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Sample records for advanced biochemistry laboratory

  1. Glycobiology, How to Sugar-Coat an Undergraduate Advanced Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McReynolds, Katherine D.

    2006-01-01

    A second semester biochemistry laboratory has been implemented as an independent projects course at California State University, Sacramento since 1999. To incorporate aspects of carbohydrate biochemistry, or glycobiology, into our curriculum, projects in lectin isolation and purification were undertaken over the course of two semesters. Through…

  2. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  3. A Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a biochemistry laboratory course in which the curriculum revolves around a single theme: the purification, characterization, and molecular biology of threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) from Escherechia coli. Lists examples of related class research projects. Contains 41 references. (WRM)

  4. A Kinetic Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of specific reactions of metabolic pathways to make measurements in the laboratory. Describes an adaptation of an experiment used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories involving the induction of an enzyme in E. coli, as well as its partial purification and characterization. (TW)

  5. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  6. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  7. Probing Changes in the Conformation of tRNA[superscript Phe]: An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Sarah R.; Silverstein, Todd P.; McFarlane Holman, Karen L.; Taylor, Buck L. H.

    2008-01-01

    We have designed a new guided-inquiry laboratory for an advanced biochemistry course. This integrated laboratory focuses on the biomolecule tRNA[superscript Phe] and combines elements of bioorganic and bioinorganic chemistry with biochemistry. Throughout the semester students work together to study tRNA[superscript Phe] structure and ligand…

  8. Immobilized Lactase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Matthew J.; Bering, C. Larry

    1998-10-01

    Immobilized enzymes have many practical applications. They may be used in clinical, industrial, and biotechnological laboratories and in many clinical diagnostic kits. For educational purposes, use of immobilized enzymes can easily be taught at the undergraduate or even secondary level. We have developed an immobilized enzyme experiment that combines many practical techniques used in the biochemistry laboratory and fits within a three-hour time frame. In this experiment, lactase from over-the-counter tablets for patients with lactose intolerance is immobilized in polyacrylamide, which is then milled into small beads and placed into a chromatography column. A lactose solution is added to the column and the eluant is assayed using the glucose oxidase assay, available as a kit. We have determined the optimal conditions to give the greatest turnover of lactose while allowing the immobilized enzymes to be active for long periods at room temperature.

  9. Immobilized alpha-Galactosidase in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulimani, V. H.; Dhananjay, K.

    2007-01-01

    This laboratory experiment was designed to demonstrate the application of immobilized galactosidase in food industry to hydrolyze raffinose family oligosaccharides in soymilk. This laboratory experiment was conducted for postgraduate students of biochemistry and developed for graduate and undergraduate students of biochemistry, biotechnology,…

  10. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii

  11. An in silico DNA cloning experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced high school biology classes. Students begin by examining a plasmid map with the goal of identifying which restriction enzymes may be used to clone a piece of foreign DNA containing a gene of interest into the vector. From the National Center for Biotechnology Initiative website, students are instructed to retrieve a protein sequence and use Expasy's Reverse Translate program to reverse translate the protein to cDNA. Students then use Integrated DNA Technologies' OligoAnalyzer to predict the complementary DNA strand and obtain DNA recognition sequences for the desired restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs' website. Students add the appropriate DNA restriction sequences to the double-stranded foreign DNA for cloning into the plasmid and infecting Escherichia coli cells. Students are introduced to computational biology tools, molecular biology terminology and the process of DNA cloning in this valuable single session, in silico experiment. This project develops students' understanding of the cloning process as a whole and contrasts with other laboratory and internship experiences in which the students may be involved in only a piece of the cloning process/techniques. Students interested in pursuing postgraduate study and research or employment in an academic biochemistry or molecular biology laboratory or industry will benefit most from this experience.

