the subsequent improvements made to the tool.

  14. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented. PMID:23624242

  15. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  16. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  17. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  18. Simultaneous assessment of prohormone transport and processing in four separate islet cell types: a combined autoradiographic and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Noe, B D; Amherdt, M; Perrelet, A; Orci, L

    1988-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationships between prohormone transport and processing in separate cell types in pancreatic islet tissue. Anglerfish islets were subjected to pulse-chase incubation with [3H]tryptophan and/or [35S]cysteine. Tissue and media were removed at specific time points during the incubation and prepared for electron microscopic examination or biochemical analysis. Specific islet cell types were identified ultrastructurally using protein A gold immunocytochemistry. Transport of newly synthesized peptides through specific subcellular compartments was monitored using electron microscopic autoradiography. Prohormone-product ratios were established by gel filtration and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses of tissue extracts. Complete analyses were performed on A-cells (source of proglucagon-II, glucagon-II, and glucagon-like peptide-II), B-cells (proinsulin and insulin), D-cells (prosomatostatin-II and somatostatin-28), and S-cells (prosomatostatin-I and somatostatin-14). Transport of newly synthesized peptides proceeded from rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to Golgi complex and then to mature secretory granules in all cell types. The transport rate was most rapid in A- and B-cells, slower in S-cells, and slowest in D-cells. The T1/2 for conversion of prohormone to product(s) was shortest in S-cells (150 min), slightly longer in B-cells (155 min), much longer in D-cells (259 min), and greater than 300 min in A-cells. These results demonstrate that the transport/prohormone conversion relationships are unique in each of the islet cell types monitored. PMID:2906125

  19. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Woods, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Two multicell, liquid-cooled, advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator modules were fabricated. The cells utilized advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collectors, internal liquid cooling and lightweight cell frames. Both were designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one-person, i.e., 1.0 kg/d (2.2 lb/d).

  20. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goland, A.N.

    1990-10-01

    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  1. Modular Advanced Oxidation Process Enabled by Cathodic Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO•) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d–1. The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO• scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m–3, with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  2. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices.

  3. Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Barazesh, James M; Hennebel, Tom; Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2015-06-16

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is frequently used in combination with ultraviolet (UV) light to treat trace organic contaminants in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). In small-scale applications, such as wellhead and point-of-entry water treatment systems, the need to maintain a stock solution of concentrated H2O2 increases the operational cost and complicates the operation of AOPs. To avoid the need for replenishing a stock solution of H2O2, a gas diffusion electrode was used to generate low concentrations of H2O2 directly in the water prior to its exposure to UV light. Following the AOP, the solution was passed through an anodic chamber to lower the solution pH and remove the residual H2O2. The effectiveness of the technology was evaluated using a suite of trace contaminants that spanned a range of reactivity with UV light and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) in three different types of source waters (i.e., simulated groundwater, simulated surface water, and municipal wastewater effluent) as well as a sodium chloride solution. Irrespective of the source water, the system produced enough H2O2 to treat up to 120 L water d(-1). The extent of transformation of trace organic contaminants was affected by the current density and the concentrations of HO(•) scavengers in the source water. The electrical energy per order (EEO) ranged from 1 to 3 kWh m(-3), with the UV lamp accounting for most of the energy consumption. The gas diffusion electrode exhibited high efficiency for H2O2 production over extended periods and did not show a diminution in performance in any of the matrices. PMID:26039560

  4. Numerical approach for the voloxidation process of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byung Heung; Jeong, Sang Mun; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2007-07-01

    A voloxidation process is adopted as the first step of an advanced spent fuel conditioning process in order to prepare the SF oxide to be reduced in the following electrolytic reduction process. A semi-batch type voloxidizer was devised to transform a SF pellet into powder. In this work, a simple reactor model was developed for the purpose of correlating a gas phase flow rate with an operation time as a numerical approach. With an assumption that a solid phase and a gas phase are homogeneous in a reactor, a reaction rate for an oxidation was introduced into a mass balance equation. The developed equation can describe a change of an outlet's oxygen concentration including such a case that a gas flow is not sufficient enough to continue a reaction at its maximum reaction rate. (authors)

  5. The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a previous meta-analysis reported no association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate cancer risk, a number of studies suggest that MetS may be associated with the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancer. However, these results have been inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the nature of this association. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and bibliographies of retrieved studies up to January 2013 using the keywords “metabolic syndrome” and “prostate cancer”. We assessed relative risks (RRs) of the prostate cancer, several parameters of prostate cancer aggressiveness and progression associated with MetS using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results The literature search produced 547 hits from which 19 papers were extracted for the meta-analysis. In cancer-free population with and without MetS, the combined adjusted RR (95% CI) of prostate cancer risk and prostate cancer-specific mortality in longitudinal cohort studies is 0.96 (0.85 ~ 1.09) and 1.12 (1.02 ~ 1.23) respectively. In the prostate cancer patients with and without MetS, the combined unadjusted OR (95% CI) of high grade Gleason prostate cancer is 1.44 (1.20 ~ 1.72), the OR of advanced prostate cancer is 1.37 (1.12 ~ 1.68) and the OR of biochemical recurrence is 2.06 (1.43 ~ 2.96). Conclusions The overall analyses revealed no association between MetS and prostate cancer risk, although men with MetS appear more likely to have high-grade prostate cancer and more advanced disease, were at greater risk of progression after radical prostatectomy and were more likely to suffer prostate cancer-specific death. Further primary studies with adjustment for appropriate confounders and larger, prospective, multicenter investigations are required. PMID:23406686

  6. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES- ACS MEETING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies for the destruction of environmentally toxic chemicals in wastewater, industrial water, groundwater and sources of water supply. The paper will include fundamental aspects of the generati...

  7. Biochemical and physiological processes associated with the differential ozone response in ozone-tolerant and sensitive soybean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical and physiological traits of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes that differ in sensitivity to ozone (O3) were investigated to determine the possible basis for the differential response. Fiskeby III (O3-tolerant) and Mandarin (Ottawa) (O3-sensitive) were grown in a greenhouse ...

  8. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    SciTech Connect

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio; Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation

  9. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT )

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  10. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    A five-cell, liquid-cooled advanced electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator module was fabricated. The cells utilized the advanced, lightweight, plated anode current collector concept and internal liquid-cooling. The five cell module was designed to meet the carbon dioxide removal requirements of one man and was assembled using plexiglass endplates. This one-man module was tested as part of an integrated oxygen generation and recovery subsystem.

  11. Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) Data Processing Manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Brock, John C.; Nagle, David

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) is an example of a Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) system that utilizes a blue-green wavelength (532 nanometers) to determine the distance to an object. The distance is determined by recording the travel time of a transmitted pulse at the speed of light (fig. 1). This system uses raster laser scanning with full-waveform (multi-peak) resolving capabilities to measure submerged topography and adjacent coastal land elevations simultaneously (Nayegandhi and others, 2009). This document reviews procedures for the post-processing of EAARL data using the custom-built Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS). ALPS software was developed in an open-source programming environment operated on a Linux platform. It has the ability to combine the laser return backscatter digitized at 1-nanosecond intervals with aircraft positioning information. This solution enables the exploration and processing of the EAARL data in an interactive or batch mode. ALPS also includes modules for the creation of bare earth, canopy-top, and submerged topography Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). The EAARL system uses an Earth-centered coordinate and reference system that removes the necessity to reference submerged topography data relative to water level or tide gages (Nayegandhi and others, 2006). The EAARL system can be mounted in an array of small twin-engine aircraft that operate at 300 meters above ground level (AGL) at a speed of 60 meters per second (117 knots). While other systems strive to maximize operational depth limits, EAARL has a narrow transmit beam and receiver field of view (1.5 to 2 milliradians), which improves the depth-measurement accuracy in shallow, clear water but limits the maximum depth to about 1.5 Secchi disk depth (~20 meters) in clear water. The laser transmitter [Continuum EPO-5000 yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] produces up to 5,000 short-duration (1.2 nanosecond), low-power (70 microjoules) pulses each second

  12. Anvil Tool in the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Bauman, William, III; Keen, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Meteorologists from the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have identified anvil forecasting as one of their most challenging tasks when predicting the probability of violations of the lightning Launch Commit Criteria and Space Shuttle Flight Rules. As a result, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) created a graphical overlay tool for the Meteorological Interactive Data Display Systems (MIDDS) to indicate the threat of thunderstorm anvil clouds, using either observed or model forecast winds as input. In order for the Anvil Tool to remain available to the meteorologists, the AMU was tasked to transition the tool to the Advanced Weather interactive Processing System (AWIPS). This report describes the work done by the AMU to develop the Anvil Tool for AWIPS to create a graphical overlay depicting the threat from thunderstorm anvil clouds. The AWIPS Anvil Tool is based on the previously deployed AMU MIDDS Anvil Tool. SMG and 45 WS forecasters have used the MIDDS Anvil Tool during launch and landing operations. SMG's primary weather analysis and display system is now AWIPS and the 45 WS has plans to replace MIDDS with AWIPS. The Anvil Tool creates a graphic that users can overlay on satellite or radar imagery to depict the potential location of thunderstorm anvils one, two, and three hours into the future. The locations are based on an average of the upper-level observed or forecasted winds. The graphic includes 10 and 20 nm standoff circles centered at the location of interest, in addition to one-, two-, and three-hour arcs in the upwind direction. The arcs extend outward across a 30 degree sector width based on a previous AMU study which determined thunderstorm anvils move in a direction plus or minus 15 degrees of the upper-level (300- to 150-mb) wind direction. This report briefly describes the history of the MIDDS Anvil Tool and then explains how the initial development of the AWIPS Anvil Tool was carried out. After testing was

  13. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  14. Modeling and Advanced Control for Sustainable Process Systems (chapter 5)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter introduces a novel process systems engineering framework that integrates process control with sustainability assessment tools for the simultaneous evaluation and optimization of process operations. The implemented control strategy consists of a biologically-insp...

  15. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  16. Radiation processing of carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajit

    2001-12-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced advanced composites are being used for a variety of structural applications, because of their useful mechanical properties, including high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Thermal curing of composite products results in internal stresses, due to the mismatch of the coefficients of expansion of the tools and the composite products. Because radiation curing can be done at ambient temperatures, the possibility that the residual stresses might be absent, or much lower in the radiation-cured products, originally led to the start of work on radiation curing of advanced composites at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories in Pinawa, Canada, in 1985. Research work during the last two decades has shown that advanced composites can be radiation-cured with electron beams or γ radiation. Many of the advantages of radiation curing, as compared to thermal curing, which include curing at ambient temperature, reduced curing time, improved resin stability and reduced volatile emissions, have now been demonstrated. The initial work focussed on electron curing of acrylated epoxy matrices. Since then, procedures have been developed to radiation cure conventional aerospace epoxies, as well. Electron beam cured advanced composites are now being developed for use in the aircraft and aerospace industry. Repair of advanced composite structures is also possible using radiation curing technology. Radiation curing work is continuing at Pinawa and has also been done by Aerospatiale, who have facilities for electron curing composite rocket motor casings and by Chappas and co-workers who have electron cured part of a boat hull. In this paper, the work done on this emerging new technology by the various groups is briefly reviewed.

  17. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  18. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  19. Contexts of Reading. Advances in Discourse Processes Series. Volume XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Carolyn N., Ed.; Baratta, Anthony N., Ed.

    Focusing on the reading-thinking-learning process, the classrooms in which such processes occur, and the means for studying these processes, this book presents essays on teaching, learning, and assessing the reading process. The first section contains essays on learning contexts that are interactive and participatory, while essays in the second…

  20. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  1. Nuclear Protein-Only Ribonuclease P2 Structure and Biochemical Characterization Provide Insight into the Conserved Properties of tRNA 5' End Processing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Agnes; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Howard, Michael J; Fierke, Carol A; Koutmos, Markos

    2016-01-16

    Protein-only RNase Ps (PRORPs) are a recently discovered class of RNA processing enzymes that catalyze maturation of the 5' end of precursor tRNAs in Eukaryotes. PRORPs are found in the nucleus and/or organelles of most eukaryotic organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana is a representative organism that contains PRORP enzymes (PRORP1, PRORP2 and PRORP3) in both its nucleus and its organelles; PRORP2 and PRORP3 localize to the nucleus and PRORP1 localizes to the chloroplast and the mitochondria. Apart from their identification, almost nothing is known about the structure and function of PRORPs that act in the nucleus. Here, we use a combination of biochemical assays and X-ray crystallography to characterize A. thaliana PRORP2. We solved the crystal structure of PRORP2 (3.2Å) revealing an overall V-shaped protein and conserved metallonuclease active-site structure. Our biochemical studies indicate that PRORP2 requires Mg(2+) for catalysis and catalyzes the maturation of nuclear encoded substrates up to 10-fold faster than mitochondrial encoded precursor nad6 t-element under single-turnover conditions. We also demonstrate that PRORP2 preferentially binds precursor tRNAs containing short 5' leaders and 3' trailers; however, leader and trailer lengths do not significantly alter the observed rate constants of PRORP2 in single-turnover cleavage assays. Our data provide a biochemical and structural framework to begin understanding how nuclear localized PRORPs recognize and cleave their substrates.

  2. Nuclear Protein-Only Ribonuclease P2 Structure and Biochemical Characterization Provide Insight into the Conserved Properties of tRNA 5' End Processing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Karasik, Agnes; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Howard, Michael J; Fierke, Carol A; Koutmos, Markos

    2016-01-16

    Protein-only RNase Ps (PRORPs) are a recently discovered class of RNA processing enzymes that catalyze maturation of the 5' end of precursor tRNAs in Eukaryotes. PRORPs are found in the nucleus and/or organelles of most eukaryotic organisms. Arabidopsis thaliana is a representative organism that contains PRORP enzymes (PRORP1, PRORP2 and PRORP3) in both its nucleus and its organelles; PRORP2 and PRORP3 localize to the nucleus and PRORP1 localizes to the chloroplast and the mitochondria. Apart from their identification, almost nothing is known about the structure and function of PRORPs that act in the nucleus. Here, we use a combination of biochemical assays and X-ray crystallography to characterize A. thaliana PRORP2. We solved the crystal structure of PRORP2 (3.2Å) revealing an overall V-shaped protein and conserved metallonuclease active-site structure. Our biochemical studies indicate that PRORP2 requires Mg(2+) for catalysis and catalyzes the maturation of nuclear encoded substrates up to 10-fold faster than mitochondrial encoded precursor nad6 t-element under single-turnover conditions. We also demonstrate that PRORP2 preferentially binds precursor tRNAs containing short 5' leaders and 3' trailers; however, leader and trailer lengths do not significantly alter the observed rate constants of PRORP2 in single-turnover cleavage assays. Our data provide a biochemical and structural framework to begin understanding how nuclear localized PRORPs recognize and cleave their substrates. PMID:26655022

  3. Activation of the biochemical processes in an oil-contaminated soil using a light-correcting film and humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, D. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Yudina, N. V.

    2011-02-01

    It was shown that the use of a light-correcting film as a covering material for an oil-contaminated soil in combination with humic acids increased the number of the main physiological groups of the soil microorganisms responsible for the development of the soil's fertility (heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes, and micromycetes) by 60-100 times. The activity of the soil enzymes (catalase, dehydrogenase, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, and urease) increased by 3-6 times. The biochemical oxidation of oil hydrocarbons in the soil became significantly more intense.

  4. [Influence of the characteristics of lipids on the regulation of biochemical processes in animal liver and blood].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, M V; Kushnireva, E V; Urnysheva, V V; Taran, Iu P; Shishkina, L N

    2007-01-01

    It has been established experimentally that the character and the scale of interrelations between various parameters of the phospholipid composition and their group-average values depend significantly on the characteristics of lipids (the antioxidative activity, quantity of peroxides, and antiperoxide activity) of animal liver and blood erythrocytes. It was shown that a single injection of low-toxicity Tween 80 and acetone at low doses modifies the intensity of lipid peroxidation in the liver and changes the physicochemical properties of lipids, and the interrelations between the parameters that are coordinated in norm, thereby causing the disturbance of biochemical functions of the liver.

  5. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  6. Research on chemical vapor deposition processes for advanced ceramic coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.

    1993-01-01

    Our interdisciplinary background and fundamentally-oriented studies of the laws governing multi-component chemical vapor deposition (VD), particle deposition (PD), and their interactions, put the Yale University HTCRE Laboratory in a unique position to significantly advance the 'state-of-the-art' of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) R&D. With NASA-Lewis RC financial support, we initiated a program in March of 1988 that has led to the advances described in this report (Section 2) in predicting chemical vapor transport in high temperature systems relevant to the fabrication of refractory ceramic coatings for turbine engine components. This Final Report covers our principal results and activities for the total NASA grant of $190,000. over the 4.67 year period: 1 March 1988-1 November 1992. Since our methods and the technical details are contained in the publications listed (9 Abstracts are given as Appendices) our emphasis here is on broad conclusions/implications and administrative data, including personnel, talks, interactions with industry, and some known applications of our work.

  7. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  8. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  9. Advances in soil erosion research: processes, measurement, and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by the environmental agents of water and wind is a continuing global menace that threatens the agricultural base that sustains our civilization. Members of ASABE have been at the forefront of research to understand erosion processes, measure erosion and related processes, and model very...

  10. Dual-Process Theories and Cognitive Development: Advances and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process theories have gained increasing importance in psychology. The contrast that they describe between an old intuitive and a new deliberative mind seems to make these theories especially suited to account for development. Accordingly, this special issue aims at presenting the latest applications of dual-process theories to cognitive…

  11. Advanced ThioClear process testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.

    1998-03-01

    Wet scrubbing is the leading proven commercial post-combustion FGD technology available to meet the sulfur dioxide reductions required by the Clean Air Act Amendments. To reduce costs associated with wet FGD, Dravo Lime Company has developed the ThioClear process. ThioClear is an ex-situ forced oxidation magnesium-enhanced lime FGD process. ThioClear process differs from the conventional magnesium-enhanced lime process in that the recycle liquor has minimal suspended solids and the by-products are wallboard quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide, an excellent reagent for water treatment. The process has demonstrated sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies of +95% in both a vertical spray scrubber tower and a horizontal absorber operating at gas velocities of 16 fps, respectively. This report details the optimization studies and associated economics from testing conducted at Dravo Lime Company`s pilot plant located at the Miami Fort Station of the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company.

  12. Recent advances in the deformation processing of titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamirisakandala, S.; Bhat, R. B.; Vedam, B. V.

    2003-12-01

    Titanium (Ti) alloys are special-purpose materials used for several critical applications in aerospace as well as non-aerospace industries, and extensive deformation processing is necessary to shape-form these materials, which poses many challenges due to the microstructural complexities. Some of the recent developments in the deformation processing of Ti alloys and usefulness of integrating the material behavior information with simulation schemes while designing and optimizing manufacturing process schedules are discussed in this paper. Discussions are primarily focused on the most important alloy, Ti-6Al-4V and on developing a clear understanding on the influence of key parameters (e.g., oxygen content, starting microstructure, temperature, and strain rate) on the deformation behavior during hot working. These studies are very useful not only for obtaining controlled microstructures but also to design complex multi-step processing sequences to produce defect-free components. Strain-induced porosity (SIP) has been a serious problem during titanium alloy processing, and improved scientific understanding helps in seeking elegant solutions to avoid SIP. A novel high-speed processing technique for microstructural conversion in titanium has been described, which provides several benefits over the conventional slow-speed practices. The hot working behavior of some of the affordable α+β and β titanium alloys being developed recently—namely, Ti-5.5Al-1Fe, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al, Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al, and Ti-10V-4.5Fe-1.5Al—has been analyzed, and the usefulness of the processing maps in optimizing the process parameters and design of hot working schedules in these alloys is demonstrated. Titanium alloys modified with small additions of boron are emerging as potential candidates for replacing structural components requiring high specific strength and stiffness. Efforts to understand the microstructural mechanisms during deformation processing of Ti-B alloys and the issues

  13. Technology advancement of the electrochemical CO2 concentrating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Woods, R. R.; Hallick, T. M.; Heppner, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objectives of the present program are to: (1) improve the performance of the electrochemical CO2 removal technique by increasing CO2 removal efficiencies at pCO2 levels below 400 Pa, increasing cell power output and broadening the tolerance of electrochemical cells for operation over wide ranges of cabin relative humidity; (2) design, fabricate, and assemble development hardware to continue the evolution of the electrochemical concentrating technique from the existing level to an advanced level able to efficiently meet the CO2 removal needs of a spacecraft air revitalization system (ARS); (3) develop and incorporate into the EDC the components and concepts that allow for the efficient integration of the electrochemical technique with other subsystems to form a spacecraft ARS; (4) combine ARS functions to enable the elimination of subsystem components and interfaces; and (5) demonstrate the integration concepts through actual operation of a functionally integrated ARS.

  14. Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna S.

    1994-01-01

    The effort, which was focused on the research and development of advanced materials for use in Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), has involved chemical and physical testing of refractory ceramic tiles, fabrics, threads and fibers. This testing has included determination of the optical properties, thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Materials have also been tested in the Arc Jet 2 x 9 Turbulent Duct Facility (TDF), the 1 atmosphere Radiant Heat Cycler, and the Mini-Wind Tunnel Facility (MWTF). A significant part of the effort hitherto has gone towards modifying and upgrading the test facilities so that meaningful tests can be carried out. Another important effort during this period has been the creation of a materials database. Computer systems administration and support have also been provided. These are described in greater detail below.

  15. Microwave Processing of Simulated Advanced Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    D.E. Clark; D.C. Folz

    2010-08-29

    Throughout the three-year project funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and lead by Virginia Tech (VT), project tasks were modified by consensus to fit the changing needs of the DOE with respect to developing new inert matrix fuel processing techniques. The focus throughout the project was on the use of microwave energy to sinter fully stabilized zirconia pellets using microwave energy and to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques that were developed. Additionally, the research team was to propose fundamental concepts as to processing radioactive fuels based on the effectiveness of the microwave process in sintering the simulated matrix material.

  16. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles.

  17. Advances toward industrialization of novel molten salt electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-15

    We have invented various novel molten salt electrochemical processes, that can be put to practical use in the fields of energy and materials. These processes are promising from both technological and commercial viewpoints, and they are currently under development for industrial application. To showcase current developments in work toward industrialization, we focus here on three of these processes: (1) electrolytic synthesis of ammonia from water and nitrogen under atmospheric pressure, (2) electrochemical formation of carbon film, and (3) plasma-induced discharge electrolysis to produce nanoparticles. PMID:27265244

  18. Recent advancements in low cost solar cell processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A proof-of-concept solar cell process has been developed that is adaptable to automation. This involved the development of a new contact system, a new antireflection coating system, a drift field cell design and a new contoured surface treatment. All these processes are performed without the use of vacuum chambers and expensive masking techniques, thus providing the possibility of reduced costs by automation using conventional semiconductor processing machinery. The contacts were printed on the cells by conventional silk screen machinery. The P(+) back field was formed by diffusing in aluminum from a printed aluminum back contact. The antireflection coating was formed by spinning on and baking a TiO2-SiO2 glass film. Air-mass-zero efficiencies of over 10% were achieved using this completely vacuum-free process.

  19. [Effect of melatonin instillations on the clinical course of experimental uveitis and biochemical processes in tears and aqueous humor].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, N B; Beznos, O V; Lozinskaya, N A; Beyshenova, G A; Nesterova, T V

    2016-01-01

    Acute immunogenic uveitis was modeled in rabbits via the subcutaneous and intravitreal injections of normal horse serum. We studied the effect of instillations of 0.1% melatonin solution on the clinical course of uveitis and biochemical parameters of tear fluid and aqueous humor: antioxi-dant activity, protein concentration and α(2)-macroglobulin level. Melatonin instillations decreased clinical manifestations of uveitis. We found that the antioxidant activity in tears of the rabbits treated with melatonin was substantially higher and the α(2)-macroglobulin level lower than in untreated animals. Antioxidant activity in aqueous humor taken on day 10 of uveitis was also twice higher while protein and α(2)-macroglobulin levels were 1.5-2 times lower than in untreated animals. These data indicate that instillations of melatonin increase the local antioxidant activity and decrease the acuity of inflammation and permeability of hematoophthalmic barrier in uveitis. PMID:27143374

  20. Data processing 1: Advancements in machine analysis of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data processing procedures are outlined beginning with the data display process used to accomplish data editing and proceeding through clustering, feature selection criterion for error probability estimation, and sample clustering and sample classification. The effective utilization of large quantities of remote sensing data by formulating a three stage sampling model for evaluation of crop acreage estimates represents an improvement in determining the cost benefit relationship associated with remote sensing technology.

  1. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  2. Comparing Simple and Advanced Video Tools as Supports for Complex Collaborative Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn, Carmen; Pea, Roy; Hesse, Friedrich W.; Rosen, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Working with digital video technologies, particularly advanced video tools with editing capabilities, offers new prospects for meaningful learning through design. However, it is also possible that the additional complexity of such tools does "not" advance learning. We compared in an experiment the design processes and learning outcomes of 24…

  3. Treatment of petroleum refinery sourwater by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alessandra; Castro, Antonio V; Dezotti, Márcia; Sant'Anna, G L

    2006-09-01

    The performance of several oxidation processes to remove organic pollutants from sourwater was investigated. Sourwater is a specific stream of petroleum refineries, which contains slowly biodegradable compounds and toxic substances that impair the industrial biological wastewater treatment system. Preliminary experiments were conducted, using the following processes: H2O2, H2O2/UV, UV, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton and photo-Fenton. All processes, except Fenton and photo-Fenton, did not lead to satisfactory results, reducing at most 35% of the sourwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Thus, further experiments were performed with these two techniques to evaluate process conditions and organic matter removal kinetics. Batch experiments revealed that the Fenton reaction is very fast and reaches, in a few minutes, an ultimate DOC removal of 13-27%, due to the formation of iron complexes. Radiation for an additional period of 60 min can increase DOC removal up to 87%. Experiments were also conducted in a continuous mode, operating one 0.4L Fenton stirred reactor and one 1.6L photo-Fenton reactor in series. DOC removals above 75% were reached, when the reaction system was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) higher than 85 min. An empirical mathematical model was proposed to represent the DOC removal kinetics, allowing predicting process performance quite satisfactorily.

  4. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  5. Advancements in organic antireflective coatings for dual-damascene processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Shao, Xie; Lamb, James E., III; Brakensiek, Nickolas L.; Johnson, Joe; Wu, Xiaoming; Xu, Gu; Simmons, William J.

    2000-06-01

    Dual Damascene (DD) process has been implemented in manufacturing semiconductor devices with smaller feature sizes (process is the most commonly used process for manufacturing semiconductor devices since it requires less number of processing steps and also it can make use of a via fill material to minimize the resist thickness variations in the trench patterning photolithography step. Absence of via fill material results in non-uniform fill of vias (in isolated and dense via regions) thus leading to non-uniform focus and dose for exposure of the resist in the deep vias. This results in poor resolution and poor critical dimension (CD) control in the trench-patterning step. When a via fill organic material such as a bottom anti- reflective coating (BARC) is used, then the resist thickness variations are minimized thus enhancing the resolution and CD control in trench patterning. Via fill organic BARC materials can also act as etch blocks at the base of the via to protect the substrate from over etch. In this paper we review the important role of via fill organic BARCs in improving the efficiency of via first DD process now being implemented in semiconductor manufacturing.

  6. IR camera system with an advanced image processing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Syuichi; Tamura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    We have developed image processing technologies for resolving issues caused by the inherent UFPA (uncooled focal plane array) sensor characteristics to spread its applications. For example, large time constant of an uncooled IR (infra-red) sensor limits its application field, because motion blur is caused in monitoring the objective moving at high speed. The developed image processing technologies can eliminate the blur and retrieve almost the equivalent image observed in still motion. This image processing is based on the idea that output of the IR sensor is construed as the convolution of radiated IR energy from the objective and impulse response of the IR sensor. With knowledge of the impulse response and moving speed of the objective, the IR energy from the objective can be de-convolved from the observed images. We have successfully retrieved the image without blur using the IR sensor of 15 ms time constant under the conditions in which the objective is moving at the speed of about 10 pixels/60 Hz. The image processing for reducing FPN (fixed pattern noise) has also been developed. UFPA having the responsivity in the narrow wavelength region, e.g., around 8 μm is appropriate for measuring the surface of glass. However, it suffers from severe FPN due to lower sensitivity compared with 8-13 μm. The developed image processing exploits the images of the shutter itself, and can reduce FPN significantly.

  7. Heart Cycle: facilitating the deployment of advanced care processes.

    PubMed

    Meneu, T; Traver, V; Guillen, S; Valdivieso, B; Benedi, J; Fernandez-Llatas, C

    2013-01-01

    Current trends in health management improvement demand the standardization of care protocols to achieve better quality and efficiency. The use of Clinical Pathways is an emerging solution for that problem. However, current Clinical Pathways are big manuals written in natural language and highly affected by human subjectivity. These problems make their deployment and dissemination extremely difficult in real practice environments. Furthermore, the intrinsic difficulties for the design of formal Clinical Pathways requires new specific design tools to help making them relly useful and cost-effective. Process Mining techniques can help to automatically infer processes definition from execution samples and, thus, support the automatization of the standardization and continuous control of healthcare processes. This way, they can become a relevant helping tool for clinical experts and healthcare systems for reducing variability in clinical practice and better understand the performance of the system.

  8. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  9. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  10. Advanced processing technology for high-nitrogen steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, John S.; Simmons, John W.; Rawers, James C.

    1994-03-01

    Both high-and low-pressure processing techniques can be employed to add nitrogen to iron-based alloys at levels in excess of the equilibrium, ambient-pressure solubility limits. High-pressure techniques include high-pressure melting-solidification; powder atomization; and high-pressure, solid-state diffusion. Low-pressure techniques are centrifugal powder atomization and mechanical alloying. This article describes U.S. Bureau of Mines research on a range of processing technologies for nitrogen steels and references thermodynamic and materials characterization studies that have been completed on these materials.

  11. Beyond celery and starter culture: advances in natural/organic curing processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sebranek, J G; Jackson-Davis, A L; Myers, K L; Lavieri, N A

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 10years there has been ongoing development of curing processes with natural ingredients designed to meet consumer demand and regulatory requirements for natural and organic processed meats. Initially, these processes utilized celery concentrates with a high nitrate content combined with a nitrate-reducing starter culture. Subsequent advances included celery concentrates with the nitrate converted to nitrite by suppliers. Further, as questions developed concerning reduced concentration of preservatives and the microbiological safety of these processed meats, additional advances have resulted in a wide variety of ingredients and processes designed to provide supplementary antimicrobial effects for improved product safety.

  12. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  13. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  14. 15 CFR 713.4 - Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production, processing, or consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 2 CHEMICALS § 713.4 Advance declaration requirements for additionally planned production... additionally planned production, processing, or consumption of Schedule 2 chemicals. 713.4 Section...

  15. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65–75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  16. High-speed parallel-processing networks for advanced architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.R.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes various parallel-processing architecture networks that are candidates for eventual airborne use. An attempt at projecting which type of network is suitable or optimum for specific metafunction or stand-alone applications is made. However, specific algorithms will need to be developed and bench marks executed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Also, a conceptual projection of how these processors can be built in small, flyable units through the use of wafer-scale integration is offered. The use of the PAVE PILLAR system architecture to provide system level support for these tightly coupled networks is described. The author concludes that: (1) extremely high processing speeds implemented in flyable hardware is possible through parallel-processing networks if development programs are pursued; (2) dramatic speed enhancements through parallel processing requires an excellent match between the algorithm and computer-network architecture; (3) matching several high speed parallel oriented algorithms across the aircraft system to a limited set of hardware modules may be the most cost-effective approach to achieving speed enhancements; and (4) software-development tools and improved operating systems will need to be developed to support efficient parallel-processor use.

  17. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    PubMed

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples. PMID:24903249

  18. Naturalistic Text Comprehension. Advances in Discourse Processes, Volume LIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostendorp, Herrre van, Ed.; Zwaah, Rolf A., Ed.

    A collection of essays on the comprehension of text brings together perspectives of different disciplines on discourse. Articles include: "Naturalistic Texts and Naturalistic Tasks" (Herre van Oostendorp, Rolf A. Zwaan); "Psychological Studies of Naturalistic Text" (Arthur C. Graesser, Joseph P. Magliano, Karl Haberlandt); "Text Processing in…

  19. Electrophysiological Advances on Multiple Object Processing in Aging.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Veronica; Brignani, Debora

    2016-01-01

    EEG research conducted in the past 5 years on multiple object processing has begun to define how the aging brain tracks the numerosity of the objects presented in the visual field for different goals. We review the recent EEG findings in healthy older individuals (age range: 65-75 years approximately) on perceptual, attentional and memory mechanisms-reflected in the N1, N2pc and contralateral delayed activity (CDA) components of the EEG, respectively-during the execution of a variety of cognitive tasks requiring simultaneous processing of multiple elements. The findings point to multiple loci of neural changes in multi-object analysis, and suggest the involvement of early perceptual mechanisms, attentive individuation and working memory (WM) operations in the neural and cognitive modification due to aging. However, the findings do not simply reflect early impairments with a cascade effect over subsequent stages of stimulus processing, but in fact highlight interesting dissociations between the effects occurring at the various stages of stimulus processing. Finally, the results on older adults indicate the occurrence of neural overactivation in association to good levels of performance in easy perceptual contexts, thus providing some hints on the existence of compensatory phenomena that are associated with the functioning of early perceptual mechanisms. PMID:26973520

  20. Advancing microwave technology for dehydration processing of biologics.

    PubMed

    Cellemme, Stephanie L; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha; Elliott, Gloria D

    2013-10-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex(®) syringe filter holder (Millipore(™), Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  1. Advancing Microwave Technology for Dehydration Processing of Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Cellemme, Stephanie L.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex® syringe filter holder (Millipore™, Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  2. Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1989-01-28

    An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

  3. Advanced metal mirror processing for tactical ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John P.

    2013-05-01

    Using its patented VQ™ finishing process, Raytheon EO Innovations has been producing low-scatter, low-figure and affordable aluminum 6061-based mirrors for long stand-off intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems in production since 2005. These common aperture multispectral systems require λ/30 root mean square (RMS) surface figure and sub-20Å RMS finishes for optimal visible imaging performance. This paper discusses the process results, scatter performance, and fabrication capabilities of Multispectral Reflective Lightweight Optics Technology (MeRLOT™), a new lightweight substrate material. This new technology enables lightweight, common-aperture, broadband performance that can be put in the hands of the warfighter for precision targeting and surveillance operations.

  4. Simulating data processing for an Advanced Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Clowers, Brian H.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Belov, Mikhail E.

    2007-11-03

    We have designed and implemented a Cray XD-1-based sim- ulation of data capture and signal processing for an ad- vanced Ion Mobility mass spectrometer (Hadamard trans- form Ion Mobility). Our simulation is a hybrid application that uses both an FPGA component and a CPU-based soft- ware component to simulate Ion Mobility mass spectrome- try data processing. The FPGA component includes data capture and accumulation, as well as a more sophisticated deconvolution algorithm based on a PNNL-developed en- hancement to standard Hadamard transform Ion Mobility spectrometry. The software portion is in charge of stream- ing data to the FPGA and collecting results. We expect the computational and memory addressing logic of the FPGA component to be portable to an instrument-attached FPGA board that can be interfaced with a Hadamard transform Ion Mobility mass spectrometer.

  5. Effects of separate urine collection on advanced nutrient removal processes.

    PubMed

    Wilsenach, J A; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2004-02-15

    Municipal wastewater contains a mixture of minerals from different origins. Urine contributes 80% of the nitrogen (N) and 45% of the phosphate (P) load in wastewater. Effects of separate urine collection on BNR processes were evaluated by using a simulation model for an existing state-of-the-art biological nutrient removal process. It was found that increasing urine separation efficiency leads to lower nitrate effluent concentrations, while ammonium and phosphorus concentrations remain more or less the same. The improved nitrate effluent quality is most notable up to 50-60% urine separation. Urine separation allows primary sedimentation without an increase in the nitrate effluent concentration. Furthermore, urine separation increases the potential treatment capacity for raw and settled wastewater by 20% and 60%, respectively. Urine separation provides options for increasing the lifetime of existing treatment works.

  6. Advanced Image Processing for Defect Visualization in Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a defect visualization process based on pulse infrared thermography are presented. Algorithms have been developed to reduce the amount of operator participation required in the process of interpreting thermographic images. The algorithms determine the defect's depth and size from the temporal and spatial thermal distributions that exist on the surface of the investigated object following thermal excitation. A comparison of the results from thermal contrast, time derivative, and phase analysis methods for defect visualization are presented. These comparisons are based on three dimensional simulations of a test case representing a plate with multiple delaminations. Comparisons are also based on experimental data obtained from a specimen with flat bottom holes and a composite panel with delaminations.

  7. Virtual Welded - Joint Design Integrating Advanced Materials and Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhishang; Ludewig, Howard W.; Babu, S. Suresh

    2005-06-30

    Virtual Welede-Joint Design, a systematic modeling approach, has been developed in this project to predict the relationship of welding process, microstructure, properties, residual stress, and the ultimate weld fatique strength. This systematic modeling approach was applied in the welding of high strength steel. A special welding wire was developed in this project to introduce compressive residual stress at weld toe. The results from both modeling and experiments demonstrated that more than 10x fatique life improvement can be acheived in high strength steel welds by the combination of compressive residual stress from the special welding wire and the desired weld bead shape from a unique welding process. The results indicate a technology breakthrough in the design of lightweight and high fatique performance welded structures using high strength steels.

  8. Interferometric metrology of wafer nanotopography for advanced CMOS process integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John F.; Koliopoulos, Chris L.; Tang, Shouhong

    2001-12-01

    According to industry standards (SEMI M43, Guide for Reporting Wafer Nanotopography), Nanotopography is the non- planar deviation of the whole front wafer surface within a spatial wavelength range of approximately 0.2 to 20 mm and within the fixed quality area (FQA). The need for precision metrology of wafer nanotopography is being actively addressed by interferometric technology. In this paper we present an approach to mapping the whole wafer front surface nanotopography using an engineered coherence interferometer. The interferometer acquires a whole wafer raw topography map. The raw map is then filtered to remove the long spatial wavelength, high amplitude shape contributions and reveal the nanotopography in the filtered map. Filtered maps can be quantitatively analyzed in a variety of ways to enable statistical process control (SPC) of nanotopography parameters. The importance of tracking these parameters for CMOS gate level processes at 180-nm critical dimension, and below, is examined.

  9. Microwave Processing for Advance Electro-Optic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.

    2000-06-01

    This project addressed the technical and scientific goals of developing new methods for the formation of striation-free single crystals of potassium tantalate niobate. This solid-solution system has the potential for serving as a general electro-optic material with a wide range of optical applications. The performance of the material is, however, severely limited by the effects of compositional inhomogeneity that is generally induced during the single crystal growth process due to the nature of the binary phase diagram of the mixed tantalatehiobate system. Single-crystal boules of potassium tantalate niobate (KTa{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} or KTN) with varying tantalum-to-niobium ratios (or values of x) were grown under a variety of experimental conditions. The resulting single crystals were characterized in terms of their compositional homogeneity and optical quality. Single crystals were grown using both the most-favorable established set of growth parameters as well as in the presence of programmed oscillatory temperature variations. The purpose of these deliberately induced variations was to introduce controlled compositional variations and associated optical striations in the solid-solution single crystals. The overall objective of the effort was to utilize microwave heating and processing methods to treat the inhomogeneous single crystals for the purpose of eliminating the compositional variations that lead to striations and the associated varying changes in the refractive index of the material. In order to realize the ultimate goal of the effort, it was necessary to develop methods that would lead to the effective coupling of the microwave field to the KTN single crystals. Achieving the technical and commercial goals of this effort would have made it possible to introduce an important new electro-optic product into the market place, to improve our fundamental understanding of solid-state diffusion processes in general (and of microwave-assisted thermal

  10. Flow measurements in semiconductor processing; New advances in measurement technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tison, S. A.; Calabrese, A. M.

    1998-11-01

    Gas flow measurement, control, and distribution are an integral part in meeting present and future semiconductor processing requirements (1). Changes in processing and environmental concerns have put additional pressure not only on accurate measurement of the gas flow, but also in reducing flows. To address the need for more accurate metering of gas flows, NIST has developed primary flow standards which have uncertainties of 0.1% of reading or better over the flow range of 10-9 mol/s to 10-3 mol/s (0.001 sccm to 1000 sccm). These standards have been used to test NIST-designed high repeatability flow transfer standards (2) which can be used to document and improve flow measurements in the semiconductor industry (3). In particular two flowmeters have been developed at NIST; the first is a pressure-based flow sensor and the second a Doppler-shift flowmeter, both of which can be used for in-situ calibration of thermal mass flow controllers or for direct metering of process gases.

  11. Process Systems Engineering R&D for Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-09-11

    This presentation will examine process systems engineering R&D needs for application to advanced fossil energy (FE) systems and highlight ongoing research activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the auspices of a recently launched Collaboratory for Process & Dynamic Systems Research. The three current technology focus areas include: 1) High-fidelity systems with NETL's award-winning Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) technology for integrating process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and virtual engineering concepts, 2) Dynamic systems with R&D on plant-wide IGCC dynamic simulation, control, and real-time training applications, and 3) Systems optimization including large-scale process optimization, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and cost estimation. Continued R&D aimed at these and other key process systems engineering models, methods, and tools will accelerate the development of advanced gasification-based FE systems and produce increasingly valuable outcomes for DOE and the Nation.