  12. An in silico DNA cloning experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced high school biology classes. Students begin by examining a plasmid map with the goal of identifying which restriction enzymes may be used to clone a piece of foreign DNA containing a gene of interest into the vector. From the National Center for Biotechnology Initiative website, students are instructed to retrieve a protein sequence and use Expasy's Reverse Translate program to reverse translate the protein to cDNA. Students then use Integrated DNA Technologies' OligoAnalyzer to predict the complementary DNA strand and obtain DNA recognition sequences for the desired restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs' website. Students add the appropriate DNA restriction sequences to the double-stranded foreign DNA for cloning into the plasmid and infecting Escherichia coli cells. Students are introduced to computational biology tools, molecular biology terminology and the process of DNA cloning in this valuable single session, in silico experiment. This project develops students' understanding of the cloning process as a whole and contrasts with other laboratory and internship experiences in which the students may be involved in only a piece of the cloning process/techniques. Students interested in pursuing postgraduate study and research or employment in an academic biochemistry or molecular biology laboratory or industry will benefit most from this experience. PMID:21618385

  13. Differentiating biochemistry course laboratories based on student experience.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Henry V

    2011-01-01

    Content and emphases in undergraduate biochemistry courses can be readily tailored to accommodate the standards of the department in which they are housed, as well as the backgrounds of the students in the courses. A more challenging issue is how to construct laboratory experiences for a class with both chemistry majors, who usually have little or no experience with biochemical techniques and biology and biochemistry majors who do. This manuscript describes a strategy for differentiating biochemistry labs to meet the needs of students with differing backgrounds.

  14. A Laboratory Course in Clinical Biochemistry Emphasizing Interest and Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Ten laboratory experiments are described which are used in a successful clinical biochemistry laboratory course (e.g. blood alcohol, glucose tolerance, plasma triglycerides, coronary risk index, gastric analysis, vitamin C and E). Most of the experiments are performed on the students themselves using simple equipment with emphasis on useful…

  15. An "in Silico" DNA Cloning Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced…

  16. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  17. Differentiating Biochemistry Course Laboratories Based on Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2011-01-01

    Content and emphases in undergraduate biochemistry courses can be readily tailored to accommodate the standards of the department in which they are housed, as well as the backgrounds of the students in the courses. A more challenging issue is how to construct laboratory experiences for a class with both chemistry majors, who usually have little or…

  18. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  19. Computerized Examination: Application to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmann, Kenneth A.

    1975-01-01

    Explains a computer exam format used with pharmacy students in a clinical biochemistry laboratory course. Student attitudes were assessed. Students felt that their final grade reflected their comprehension, exam pratical facilitated learning, exam format fostered retention and the questions were appropriate. (GS)

  20. Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Salman Ashraf, S

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise.

  1. Cytochrome C: A Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, John B.; Woski, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory course called cytochrome c that focuses on the theme of biochemical research is presented. The students follow this course by incorporating team-investigation and self-directed experimentation that provides them an opportunity to experience the excitement of research.

  2. Myoglobin structure and function: A multiweek biochemistry laboratory project.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Todd P; Kirk, Sarah R; Meyer, Scott C; Holman, Karen L McFarlane

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multiweek laboratory project in which students isolate myoglobin and characterize its structure, function, and redox state. The important laboratory techniques covered in this project include size-exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometric titration, and FTIR spectroscopy. Regarding protein structure, students work with computer modeling and visualization of myoglobin and its homologues, after which they spectroscopically characterize its thermal denaturation. Students also study protein function (ligand binding equilibrium) and are instructed on topics in data analysis (calibration curves, nonlinear vs. linear regression). This upper division biochemistry laboratory project is a challenging and rewarding one that not only exposes students to a wide variety of important biochemical laboratory techniques but also ties those techniques together to work with a single readily available and easily characterized protein, myoglobin.

  3. An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course with an Emphasis on a Research Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their junior or senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy are required to take a two-credit biochemistry laboratory course. Five years ago, the format of this course was changed from structured experiments to a more project-based approach. Several structured experiments were included at the beginning of the course…

  4. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  5. Structure Leads To Function: An Integrated Biophysical Approach To Teaching a Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; deLannoy, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated approach to teaching a biochemistry laboratory focusing on the relationship between the three-dimensional structure of a macromolecule and its function. RNA is chosen as the model system. Discusses curriculum and student assessment. (AIM)

  6. An Experiment Using Sucrose Density Gradients in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchi, Sandra L.; Weiss, Monica

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment to be performed in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory that is based on a gradient centrifugation system employing a simple bench top centrifuge, a freezer, and frozen surcose gradient solution to separate macromolecules and subcellular components. (CW)