  12. Advanced information processing system: Hosting of advanced guidance, navigation and control algorithms on AIPS using ASTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Richard; Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Schor, Andrei; Turkovich, John

    1994-01-01

    This program demonstrated the integration of a number of technologies that can increase the availability and reliability of launch vehicles while lowering costs. Availability is increased with an advanced guidance algorithm that adapts trajectories in real-time. Reliability is increased with fault-tolerant computers and communication protocols. Costs are reduced by automatically generating code and documentation. This program was realized through the cooperative efforts of academia, industry, and government. The NASA-LaRC coordinated the effort, while Draper performed the integration. Georgia Institute of Technology supplied a weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems. Martin Marietta used MATLAB to apply this method to a launch vehicle (FENOC). Draper supplied the fault-tolerant computing and software automation technology. The fault-tolerant technology includes sequential and parallel fault-tolerant processors (FTP & FTPP) and authentication protocols (AP) for communication. Fault-tolerant technology was incrementally incorporated. Development culminated with a heterogeneous network of workstations and fault-tolerant computers using AP. Draper's software automation system, ASTER, was used to specify a static guidance system based on FENOC, navigation, flight control (GN&C), models, and the interface to a user interface for mission control. ASTER generated Ada code for GN&C and C code for models. An algebraic transform engine (ATE) was developed to automatically translate MATLAB scripts into ASTER.

  13. Investigation of Advanced Processed Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. J.; Biondo, C. M.; DeLuca, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation studied the influence of thermal processing and microstructure on the mechanical properties of the single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys PWA 1482 and PWA 1484. The objective of the program was to develop an improved single-crystal turbine blade alloy that is specifically tailored for use in hydrogen fueled rocket engine turbopumps. High-gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and alternate heat treatment (HT) processing parameters were developed to produce pore-free, eutectic-free microstructures with different (gamma)' precipitate morphologies. Test materials were cast in high thermal gradient solidification (greater than 30 C/cm (137 F/in.)) casting furnaces for reduced dendrite arm spacing, improved chemical homogeneity, and reduced interdendritic pore size. The HIP processing was conducted in 40 cm (15.7 in.) diameter production furnaces using a set of parameters selected from a trial matrix study. Metallography was conducted on test samples taken from each respective trial run to characterize the as-HIP microstructure. Post-HIP alternate HT processes were developed for each of the two alloys. The goal of the alternate HT processing was to fully solution the eutectic gamma/(gamma)' phase islands and to develop a series of modified (gamma)' morphologies for subsequent characterization testing. This was accomplished by slow cooling through the (gamma)' solvus at controlled rates to precipitate volume fractions of large (gamma)'. Post-solution alternate HT parameters were established for each alloy providing additional volume fractions of finer precipitates. Screening tests included tensile, high-cycle fatigue (HCF), smooth and notched low-cycle fatigue (LCF), creep, and fatigue crack growth evaluations performed in air and high pressure (34.5 MPa (5 ksi)) hydrogen at room and elevated temperature. Under the most severe embrittling conditions (HCF and smooth and notched LCF in 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) hydrogen at 20 C (68 F), screening test

  14. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    DOE PAGES

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-07-05

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yieldedmore » anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  15. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Min; Johnson, Francis; Zhang, Wanming; Zhao, Qi; Rutkowski, Stephen F.; Zhou, Lin; Kramer, Matthew J.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti

  16. Carbon dioxide diffusion across stomata and mesophyll and photo-biochemical processes as affected by growth CO2 and phosphorus nutrition in cotton.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shardendu K; Badgujar, Girish; Reddy, Vangimalla R; Fleisher, David H; Bunce, James A

    2013-06-15

    Nutrients such as phosphorus may exert a major control over plant response to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (CO2), which is projected to double by the end of the 21st century. Elevated CO2 may overcome the diffusional limitations to photosynthesis posed by stomata and mesophyll and alter the photo-biochemical limitations resulting from phosphorus deficiency. To evaluate these ideas, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was grown in controlled environment growth chambers with three levels of phosphate (Pi) supply (0.2, 0.05 and 0.01mM) and two levels of CO2 concentration (ambient 400 and elevated 800μmolmol(-1)) under optimum temperature and irrigation. Phosphate deficiency drastically inhibited photosynthetic characteristics and decreased cotton growth for both CO2 treatments. Under Pi stress, an apparent limitation to the photosynthetic potential was evident by CO2 diffusion through stomata and mesophyll, impairment of photosystem functioning and inhibition of biochemical process including the carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxyganase and the rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. The diffusional limitation posed by mesophyll was up to 58% greater than the limitation due to stomatal conductance (gs) under Pi stress. As expected, elevated CO2 reduced these diffusional limitations to photosynthesis across Pi levels; however, it failed to reduce the photo-biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in phosphorus deficient plants. Acclimation/down regulation of photosynthetic capacity was evident under elevated CO2 across Pi treatments. Despite a decrease in phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations in leaf tissue and reduced stomatal conductance at elevated CO2, the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area when measured at the growth CO2 concentration tended to be higher for all except the lowest Pi treatment. Nevertheless, plant biomass increased at elevated CO2 across Pi nutrition with taller plants

  17. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06). PMID:26432272

  18. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    PubMed Central

    Cappiello, Mario; Del Corso, Antonella; Lenzarini, Francesca; Peroni, Eleonora; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis), and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size) allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:27781156

  19. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  20. Recent advances in processing and characterization of edgeless detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Kalliopuska, J.; Eränen, S.; Virolainen, T.

    2012-02-01

    During past five years VTT has actively developed edgeless detector fabrication process. The straightforward and high yield process relies on ion-implantation to activate the edges of the detector. A recent fabrication process was performed at VTT to provide p-on-n edgeless detectors. The layout contained DC- and AC-coupled strip detector and pixel detectors for Medipix/Timepix readouts. The fabricated detector thicknesses were 50, 100 and 150 μm. Electrical characterization was done for 5 × 5 mm2 edgeless diodes on wafer level. All measured electrical parameters showed a dramatic dependence on the diode thickness. Leakage current was measured below 10 nA/cm2 at full depletion. Calculation using a theoretical approximation indicates the diode surface generation current of less than 300 pA. The breakdown voltages were measured to be above 140 V and increased as a function of diode thickness. Reverse bias of 10 V is enough to fully deplete designed edgeless diodes. Leakage current dependence of temperature was investigated for both p-on-n and previous n-on-n edgeless detectors and results show that the leakage current doubles for every 8.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature. TCAD device simulations reveal that breakdown occurs at the lateral p-n junction where the electric field reaches its highest value. Thick edgeless diodes have wider bulk space that allows electric potential to drop and causes smaller curvature of the equipotential lines. This releases the accumulation of electric field at the corner of anode and increases the breakdown voltage. A good match of the simulated and the measured capacitance-voltage curves enables identification of proper parameters used in the simulation.

  1. Advanced Simulation Technology to Design Etching Process on CMOS Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Prediction and control of plasma-induced damage is needed to mass-produce high performance CMOS devices. In particular, side-wall (SW) etching with low damage is a key process for the next generation of MOSFETs and FinFETs. To predict and control the damage, we have developed a SiN etching simulation technique for CHxFy/Ar/O2 plasma processes using a three-dimensional (3D) voxel model. This model includes new concepts for the gas transportation in the pattern, detailed surface reactions on the SiN reactive layer divided into several thin slabs and C-F polymer layer dependent on the H/N ratio, and use of ``smart voxels''. We successfully predicted the etching properties such as the etch rate, polymer layer thickness, and selectivity for Si, SiO2, and SiN films along with process variations and demonstrated the 3D damage distribution time-dependently during SW etching on MOSFETs and FinFETs. We confirmed that a large amount of Si damage was caused in the source/drain region with the passage of time in spite of the existing SiO2 layer of 15 nm in the over etch step and the Si fin having been directly damaged by a large amount of high energy H during the removal step of the parasitic fin spacer leading to Si fin damage to a depth of 14 to 18 nm. By analyzing the results of these simulations and our previous simulations, we found that it is important to carefully control the dose of high energy H, incident energy of H, polymer layer thickness, and over-etch time considering the effects of the pattern structure, chamber-wall condition, and wafer open area ratio. In collaboration with Masanaga Fukasawa and Tetsuya Tatsumi, Sony Corporation. We thank Mr. T. Shigetoshi and Mr. T. Kinoshita of Sony Corporation for their assistance with the experiments.

  2. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  3. Advanced Silicon Microring Resonator Devices for Optical Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Ashok Prabhu

    Chip level optical interconnects has gained momentum with recent demonstrations of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based photonic modules such as lasers, modulators, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters, etc. A fundamental building block that has enabled many of these silicon photonic modules is the compact, high Q factor microring resonator cavity. However, most of these demonstrations have WDM processing components based on simple add-drop filters that cannot realize the dense WDM systems required for the chip level interconnects. Dense WDM filters have stringent spectral shape requirements such as flat-top filter passband, steep band transition etc. Optical filters that can meet these specifications involve precise placement of the poles and zeros of the filter transfer function. Realization of such filters requires the use of multiple coupled microring resonators arranged in complex coupling topologies. In this thesis we have proposed and demonstrated new multiple coupled resonator topologies based on compact microring resonators in SOI material system. First we explored novel microring architectures which resulted in the proposal of two new coupled microring architectures, namely, the general 2D microring array topology and the general cascaded microring network topology. We also developed the synthesis procedures for these two microring architectures. The second part of this thesis focussed on the demonstration of the proposed architectures in the SOI material system. To accomplish this, a fabrication process for SOI was developed at the UofA Nanofab facility. Using this process, ultra-compact single microring filters with microring radii as small as 1mum were demonstrated. Higher order filter demonstration with multiple microrings necessitated post-fabrication microring resonance tuning. We developed additional fabrication steps to install micro heaters on top of the microrings to thermally tune its resonance. Subsequently, a thermally tuned fourth

  4. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  5. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  6. Advances in Linac-Based Technology for Industrial Radiation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1997-04-01

    Experience with the Industrial Materials Processing Electron Linear Accelerator, IMPELA, over 30,000 hours of 50 kW operation is reported for three irradiators, two of which are in commercial service. Operations are sufficiently mature that research is now concentrated on split beams, photon conversion, dose monitoring, beam scanning, new shielding designs and QA controls. The efficacy of increasing the incident electron energy on bremsstrahlung converters to 7.5 MeV, as proposed by an IAEA committee, is examined experimentally on an IMPELA accelerator over the energy range 7 MeV to 11 MeV to evaluate conversion efficiency, activation of machine components, converter engineering and the activation of red meat. Above 8 MeV the radioactive isotopes ^38Cl and ^24Na, formed primarily by neutrons produced in a tantalum converter, were clearly identified in the meat, while above 10.5 MeV the radiation from ^13N becomes dominant. Implications for the practicality of processing other high density products are discussed.

  7. Advances in the electro-spark deposition coating process

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogenous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art and of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactors.

  8. Advances in Coupling of Kinetics and Molecular Scale Tools to Shed Light on Soil Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Donald

    2014-09-02

    Biogeochemical processes in soils such as sorption, precipitation, and redox play critical roles in the cycling and fate of nutrients, metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in soil and water environments. Advanced analytical tools enable soil scientists to track these processes in real-time and at the molecular scale. Our review focuses on recent research that has employed state-of-the-art molecular scale spectroscopy, coupled with kinetics, to elucidate the mechanisms of nutrient and metal(loid) reactivity and speciation in soils. We found that by coupling kinetics with advanced molecular and nano-scale tools major advances have been made in elucidating important soil chemical processes including sorption, precipitation, dissolution, and redox of metal(loids) and nutrients. Such advances will aid in better predicting the fate and mobility of nutrients and contaminants in soils and water and enhance environmental and agricultural sustainability.

  9. Evaluation of microbial triglyceride oil purification requirements for the CelTherm process: an efficient biochemical pathway to renewable fuels and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Linnen, Michael; Seames, Wayne; Kubatova, Alena; Menon, Suresh; Alisala, Kashinatham; Hash, Sara

    2014-10-01

    CelTherm is a biochemical process to produce renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The present study's objective was to determine the level of treatment/purity of the microbial triacylglyceride oil (TAG) necessary to facilitate fuel production. After a unique microbe aerobically synthesizes TAG from biomass-derived sugars, the microbes were harvested and dried then crude TAG was chemically extracted from the residual biomass. Some TAGs were further purified to hydrotreating process requirements. Both grades were then noncatalytically cracked into a petroleum-like intermediate characterized by gas chromatography. Experiments were repeated using refined soybean oil for comparison to previous studies. The products from crude microbial TAG cracking were then further refined into a jet fuel product. Fuel tests indicate that this jet fuel corresponds to specifications for JP-8 military turbine fuel. It was thus concluded that the crude microbial TAG is a suitable feedstock with no further purification required, demonstrating CelTherm's commercial potential. PMID:24781206

  10. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  11. Advanced robotics for in-space vehicle processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-extravehicular activity tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for robot services. Similarly, a set of robot primitives is presented that can be used to model robot actions for alternative robot reference configurations. The robot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composing robot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Robotics technology issues and design accommodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for Space Station Freedom are described.

  12. Advanced Robotics for In-Space Vehicle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Estus, Jay; Heneghan, Cate; Bosley, John

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of spaceborne vehicle processing is described. Generic crew-EVA tasks are presented for a specific vehicle, the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), with general implications to other on-orbit vehicles. The OMV is examined with respect to both servicing and maintenance. Crew-EVA activities are presented by task and mapped to a common set of generic crew-EVA primitives to identify high-demand areas for telerobot services. Similarly, a set of telerobot primitives is presented that can be used to model telerobot actions for alternative telerobot reference configurations. The telerobot primitives are tied to technologies and used for composting telerobot operations for an automated refueling scenario. Telerobotics technology issues and design accomodation guidelines (hooks and scars) for the Space Station Freedom are described.

  13. Molten metal processing of advanced cast aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivkumar, S.; Wang, L.; Apelian, D.

    1991-01-01

    Premium quality aluminum alloy castings are used extensively in various applications requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio, such as aerospace, automotive and other structural components. The mechanical properties in these structure-sensitive alloys are determined primarily by the secondary dendrite arm spacing and the morphology of interdendritic phases. In addition, the amount of porosity in the casting and the inclusion concentration have a strong influence on fracture, fatigue and impact properties. During the production of the casting, various molten metal processing techniques can be implemented to control these microstructural parameters. These melt treatments include grain refinement with Ti-B, eutectic modification with strontium or sodium, degassing with purge gases and filtration of inclusions. The efficiency of these treatments determines the quality of the cast component.

  14. An advanced microcomputer design for processing of semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoern, L.; Lindkvist, L.; Zaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    In the Get Away Special 330 payload two germanium samples doped with gallium will be processed. The aim of the experiments is to create a planar solid/liquid interface, and to study the breakdown of this interface as the crystal growth rate increases. For the experiments a gradient furnace was designed which is heated by resistive heaters. Cooling is provided by circulating gas from the atmosphere in the cannister through cooling channels in the furnace. The temperature along the sample are measured by platinum/rhodium thermocouples. The furnace is controlled by a microcomputer system, based upon the processor 80C88. A data acquisition system is integrated into the system. In order to synchronize the different actions in time, a multitask manager is used.

  15. Optimization of segmented alignment marks for advanced semiconductor fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Lu, Zhijian G.; Williams, Gary; Zach, Franz X.; Liegl, Bernhard

    2001-08-01

    The continued downscaling of semiconductor fabrication ground rule has imposed increasingly tighter overlay tolerances, which becomes very challenging at the 100 nm lithographic node. Such tight tolerances will require very high performance in alignment. Past experiences indicate that good alignment depends largely on alignment signal quality, which, however, can be strongly affected by chip design and various fabrication processes. Under some extreme circumstances, they can even be reduced to the non- usable limit. Therefore, a systematic understanding of alignment marks and a method to predict alignment performance based on mark design are necessary. Motivated by this, we have performed a detailed study of bright field segmented alignment marks that are used in current state-of- the-art fabrication processes. We find that alignment marks at different lithographic levels can be organized into four basic categories: trench mark, metal mark, damascene mark, and combo mark. The basic principles of these four types of marks turn out to be so similar that they can be characterized within the theoretical framework of a simple model based on optical gratings. An analytic expression has been developed for such model and it has been tested using computer simulation with the rigorous time-domain finite- difference (TD-FD) algorithm TEMPEST. Consistent results have been obtained; indicating that mark signal can be significantly improved through the optimization of mark lateral dimensions, such as segment pitch and segment width. We have also compared simulation studies against experimental data for alignment marks at one typical lithographic level and a good agreement is found.

  16. Advanced Research Deposition System (ARDS) for processing CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barricklow, Keegan Corey

    CdTe solar cells have been commercialized at the Gigawatt/year level. The development of volume manufacturing processes for next generation CdTe photovoltaics (PV) with higher efficiencies requires research systems with flexibility, scalability, repeatability and automation. The Advanced Research Deposition Systems (ARDS) developed by the Materials Engineering Laboratory (MEL) provides such a platform for the investigation of materials and manufacturing processes necessary to produce the next generation of CdTe PV. Limited by previous research systems, the ARDS was developed to provide process and hardware flexibility, accommodating advanced processing techniques, and capable of producing device quality films. The ARDS is a unique, in-line process tool with nine processing stations. The system was designed, built and assembled at the Materials Engineering Laboratory. Final assembly, startup, characterization and process development are the focus of this research. Many technical challenges encountered during the startup of the ARDS were addressed in this research. In this study, several hardware modifications needed for the reliable operation of the ARDS were designed, constructed and successfully incorporated into the ARDS. The effect of process condition on film properties for each process step was quantified. Process development to achieve 12% efficient baseline solar cell required investigation of discrete processing steps, troubleshooting process variation, and developing performance correlations. Subsequent to this research, many advances have been demonstrated with the ARDS. The ARDS consistently produces devices of 12% +/-.5% by the process of record (POR). The champion cell produced to date utilizing the ARDS has an efficiency of 16.2% on low cost commercial sodalime glass and utilizes advanced films. The ARDS has enabled investigation of advanced concepts for processing CdTe devices including, Plasma Cleaning, Plasma Enhanced Closed Space Sublimation

  17. Biochemical and physiological processes associated with the differential ozone response in ozone-tolerant and sensitive soybean genotypes.

    PubMed

    Chutteang, C; Booker, F L; Na-Ngern, P; Burton, A; Aoki, M; Burkey, K O

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical and physiological traits of two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes differing in sensitivity to ozone (O3 ) were investigated to determine the possible basis for the differential response. Fiskeby III (O3 -tolerant) and Mandarin (Ottawa) (O3 -sensitive) were grown in a greenhouse with charcoal-filtered air for 4 weeks, then treated with O3 for 7 h·day(-1) in greenhouse chambers. Mandarin (Ottawa) showed significantly more leaf injury and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and superoxide (O2 (-) ) production compared with Fiskeby III. Peroxidase activity in Mandarin (Ottawa) was 31% higher with O3 but was not significantly different in Fiskeby III. Ozone did not affect superoxide dismutase or glutathione reductase activities, or leaf concentrations of glutathione or ascorbic acid. Thus, variation in O3 response between Fiskeby III and Mandarin (Ottawa) was not explained by differences in antioxidant enzymes and metabolites tested. Ethylene emission from leaves declined in Fiskeby III following O3 exposure but not in Mandarin (Ottawa). Ozone exposure reduced quantum yield (ΦPSII ), electron transport rate (ETR) and photochemical quenching (qp ) in Mandarin (Ottawa) more than in Fiskeby III, indicating that efficiency of energy conversion of PSII and photosynthetic electron transport was altered differently in the two genotypes. Short-term exposure to O3 had minimal effects on net carbon exchange rates of both soybean cultivars. A trend toward higher stomatal conductance in Mandarin (Ottawa) suggested stomatal exclusion might contribute to differential O3 sensitivity of the two genotypes. Increased sensitivity of Mandarin (Ottawa) to O3 was associated with higher H2 O2 and O2 (-) production compared with Fiskeby III, possibly associated with genotype differences in stomatal function or regulation of ethylene during the initial phases of O3 response.

  18. Advanced Signal Processing Methods Applied to Digital Mammography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauduhar, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The work reported here is on the extension of the earlier proposal of the same title, August 1994-June 1996. The report for that work is also being submitted. The work reported there forms the foundation for this work from January 1997 to September 1997. After the earlier work was completed there were a few items that needed to be completed prior to submission of a new and more comprehensive proposal for further research. Those tasks have been completed and two new proposals have been submitted, one to NASA, and one to Health & Human Services WS). The main purpose of this extension was to refine some of the techniques that lead to automatic large scale evaluation of full mammograms. Progress on each of the proposed tasks follows. Task 1: A multiresolution segmentation of background from breast has been developed and tested. The method is based on the different noise characteristics of the two different fields. The breast field has more power in the lower octaves and the off-breast field behaves similar to a wideband process, where more power is in the high frequency octaves. After the two fields are separated by lowpass filtering, a region labeling routine is used to find the largest contiguous region, the breast. Task 2: A wavelet expansion that can decompose the image without zero padding has been developed. The method preserves all properties of the power-of-two wavelet transform and does not add appreciably to computation time or storage. This work is essential for analysis of the full mammogram, as opposed to selecting sections from the full mammogram. Task 3: A clustering method has been developed based on a simple counting mechanism. No ROC analysis has been performed (and was not proposed), so we cannot finally evaluate this work without further support. Task 4: Further testing of the filter reveals that different wavelet bases do yield slightly different qualitative results. We cannot provide quantitative conclusions about this for all possible bases

  19. Delicate visual artifacts of advanced digital video processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Marina M.; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2005-03-01

    With the incoming of digital TV, sophisticated video processing algorithms have been developed to improve the rendering of motion or colors. However, the perceived subjective quality of these new systems sometimes happens to be in conflict with the objective measurable improvement we expect to get. In this presentation, we show examples where algorithms should visually improve the skin tone rendering of decoded pictures under normal conditions, but surprisingly fail, when the quality of mpeg encoding drops below a just noticeable threshold. In particular, we demonstrate that simple objective criteria used for the optimization, such as SAD, PSNR or histogram sometimes fail, partly because they are defined on a global scale, ignoring local characteristics of the picture content. We then integrate a simple human visual model to measure potential artifacts with regard to spatial and temporal variations of the objects' characteristics. Tuning some of the model's parameters allows correlating the perceived objective quality with compression metrics of various encoders. We show the evolution of our reference parameters in respect to the compression ratios. Finally, using the output of the model, we can control the parameters of the skin tone algorithm to reach an improvement in overall system quality.

  20. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  1. Automated angiogenesis quantification through advanced image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charlampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Chatziioannou, Aristotle; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels in tumors, is an interactive process between tumor, endothelial and stromal cells in order to create a network for oxygen and nutrients supply, necessary for tumor growth. According to this, angiogenic activity is considered a suitable method for both tumor growth or inhibition detection. The angiogenic potential is usually estimated by counting the number of blood vessels in particular sections. One of the most popular assay tissues to study the angiogenesis phenomenon is the developing chick embryo and its chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which is a highly vascular structure lining the inner surface of the egg shell. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an automated image analysis method that would give an unbiased quantification of the micro-vessel density and growth in angiogenic CAM images. The presented method has been validated by comparing automated results to manual counts over a series of digital chick embryo photos. The results indicate the high accuracy of the tool, which has been thus extensively used for tumor growth detection at different stages of embryonic development. PMID:17946107

  2. Advances in process overlay: alignment solutions for future technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, Henry; van Haren, Richard; Musa, Sami; Doytcheva, Maya; Lalbahadoersing, Sanjay; van Kemenade, Marc; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Hinnen, Paul; van Bilsen, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Semiconductor industry has an increasing demand for improvement of the total lithographic overlay performance. To improve the level of on-product overlay control the number of alignment measurements increases. Since more mask levels will be integrated, more alignment marks need to be printed when using direct-alignment (also called layer-to-layer alignment). Accordingly, the alignment mark size needs to become smaller, to fit all marks into the scribelane. For an in-direct alignment scheme, e.g. a scheme that aligns to another layer than the layer to which overlay is being measured, the number of needed alignment marks can be reduced. Simultaneously there is a requirement to reduce the size of alignment mark sub-segmentations without compromising the alignment and overlay performance. Smaller features within alignment marks can prevent processing issues like erosion, dishing and contamination. However, when the sub-segmentation size within an alignment mark becomes comparable to the critical dimension, and thus smaller than the alignment-illuminating wavelength, polarization effects might start to occur. Polarization effects are a challenge for optical alignment systems to maintain mark detectability. Nevertheless, this paper shows how to actually utilize those effects in order to obtain enhanced alignment and overlay performance to support future technology nodes. Finally, another challenge to be met for new semiconductor product technologies is the ability to align through semi-opaque materials, like for instance new hard-mask materials. Enhancement of alignment signal strength can be reached by adapting to new alignment marks that generate a higher alignment signal. This paper provides a description of an integral alignment solution that meets with these emerging customer application requirements. Complying with these requirements will significantly enhance the flexibility in production strategies while maintaining or improving the alignment and overlay

  3. Application of advanced on-board processing concepts to future satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. L.; Hoffman, M.; Kota, S. L.; Ruddy, J. M.; White, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    An initial definition of on-board processing requirements for an advanced satellite communications system to service domestic markets in the 1990's is presented. An exemplar system architecture with both RF on-board switching and demodulation/remodulation baseband processing was used to identify important issues related to system implementation, cost, and technology development.

  4. Advances in remote sensing and modeling of terrestrial hydro-meteorological processes and extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing is an indispensable tool for monitoring and detecting the evolution of the Earth’s hydro-meteorological processes. Fast-growing remote sensing observations and technologies have been a primary impetus to advancing our knowledge of hydro-meteorological processes and their extremes ove...

  5. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  6. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Paul H.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 6-hour introductory module on statistical process control (SPC), designed to develop competencies in the following skill areas: (1) identification of the three classes of SPC use; (2) understanding a process and how it works; (3)…

  7. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  8. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  9. Processing advances for localization of beaked whales using time difference of arrival.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the localization of clicking Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) using an array of widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones. A set of signal and data processing advances are presented that together make reliable tracking a possibility. These advances include a species-specific detector, elimination of spurious time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) estimates, improved tracking of TDOA estimates, positive association of TDOA estimates using different hydrophone pairs, and joint localization of multiple whales. A key innovation in three of these advances is the principle of click-matching. The methods are demonstrated using real data.

  10. [Technology development as social process: prospects and frontiers of social scientific elucidation of technological advancement].

    PubMed

    Dierkes, M

    1990-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the new developments in social scientific technology research which have changed considerably as a result of public debate and reactions to the importance of advancements in technology. The shift in emphasis, away from the effects of technology to its shaping, is described and certain hypotheses and concepts of advancement in the study of the social conditions underlying technical development processes are presented.

  11. Observability analysis of biochemical process models as a valuable tool for the development of mechanistic soft sensors.

    PubMed

    Golabgir, Aydin; Hoch, Thomas; Zhariy, Mariya; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By enabling the estimation of difficult-to-measure target variables using available indirect measurements, mechanistic soft sensors have become important tools for various bioprocess monitoring and control scenarios. Despite promising higher process efficiencies and increased process understanding, widespread application of soft sensors has been stalled by uncertainty about the feasibility and reliability of their estimations given present process analytical constraints. Observability analysis can provide an indication of the possibility and reliability of soft sensor estimations by analyzing the structural properties of first-principle (mechanistic) models. In addition, it can provide a criteria for selection of suitable measurement methods with respect to their information content; thereby leading to successful implementation of soft sensors in bioprocess development and manufacturing environments. We demonstrate the utility of observability analysis for two classes of upstream bioprocesses: the processes involving growth and ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the process of penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Results obtained from laboratory-scale cultivations in addition to in-silico experiments enable a comparison of theoretical aspects of observability analysis and the real-life performance of soft sensors. By taking the expected error of measurements provided to the soft sensor into account, an innovative scaling approach facilitates a higher degree of comparability of observability results among various measurement configurations and process conditions.

  12. Observability analysis of biochemical process models as a valuable tool for the development of mechanistic soft sensors.

    PubMed

    Golabgir, Aydin; Hoch, Thomas; Zhariy, Mariya; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By enabling the estimation of difficult-to-measure target variables using available indirect measurements, mechanistic soft sensors have become important tools for various bioprocess monitoring and control scenarios. Despite promising higher process efficiencies and increased process understanding, widespread application of soft sensors has been stalled by uncertainty about the feasibility and reliability of their estimations given present process analytical constraints. Observability analysis can provide an indication of the possibility and reliability of soft sensor estimations by analyzing the structural properties of first-principle (mechanistic) models. In addition, it can provide a criteria for selection of suitable measurement methods with respect to their information content; thereby leading to successful implementation of soft sensors in bioprocess development and manufacturing environments. We demonstrate the utility of observability analysis for two classes of upstream bioprocesses: the processes involving growth and ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the process of penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Results obtained from laboratory-scale cultivations in addition to in-silico experiments enable a comparison of theoretical aspects of observability analysis and the real-life performance of soft sensors. By taking the expected error of measurements provided to the soft sensor into account, an innovative scaling approach facilitates a higher degree of comparability of observability results among various measurement configurations and process conditions. PMID:26404038

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  14. Cell line development for biomanufacturing processes: recent advances and an outlook.

    PubMed

    Le, Huong; Vishwanathan, Nandita; Jacob, Nitya M; Gadgil, Mugdha; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-08-01

    At the core of a biomanufacturing process for recombinant proteins is the production cell line. It influences the productivity and product quality. Its characteristics also dictate process development, as the process is optimized to complement the producing cell to achieve the target productivity and quality. Advances in the past decade, from vector design to cell line screening, have greatly expanded our capability to attain producing cell lines with certain desired traits. Increasing availability of genomic and transcriptomic resources for industrially important cell lines coupled with advances in genome editing technology have opened new avenues for cell line development. These developments are poised to help biosimilar manufacturing, which requires targeting pre-defined product quality attributes, e.g., glycoform, to match the innovator's range. This review summarizes recent advances and discusses future possibilities in this area.

  15. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  16. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  17. Characterisation of odorant compounds and their biochemical formation in green tea with a low temperature storage process.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kasuga, Hisae; Kusano, Yumi; Yaguchi, Yoshihiro; Tomomura, Miho; Cui, Jilai; Yang, Ziyin; Baldermann, Susanne; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-04-01

    We produced low temperature (15 °C) processed green tea (LTPGT) with higher aroma contents than normal green tea (Sencha). Normal temperature processed green tea (NTPGT), involved storing at 25 °C, and Sencha had no storing process. Sensory evaluation showed LTPGT had higher levels of floral and sweet odorants than NTPGT and Sencha. Aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry indicated LTPGT had 12 aroma compounds with high factor dilution values (FD). Amongst LTPGT's 12 compounds, indole, jasmine lactone, cis-jasmone, coumarin, and methyl epijasmonate contributed to floral, fruity and sweet characters. In particular, indole increased initially, peaking at 16 h, then gradually decreased. Feeding experiments suggested [(15)N]indole and [(15)N]oxygenated indoles (OX-indoles) were produced from [(15)N]anthranilic acid. We proposed the increase in indole was due to transformation of anthranilic acid during the 16 h storage and the subsequent decline in indole level was due to its conversion to OX-indoles.

  18. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1993, through June 30, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  19. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through May 31, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  20. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration. Technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1993, through September 30, 1993. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques that are designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  1. Advances in multi-scale modeling of solidification and casting processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baicheng; Xu, Qingyan; Jing, Tao; Shen, Houfa; Han, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-01

    The development of the aviation, energy and automobile industries requires an advanced integrated product/process R&D systems which could optimize the product and the process design as well. Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a promising approach to fulfill this requirement and make the product and process development efficient, economic, and environmentally friendly. Advances in multi-scale modeling of solidification and casting processes, including mathematical models as well as engineering applications are presented in the paper. Dendrite morphology of magnesium and aluminum alloy of solidification process by using phase field and cellular automaton methods, mathematical models of segregation of large steel ingot, and microstructure models of unidirectionally solidified turbine blade casting are studied and discussed. In addition, some engineering case studies, including microstructure simulation of aluminum casting for automobile industry, segregation of large steel ingot for energy industry, and microstructure simulation of unidirectionally solidified turbine blade castings for aviation industry are discussed.

  2. Biochemical and ultrastructural processing of (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor in rat epidermis and hair follicles: accumulation of nuclear label

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.R.; Mycock, C.; Smith, C.G.; Couchman, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    Although the intracellular ultrastructural processing of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor have been described in cell culture systems, very few studies have examined this phenomenon in intact tissues. We have examined the ultrastructural and biochemical handling of (/sup 125/I)EGF in the epidermis and hair follicle bulb of intact, viable, 3- to 5-day-old rat skin the EGF receptor distribution of which has already been documented and in which EGF has been shown to be biologically active. After incubation of explants with 10 nM (/sup 125/I)EGF for 2.5 h at 25 degrees or 37 degrees C, radiolabel was detected over the basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicle outer root sheath, confirming previous light microscope observations. More specifically, silver grains were observed near coated and uncoated plasma membrane and coated membrane invaginations, Golgi apparatus, lysosomal structures, and nuclei. Sodium azide inhibited internalization of label, whereas a series of lysosomal inhibitors (chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide) caused a slight increase in silver grains associated with lysosomal vesicles and a decrease in nuclear label. Biochemical analysis indicated that greater than 35% of radioactivity following incubation at 37 degrees C was in the form of degraded (/sup 125/I)EGF fragments and that inclusion of chloroquine, monensin, and iodoacetamide reduced this value to 20.8%, 8.6%, and 4.0%, respectively. In addition, chloramine T-prepared (/sup 125/I)EGF was found to be covalently cross-linked with low efficiency to a protein having the molecular weight of the EGF receptor. These data are discussed in the light of the effects of EGF on epithelial cell proliferation in skin.

  3. Challenges and Opportunities in Reactive Processing and Applications of Advanced Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the research, development, and commercialization of innovative synthesis and processing technologies for advanced ceramics and composite materials. Reactive processing approaches have been actively considered due to their robustness, flexibility, and affordability. A wide variety of silicon carbide-based advanced ceramics and composites are currently being fabricated using the processing approaches involving reactive infiltration of liquid and gaseous species into engineered fibrous or microporous carbon performs. The microporous carbon performs have been fabricated using the temperature induced phase separation and pyrolysis of two phase organic (resin-pore former) mixtures and fiber reinforcement of carbon and ceramic particulate bodies. In addition, pyrolyzed native plant cellulose tissues also provide unique carbon templates for manufacturing of non-oxide and oxide ceramics. In spite of great interest in this technology due to their affordability and robustness, there is a lack of scientific basis for process understanding and many technical challenges still remain. The influence of perform properties and other parameters on the resulting microstructure and properties of final material is not well understood. In this presentation, mechanism of silicon-carbon reaction in various systems and the effect of perform microstructure on the mechanical properties of advanced silicon carbide based materials will be discussed. Various examples of applications of reactively processed advanced silicon carbide ceramics and composite materials will be presented.

  4. Fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials using sol-gel processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. T.; Chu, Jay; Zheng, Haixing

    1995-01-01

    Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.

  5. [Physiological and biochemical activity of bacteria during germination of cucumber seeds and impact of ciliates Colpoda steinii on this process].

    PubMed

    Chobotarova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the bacteria Bacillus subtilis B-7023 IMV produce indole-3-acetic acid and amino acids in the liquid medium Knoop. Processing cucumber seed suspension containing 10(7) cfu/ml as bacilli, and Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076, resulted in a decrease in the length of the roots of plants. Reduction of bacterial load bacilli to 10(6) cfu/ml followed by reduction of indole-3-acetic acid in the medium, and to an increase in the length of roots, shoots and total plant mass. During the cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 with ciliates Colpoda steinii reduced the amount of free forms of auxin in the medium to 5.5 times, and the related--to trace amounts. The content of histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and lysine significantly reduced.

  6. [Physiological and biochemical activity of bacteria during germination of cucumber seeds and impact of ciliates Colpoda steinii on this process].

    PubMed

    Chobotarova, V V; Bega, Z T; Kurdish, I K

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the bacteria Bacillus subtilis B-7023 IMV produce indole-3-acetic acid and amino acids in the liquid medium Knoop. Processing cucumber seed suspension containing 10(7) cfu/ml as bacilli, and Azotobacter vinelandii IMV V-7076, resulted in a decrease in the length of the roots of plants. Reduction of bacterial load bacilli to 10(6) cfu/ml followed by reduction of indole-3-acetic acid in the medium, and to an increase in the length of roots, shoots and total plant mass. During the cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 with ciliates Colpoda steinii reduced the amount of free forms of auxin in the medium to 5.5 times, and the related--to trace amounts. The content of histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine and lysine significantly reduced. PMID:26036028

  7. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of Advanced Potato Breeding Clones for Storage and Processing Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  9. Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.C.

    1983-04-01

    GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described.

  10. DESTRUCTION OF PAHS AND PCBS IN WATER USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CATALYTIC ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new class of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radicals is being tested for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous solution. These AOPs are based on the generation of sulfate radicals through...

  11. An Evaluation of the Air Force Logistics Career Area Advanced Academic Degree Position Validation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehl, Aleck L.; Sonnier, Ronald J.

    Reduced funding for educational programs indicated that a thorough review should be made of the Advanced Academic Degree (AAD) validation process. This reduction in funding necessitates more effective management of the AAD program in the logistics career areas to insure that officers in these career areas require those skills learned through these…

  12. 3-D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Levander, Alan R.

    2004-12-01

    Under ER63662, 3-D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface, we have completed a number of subprojects associated with the Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) high resolution 3-D reflection/tomography dataset.

  13. Fieldcrest Cannon, Inc. Advanced Technical Preparation. Statistical Process Control (SPC). PRE-SPC I. Instructor Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averitt, Sallie D.

    This instructor guide, which was developed for use in a manufacturing firm's advanced technical preparation program, contains the materials required to present a learning module that is designed to prepare trainees for the program's statistical process control module by improving their basic math skills and instructing them in basic calculator…

  14. Economic-Oriented Stochastic Optimization in Advanced Process Control of Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process. PMID:23213298

  15. Economic-oriented stochastic optimization in advanced process control of chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Dobos, László; Király, András; Abonyi, János

    2012-01-01

    Finding the optimal operating region of chemical processes is an inevitable step toward improving economic performance. Usually the optimal operating region is situated close to process constraints related to product quality or process safety requirements. Higher profit can be realized only by assuring a relatively low frequency of violation of these constraints. A multilevel stochastic optimization framework is proposed to determine the optimal setpoint values of control loops with respect to predetermined risk levels, uncertainties, and costs of violation of process constraints. The proposed framework is realized as direct search-type optimization of Monte-Carlo simulation of the controlled process. The concept is illustrated throughout by a well-known benchmark problem related to the control of a linear dynamical system and the model predictive control of a more complex nonlinear polymerization process.

  16. The use of safeguards data for process monitoring in the Advanced Test Line for Actinide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, J.W.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Los Alamos is constructing an integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting (PM/MC and A) system in the Advanced Testing Line for Actinide Separations (ATLAS) at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The ATLAS will test and demonstrate new methods for aqueous processing of plutonium. The ATLAS will also develop, test, and demonstrate the concepts for integrated process monitoring/materials control and accounting. We describe how this integrated PM/MC and A system will function and provide benefits to both process research and materials accounting personnel.

  17. Noninvasive sensors for in-situ process monitoring and control in advanced microelectronics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moslehi, Mehrdad M.

    1991-04-01

    The combination of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors single-wafer processing modules vacuum-integrated cluster tools and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) can provide a suitable fabrication environment for flexible and high-yield advanced semiconductor device manufacturing. The use of in-situ sensors for monitoring of equipment process and wafer parameters results in increased equipment/process up-time reduced process and device parameter spread improved cluster tool reliability and functionality and reduced overall device manufacturing cycle time. This paper will present an overview of the main features and impact of noninvasive in-situ monitoring sensors for semiconductor device manufacturing applications. Specific examples will be presented for the use of critical sensors in conjunction with cluster tools for advanced CMOS device processing. A noninvasive temperature sensor will be presented which can monitor true wafer temperature via infrared (5. 35 jtm) pyrometery and laser-assisted real-time spectral wafer emissivity measurements. This sensor design eliminates any. temperature measurement errors caused by the heating lamp radiation and wafer emissivity variations. 1. SENSORS: MOTIVATIONS AND IMPACT Semiconductor chip manufacturing factories usually employ well-established statistical process control (SPC) techniques to minimize the process parameter deviations and to increase the device fabrication yield. The conventional fabrication environments rely on controlling a limited set of critical equipment and process parameters (e. g. process pressure gas flow rates substrate temperature RF power etc. ) however most of the significant wafer process and equipment parameters of interest are not monitored in real

  18. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  19. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  20. Advancing MEMS Technology Usage through the MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Processes) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, D. A.; Markus, K. W.; Dhuler, V.; Mahadevan, R.; Cowen, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to help provide access to advanced micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and lower the barriers for both industry and academia, the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina (MCNC) and ARPA have developed a program which provides users with access to both MEMS processes and advanced electronic integration techniques. The four distinct aspects of this program, the multi-user MEMS processes (MUMP's), the consolidated micro-mechanical element library, smart MEMS, and the MEMS technology network are described in this paper. MUMP's is an ARPA-supported program created to provide inexpensive access to MEMS technology in a multi-user environment. It is both a proof-of-concept and educational tool that aids in the development of MEMS in the domestic community. MUMP's technologies currently include a 3-layer poly-silicon surface micromachining process and LIGA (lithography, electroforming, and injection molding) processes that provide reasonable design flexibility within set guidelines. The consolidated micromechanical element library (CaMEL) is a library of active and passive MEMS structures that can be downloaded by the MEMS community via the internet. Smart MEMS is the development of advanced electronics integration techniques for MEMS through the application of flip chip technology. The MEMS technology network (TechNet) is a menu of standard substrates and MEMS fabrication processes that can be purchased and combined to create unique process flows. TechNet provides the MEMS community greater flexibility and enhanced technology accessibility.