  7. Known Structure, Unknown Function: An Inquiry-Based Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's…

  8. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry‐based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W.; Lee, Christopher T.; Dewald, Alison H.; Cline, Matthew A.; McAnany, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry‐ and research‐based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year‐long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three‐dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry‐based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at http://biochemlab.org. © 2015 The Authors Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(4):245–262, 2015. PMID:26148241

  9. A Semester-Long Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Based on "Helicobacter pylori" Urease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnham, Kate R.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a 13 week project-oriented biochemistry laboratory designed to introduce students to foundational biochemical techniques and then enable students to perform original research projects once they have mastered these techniques. In particular, we describe a semester-long laboratory that focuses on a biomedically…

  10. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  11. Integrating Internet Assignments into a Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Roger L.

    2002-01-01

    A main challenge in educating undergraduate students is to introduce them to the Internet and to teach them how to effectively use it in research. To this end, an Internet assignment was developed that introduces students to websites related to biomedical research at the beginning of a biochemistry/molecular biology laboratory course. The basic…

  12. An SDS-PAGE Examination of Protein Quaternary Structure and Disulfide Bonding for a Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jennifer L.; Andrews, Carla S.; St. Antoine, Caroline C.; Jain, Swapan S.; Bevilacqua, Vicky L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Electrophoresis is a valuable tool for biochemists, yet this technique is often not included in biochemistry laboratory curricula owing to time constraints or lack of equipment. Protein structure is also a topic of interest in many disciplines, yet most undergraduate lab experiments focus only on primary structure. In this experiment, students use…

  13. Web Camera Use in Developing Biology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogren, Paul J.; Deibel, Michael; Kelly, Ian; Mulnix, Amy B.; Peck, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    The use of a network-ready color camera is described which is primarily marketed as a security device and is used for experiments in developmental biology, genetics and biochemistry laboratories and in special student research projects. Acquiring and analyzing project and archiving images is very important in microscopy, electrophoresis and…

  14. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  15. Use of Solid Phase Extraction in the Biochemistry Laboratory to Separate Different Lipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flurkey, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to demonstrate how various lipids and lipid classes could be separated in a biochemistry laboratory setting. Three different SPE methods were chosen on their ability to separate a lipid mixture, consisting of a combination of a either a fatty acid, a triacylglycerol, a mono- or diacylglycerol, phospholipid,…

  16. The Kinetics and Inhibition of Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splittgerber, A. G.; Sohl, Julie

    1988-01-01

    Discusses an enzyme kinetics laboratory experiment involving a two substrate system for undergraduate biochemistry. Uses the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as this enzyme in blood serum is of clinical significance. Notes elevated levels are seen in liver disease, alcoholism, and epilepsy. Uses a spectrophotometer for the analysis. (MVL)

  17. Purification and Characterization of Taq Polymerase: A 9-Week Biochemistry Laboratory Project for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellin, Robert M.; Bruno, Mary K.; Farrow, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a 9-week undergraduate laboratory series focused on the purification and characterization of "Thermus aquaticus" DNA polymerase (Taq). Our aim was to provide undergraduate biochemistry students with a full-semester continuing project simulating a research-like experience, while having each week's procedure focus on a single…

  18. Evaluation of a Modified Keller Method in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a modified Keller plan for teaching a biochemistry laboratory course and evaluates the method's effectiveness by comparing results of students using Keller plan (N=17) to students receiving traditional instruction (N=16). Results suggest the modified Keller plan is a successful instructional method for the course. (Author/SK)

  19. Kinetics of Carboxylesterase: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Physical Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, C. S.; Cromartie, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a convenient, inexpensive experiment in enzyme kinetics developed for the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory at the University of Virginia. Required are a single beam visible spectrophotometer with output to a recorder, a constant temperature, a commercially available enzyme, substrates, and buffers. (BT)

  20. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  1. Teaching Protein Purification and Characterization Techniques: A Student-Initiated, Project-Oriented Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gina

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a biochemistry laboratory that is completely project-oriented. Upper-level biology and chemistry majors work in teams to purify a protein of their choice. After the student groups have completed literature searches, ordered reagents, and made buffers they continue to learn basic protein purification and biochemical techniques…

  2. Myoglobin Structure and Function: A Multiweek Biochemistry Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Todd P.; Kirk, Sarah R.; Meyer, Scott C.; Holman, Karen L. McFarlane

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a multiweek laboratory project in which students isolate myoglobin and characterize its structure, function, and redox state. The important laboratory techniques covered in this project include size-exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometric titration, and FTIR spectroscopy. Regarding protein structure,…

  3. Reaction Kinetics: An Experiment for Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Sheila

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment to examine the kinetics of carbamate decomposition and the effect of buffer catalysis on the reaction. Includes background information, laboratory procedures, evaluation of data, and teaching suggestions. (Author/JN)

  4. Vesicle Stability and Dynamics: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Bianco, Cristina; Torino, Domenica; Mansy, Sheref S.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is described that helps students learn about lipid self-assembly by making vesicles under different solution conditions. Concepts covering the chemical properties of different lipids, the dynamics of lipids, and vesicle stability are explored. Further, the described protocol is easy and cheap to implement. One to two…

  5. Working with Enzymes - Where Is Lactose Digested? An Enzyme Assay for Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Sandi R.; Tolleson, Tonya D.; Williams, R. Jill; Underhill, Russell D.; Deal, S. Todd

    1998-06-01

    At Georgia Southern University, we offer a sophomore-level introductory biochemistry course that is aimed at nutrition and chemistry education majors. The laboratory portion of this course has long lacked an experimental introduction to enzymes. We have developed a simple enzyme assay utilizing lactase enzyme from crushed LactAid tablets and a 5% lactose solution ("synthetic milk"). In the experiment, the students assay the activity of the enzyme on the "synthetic milk" at pHs of approximately 1, 6, and 8 with the stated goal of determining where lactose functions in the digestive tract. The activity of the lactase may be followed chromatographically or spectrophotometrically. The experiment, which is actually a simple pH assay, is easily implemented in allied health chemistry laboratory courses and readily lends itself to adaptation for more complex kinetic assays in upper-level biochemistry laboratory courses. The experimental details, including a list of required supplies and hints for implementation, are provided.

  6. A semester-long project-oriented biochemistry laboratory based on Helicobacter pylori urease.

    PubMed

    Farnham, Kate R; Dube, Danielle H

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the development of a 13 week project-oriented biochemistry laboratory designed to introduce students to foundational biochemical techniques and then enable students to perform original research projects once they have mastered these techniques. In particular, we describe a semester-long laboratory that focuses on a biomedically relevant enzyme--Helicobacter pylori (Hp) urease--the activity of which is absolutely required for the gastric pathogen Hp to colonize the human stomach. Over the course of the semester, students undertake a biochemical purification of Hp urease, assess the success of their purification, and investigate the activity of their purified enzyme. In the final weeks of the semester, students design and implement their own experiments to study Hp urease. This laboratory provides students with an understanding of the importance of biochemistry in human health while empowering them to engage in an active area of research.

  7. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry-based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Gray, Cynthia; Price, Carol W; Lee, Christopher T; Dewald, Alison H; Cline, Matthew A; McAnany, Charles E; Columbus, Linda; Mura, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biochemistry laboratory courses often do not provide students with an authentic research experience, particularly when the express purpose of the laboratory is purely instructional. However, an instructional laboratory course that is inquiry- and research-based could simultaneously impart scientific knowledge and foster a student's research expertise and confidence. We have developed a year-long undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum wherein students determine, via experiment and computation, the function of a protein of known three-dimensional structure. The first half of the course is inquiry-based and modular in design; students learn general biochemical techniques while gaining preparation for research experiments in the second semester. Having learned standard biochemical methods in the first semester, students independently pursue their own (original) research projects in the second semester. This new curriculum has yielded an improvement in student performance and confidence as assessed by various metrics. To disseminate teaching resources to students and instructors alike, a freely accessible Biochemistry Laboratory Education resource is available at http://biochemlab.org.