  1. Biostimulation effect of low-level laser on healing process after third molar surgery, based on biochemical markers in saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroulikova, Veronika; Dostálová, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

    2015-02-01

    Third molar extractions in general anesthesia have become a standard procedure in dentistry. There is an effort to shorten healing time and decrease the number of complications as well as increase comfort after the treatment. Low-level lasers are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and stimulatory effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser after surgery in general anesthesia reducing the patient's discomfort, i.e. mainly pain, and also, to monitor the biostimulation process. Our study included 79 patients treated at the Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, diagnosed with third molar retention. Diode low-level laser radiation (wavelength 830 nm, output power 270 mW, probe aperture of 6.4 mm2) with dose ~ 3 mJ was applied. The control group was treated by using placebo - red light. The exposure time was 11 seconds immediately after the suture; the treatment was repeated every day for the following 3 days. To evaluate the effect of laser biostimulation, the objective markers for immunological determination of healing - sIgA and lysozyme in non-stimulated saliva of patients - were used. The sIgA decreases after laser application from 546.91 mg/l to 304. 91mg/l and in the control group from 602.25mg/l to 425.62 mg/l. The results were statistically significant. The level of lysozyme decreases from 54.27 mg/l to 2.45mg/l after laser biostimulation, from 304.371mg/l to 11.08mg/l after placebo effect. The study has confirmed a low-level laser healing effect not directly related to pain.

  2. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  3. Sustainable conversion of coffee and other crop wastes to biofuels and bioproducts using coupled biochemical and thermochemical processes in a multi-stage biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Moser, Bryan R; Cox, Elby J; Lindquist, Mitch; Galindo-Leva, Luz Angela; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M; Rodriguez-Valencia, Nelson; Gast, Fernando; Cedeño, David L; Tasaki, Ken; Brown, Robert C; Darzins, Al; Brunner, Lane

    2014-10-01

    The environmental impact of agricultural waste from the processing of food and feed crops is an increasing concern worldwide. Concerted efforts are underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from the processing of such crops as coffee, sugarcane, or corn. Coffee is crucial to the economies of many countries because its cultivation, processing, trading, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. In coffee-producing countries, improved technology for treatment of the significant amounts of coffee waste is critical to prevent ecological damage. This mini-review discusses a multi-stage biorefinery concept with the potential to convert waste produced at crop processing operations, such as coffee pulping stations, to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies. The initial bioconversion stage uses a mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast strain to produce bioethanol from sugars. The resulting sugar-depleted solids (mostly protein) can be used in a second stage by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce bio-based ammonia for fertilizer and are further degraded by Y. lipolytica proteases to peptides and free amino acids for animal feed. The lignocellulosic fraction can be ground and treated to release sugars for fermentation in a third stage by a recombinant cellulosic Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can also be engineered to express valuable peptide products. The residual protein and lignin solids can be jet cooked and passed to a fourth-stage fermenter where Rhodotorula glutinis converts methane into isoprenoid intermediates. The residues can be combined and transferred into pyrocracking and hydroformylation reactions to convert ammonia, protein, isoprenes, lignins, and oils into renewable gas. Any remaining waste can be thermoconverted to biochar as a humus soil enhancer. The integration of multiple technologies for treatment of coffee waste has the potential to

  4. Advanced Materials and Processing for Drug Delivery: The Past and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery. PMID:23088863

  5. Advanced instrumentation for the collection, retrieval, and processing of urban stormwater data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Jerald B.; Bales, Jerad D.; Young, Wendi S.; ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, has developed a data-collection network that uses advanced instrumentation to automatically collect, retrieve, and process urban stormwater data. Precipitation measurement and water-quality networks provide data for (1) planned watershed simulation models, (2) early warning of possible flooding, (3) computation of material export, and (4) characterization of water quality in relation to basin conditions. Advantages of advanced instrumentation include remote access to real-time data, reduced demands on and more efficient use of limited human resources, and direct importation of data into a geographical information system for display and graphic analysis.

  6. Advanced materials and processing for drug delivery: the past and the future.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chan, Hon Fai; Leong, Kam W

    2013-01-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of vital importance for medicine and healthcare. Materials innovation and nanotechnology have synergistically fueled the advancement of drug delivery. Innovation in material chemistry allows the generation of biodegradable, biocompatible, environment-responsive, and targeted delivery systems. Nanotechnology enables control over size, shape and multi-functionality of particulate drug delivery systems. In this review, we focus on the materials innovation and processing of drug delivery systems and how these advances have shaped the past and may influence the future of drug delivery.

  7. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  8. Using Process/CFD Co-Simulation for the Design and Analysis of Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-04-01

    In this presentation we describe the major features and capabilities of NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) and highlight its application to advanced energy systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based electricity and hydrogen plant in the DOE’s $1 billion, 10-year FutureGen demonstration project. APECS is an integrated software suite which allows the process and energy industries to optimize overall plant performance with respect to complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena by combining process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) with high-fidelity equipment simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models (e.g., FLUENT®).

  9. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  10. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Hunter, J

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation. PMID:11676438

  11. Analysis of edible oil processing options for the BIO-Plex advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J.

    2000-01-01

    Edible oil is a critical component of the proposed plant-based Advanced Life Support (ALS) diet. Soybean, peanut, and single-cell oil are the oil source options to date. In terrestrial manufacture, oil is ordinarily extracted with hexane, an organic solvent. However, exposed solvents are not permitted in the spacecraft environment or in enclosed human tests by National Aeronautics and Space Administration due to their potential danger and handling difficulty. As a result, alternative oil-processing methods will need to be utilized. Preparation and recovery options include traditional dehulling, crushing, conditioning, and flaking, extrusion, pressing, water extraction, and supercritical extraction. These processing options were evaluated on criteria appropriate to the Advanced Life Support System and BIO-Plex application including: product quality, product stability, waste production, risk, energy needs, labor requirements, utilization of nonrenewable resources, usefulness of by-products, and versatility and mass of equipment to determine the most appropriate ALS edible oil-processing operation.

  12. Advanced statistical process control of a chemical vapor tungsten deposition process on an Applied Materials Centura reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Jerry A.; Poarch, Scott; Saxena, Sharad; Mozumder, P. K.

    1994-09-01

    An advanced multivariable off-line process control system, which combines traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) with feedback control, has been applied to the CVD tungsten process on an Applied Materials Centura reactor. The goal of the model-based controller is to compensate for shifts in the process and maintain the wafer state responses on target. In the present application the controller employs measurements made on test wafers by off-line metrology tools to track the process behavior. This is accomplished by using model- bases SPC, which compares the measurements with predictions obtained from empirically-derived process models. For CVD tungsten, a physically-based modeling approach was employed based on the kinetically-limited H2 reduction of WF6. On detecting a statistically significant shift in the process, the controller calculates adjustments to the settings to bring the process responses back on target. To achieve this a few additional test wafers are processed at slightly different settings than the nominal. This local experiment allows the models to be updated to reflect the current process performance. The model updates are expressed as multiplicative or additive changes in the process inputs and a change in the model constant. This approach for model updating not only tracks the present process/equipment state, but it also provides some diagnostic capability regarding the cause of the process shift. The updated models are used by an optimizer to compute new settings to bring the responses back to target. The optimizer is capable of incrementally entering controllables into the strategy, reflecting the degree to which the engineer desires to manipulates each setting. The capability of the controller to compensate for shifts in the CVD tungsten process has been demonstrated. Targets for film bulk resistivity and deposition rate were maintained while satisfying constraints on film stress and WF6 conversion efficiency.

  13. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  14. Parametric design of ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denny, C.; Johnson, E. M.; Davis, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric system design technique has been applied to ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor applications. The system establishes a direct link between budget analysts and system planners. Three primary phases are identified: the definition of requirements, system design, and system costing. The system is evaluated for three cases: (1) a study of ground data handling systems for earth resource satellites, (2) a ground data mass storage and processing system for agricultural remote-sensing studies, and (3) a parametric study of shuttle era data processing support required for atmospheric and space physics.

  15. Advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide/microwave system for solubilization of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping Huang; Wong, Wayne T; Lo, Kwang Victor

    2005-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process (AOP) combining hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating was used for the solubilization of phosphate from secondary municipal sludge from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The microwave irradiation is used as a generator agent of oxidizing radicals as well as a heating source in the process. This AOP process could facilitate the release of a large amount of the sludge-bound phosphorus from the sewage sludge. More than 84% of the total phosphorous could be released at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. This innovative process has the potential of being applied to simple sludge treatment processes in domestic wastewater treatment and to the recovery of phosphorus from the wastewater.

  16. Advanced image processing package for FPGA-based re-programmable miniature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovod, Vladimir I.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.

    2005-05-01

    Nova Sensors produces miniature electronics for a variety of real-time digital video camera systems, including foveal sensors based on Nova's Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager (VASITM) technology. An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical, background velocimetry and target tracking. Currently, the processing package consists of 14 processing operations that cover a broad range of point- and area-applied algorithms. Flexible FPGA designs of these operations and re-programmability of the processing board allows for easy updates of the VASITM sensors, and for low-cost customization of VASITM sensors taking into account specific customer requirements. This paper describes the image processing algorithms implemented and verified in Xilinx FPGAs and provides the major technical performances with figures illustrating practical applications of the processing package.

  17. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  18. Hypermetabolic Conversion of Plant Oil into Water: Endothermic Biochemical Process Stimulated by Juvenile Hormone in the European Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus L.

    PubMed Central

    Sláma, Karel; Lukáš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect’s body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds. In order to survive, it needs to drink water or suck a sap from plants occasionally. It was found that the young larval instars compensate the occasional water deficiency by the increased production of metabolic water. The juvenile hormone (JH)-dependent production of metabolic water, which was previously found in other species consuming dry food, was achieved in P. apterus by total metabolic combustion of the dietary lipid (neutral seed oil). The water-producing, hypermetabolic larvae were heated from inside by endothermic energy released from the uncoupling of oxidation from oxidative phosphorylation. The “warm”, hypermetabolic larvae burning the dietary oil into CO2 and water showed the increased rates of respiratory metabolism. Microrespirographic recording of these larvae revealed the ratio of the respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2/O2) of 0.7, which indicated the breakdown of a pure triglyceride. The warm hypermetabolic larvae could be easily spotted and distinguished from the “cold” larvae on the screen of a thermovision camera. The last instar larvae lacking the JH were always only cold. They metabolized a carbohydrate substrate exclusively (RQ = 1.0), while the dietary lipid was stored in the fat body. In comparison with the hypermetabolic larvae of some other species fed on dry food, which exhibited the highest rates of O2 consumption ever recorded in a living organism (10–20 mL O2/g per hour), the metabolic difference between

  19. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  20. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  1. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-01

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review.

  2. Rational design and optimization of downstream processes of virus particles for biopharmaceutical applications: current advances.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Tiago; Mota, José P B; Peixoto, Cristina; Alves, Paula M; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2011-01-01

    The advent of advanced therapies in the pharmaceutical industry has moved the spotlight into virus-like particles and viral vectors produced in cell culture holding great promise in a myriad of clinical targets, including cancer prophylaxis and treatment. Even though a couple of cases have reached the clinic, these products have yet to overcome a number of biological and technological challenges before broad utilization. Concerning the manufacturing processes, there is significant research focusing on the optimization of current cell culture systems and, more recently, on developing scalable downstream processes to generate material for pre-clinical and clinical trials. We review the current options for downstream processing of these complex biopharmaceuticals and underline current advances on knowledge-based toolboxes proposed for rational optimization of their processing. Rational tools developed to increase the yet scarce knowledge on the purification processes of complex biologicals are discussed as alternative to empirical, "black-boxed" based strategies classically used for process development. Innovative methodologies based on surface plasmon resonance, dynamic light scattering, scale-down high-throughput screening and mathematical modeling for supporting ion-exchange chromatography show great potential for a more efficient and cost-effective process design, optimization and equipment prototyping.

  3. Advances in Software Tools for Pre-processing and Post-processing of Overset Grid Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in three pieces of software for performing pre-processing and post-processing work on numerical computations using overset grids are presented. The first is the OVERGRID graphical interface which provides a unified environment for the visualization, manipulation, generation and diagnostics of geometry and grids. Modules are also available for automatic boundary conditions detection, flow solver input preparation, multiple component dynamics input preparation and dynamics animation, simple solution viewing for moving components, and debris trajectory analysis input preparation. The second is a grid generation script library that enables rapid creation of grid generation scripts. A sample of recent applications will be described. The third is the OVERPLOT graphical interface for displaying and analyzing history files generated by the flow solver. Data displayed include residuals, component forces and moments, number of supersonic and reverse flow points, and various dynamics parameters.

  4. Advanced process monitoring and feedback control to enhance cell culture process production and robustness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, An; Tsang, Valerie Liu; Moore, Brandon; Shen, Vivian; Huang, Yao-Ming; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    It is a common practice in biotherapeutic manufacturing to define a fixed-volume feed strategy for nutrient feeds, based on historical cell demand. However, once the feed volumes are defined, they are inflexible to batch-to-batch variations in cell growth and physiology and can lead to inconsistent productivity and product quality. In an effort to control critical quality attributes and to apply process analytical technology (PAT), a fully automated cell culture feedback control system has been explored in three different applications. The first study illustrates that frequent monitoring and automatically controlling the complex feed based on a surrogate (glutamate) level improved protein production. More importantly, the resulting feed strategy was translated into a manufacturing-friendly manual feed strategy without impact on product quality. The second study demonstrates the improved process robustness of an automated feed strategy based on online bio-capacitance measurements for cell growth. In the third study, glucose and lactate concentrations were measured online and were used to automatically control the glucose feed, which in turn changed lactate metabolism. These studies suggest that the auto-feedback control system has the potential to significantly increase productivity and improve robustness in manufacturing, with the goal of ensuring process performance and product quality consistency.

  5. Uncovering brain–heart information through advanced signal and image processing

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Nicola; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Through their dynamical interplay, the brain and the heart ensure fundamental homeostasis and mediate a number of physiological functions as well as their disease-related aberrations. Although a vast number of ad hoc analytical and computational tools have been recently applied to the non-invasive characterization of brain and heart dynamic functioning, little attention has been devoted to combining information to unveil the interactions between these two physiological systems. This theme issue collects contributions from leading experts dealing with the development of advanced analytical and computational tools in the field of biomedical signal and image processing. It includes perspectives on recent advances in 7 T magnetic resonance imaging as well as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and cerebrovascular flow processing, with the specific aim of elucidating methods to uncover novel biological and physiological correlates of brain–heart physiology and physiopathology. PMID:27044995

  6. Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

    2014-01-01

    Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed. PMID:24687789

  7. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  8. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  9. Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

    2014-01-01

    Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed.

  10. A Biochemical Approach to Understand the Pathogenesis of Advanced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Metabolomic Profiles of Arginine, Sphingosine-1-Phosphate, and Heme of Human Lung

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yidan D.; Chu, Lei; Lin, Kathleen; Granton, Elise; Yin, Li; Peng, Jenny; Hsin, Michael; Wu, Licun; Yu, Amy; Waddell, Thomas; Keshavjee, Shaf; Granton, John; de Perrot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular disease characterized by persistent precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH), leading to progressive right heart failure and premature death. The pathological mechanisms underlying this condition remain elusive. Analysis of global metabolomics from lung tissue of patients with PAH (n = 8) and control lung tissue (n = 8) leads to a better understanding of disease progression. Using a combination of high-throughput liquid-and-gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, we showed unbiased metabolomic profiles of disrupted arginine pathways with increased Nitric oxide (NO) and decreased arginine. Our results also showed specific metabolic pathways and genetic profiles with increased Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) metabolites as well as increased Heme metabolites with altered oxidative pathways in the advanced stage of the human PAH lung. The results suggest that PAH has specific metabolic pathways contributing to the vascular remodeling in severe pulmonary hypertension. Profiling metabolomic alterations of the PAH lung has provided a new understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of PAH, which benefits therapeutic targeting to specific metabolic pathways involved in the progression of PAH. PMID:26317340

  11. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Lee, William E.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  12. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  13. Advanced simulation technology for etching process design for CMOS device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuboi, Nobuyuki; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    Plasma etching is a critical process for the realization of high performance in the next generation of CMOS devices. To predict and control fluctuations in the etching properties accurately during mass production, it is essential that etching process simulation technology considers fluctuations in the plasma chamber wall conditions, the effects of by-products on the critical dimensions, the Si recess dependence on the wafer open area ratio and local pattern structure, and the time-dependent plasma-induced damage distribution associated with the three-dimensional feature scale profile at the 100 nm level. This consideration can overcome the issues with conventional simulations performed under the assumed ideal conditions, which are not accurate enough for practical process design. In this article, these advanced process simulation technologies are reviewed, and, from the results of suitable process simulations, a new etching system that automatically controls the etching properties is proposed to enable stable CMOS device fabrication with high yields.

  14. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  15. Development and application of a probabilistic evaluation method for advanced process technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply a method for research planning for advanced process technologies. To satisfy requirements for research planning, it is necessary to: (1) identify robust solutions to process design questions in the face of uncertainty to eliminate inferior design options; (2) identify key problem areas in a technology that should be the focus of further research to reduce the risk of technology failure; (3) compare competing technologies on a consistent basis to determine the risks associated with adopting a new technology; and (4) evaluate the effects that additional research might have on comparisons with conventional technology. An important class of process technologies are electric power plants. In particular, advanced clean coal technologies are expected to play a key role in the energy and environmental future of the US, as well as in other countries. Research planning for advanced clean coal technology development is an important part of energy and environmental policy. Thus, the research planning method developed here is applied to case studies focusing on a specific clean coal technology. The purpose of the case studies is both to demonstrate the research planning method and to obtain technology-specific conclusions regarding research strategies.

  16. Advanced oxidation processes for degradation of 2,4-dichlo- and 2,4-dimethylphenol

    SciTech Connect

    Trapido, M.; Veressinina, Y.; Munter, R.

    1998-08-01

    The efficiency of different advanced oxidation processes for degradation of two phenols, 2,4-dimethylphenol (2,4-DMP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), has been under study. Advanced oxidation processes, especially the Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/ultraviolet (UV) system, were found to be effective in decomposing phenols and chlorophenols. The degradation rate for 2,4-DCP followed the order, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+}/UV > H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} > O{sub 3}/ultrasound (US) > O{sub 3} {ge} O{sub 3}/UV > UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} {ge} US > UV. The corresponding order for 2,4-DMP was H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+}/UV > O{sub 3}/US > O{sub 3} {ge} O{sub 3}/UV > H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} > US {ge} UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} > UV. Therefore, the chemical treatment, especially advanced oxidation processes, may be an alternative method for destruction of phenols and purification of wastewaters containing phenolic compounds.

  17. Advances in Plasma Process Equipment Development using Plasma and Electromagnetics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur

    2013-10-01

    Plasma processing is widely used in the semiconductor industry for thin film etching and deposition, modification of near-surface material, and cleaning. In particular, the challenges for plasma etching have increased as the critical feature dimensions for advanced semiconductor devices have decreased to 20 nm and below. Critical scaling limitations are increasingly driving the transition to 3D solutions such as multi-gate MOSFETs and 3D NAND structures. These structures create significant challenges for dielectric and conductor etching, especially given the high aspect ratio (HAR) of the features. Plasma etching equipment must therefore be capable of exacting profile control across the entire wafer for feature aspect ratios up to 80:1, high throughput, and exceptionally high selectivity. The multiple challenges for advanced 3D structures are addressed by Applied Material's plasma etching chambers by providing highly sophisticated control of ion energy, wafer temperature and plasma chemistry. Given the costs associated with such complex designs and reduced development time-scales, much of these design innovations have been enabled by utilizing advanced computational plasma modeling tools. We have expended considerable effort to develop 3-dimensional coupled plasma and electromagnetic modeling tools in recent years. In this work, we report on these modeling software and their application to plasma processing system design and evaluation of strategies for hardware and process improvement. Several of these examples deal with process uniformity, which is one of the major challenges facing plasma processing equipment design on large substrates. Three-dimensional plasma modeling is used to understand the sources of plasma non-uniformity, including the radio-frequency (RF) current path, and develop uniformity improvement techniques. Examples from coupled equipment and process models to investigate the dynamics of pulsed plasmas and their impact on plasma chemistry will

  18. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 6 of 6: Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Allison; D.L. Beshears; W.W. Manges

    1999-06-30

    This report describes the successful completion of the development of an accurate in-process measurement instrument for galvanneal steel surface temperatures. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is a part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S> Department of Energy and fifteen North American Steelmakers. This three-year project entitled ''Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel'' uses phosphor thermography, and outgrowth of Uranium enrichment research at Oak Ridge facilities. Temperature is the controlling factor regarding the distribution of iron and zinc in the galvanneal strip coating, which in turn determines the desired product properties

  19. Advanced organic optoelectronic materials: harnessing excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Park, Soo Young

    2011-08-23

    Recently, organic fluorescent molecules harnessing the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process are drawing great attention due to their unique photophysical properties which facilitate novel optoelectronic applications. After a brief introduction to the ESIPT process and related photo-physical properties, molecular design strategies towards tailored emission are discussed in relation to their theoretical aspects. Subsequently, recent studies on advanced ESIPT molecules and their optoelectronic applications are surveyed, particularly focusing on chemical sensors, fluorescence imaging, proton transfer lasers, and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  20. Homogenous VUV advanced oxidation process for enhanced degradation and mineralization of antibiotics in contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of amoxicillin(AMX), using VUV advanced process. The effect of pH, AMX initial concentration, presence of water ingredients, the effect of HRT, and mineralization level by VUV process were taken into consideration. In order to make a direct comparison, the test was also performed by UVC radiation. The results show that the degradation of AMX was following the first-order kinetic. It was found that direct photolysis by UVC was able to degrade 50mg/L of AMX in 50min,while it was 3min for VUV process. It was also found that the removal efficiency by VUV process was directly influenced by pH of the solution, and higher removal rates were achieved at high pH values.The results show that 10mg/L of AMX was completely degraded and mineralized within 50s and 100s, respectively, indicating that the AMX was completely destructed into non-hazardous materials. Operating the photoreactor in contentious-flow mode revealed that 10mg/L AMX was completely degraded and mineralized at HRT values of 120s and 300s. it was concluded that the VUV advanced process was an efficient and viable technique for degradation and mineralization of contaminated water by antibiotics. PMID:26669695

  1. Influence of Manufacturing Processes and Microstructures on the Performance and Manufacturability of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are performance-based steel grades and their global material properties can be achieved with various steel chemistries and manufacturing processes, leading to various microstructures. In this paper, we investigate the influence of supplier variation and resulting microstructure difference on the overall mechanical properties as well as local formability behaviors of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). For this purpose, we first examined the basic material properties and the transformation kinetics of TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) 800 steels from three different suppliers under different testing temperatures. The experimental results show that there is a significant supplier (i.e., manufacturing process) dependency of the TRIP 800 steel mechanical and microstructure properties. Next, we examined the local formability of two commercial Dual Phase (DP) 980 steels during stamping process. The two commercial DP 980 steels also exhibit noticeably different formability during stamping process in the sense that one of them shows severe tendency for shear fracture. Microstructure-based finite element analyses are carried out next to simulate the localized deformation process with the two DP 980 microstructures, and the results suggest that the possible reason for the difference in formability lies in the morphology of the hard martensite phase in the DP microstructure.