  8. Tagging and Purifying Proteins to Teach Molecular Biology and Advanced Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Lopilato, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Two distinct courses, "Molecular Biology" taught by the Biology Department and "Advanced Biochemistry" taught by the Chemistry Department, complement each other and, when taught in a coordinated and integrated way, can enhance student learning and understanding of complex material. "Molecular Biology" is a comprehensive lecture-based course with a…

  9. Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary

    1999-05-01

    Enzyme kinetics experiments are popular in the undergraduate laboratory. These experiments have pedagogic value because they reinforce the concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics covered in the lecture portion of the course and give students the experience of calculating kinetic constants from data they themselves have generated. In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. The source of the papain is commercially available papaya latex. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained. If time permits, students carry out additional investigations in which e of p-nitroaniline is measured, the enzyme solution protein concentration is measured, the enzyme purity is evaluated by SDS-PAGE, and a pH-rate profile is constructed from experimental data.

  10. Application of indices Cp and Cpk to improve quality control capability in clinical biochemistry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The traditional criteria for acceptability of analytic quality may not be objective in clinical laboratories. To establish quality control procedures intended to enhance Westgard multi-rules for improving the quality of clinical biochemistry tests, we applied the Cp and Cpk quality-control indices to monitor tolerance fitting and systematic variation of clinical biochemistry test results. Daily quality-control data of a large Taiwanese hospital in 2009 were analyzed. The test items were selected based on an Olympus biochemistry machine and included serum albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, glucose and potassium levels. Cp and Cpk values were calculated for normal and abnormal levels, respectively. The tolerance range was estimated with data from 50 laboratories using the same instruments and reagents. The results showed a monthly trend of variation for the five items under investigation. The index values of glucose were lower than those of the other items, and their values were usually <2. In contrast to the Cp value for cholesterol, Cpk of cholesterol was lower than 2, indicating a systematic error that should be further investigated. This finding suggests a degree of variation or failure to meet specifications that should be corrected. The study indicated that Cp and Cpk could be applied not only for monitoring variations in quality control, but also for revealing inter-laboratory qualitycontrol capability differences.

  11. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin.

  12. [External quality assessment in clinical biochemistry laboratories: pilot study in 11 laboratories of Lomé (Togo)].

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kafui; Fétéké, Lochina; Assignon, Selom; Dorkenoo, Ameyo; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a few biochemistry analysis and make recommendations to the place of the stakeholders. It is a cross-sectional study conducted between the October 1(st), 2012 and the July 31, 2013 bearing on the results of 5 common examinations of clinical biochemistry, provided by 11 laboratories volunteers opening in the public and private sectors. These laboratories have analysed during the 3 cycles, 2 levels (medium and high) of serum concentration of urea, glucose, creatinine and serum aminotransferases. The performance of laboratories have been determined from the acceptable limits corresponding to the limits of total errors, defined by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC). A system of internal quality control is implemented by all laboratories and 45% of them participated in international programs of external quality assessment (EQA). The rate of acceptable results for the entire study was of 69%. There was a significant difference (p<0.002) between the performance of the group of laboratories engaged in a quality approach and the group with default implementation of the quality approach. Also a significant difference was observed between the laboratories of the central level and those of the peripheral level of our health system (p<0.047). The performance of the results provided by the laboratories remains relatively unsatisfactory. It is important that the Ministry of Health put in place a national program of EQA with mandatory participation.

  13. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum.

  14. The Most Proficient Enzyme as the Central Theme in an Integrated, Research-based Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    The enzyme orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase is an attractive choice for the central theme of an integrated, research-based biochemistry laboratory course. A series of laboratory exercises common to most instructional laboratories, including enzyme assays, protein purification, enzymatic characterization, elementary kinetics, and…

  15. Nanoscale membrane organization: where biochemistry meets advanced microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cambi, Alessandra; Lidke, Diane S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that shape an effective cellular response is a fundamental question in biology. Biochemical measurements have revealed critical information about the order of protein-protein interactions along signaling cascades, but lack the resolution to determine kinetics and localization of interactions on the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the local membrane environment influences membrane receptor distributions and dynamics, which in turn influences signal transduction. To measure dynamic protein interactions and elucidate the consequences of membrane architecture interplay, direct measurements at high spatiotemporal resolution are needed. In this review, we discuss the biochemical principles regulating membrane nanodomain formation and protein function, ranging from the lipid nanoenvironment to the cortical cytoskeleton. We also discuss recent advances in fluorescence microscopy that are making it possible to quantify protein organization and biochemical events at the nanoscale in the living cell membrane. PMID:22004174

  16. Identification of Forensic Samples via Mitochondrial DNA in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Julie T.; Pilon, André M.