  2. Implementation and benefits of advanced process control for lithography CD and overlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Lena; Fu, Chong-Cheng; Seligman, Gary S.; Tapp, Perry A.; Pol, Victor

    2003-05-01

    Due to the rapidly reduced imaging process windows and increasingly stingent device overlay requirements, sub-130 nm lithography processes are more severely impacted than ever by systamic fault. Limits on critical dimensions (CD) and overlay capability further challenge the operational effectiveness of a mix-and-match environment using multiple lithography tools, as such mode additionally consumes the available error budgets. Therefore, a focus on advanced process control (APC) methodologies is key to gaining control in the lithographic modules for critical device levels, which in turn translates to accelerated yield learning, achieving time-to-market lead, and ultimately a higher return on investment. This paper describes the implementation and unique challenges of a closed-loop CD and overlay control solution in high voume manufacturing of leading edge devices. A particular emphasis has been placed on developing a flexible APC application capable of managing a wide range of control aspects such as process and tool drifts, single and multiple lot excursions, referential overlay control, 'special lot' handling, advanced model hierarchy, and automatic model seeding. Specific integration cases, including the multiple-reticle complementary phase shift lithography process, are discussed. A continuous improvement in the overlay and CD Cpk performance as well as the rework rate has been observed through the implementation of this system, and the results are studied.

  3. Advanced treatment of landfill leachate by a new combination process in a full-scale plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Huo-Sheng; Zhou, Shao-Qi; Sun, Yan-Bo; Feng, Ping; Li, Jing-da

    2009-12-15

    Advanced treatment of mature landfill leachate from a municipal landfill located in southern China (Jiangmen) was carried out in a full-scale plant using a new process. The combined process has a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) serving as the primary treatment, with polyferric sulfate (PFS) coagulation coupled with a Fenton system as secondary treatment, and a pair of upflow biological aerated filters (UBAFs) in parallel as tertiary treatment. The overall removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in this process was 97.3%, with an effluent COD less than 100 mg/L. Up to 99% ammonia (N-NH3) removal efficiency was achieved in the SBR, with an effluent of less than 3 mg/L, which meets the discharge standard (< or =25 mg/L) with only primary treatment. The total phosphorus (TP) and suspended solids (SS) in the final effluent were reduced to less than 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The experience gained in the operation and maintenance will lead to a more stable performance of this combined process. An economic analysis shows that the overall operating cost of the advanced treatment was $2.70/m(3). This new combination process was proved to be highly compatible and efficient in a small-scale landfill leachate treatment plant and is recommended for small-scale landfill leachate treatment plants.

  4. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  5. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  6. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  7. Application of Advanced Process Control techniques to a pusher type reheating furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanoli, S. M.; Pepe, C.; Barboni, L.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper an Advanced Process Control system aimed at controlling and optimizing a pusher type reheating furnace located in an Italian steel plant is proposed. The designed controller replaced the previous control system, based on PID controllers manually conducted by process operators. A two-layer Model Predictive Control architecture has been adopted that, exploiting a chemical, physical and economic modelling of the process, overcomes the limitations of plant operators’ mental model and knowledge. In addition, an ad hoc decoupling strategy has been implemented, allowing the selection of the manipulated variables to be used for the control of each single process variable. Finally, in order to improve the system flexibility and resilience, the controller has been equipped with a supervision module. A profitable trade-off between conflicting specifications, e.g. safety, quality and production constraints, energy saving and pollution impact, has been guaranteed. Simulation tests and real plant results demonstrated the soundness and the reliability of the proposed system.

  8. Rapid Intelligent Inspection Process Definition for dimensional measurement in advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Rapid Intelligent Inspection Process Definition (RIIPD) project is an industry-led effort to advance computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) systems for the creation and modification of inspection process definitions. The RIIPD project will define, design, develop, and demonstrate an automated tool (i.e., software) to generate inspection process plans and coordinate measuring machine (CMM) inspection programs, as well as produce support information for the dimensional measurement of piece parts. The goal of this project is to make the inspection and part verification function, specifically CMM measurements, a more effective production support tool by reducing inspection process definition flowtime, creating consistent and standard inspections, increasing confidence of measurement results, and capturing inspection expertise. This objective is accomplished through importing STEP geometry definitions, applying solid modeling, incorporating explicit tolerance representations, establishing dimensional inspection,techniques, embedding artificial intelligence techniques, and adhering to the Dimensional Measuring Interface Standard (DMIS) national standard.

  9. Improvement of process control using wafer geometry for enhanced manufacturability of advanced semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Honggoo; Lee, Jongsu; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Changhwan; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Kwon, Wontaik; Park, Sung-Ki; Vukkadala, Pradeep; Awasthi, Amartya; Kim, J. H.; Veeraraghavan, Sathish; Choi, DongSub; Huang, Kevin; Dighe, Prasanna; Lee, Cheouljung; Byeon, Jungho; Dey, Soham; Sinha, Jaydeep

    2015-03-01

    Aggressive advancements in semiconductor technology have resulted in integrated chip (IC) manufacturing capability at sub-20nm half-pitch nodes. With this, lithography overlay error budgets are becoming increasingly stringent. The delay in EUV lithography readiness for high volume manufacturing (HVM) and the need for multiple-patterning lithography with 193i technology has further amplified the overlay issue. Thus there exists a need for technologies that can improve overlay errors in HVM. The traditional method for reducing overlay errors predominantly focused on improving lithography scanner printability performance. However, processes outside of the lithography sector known as processinduced overlay errors can contribute significantly to the total overlay at the current requirements. Monitoring and characterizing process-induced overlay has become critical for advanced node patterning. Recently a relatively new technique for overlay control that uses high-resolution wafer geometry measurements has gained significance. In this work we present the implementation of this technique in an IC fabrication environment to monitor wafer geometry changes induced across several points in the process flow, of multiple product layers with critical overlay performance requirement. Several production wafer lots were measured and analyzed on a patterned wafer geometry tool. Changes induced in wafer geometry as a result of wafer processing were related to down-stream overlay error contribution using the analytical in-plane distortion (IPD) calculation model. Through this segmentation, process steps that are major contributors to down-stream overlay were identified. Subsequent process optimization was then isolated to those process steps where maximum benefit might be realized. Root-cause for the within-wafer, wafer-to-wafer, tool-to-tool, and station-to-station variations observed were further investigated using local shape curvature changes - which is directly related to

  10. Process modeling of an advanced NH₃ abatement and recycling technology in the ammonia-based CO₂ capture process.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangkang; Yu, Hai; Tade, Moses; Feron, Paul; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Shujuan

    2014-06-17

    An advanced NH3 abatement and recycling process that makes great use of the waste heat in flue gas was proposed to solve the problems of ammonia slip, NH3 makeup, and flue gas cooling in the ammonia-based CO2 capture process. The rigorous rate-based model, RateFrac in Aspen Plus, was thermodynamically and kinetically validated by experimental data from open literature and CSIRO pilot trials at Munmorah Power Station, Australia, respectively. After a thorough sensitivity analysis and process improvement, the NH3 recycling efficiency reached as high as 99.87%, and the NH3 exhaust concentration was only 15.4 ppmv. Most importantly, the energy consumption of the NH3 abatement and recycling system was only 59.34 kJ/kg CO2 of electricity. The evaluation of mass balance and temperature steady shows that this NH3 recovery process was technically effective and feasible. This process therefore is a promising prospect toward industrial application.

  11. Application of a solar UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process to oil sands process-affected water remediation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zengquan; Li, Chao; Belosevic, Miodrag; Bolton, James R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2014-08-19

    The solar UV/chlorine process has emerged as a novel advanced oxidation process for industrial and municipal wastewaters. Currently, its practical application to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) remediation has been studied to treat fresh OSPW retained in large tailings ponds, which can cause significant adverse environmental impacts on ground and surface waters in Northern Alberta, Canada. Degradation of naphthenic acids (NAs) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW was investigated. In a laboratory-scale UV/chlorine treatment, the NAs degradation was clearly structure-dependent and hydroxyl radical-based. In terms of the NAs degradation rate, the raw OSPW (pH ∼ 8.3) rates were higher than those at an alkaline condition (pH = 10). Under actual sunlight, direct solar photolysis partially degraded fluorophore organic compounds, as indicated by the qualitative synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) of the OSPW, but did not impact NAs degradation. The solar/chlorine process effectively removed NAs (75-84% removal) and fluorophore organic compounds in OSPW in the presence of 200 or 300 mg L(-1) OCl(-). The acute toxicity of OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was reduced after the solar/chlorine treatment. However, the OSPW toxicity toward goldfish primary kidney macrophages after solar/chlorine treatment showed no obvious toxicity reduction versus that of untreated OSPW, which warrants further study for process optimization.

  12. Some inadequacies of the current human factors certification process of advanced aircraft technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paries, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Automation related accidents or serious incidents are not limited to advanced technology aircraft. There is a full history of such accidents with conventional technology aircraft. However, this type of occurrence is far from sparing the newest 'glass cockpit' generation, and it even seems to be a growing contributor to its accident rate. Nevertheless, all these aircraft have been properly certificated according to the relevant airworthiness regulations. Therefore, there is a growing concern that with the technological advancement of air transport aircraft cockpits, the current airworthiness regulations addressing cockpit design and human factors may have reached some level of inadequacy. This paper reviews some aspects of the current airworthiness regulations and certification process related to human factors of cockpit design and focuses on questioning their ability to guarantee the intended safety objectives.

  13. Progress in the Development of Direct Osmotic Concentration Wastewater Recovery Process for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cath, Tzahi Y.; Adams, Dean V.; Childress, Amy; Gormly, Sherwin; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Direct osmotic concentration (DOC) has been identified as a high potential technology for recycling of wastewater to drinking water in advanced life support (ALS) systems. As a result the DOC process has been selected for a NASA Rapid Technology Development Team (RTDT) effort. The existing prototype system has been developed to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3. The current project focuses on advancing the development of this technology from TRL 3 to TRL 6 (appropriate for human rated testing). A new prototype of a DOC system is been designed and fabricated that addresses the deficiencies encountered during the testing of the original system and allowing the new prototype to achieve TRL 6. Background information is provided about the technologies investigated and their capabilities, results from preliminary tests, and the milestones plan and activities for the RTDT program intended to develop a second generation prototype of the DOC system.

  14. Treatment of coking wastewater by an advanced Fenton oxidation process using iron powder and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong; Dong, Jing; Liu, Haiyang; Sun, Xulin

    2012-01-01

    In this study the treatment of coking wastewater was investigated by an advanced Fenton oxidation process using iron powder and hydrogen peroxide. Particular attention was paid to the effect of initial pH, dosage of H(2)O(2) and to improvement in biodegradation. The results showed that higher COD and total phenol removal rates were achieved with a decrease in initial pH and an increase in H(2)O(2) dosage. At an initial pH of less than 6.5 and H(2)O(2) concentration of 0.3 M, COD removal reached 44-50% and approximately 95% of total phenol removal was achieved at a reaction time of 1 h. The oxygen uptake rate of the effluent measured at a reaction time of 1h increased by approximately 65% compared to that of the raw coking wastewater. This indicated that biodegradation of the coking wastewater was significantly improved. Several organic compounds, including bifuran, quinoline, resorcinol and benzofuranol were removed completely as determined by GC-MS analysis. The advanced Fenton oxidation process is an effective pretreatment method for the removal of organic pollutants from coking wastewater. This process increases biodegradation, and may be combined with a classical biological process to achieve effluent of high quality. PMID:22014660

  15. CAPE-OPEN Integration for Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This paper highlights the use of the CAPE-OPEN (CO) standard interfaces in the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The APECS system uses the CO unit operation, thermodynamic, and reaction interfaces to provide its plug-and-play co-simulation capabilities, including the integration of process simulation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. APECS also relies heavily on the use of a CO COM/CORBA bridge for running process/CFD co-simulations on multiple operating systems. For process optimization in the face of multiple and some time conflicting objectives, APECS offers stochastic modeling and multi-objective optimization capabilities developed to comply with the CO software standard. At NETL, system analysts are applying APECS to a wide variety of advanced power generation systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant.

  16. PREFACE: MCWASP XIV: International Conference on Modelling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, H.

    2015-06-01

    The current volume represents contributed papers of the proceedings of the 14th international conference on ''Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP XIV)'', Yumebutai International Conference Center, Awaji island, Hyogo, Japan on 21 - 26 June, 2016. The first conference of the series 'Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP)' was started up in 1980, and this is the 14th conference. The participants are more than 100 scientists from industry and academia, coming from 19 countries. In the conference, we have 5 invited, 70 oral and 31 poster presentations on different aspects of the modeling. The conference deals with various casting processes (Ingot / shape casting, continuous casting, direct chill casting and welding), fundamental phenomena (nucleation and growth, dendritic growth, eutectic growth, micro-, meso- and macrostructure formation and defect formation), coupling problems (electromagnetic interactions, application of ultrasonic wave), development of experimental / computational methods and so on. This volume presents the cutting-edge research in the modeling of casting, welding and solidification processes. I would like to thank MAGMA Giessereitechnologie GmbH, Germany and SCSK Corporation, Japan for supporting the publication of contributed papers. Hideyuki Yasuda Conference Chairman Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University Japan

  17. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    PubMed

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  18. PREFACE: MCWASP XIII: International Conference on Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Due to fast-paced development in computer technologies during the last three decades, computer-based process modeling has become an important tool for the improvement of existing process technologies and the development of new, innovative technologies. With the help of numerical process simulations, complex and costly experimental trials can now be reduced to a minimum. For metallurgical processes in particular, computer simulations are of outstanding importance, as the flow and solidification of molten alloys or the formation of microstructure and defects can hardly be observed experimentally. Corresponding computer simulations allow us inside views into the key process phenomena and so offer great potential for optimization. In 1980 the conference series 'Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes (MCWASP)' was started up, and has now been continued by holding the 13th international conference on 'Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes', MCWASP XIII, in Schladming, Austria, from June 17-22 2012. Around 200 scientists from industry and academia, coming from 20 countries around the globe attended 78 oral and 50 poster presentations on different aspects of solidification-related modeling topics. Besides process-related sessions such as (i) Ingot and Shape Casting, (ii) Continuous Casting and Direct Chill Casting, (iii) Directional Solidification and Zone Melting, (iv) Welding, and (v) Centrifugal Casting, a larger focus was put on (vi) Experimental Investigation and In-Situ Observations. In recent years, this topic has been significantly strengthened as advanced synchrotron technologies allow fantastic in-situ observations of phenomena happening inside small metallic samples. These observations will definitely serve as a benchmark for the modeling community. Further macroscopic aspects of advanced solidification science were tackled in the sessions (vii) Electromagnetic Coupling, (viii) Thermomechanics, (ix

  19. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  20. Mutant alpha-galactosidase A enzymes identified in Fabry disease patients with residual enzyme activity: biochemical characterization and restoration of normal intracellular processing by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Chang, Hui-Hwa; Kawasaki, Kunito; Yasuda, Kayo; Wu, Hui-Li; Garman, Scott C; Fan, Jian-Qiang

    2007-09-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-Gal A (alpha-galactosidase A) activity. In order to understand the molecular mechanism underlying alpha-Gal A deficiency in Fabry disease patients with residual enzyme activity, enzymes with different missense mutations were purified from transfected COS-7 cells and the biochemical properties were characterized. The mutant enzymes detected in variant patients (A20P, E66Q, M72V, I91T, R112H, F113L, N215S, Q279E, M296I, M296V and R301Q), and those found mostly in mild classic patients (A97V, A156V, L166V and R356W) appeared to have normal K(m) and V(max) values. The degradation of all mutants (except E59K) was partially inhibited by treatment with kifunensine, a selective inhibitor of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) alpha-mannosidase I. Metabolic labelling and subcellular fractionation studies in COS-7 cells expressing the L166V and R301Q alpha-Gal A mutants indicated that the mutant protein was retained in the ER and degraded without processing. Addition of DGJ (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin) to the culture medium of COS-7 cells transfected with a large set of missense mutant alpha-Gal A cDNAs effectively increased both enzyme activity and protein yield. DGJ was capable of normalizing intracellular processing of mutant alpha-Gal A found in both classic (L166V) and variant (R301Q) Fabry disease patients. In addition, the residual enzyme activity in fibroblasts or lymphoblasts from both classic and variant hemizygous Fabry disease patients carrying a variety of missense mutations could be substantially increased by cultivation of the cells with DGJ. These results indicate that a large proportion of mutant enzymes in patients with residual enzyme activity are kinetically active. Excessive degradation in the ER could be responsible for the deficiency of enzyme activity in vivo, and the DGJ approach may be broadly applicable to Fabry disease patients with missense mutations.

  1. Mutant α-galactosidase A enzymes identified in Fabry disease patients with residual enzyme activity: biochemical characterization and restoration of normal intracellular processing by 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Satoshi; Chang, Hui-Hwa; Kawasaki, Kunito; Yasuda, Kayo; Wu, Hui-Li; Garman, Scott C.; Fan, Jian-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of α-Gal A (α-galactosidase A) activity. In order to understand the molecular mechanism underlying α-Gal A deficiency in Fabry disease patients with residual enzyme activity, enzymes with different missense mutations were purified from transfected COS-7 cells and the biochemical properties were characterized. The mutant enzymes detected in variant patients (A20P, E66Q, M72V, I91T, R112H, F113L, N215S, Q279E, M296I, M296V and R301Q), and those found mostly in mild classic patients (A97V, A156V, L166V and R356W) appeared to have normal Km and Vmax values. The degradation of all mutants (except E59K) was partially inhibited by treatment with kifunensine, a selective inhibitor of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) α-mannosidase I. Metabolic labelling and subcellular fractionation studies in COS-7 cells expressing the L166V and R301Q α-Gal A mutants indicated that the mutant protein was retained in the ER and degraded without processing. Addition of DGJ (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin) to the culture medium of COS-7 cells transfected with a large set of missense mutant α-Gal A cDNAs effectively increased both enzyme activity and protein yield. DGJ was capable of normalizing intracellular processing of mutant α-Gal A found in both classic (L166V) and variant (R301Q) Fabry disease patients. In addition, the residual enzyme activity in fibroblasts or lymphoblasts from both classic and variant hemizygous Fabry disease patients carrying a variety of missense mutations could be substantially increased by cultivation of the cells with DGJ. These results indicate that a large proportion of mutant enzymes in patients with residual enzyme activity are kinetically active. Excessive degradation in the ER could be responsible for the deficiency of enzyme activity in vivo, and the DGJ approach may be broadly applicable to Fabry disease patients with missense mutations. PMID:17555407

  2. A preliminary study on the safeguardability of a Korean advanced pyro-processing facility (KAPF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Thomas, K.E.; Marlow, J.B.; Menlove, H.O.; Ko, W.I.; Yang, M.S.; Park, S.W.

    2007-07-01

    A preliminary study on the safeguardability of the Korean Advanced Pyro-processing Facility (KAPF) was performed. The main processes of the facility include voloxidation, electrolytic reduction, electrorefining, electrowinning, and salt recycling with a transuranic (TRU) recovery process. The subprocesses and material flow of the conceptually designed KAPF with a unit capacity of 100 tHM/year were analysed, and subsequently, the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. Uncertainty in material accounting was evaluated with designed MBA and KMP, together with measurement uncertainties of analytic methods identified for the KAPF. It was found that the major safeguards challenges were Pu input accountability and U/Pu inventory measurement at each subprocess. The continuous association of Pu with Cm presents measurement options in both cases. It was concluded that a safeguards system for the KAPF could be designed to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's comprehensive safeguards objective. (authors)

  3. Advanced Practice Nursing Committee on Process Improvement in Trauma: An Innovative Application of the Strong Model.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to summarize the successes and future implications for a nurse practitioner-driven committee on process improvement in trauma. The trauma nurse practitioner is uniquely positioned to recognize the need for clinical process improvement and enact change within the clinical setting. Application of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice proves to actively engage the trauma nurse practitioner in process improvement initiatives. Through enhancing nurse practitioner professional engagement, the committee aims to improve health care delivery to the traumatically injured patient. A retrospective review of the committee's first year reveals trauma nurse practitioner success in the domains of direct comprehensive care, support of systems, education, and leadership. The need for increased trauma nurse practitioner involvement has been identified for the domains of research and publication.

  4. Advanced process modeling at the BCL smelter: Improving economic and environmental performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nagendra; Peek, Edgar; Stroud, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Since 1973 Bamangwato Concessions Limited (BCL) has operated a nickel-copper smelter in Selebi-Phikwe, Botswana. The smelter treats concentrates from local mines and various custom feed concentrates. The nickel throughput capacity of this smelter is constrained by a low nickel feed grade in its primary BCL concentrate. BCL contracted Xstrata Process Support (XPS) to assist in identifying key economic drivers to maximize revenue-generating opportunities. After the disclosure of essential BCL plant performance data XPS developed and utilized advanced metallurgical modeling techniques to identify production bottlenecks, calculate Ni, Cu, and Co recoveries, manage the slag volumes, increase the custom feed capacity, and perform various feasibility analyses for key unit process operations in the BCL smelter. The methodology for developing the process model and its application in contributing to the economic bottom line are outlined in this paper.

  5. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  6. Advanced computational tools for optimization and uncertainty quantification of carbon capture processes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Ng, Brenda; Eslick, John

    2014-01-01

    Advanced multi-scale modeling and simulation has the potential to dramatically reduce development time, resulting in considerable cost savings. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and universities that is developing, demonstrating, and deploying a suite of multi-scale modeling and simulation tools. One significant computational tool is FOQUS, a Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Sensitivity, which enables basic data submodels, including thermodynamics and kinetics, to be used within detailed process models to rapidly synthesize and optimize a process and determine the level of uncertainty associated with the resulting process. The overall approach of CCSI is described with a more detailed discussion of FOQUS and its application to carbon capture systems.

  7. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  8. Advanced ACTPol Multichroic Polarimeter Array Fabrication Process for 150 mm Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, S. M.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Datta, R.; Gallardo, P. A.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is a third-generation cosmic microwave background receiver to be deployed in 2016 on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Spanning five frequency bands from 25 to 280 GHz and having just over 5600 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, this receiver will exhibit increased sensitivity and mapping speed compared to previously fielded ACT instruments. This paper presents the fabrication processes developed by NIST to scale to large arrays of feedhorn-coupled multichroic AlMn-based TES polarimeters on 150-mm diameter wafers. In addition to describing the streamlined fabrication process which enables high yields of densely packed detectors across larger wafers, we report the details of process improvements for sensor (AlMn) and insulator (SiN_x) materials and microwave structures, and the resulting performance improvements.

  9. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  10. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  11. Advanced Practice Nursing Committee on Process Improvement in Trauma: An Innovative Application of the Strong Model.

    PubMed

    West, Sarah Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to summarize the successes and future implications for a nurse practitioner-driven committee on process improvement in trauma. The trauma nurse practitioner is uniquely positioned to recognize the need for clinical process improvement and enact change within the clinical setting. Application of the Strong Model of Advanced Practice proves to actively engage the trauma nurse practitioner in process improvement initiatives. Through enhancing nurse practitioner professional engagement, the committee aims to improve health care delivery to the traumatically injured patient. A retrospective review of the committee's first year reveals trauma nurse practitioner success in the domains of direct comprehensive care, support of systems, education, and leadership. The need for increased trauma nurse practitioner involvement has been identified for the domains of research and publication. PMID:27414145

  12. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics in the design and analysis of thermal processes: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Norton, Tomás; Tiwari, Brijesh; Sun, Da Wen

    2013-01-01

    The design of thermal processes in the food industry has undergone great developments in the last two decades due to the availability of cheap computer power alongside advanced modelling techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD uses numerical algorithms to solve the non-linear partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and heat transfer so that the complex mechanisms that govern many food-processing systems can be resolved. In thermal processing applications, CFD can be used to build three-dimensional models that are both spatially and temporally representative of a physical system to produce solutions with high levels of physical realism without the heavy costs associated with experimental analyses. Therefore, CFD is playing an ever growing role in the development of optimization of conventional as well as the development of new thermal processes in the food industry. This paper discusses the fundamental aspects involved in developing CFD solutions and forms a state-of-the-art review on various CFD applications in conventional as well as novel thermal processes. The challenges facing CFD modellers of thermal processes are also discussed. From this review it is evident that present-day CFD software, with its rich tapestries of mathematical physics, numerical methods and visualization techniques, is currently recognized as a formidable and pervasive technology which can permit comprehensive analyses of thermal processing.

  14. Occurrence and Removal of Organic Micropollutants in Landfill Leachates Treated by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Oturan, Nihal; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Zhang, Hui; Mazeas, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-10-20

    In recent years, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be an effective alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds from water. This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant organic matter (micropollutants, humic substances, etc.) present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. A mixture of eight landfill leachates has been studied by the electro-Fenton process using a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt cathode or by the anodic oxidation process with a BDD anode. These processes exhibit great oxidation ability due to the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), a highly powerful oxidizing species. Both electrochemical processes were shown to be efficient in the removal of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) from landfill leachates. Regarding the electro-Fenton process, the replacement of the classical anode Pt by the anode BDD allows better performance in terms of dissolved TOC removal. The occurrence and removal yield of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 15 volatile organic compounds, 7 alkylphenols, 7 polychlorobiphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate were also investigated. Both electrochemical processes allow one to reach a quasicomplete removal (about 98%) of these organic micropollutants.

  15. Occurrence and Removal of Organic Micropollutants in Landfill Leachates Treated by Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    PubMed

    Oturan, Nihal; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Zhang, Hui; Mazeas, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Le Menach, Karyn; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-10-20

    In recent years, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be an effective alternative for the removal of refractory organic compounds from water. This study is focused on the effective removal of recalcitrant organic matter (micropollutants, humic substances, etc.) present in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. A mixture of eight landfill leachates has been studied by the electro-Fenton process using a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon felt cathode or by the anodic oxidation process with a BDD anode. These processes exhibit great oxidation ability due to the in situ production of hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), a highly powerful oxidizing species. Both electrochemical processes were shown to be efficient in the removal of dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) from landfill leachates. Regarding the electro-Fenton process, the replacement of the classical anode Pt by the anode BDD allows better performance in terms of dissolved TOC removal. The occurrence and removal yield of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 15 volatile organic compounds, 7 alkylphenols, 7 polychlorobiphenyls, 5 organochlorine pesticides, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate were also investigated. Both electrochemical processes allow one to reach a quasicomplete removal (about 98%) of these organic micropollutants. PMID:26378656

  16. Decontamination of soil washing wastewater using solar driven advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Velasco, Yuridia; Torres, Luis G

    2008-12-30

    Decontamination of soil washing wastewater was performed using two different solar driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): the photo-Fenton reaction and the cobalt/peroxymonosulfate/ultraviolet (Co/PMS/UV) process. Complete sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the surfactant agent used to enhance soil washing process, degradation was achieved when the Co/PMS/UV process was used. In the case of photo-Fenton reaction, almost complete SDS degradation was achieved after the use of almost four times the actual energy amount required by the Co/PMS/UV process. Initial reaction rate in the first 15min (IR15) was determined for each process in order to compare them. Highest IR15 value was determined for the Co/PMS/UV process (0.011mmol/min) followed by the photo-Fenton reaction (0.0072mmol/min) and the dark Co/PMS and Fenton processes (IR15=0.002mmol/min in both cases). Organic matter depletion in the wastewater, as the sum of surfactant and total petroleum hydrocarbons present (measured as chemical oxygen demand, COD), was also determined for both solar driven processes. It was found that, for the case of COD, the highest removal (69%) was achieved when photo-Fenton reaction was used whereas Co/PMS/UV process yielded a slightly lower removal (51%). In both cases, organic matter removal achieved was over 50%, which can be consider proper for the coupling of the tested AOPs with conventional wastewater treatment processes such as biodegradation.

  17. Decontamination of soil washing wastewater using solar driven advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Bandala, Erick R; Velasco, Yuridia; Torres, Luis G

    2008-12-30

    Decontamination of soil washing wastewater was performed using two different solar driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): the photo-Fenton reaction and the cobalt/peroxymonosulfate/ultraviolet (Co/PMS/UV) process. Complete sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the surfactant agent used to enhance soil washing process, degradation was achieved when the Co/PMS/UV process was used. In the case of photo-Fenton reaction, almost complete SDS degradation was achieved after the use of almost four times the actual energy amount required by the Co/PMS/UV process. Initial reaction rate in the first 15min (IR15) was determined for each process in order to compare them. Highest IR15 value was determined for the Co/PMS/UV process (0.011mmol/min) followed by the photo-Fenton reaction (0.0072mmol/min) and the dark Co/PMS and Fenton processes (IR15=0.002mmol/min in both cases). Organic matter depletion in the wastewater, as the sum of surfactant and total petroleum hydrocarbons present (measured as chemical oxygen demand, COD), was also determined for both solar driven processes. It was found that, for the case of COD, the highest removal (69%) was achieved when photo-Fenton reaction was used whereas Co/PMS/UV process yielded a slightly lower removal (51%). In both cases, organic matter removal achieved was over 50%, which can be consider proper for the coupling of the tested AOPs with conventional wastewater treatment processes such as biodegradation. PMID:18423856

  18. [Occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Chao; Luo, Qian; Chen, Hu; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zi-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wen

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes of 3 water treatment plants in Lianyungang City. Results showed that 30 compounds of 3 classes were detected from 67 kinds of VOCs in all the samples collected. The concentrations of carbonyl compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons and benzenes detected were in the ranges of 0.04-61.27, 0.02-35.61 and 0.07-2.33 microg x L(-1) respectively. Comparing the changes of different VOCs in three drinking water treatment plants, conventional chlorination process could effectively remove benzenes but meanwhile produced trihalomethanes (THMs). Additional advanced treatment ozonation-biological activated carbon process could decrease the formation of THMs during pre-chlorination but produced new risky contaminants like carbonyl compounds. The changes of VOCs in tap water were also investigated. It was found that carbonyl compounds produced by ozonation could be further transformed to THMs with residual chlorine. However, the health risks of all detected compounds in tap water were at a low level, except that the carcinogenic risk of crotonaldehydes (9.3 x 10(-5)-2.2 x 10(-4)) was slightly higher than the US EPA threshold (10(-6)-10(-4)). PMID:24640902

  19. Degradation of estrone in water and wastewater by various advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shubhajit; Ali, Sura; Rehmann, Lars; Nakhla, George; Ray, Madhumita B

    2014-08-15

    A comprehensive study was conducted to determine the relative efficacy of various advanced oxidation processes such as O3, H2O2, UV, and combinations of UV/O3, UV/H2O2 for the removal of estrone (E1) from pure water and secondary effluent. In addition to the parent compound (E1) removal, performance of the advanced oxidation processes was characterized using removal of total organic carbon (TOC), and estrogenicity of the effluent. Although E1 removal was high for all the AOPs, intermediates formed were more difficult to degrade leading to slow TOC removal. Energy calculations and cost analysis indicated that, although UV processes have low electricity cost, ozonation is the least cost option ($ 0.34/1000 gallons) when both capital and operating costs were taken into account. Ozonation also is superior to the other tested AOPs due to higher removal of TOC and estrogenicity. The rate of E1 removal decreased linearly with the background TOC in water, however, E1 degradation in the secondary effluent from a local wastewater treatment plant was not affected significantly due to the low COD values in the effluent.

  20. [Occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Chao; Luo, Qian; Chen, Hu; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zi-Jian; Xu, Ke-Wen

    2013-12-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to study the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes of 3 water treatment plants in Lianyungang City. Results showed that 30 compounds of 3 classes were detected from 67 kinds of VOCs in all the samples collected. The concentrations of carbonyl compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons and benzenes detected were in the ranges of 0.04-61.27, 0.02-35.61 and 0.07-2.33 microg x L(-1) respectively. Comparing the changes of different VOCs in three drinking water treatment plants, conventional chlorination process could effectively remove benzenes but meanwhile produced trihalomethanes (THMs). Additional advanced treatment ozonation-biological activated carbon process could decrease the formation of THMs during pre-chlorination but produced new risky contaminants like carbonyl compounds. The changes of VOCs in tap water were also investigated. It was found that carbonyl compounds produced by ozonation could be further transformed to THMs with residual chlorine. However, the health risks of all detected compounds in tap water were at a low level, except that the carcinogenic risk of crotonaldehydes (9.3 x 10(-5)-2.2 x 10(-4)) was slightly higher than the US EPA threshold (10(-6)-10(-4)).

  1. Development of processing procedures for advanced silicon solar cells. [antireflection coatings and short circuit currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.; Stella, P. M.; Avery, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Ten ohm-cm silicon solar cells, 0.2 mm thick, were produced with short circuit current efficiencies up to thirteen percent and using a combination of recent technical advances. The cells were fabricated in conventional and wraparound contact configurations. Improvement in cell collection efficiency from both the short and long wavelengths region of the solar spectrum was obtained by coupling a shallow junction and an optically transparent antireflection coating with back surface field technology. Both boron diffusion and aluminum alloying techniques were evaluated for forming back surface field cells. The latter method is less complicated and is compatible with wraparound cell processing.

  2. Recent Advances in SRS on Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Xin; Sessions, Henry T.; Heung, L. Kit

    2015-02-01

    The recent Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) advances at Savannah River Site (SRS) include compressor-free concept for heating/cooling, push and pull separation using an active inverse column, and compact column design. The new developments allow significantly higher throughput and better reliability from 1/10th of the current production system’s footprint while consuming 60% less energy. Various versions are derived in the meantime for external customers to be used in fusion energy projects and medical isotope production.

  3. Sono-bromination of aromatic compounds based on the ultrasonic advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mitsue; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Komatsu, Naoki; Kimura, Takahide

    2015-11-01

    A novel, mild "sono-halogenation" of various aromatic compounds with potassium halide was investigated under ultrasound in a biphasic carbon tetrachloride/water medium. The feasibility study was first undertaken with the potassium bromide and then extended to chloride and iodide analogues. This methodology could be considered as a new expansion of the ultrasonic advanced oxidation processes (UAOPs) into a synthetic aspect as the developed methodology is linked to the sonolytic disappearance of carbon tetrachloride. Advantages of the present method are not only that the manipulation of the bromination is simple and green, but also that the halogenating agents used are readily available, inexpensive, and easy-handling.

  4. Acquisition and processing of advanced sensor data for ERW and UXO detection and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Gregory M.; Keranen, Joe; Miller, Jonathan S.; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2014-06-01

    The remediation of explosive remnants of war (ERW) and associated unexploded ordnance (UXO) has seen improvements through the injection of modern technological advances and streamlined standard operating procedures. However, reliable and cost-effective detection and geophysical mapping of sites contaminated with UXO such as cluster munitions, abandoned ordnance, and improvised explosive devices rely on the ability to discriminate hazardous items from metallic clutter. In addition to anthropogenic clutter, handheld and vehicle-based metal detector systems are plagued by natural geologic and environmental noise in many post conflict areas. We present new and advanced electromagnetic induction (EMI) technologies including man-portable and towed EMI arrays and associated data processing software. While these systems feature vastly different form factors and transmit-receive configurations, they all exhibit several fundamental traits that enable successful classification of EMI anomalies. Specifically, multidirectional sampling of scattered magnetic fields from targets and corresponding high volume of unique data provide rich information for extracting useful classification features for clutter rejection analysis. The quality of classification features depends largely on the extent to which the data resolve unique physics-based parameters. To date, most of the advanced sensors enable high quality inversion by producing data that are extremely rich in spatial content through multi-angle illumination and multi-point reception.

  5. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  6. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  7. Advanced gate CDU control in sub-28nm node using poly slot process by scatterometry metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzai, Wei-Jhe; Chen, Howard; Lin, Jun-Jin; Huang, Yu-Hao; Yu, Chun-Chi; Lin, Ching-Hung Bert; Yoo, Sungchul; Huang, Chien-Jen Eros; Mihardja, Lanny

    2013-04-01

    Scatterometry-based metrology is a well proven method to measure and monitor the critical dimensions of interest in advanced sub-28nm process development and high volume manufacturing [1][3][4][6][7]. In this paper, a proposed solution to control and achieve the optimal gate critical dimension uniformity (CDU) was explored. The proposed solution is named a novel scatterometry slot gate CDU control flow. High performance measurement and control during the slot gate step is critical as it directly controls the poly line cut profile to the active area which then directly impacts the final device performance. The proposed flow incorporates scatterometry-based CD (SCD) measurement feedback and feed forward to the Automation Process Control (APC) system, further process recipe fine tuning utilizing the data feedback and forward, and two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) scatterometry-based CD (SCD) measurement of gate after developer inspection (ADI) and after etch inspection (AEI) [1]. The methodologies and experiment results presented in this study started from the process development through the SCD model optimization of the DOE wafers, to the final implementation of the process control flow and measurement loop into the production line to evaluate its capability for long term in-line monitoring in high volume manufacturing environment. The result showed significant improvement in the gate CD uniformity that met the sub-28nm process manufacturing requirement.

  8. Advanced process engineering co-simulation using CFD-based reduced order models

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Y.-D.; Biegler, L.T.; Munteanu, S.; Madsen, J.I.; Zitney, S.E.

    2007-11-04

    The process and energy industries face the challenge of designing the next generation of plants to operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while performing profitably amid fluctuations in costs for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To achieve these targets, the designers of future plants are increasingly relying upon modeling and simulation to create virtual plants that allow them to evaluate design concepts without the expense of pilot-scale and demonstration facilities. Two of the more commonly used simulation tools include process simulators for describing the entire plant as a network of simplified equipment models and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) packages for modeling an isolated equipment item in great detail by accounting for complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena. The Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has been developed to combine process simulation software with CFD-based equipment simulation software so that design engineers can analyze and optimize the coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions that drive overall plant performance (Zitney et al., 2006). The process/CFD software integration was accomplished using the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN interfaces.

  9. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  10. Advanced Process Heater for the Steel, Aluminum and Chemical Industries of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Briselden

    2007-10-31

    The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: “Improved performance of high temperature materials; improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer”. Radiant tubes are used in almost every industry of the future. Examples include Aluminum re-heat furnaces; Steel strip annealing furnaces, Petroleum cracking/ refining furnaces, Metal Casting/Heat Treating in atmosphere and fluidized bed furnaces, Glass lair annealing furnaces, Forest Products infrared paper driers, Chemical heat exchangers and immersion heaters, and the indirect grain driers in the Agriculture Industry. Several common needs among the industries are evident: (1) Energy Reductions, (2) Productivity Improvements, (3) Zero Emissions, and (4) Increased Component Life. The Category I award entitled “Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future” met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) doubling the heat transfer rates (2) improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) improving temperature uniformity by 100oF (38 oC) and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH addresses EERE’s primary mission of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. The primary goal of this project was to design, manufacture and test a commercial APH prototype by integrating three components: (1) Helical Heat Exchanger, (2) Shared Wall Radiant U-tube, and (3) Helical Flame Stabilization Element. To accomplish the above, a near net shape powder ceramic Si-SiC low-cost forming process was used to manufacture the components. The project defined the methods for making an Advanced Process Heater that produced an efficiency between 70% to 80% with temperature uniformities of less than 5oF/ft (9oC/m). Three spin-off products resulted from this

  11. Using OPC technology to support the study of advanced process control.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    OPC, originally the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) for Process Control, brings a broad communication opportunity between different kinds of control systems. This paper investigates the use of OPC technology for the study of distributed control systems (DCS) as a cost effective and flexible research tool for the development and testing of advanced process control (APC) techniques in university research centers. Co-Simulation environment based on Matlab, LabVIEW and TCP/IP network is presented here. Several implementation issues and OPC based client/server control application have been addressed for TCP/IP network. A nonlinear boiler model is simulated as OPC server and OPC client is used for closed loop model identification, and to design a Model Predictive Controller. The MPC is able to control the NOx emissions in addition to drum water level and steam pressure. PMID:25702044

  12. Advanced methods for time-varying effective connectivity estimation in memory processes.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Wood, G; Kober, S; Risetti, M; Macchiusi, L; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F; Mattia, D

    2013-01-01

    Memory processes are based on large cortical networks characterized by non-stationary properties and time scales which represent a limitation to the traditional connectivity estimation methods. The recent development of connectivity approaches able to consistently describe the temporal evolution of large dimension connectivity networks, in a fully multivariate way, represents a tool that can be used to extract novel information about the processes at the basis of memory functions. In this paper, we applied such advanced approach in combination with the use of state-of-the-art graph theory indexes, computed on the connectivity networks estimated from high density electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded in a group of healthy adults during the Sternberg Task. The results show how this approach is able to return a characterization of the main phases of the investigated memory task which is also sensitive to the increased length of the numerical string to be memorized. PMID:24110342

  13. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process. PMID:27484188

  14. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-08-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process.