    2003-04-01

    A recent forensic approach for identification of unknown biological samples is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify a 440 base pair hypervariable region of human mtDNA from a variety of "crime scene" samples (e.g., teeth, hair, nails, cigarettes, envelope flaps, toothbrushes, and chewing gum). Amplification is verified via agarose gel electrophoresis and then samples are subjected to cycle sequencing. Sequence alignments are made via the program CLUSTAL W, allowing students to compare samples and solve the "crime."

  17. Integrating responsible conduct of research education into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Tamara L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these agencies offer useful templates for the introduction of RCR materials into courses worldwide. Many academic programs already offer courses or workshops in RCR for their graduate students and for undergraduate science majors and/or researchers. Introducing RCR into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula is another, highly practical way that students can be exposed to these important topics. In fact, a strong argument can be made for integrating RCR into laboratory courses because these classes often introduce students to a scientific environment like that they might encounter in their careers after graduation. This article focuses on general strategies for incorporating explicit RCR education into biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory coursework using the topics suggested by NIH as a starting point.

  18. Team-Based Learning, Faculty Research, and Grant Writing Bring Significant Learning Experiences to an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Hedeel Guy; Heyl, Deborah L.; Liggit, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    This biochemistry laboratory course was designed to provide significant learning experiences to expose students to different ways of succeeding as scientists in academia and foster development and improvement of their potential and competency as the next generation of investigators. To meet these goals, the laboratory course employs three…

  19. HPLC of the Polypeptides in a Hydrolyzate of Egg-White Lysozyme. An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, W. S., III; Burns, L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple high-performance liquid chromatography experiment for undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. The experiment illustrates the separation of polypeptides by a step gradient elution using a single pump instrument with no gradient attachments. Discusses instrumentation, analysis, a sample preparation, and results. (CW)

  20. The Determination of Vitamin D-Dependent Calcium Binding Protein in Chick Intesting: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard, George M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment used in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory involving inducing rickets in chicks and correlating the disease to a reduction in vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein. Techniques involved are hormone induction, protein isolation, and radioisotope methodology. (Author/DS)

  1. Equilibrium Gel Filtration Chromatography for the Measurement of Protein-Ligand Binding in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory exercise used in the senior biochemistry course at the University of Winnipeg for three years is discussed. It combines liquid chromatography and absorbance spectroscopy and also allows the students to produce a quantitative result within a single three-hour period.

  2. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  3. Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine: national recommendations for venous blood sampling

    PubMed Central

    Nikolac, Nora; Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Šimundić, Ana-Maria; Ćelap, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomy is one of the most complex medical procedures in the diagnosis, management and treatment of patients in healthcare. Since laboratory test results are the basis for a large proportion (60–80%) of medical decisions, any error in the phlebotomy process could have serious consequences. In order to minimize the possibility of errors, phlebotomy procedures should be standardised, well-documented and written instructions should be available at every workstation. Croatia is one of the few European countries that have national guidelines for phlebotomy, besides the universally used CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) H3-A6 Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture; approved Standard-Sixth Edition (CLSI, 2007) and WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines on drawing blood: best practices in phlebotomy (WHO, 2010). However, the growing body of evidence in importance of preanalytical phase management resulted in a need for evidence based revision and expansion of existing recommendations. The Croatian Society for Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase issued this recommendation. This document is based on the CLSI guideline H3-A6, with significant differences and additional information. PMID:24266294