  15. Advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) progress with respect to remote operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo Jik; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2007-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) to reduce the volume of spent fuel, and the construction of the ACP facility (ACPF) for a demonstration of its technical feasibility has been completed. In 2006 two inactive demonstrations were performed with simulated fuels in the ACPF. Accompanied by process equipment performance tests, its remote operability and maintainability were also tested during that time. Procedures for remote operation tasks are well addressed in this study and evaluated thoroughly. Also, remote maintenance and repair tasks are addressed regarding some important modules with a high priority order. The above remote handling test's results provided a lot of information such as items to be revised to improve the efficiency of the remote handling tasks. This paper deals with the current status of ACP and the progress of remote handling of ACPF. (authors)

  16. Characterization of the interactions within fine particle mixtures in highly concentrated suspensions for advanced particle processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Akira; Bryant, Gary

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to summarize recent investigations into the dispersion of fine particles, and the characterization of their interactions, in concentrated suspensions. This summary will provide a better understanding of the current status of this research, and will provide useful feedback for advanced particle processing. Such processes include the fabrication of functional nanostructures and the sustainable beneficiation of complex ores. For example, there has been increasing demand for complex ore utilization due to the noticeable decrease in the accessibility of high grade and easily extractable ores. In order to maintain the sustainable use of mineral resources, the effective beneficiation of complex ores is urgently required. It can be successfully achieved only with selective particle/mineral dispersion/liberation and the assistance of mineralogical and particle characterization. PMID:26298173

  17. Characterization of the interactions within fine particle mixtures in highly concentrated suspensions for advanced particle processing.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Akira; Bryant, Gary

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to summarize recent investigations into the dispersion of fine particles, and the characterization of their interactions, in concentrated suspensions. This summary will provide a better understanding of the current status of this research, and will provide useful feedback for advanced particle processing. Such processes include the fabrication of functional nanostructures and the sustainable beneficiation of complex ores. For example, there has been increasing demand for complex ore utilization due to the noticeable decrease in the accessibility of high grade and easily extractable ores. In order to maintain the sustainable use of mineral resources, the effective beneficiation of complex ores is urgently required. It can be successfully achieved only with selective particle/mineral dispersion/liberation and the assistance of mineralogical and particle characterization.

  18. Using OPC technology to support the study of advanced process control.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    OPC, originally the Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) for Process Control, brings a broad communication opportunity between different kinds of control systems. This paper investigates the use of OPC technology for the study of distributed control systems (DCS) as a cost effective and flexible research tool for the development and testing of advanced process control (APC) techniques in university research centers. Co-Simulation environment based on Matlab, LabVIEW and TCP/IP network is presented here. Several implementation issues and OPC based client/server control application have been addressed for TCP/IP network. A nonlinear boiler model is simulated as OPC server and OPC client is used for closed loop model identification, and to design a Model Predictive Controller. The MPC is able to control the NOx emissions in addition to drum water level and steam pressure.

  19. Advancing adsorption and membrane separation processes for the gigaton carbon capture challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jennifer; Haghpanah, Reza; Rupp, Erik C; He, Jiajun; Lee, Kyoungjin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and preventing its release from point-source emitters, such as coal and natural gas-fired power plants, is a global challenge measured in gigatons. Capturing CO2 at this scale will require a portfolio of gas-separation technologies to be applied over a range of applications in which the gas mixtures and operating conditions will vary. Chemical scrubbing using absorption is the current state-of-the-art technology. Considerably less attention has been given to other gas-separation technologies, including adsorption and membranes. It will take a range of creative solutions to reduce CO2 at scale, thereby slowing global warming and minimizing its potential negative environmental impacts. This review focuses on the current challenges of adsorption and membrane-separation processes. Technological advancement of these processes will lead to reduced cost, which will enable subsequent adoption for practical scaled-up application. PMID:24702296

  20. Advancing adsorption and membrane separation processes for the gigaton carbon capture challenge.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jennifer; Haghpanah, Reza; Rupp, Erik C; He, Jiajun; Lee, Kyoungjin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and preventing its release from point-source emitters, such as coal and natural gas-fired power plants, is a global challenge measured in gigatons. Capturing CO2 at this scale will require a portfolio of gas-separation technologies to be applied over a range of applications in which the gas mixtures and operating conditions will vary. Chemical scrubbing using absorption is the current state-of-the-art technology. Considerably less attention has been given to other gas-separation technologies, including adsorption and membranes. It will take a range of creative solutions to reduce CO2 at scale, thereby slowing global warming and minimizing its potential negative environmental impacts. This review focuses on the current challenges of adsorption and membrane-separation processes. Technological advancement of these processes will lead to reduced cost, which will enable subsequent adoption for practical scaled-up application.

  1. Warming-induced upslope advance of subalpine forest is severely limited by geomorphic processes

    PubMed Central

    Macias-Fauria, Marc; Johnson, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are expected to expand into alpine areas because of climate warming, causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. However, this expansion will only occur if the present upper treeline is limited by low-growing season temperatures that reduce plant growth. This temperature limitation has not been quantified at a landscape scale. Here, we show that temperature alone cannot realistically explain high-elevation tree cover over a >100-km2 area in the Canadian Rockies and that geologic/geomorphic processes are fundamental to understanding the heterogeneous landscape distribution of trees. Furthermore, upslope tree advance in a warmer scenario will be severely limited by availability of sites with adequate geomorphic/topographic characteristics. Our results imply that landscape-to-regional scale projections of warming-induced, high-elevation forest advance into alpine areas should not be based solely on temperature-sensitive, site-specific upper-treeline studies but also on geomorphic processes that control tree occurrence at long (centuries/millennia) timescales. PMID:23569221

  2. Performance study of new segmented overlay marks for advanced wafer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, Mike; Allgair, John A.; Benoit, David C.; Ghinovker, Mark; Kassel, Elyakim; Nelson, C.; Robinson, John C.; Seligman, Gary S.

    2003-05-01

    We explore the implementation of improved overlay mark designs increasing mark fidelity and device correlation for advanced wafer processing. The effect of design rule segmentation on overlay mark performance is studied. Short loop wafers with 193 nm lithography for front-end (poly to STI active) as well as back-end (via to metal) were processed and evaluated. A comparison of 6 different box-in-box (BiB) overlay marks, including non-segmented, multi bar, and design-rule segmented were compared to several types of AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) grating targets which were non-segmented and design rule segmented in various ways. The key outcomes of the performance study include the following: the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) was estimated by the RMS of the precision, TIS 3-sigma and overlay mark fidelity (OMF). The TMU calculated in this way show a 40% reduction for the grating marks compared to BiB. The major contributors to this performance improvement were OMF and precision, which were both improved by nearly a factor of 2 on the front-end layer. TIS-3-sigma was observed to improve when design rule segmentation was implemented, while OMF was marginally degraded. Similar results were found for the back end wafers. Several different pitches and segmentation schemes were reviewed and this has allowed the development of a methodology for target design optimization. Resulting improvements in modeled residuals were also achieved.

  3. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  4. A highly reliable, autonomous data communication subsystem for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Masotto, Thomas; Alger, Linda

    1990-01-01

    The need to meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements of advanced avionics systems has frequently led to implementations which are tailored to a specific application and are therefore difficult to modify or extend. Furthermore, many integrated flight critical systems are input/output intensive. By using a design methodology which customizes the input/output mechanism for each new application, the cost of implementing new systems becomes prohibitively expensive. One solution to this dilemma is to design computer systems and input/output subsystems which are general purpose, but which can be easily configured to support the needs of a specific application. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), currently under development has these characteristics. The design and implementation of the prototype I/O communication system for AIPS is described. AIPS addresses reliability issues related to data communications by the use of reconfigurable I/O networks. When a fault or damage event occurs, communication is restored to functioning parts of the network and the failed or damage components are isolated. Performance issues are addressed by using a parallelized computer architecture which decouples Input/Output (I/O) redundancy management and I/O processing from the computational stream of an application. The autonomous nature of the system derives from the highly automated and independent manner in which I/O transactions are conducted for the application as well as from the fact that the hardware redundancy management is entirely transparent to the application.

  5. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  6. A standard data set for performance analysis of advanced IR image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, A. Robert; Adomeit, Uwe; Chevalier, Philippe; Landeau, Stéphane; Bijl, Piet; Champagnat, Frédéric; Dijk, Judith; Göhler, Benjamin; Landini, Stefano; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Smith, Leslie N.

    2012-06-01

    Modern IR cameras are increasingly equipped with built-in advanced (often non-linear) image and signal processing algorithms (like fusion, super-resolution, dynamic range compression etc.) which can tremendously influence performance characteristics. Traditional approaches to range performance modeling are of limited use for these types of equipment. Several groups have tried to overcome this problem by producing a variety of imagery to assess the impact of advanced signal and image processing. Mostly, this data was taken from classified targets and/ or using classified imager and is thus not suitable for comparison studies between different groups from government, industry and universities. To ameliorate this situation, NATO SET-140 has undertaken a systematic measurement campaign at the DGA technical proving ground in Angers, France, to produce an openly distributable data set suitable for the assessment of fusion, super-resolution, local contrast enhancement, dynamic range compression and image-based NUC algorithm performance. The imagery was recorded for different target / background settings, camera and/or object movements and temperature contrasts. MWIR, LWIR and Dual-band cameras were used for recording and were also thoroughly characterized in the lab. We present a selection of the data set together with examples of their use in the assessment of super-resolution and contrast enhancement algorithms.

  7. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  8. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-19

    {open_quotes}Evaluation Engineering and Development of Advanced Cyclone Processes{close_quotes} is one of the DOE-PETC sponsored advanced coal cleaning projects, which share a number of specific goals. These goals are to produce a 6% ash product, reject 85% of the parent coal`s pyritic sulfur, recover 85% of the parent coal`s Btu value, and provide products that are less than 30% moisture. The process in this project, as the name implies, relies on a cyclone or cyclonic separator to achieve physical beneficiation based on the gravimetric differences between clean coal and its impurities. Just as important as the cyclonic separator, if not more so, is the selection of a parting liquid or medium for use in the separator. Selection of a separating medium is regarded as a significant portion of the project because it has a profound impact on the required unit operations, the performance of the separator, and economics of the process. The choice of medium especially influences selection of media recovery system(s), and the characteristics of clean coal and refuse products. Since medium selection is such an important aspect of the project, portions of the project are dedicated to the study, evaluation, and selection of the most desirable medium. Though separators are an important component, this project initially focused on media study, rather than the separators themselves. In coal processing, discussion of media requires description of the handling and recovery system(s), separation performance, interaction with coal, cost, and health, environmental and safety issues. In order to be effective, a candidate must perform well in all of these categories.

  9. FABRICATION PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY IMPROVEMENTS IN ADVANCED GAS REACTOR UCO KERNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M Barnes

    2008-09-01

    A major element of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program is developing fuel fabrication processes to produce high quality uranium-containing kernels, TRISO-coated particles and fuel compacts needed for planned irradiation tests. The goals of the AGR program also include developing the fabrication technology to mass produce this fuel at low cost. Kernels for the first AGR test (“AGR-1) consisted of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) microspheres that werre produced by an internal gelation process followed by high temperature steps tot convert the UO3 + C “green” microspheres to first UO2 + C and then UO2 + UCx. The high temperature steps also densified the kernels. Babcock and Wilcox (B&W) fabricated UCO kernels for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, which went into the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory in December 2006. An evaluation of the kernel process following AGR-1 kernel production led to several recommendations to improve the fabrication process. These recommendations included testing alternative methods of dispersing carbon during broth preparation, evaluating the method of broth mixing, optimizing the broth chemistry, optimizing sintering conditions, and demonstrating fabrication of larger diameter UCO kernels needed for the second AGR irradiation test. Based on these recommendations and requirements, a test program was defined and performed. Certain portions of the test program were performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), while tests at larger scale were performed by B&W. The tests at B&W have demonstrated improvements in both kernel properties and process operation. Changes in the form of carbon black used and the method of mixing the carbon prior to forming kernels led to improvements in the phase distribution in the sintered kernels, greater consistency in kernel properties, a reduction in forming run time, and simplifications to the forming process. Process parameter variation tests in both forming and sintering steps led

  10. Development of the advanced coolside sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Withum, J.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Rosenhoover, W.A.

    1995-11-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a low-capital-cost process capable of over 90% SO{sub 2} removal as an economically attractive option for compliance with the Clean Air Act. The Advanced Coolside Process uses a contactor to simultaneously remove fly ash and saturate the flue gas with water, followed by sorbent injection into the highly humid flue gas and collection of the sorbent by the existing particulate collector High sorbent utilization is achieved by sorbent recycle. The original performance targets of 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization were exceeded in 1000 acfm pilot plant operations using commercial hydrated lime as the only sorbent. Process optimization simplified the process equipment, resulting in significant cost reduction. Recent accomplishments include completion of equipment testing and sorbent optimization, a waste management study, and a long-term performance test. An economic evaluation for the optimized process projects capital costs 55% to 60 % less than those of limestone forced oxidation wet FGD. The projected levelized control cost is 15% to 35% lower than wet FGD (25% lower for a 260 MWe plant burning a 2.5% sulfur coal), depending on plant size and coal sulfur content.

  11. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  12. Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shafarman, William N.

    2015-10-12

    This project “Advanced Precursor Reaction Processing for Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 Solar Cells”, completed by the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) at the University of Delaware in collaboration with the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida, developed the fundamental understanding and technology to increase module efficiency and improve the manufacturability of Cu(InGa)(SeS)2 films using the precursor reaction approach currently being developed by a number of companies. Key results included: (1) development of a three-step H2Se/Ar/H2S reaction process to control Ga distribution through the film and minimizes back contact MoSe2 formation; (2) Ag-alloying to improve precursor homogeneity by avoiding In phase agglomeration, faster reaction and improved adhesion to allow wider reaction process window; (3) addition of Sb, Bi, and Te interlayers at the Mo/precursor junction to produce more uniform precursor morphology and improve adhesion with reduced void formation in reacted films; (4) a precursor structure containing Se and a reaction process to reduce processing time to 5 minutes and eliminate H2Se usage, thereby increasing throughput and reducing costs. All these results were supported by detailed characterization of the film growth, reaction pathways, thermodynamic assessment and device behavior.

  13. Development of Advanced Coatings for Laser Modifications Through Process and Materials Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martukanitz, R. P.; Babu, S. S.

    2004-06-01

    A simulation-based system is currently being constructed to aid in the development of advanced coating systems for laser cladding and surface alloying. The system employs loosely coupled material and process models that allow rapid determination of material compatibility over a wide range of processing conditions. The primary emphasis is on the development and identification of composite coatings for improved wear and corrosion resistance. The material model utilizes computational thermodynamics and kinetic analysis to establish phase stability and extent of diffusional reactions that may result from the thermal response of the material during virtual processing. The process model is used to develop accurate thermal histories associated with the laser surface modification process and provides critical input for the non-isothermal materials simulations. These techniques were utilized to design a laser surface modification experiment that utilized the addition of stainless steel alloy 431 and TiC produced using argon and argon and nitrogen shielding. The deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced in argon resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles and an increase in hardness when compared to deposits produced using only the 431 powder. Laser deposits representing alloy 431 and TiC powder produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen shielding gas resulted in microstructures retaining some TiC particles, as well as fine precipitates of Ti(CN) formed during cooling and a further increase in hardness of the deposit.

  14. Advanced data Processing system for SeisSchool project in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, P.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Husebye, E.

    2003-04-01

    Initially the seismic records from our SeisSchool Norway network (http://pcg1.ifjf.uib.no/) were stored in an ordinary file system which soon proved impractical due many users and at present more than 50000 waveform segments stored. Design goals fast and easy access to a multitude of users -- experts and amateurs alike. Facing the same problem as large seismological data centers we developed a three-tiered system for i) data collection, ii) station operations control and iii) data access and processing. The core of our system is a data base management system (DBMS) that allows us to store in a logical manner more than 50000 waveform records, stations parameters, detector and signal processing parameters and postprocessing results. An important design feature is that the DBMS provides independence data storage representation from applications thus allowing significant reduction in developing time. The main tool for developing signal processing schemes is OCTAVE -- a free mathematical language package compatible to MATLAB. We have implemented binding between OCTAVE and our DBMS for scientists, and a Web interface for other user categories so we a convenient platform for various type of signal processing and other seismological research disciplines from simple to advanced levels. In this presentation we discuss in detail our DBMS structure, network data access and developed signal processing schemes. We note that only free software is used in order to significant reducing total cost of our SeisSchool Network.

  15. Introducing process analytical technology (PAT) in filamentous cultivation process development: comparison of advanced online sensors for biomass measurement.

    PubMed

    Rønnest, Nanna Petersen; Stocks, Stuart M; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-10-01

    The recent process analytical technology (PAT) initiative has put an increased focus on online sensors to generate process-relevant information in real time. Specifically for fermentation, however, introduction of online sensors is often far from straightforward, and online measurement of biomass is one of the best examples. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare the performance of various online biomass sensors, and secondly to demonstrate their use in early development of a filamentous cultivation process. Eight Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations were run as part of process development in which the pH, the feeding strategy, and the medium composition were varied. The cultivations were monitored in situ using multi-wavelength fluorescence (MWF) spectroscopy, scanning dielectric (DE) spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements. In addition, we logged all of the classical cultivation data, such as the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Prediction models for the biomass concentrations were estimated on the basis of the individual sensors and on combinations of the sensors. The results showed that the more advanced sensors based on MWF and scanning DE spectroscopy did not offer any advantages over the simpler sensors based on dual frequency DE spectroscopy, turbidity, and CER measurements for prediction of biomass concentration. By combining CER, DE spectroscopy, and turbidity measurements, the prediction error was reduced to 1.5 g/l, corresponding to 6% of the covered biomass range. Moreover, by using multiple sensors it was possible to check the quality of the individual predictions and switch between the sensors in real time.

  16. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  17. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  18. Degradation of imidacloprid using combined advanced oxidation processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pankaj N; Bote, Sayli D; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-09-01

    The harmful effects of wastewaters containing pesticides or insecticides on human and aquatic life impart the need of effectively treating the wastewater streams containing these contaminants. In the present work, hydrodynamic cavitation reactors have been applied for the degradation of imidacloprid with process intensification studies based on different additives and combination with other similar processes. Effect of different operating parameters viz. concentration (20-60 ppm), pressure (1-8 bar), temperature (34 °C, 39 °C and 42 °C) and initial pH (2.5-8.3) has been investigated initially using orifice plate as cavitating device. It has been observed that 23.85% degradation of imidacloprid is obtained at optimized set of operating parameters. The efficacy of different process intensifying approaches based on the use of hydrogen peroxide (20-80 ppm), Fenton's reagent (H2O2:FeSO4 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 2:2, 4:1 and 4:2), advanced Fenton process (H2O2:Iron Powder ratio as 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1) and combination of Na2S2O8 and FeSO4 (FeSO4:Na2S2O8 ratio as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the extent of degradation has been investigated. It was observed that near complete degradation of imidacloprid was achieved in all the cases at optimized values of process intensifying parameters. The time required for complete degradation of imidacloprid for approach based on hydrogen peroxide was 120 min where as for the Fenton and advance Fenton process, the required time was only 60 min. To check the effectiveness of hydrodynamic cavitation with different cavitating devices, few experiments were also performed with the help of slit venturi as a cavitating device at already optimized values of parameters. The present work has conclusively established that combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation can be effectively used for complete degradation of imidacloprid.

  19. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  20. Advanced glycation End-products (AGEs): an emerging concern for processed food industries.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Kaur, Amarjeet; Thind, S S; Singh, Baljit; Raina, Shiveta

    2015-12-01

    The global food industry is expected to increase more than US $ 7 trillion by 2014. This rise in processed food sector shows that more and more people are diverging towards modern processed foods. As modern diets are largely heat processed, they are more prone to contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are a group of complex and heterogeneous compounds which are known as brown and fluorescent cross-linking substances such as pentosidine, non-fluorescent cross-linking products such as methylglyoxal-lysine dimers (MOLD), or non-fluorescent, non-cross linking adducts such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pyrraline (a pyrrole aldehyde). The chemistry of the AGEs formation, absorption and bioavailability and their patho-biochemistry particularly in relation to different complications like diabetes and ageing discussed. The concept of AGEs receptor - RAGE is mentioned. AGEs contribute to a variety of microvascular and macrovascular complications through the formation of cross-links between molecules in the basement membrane of the extracellular matrix and by engaging the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Different methods of detection and quantification along with types of agents used for the treatment of AGEs are reviewed. Generally, ELISA or LC-MS methods are used for analysis of foods and body fluids, however lack of universally established method highlighted. The inhibitory effect of bioactive components on AGEs by trapping variety of chemical moieties discussed. The emerging evidence about the adverse effects of AGEs makes it necessary to investigate the different therapies to inhibit AGEs.