  4. Taking a new biomarker into routine use – A perspective from the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, Catharine; Hill, Robert; Hortin, Glen L; Thompson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure to provide cost-effective healthcare based on “best practice.” Consequently, new biomarkers are only likely to be introduced into routine clinical biochemistry departments if they are supported by a strong evidence base and if the results will improve patient management and outcome. This requires convincing evidence of the benefits of introducing the new test, ideally reflected in fewer hospital admissions, fewer additional investigations and/or fewer clinic visits. Carefully designed audit and cost-benefit studies in relevant patient groups must demonstrate that introducing the biomarker delivers an improved and more effective clinical pathway. From the laboratory perspective, pre-analytical requirements must be thoroughly investigated at an early stage. Good stability of the biomarker in relevant physiological matrices is essential to avoid the need for special processing. Absence of specific timing requirements for sampling and knowledge of the effect of medications that might be used to treat the patients in whom the biomarker will be measured is also highly desirable. Analytically, automation is essential in modern high-throughput clinical laboratories. Assays must therefore be robust, fulfilling standard requirements for linearity on dilution, precision and reproducibility, both within- and between-run. Provision of measurements by a limited number of specialized reference laboratories may be most appropriate, especially when a new biomarker is first introduced into routine practice. PMID:21137030

  5. Seed storage proteins as a system for teaching protein identification by mass spectrometry in biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed, requiring more time and expertise than instructors of large laboratory classes can devote. We have developed an experimental module for our Biochemistry Laboratory course that engages students in MS-based protein identification following protein separation by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, a technique that is usually taught in this type of course. The module is based on soybean seed storage proteins, a relatively simple mixture of proteins present in high levels in the seed, allowing the identification of the main protein bands by MS/MS and in some cases, even by peptide mass fingerprinting. Students can identify their protein bands using software available on the Internet, and are challenged to deduce post-translational modifications that have occurred upon germination. A collection of mass spectral data and tutorials that can be used as a stand-alone computer-based laboratory module were also assembled.

  6. Raman Investigation of Temperature Profiles of Phospholipid Dispersions in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2015-06-01

    The temperature dependence of self-assembled, cell-like dispersions of phospholipids is investigated with Raman spectroscopy in the biochemistry laboratory. Vibrational modes in the hydrocarbon interiors of phospholipid bilayers are strongly Raman active, whereas the vibrations of the polar head groups and the water matrix have little Raman activity. From Raman spectra increases in fluidity of the hydrocarbon chains can be monitored with intensity changes as a function of temperature in the CH-stretching region. The experiment uses detection of scattered 1064-nm laser light (Nicolet NXR module) by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Nicolet 6700). A thermoelectric heater-cooler device (Melcor) gives convenient temperature control from 5 to 95°C for samples in melting point capillaries. Use of deuterium oxide instead of water as the matrix avoids some absorption of the exciting laser light and interference with intensity observations in the CH-stretching region. Phospholipids studied range from dimyristoylphosphotidyl choline (C14, transition T = 24°C) to dibehenoylphosphotidyl choline (C22, transition T = 74°C).

  7. Purification of Bovine Carbonic Anhydrase by Affinity Chromatography: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, C. Larry; Kuhns, Jennifer J.; Rowlett, Roger

    1998-08-01

    We have developed a rapid and inexpensive experiment utilizing affinity chromatography to isolate carbonic anhydrase (CA) from bovine blood. The more specific an affinity gel is the better the purification, but the greater the cost. Some costs would be prohibitive in the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. Less specific resins may be more affordable but may bind a number of closely related proteins. One alternative would be to couple a specific ligand to an inexpensive resin such as an ion exchanger. We describe a simple procedure for preparing a sulfonamide-coupled resin which specifically binds CA from a blood hemolysate. The CA is eluted and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It was found that only a single band of 31 kD was obtained. The instructor can readily prepare the affinity gel prior to the lab, and the students, beginning with packed red blood cells can carry out the lysis, binding to the gel, elution, enzymatic assays, and electrophoresis.

  8. Titration of Alanine Monitored by NMR Spectroscopy: A Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Francis J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The experiment described here involves simultaneous monitoring of pH and NMR chemical shifts during an aqueous titration of alpha- and beta-alanine. This experiment is designed for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. (MR)

  9. Development of an Integrated Laboratory Course-Research Program in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Theodore H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experimental biochemistry course designed to teach basic biochemical techniques using an unstudied enzyme as the experimental material. Explains the schedule of experiments designed for the course and lists the sources used. (GS)

  10. Improvement of the quality of work in a biochemistry laboratory via measurement system analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Liao, Chen-Mao; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2016-10-31

    An adequate and continuous monitoring of operational variations can effectively reduce the uncertainty and enhance the quality of laboratory reports. This study applied the evaluation rule of the measurement system analysis (MSA) method to estimate the quality of work conducted in a biochemistry laboratory. Using the gauge repeatability & reproducibility (GR&R) approach, variations in quality control (QC) data among medical technicians in conducting measurements of five biochemical items, namely, serum glucose (GLU), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), were evaluated. The measurements of the five biochemical items showed different levels of variance among the different technicians, with the variances in GLU measurements being higher than those for the other four items. The ratios of precision-to-tolerance (P/T) for Na, Cl and GLU were all above 0.5, implying inadequate gauge capability. The product variation contribution of Na was large (75.45% and 31.24% in normal and abnormal QC levels, respectively), which showed that the impact of insufficient usage of reagents could not be excluded. With regard to reproducibility, high contributions (of more than 30%) of variation for the selected items were found. These high operator variation levels implied that the possibility of inadequate gauge capacity could not be excluded. The ANOVA of GR&R showed that the operator variations in GLU measurements were significant (F=5.296, P=0.001 in the normal level and F=3.399, P=0.015 in the abnormal level, respectively). In addition to operator variations, product variations of Na were also significant for both QC levels. The heterogeneity of variance for the five technicians showed significant differences for the Na and Cl measurements in the normal QC level. The accuracy of QC for five technicians was identified for further operational improvement. This study revealed that MSA can be used to evaluate product and personnel errors and to

  11. Recent advances in biochemistry and biotechnological synthesis of avermectins and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Avermectins (AVMs), produced by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (or ATCC 31267, NRRL 8165, NCBIM 12804), are 16-member macrocylic lactones that play very important functions as bactericidal and antiparasitic agents against nematodes and anthropods, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Since its discovery in 1975, use of AVM has been widely spreading around the globe. To date, the whole genome sequence of S. avermitilis K139 has been acquired, in which the AVM biosynthetic gene cluster was the most highly investigated to mine the genes responsible for functional as well as regulatory roles. Therefore, significant progress has been achieved for understanding and manipulating the biosynthesis, improved production, regulation mechanism, side effects, as well as the resistance of AVMs and their derivatives. These findings will facilitate further strain improvement and biosynthesis of novel derivatives bearing stable and improved biological activities, as well as overcoming the resistance mechanism to open up a bright period for these compounds. In this review, we have summarized and analyzed the update in advanced progress in biochemistry and biotechnological approaches used for the production of AVMs and their derivatives.

  12. Recent advances in biochemistry and biotechnological synthesis of avermectins and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Nguyen Huy; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Avermectins (AVMs), produced by Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (or ATCC 31267, NRRL 8165, NCBIM 12804), are 16-member macrocylic lactones that play very important functions as bactericidal and antiparasitic agents against nematodes and anthropods, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Since its discovery in 1975, use of AVM has been widely spreading around the globe. To date, the whole genome sequence of S. avermitilis K139 has been acquired, in which the AVM biosynthetic gene cluster was the most highly investigated to mine the genes responsible for functional as well as regulatory roles. Therefore, significant progress has been achieved for understanding and manipulating the biosynthesis, improved production, regulation mechanism, side effects, as well as the resistance of AVMs and their derivatives. These findings will facilitate further strain improvement and biosynthesis of novel derivatives bearing stable and improved biological activities, as well as overcoming the resistance mechanism to open up a bright period for these compounds. In this review, we have summarized and analyzed the update in advanced progress in biochemistry and biotechnological approaches used for the production of AVMs and their derivatives. PMID:25104027

  13. Assessments of feline plasma biochemistry reference intervals for three in-house analysers and a commercial laboratory analyser.

    PubMed

    Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Krockenberger, Mark B; Govendir, Merran

    2015-08-01

    For each species, the manufacturers of in-house analysers (and commercial laboratories) provide standard reference intervals (RIs) that do not account for any differences such as geographical population differences and do not overtly state the potential for variation between results obtained from serum or plasma. Additionally, biases have been demonstrated for in-house analysers which result in different RIs for each different type of analyser. The objective of this study was to calculate RIs (with 90% confidence intervals [CIs]) for 13 biochemistry analytes when tested on three commonly used in-house veterinary analysers, as well as a commercial laboratory analyser. The calculated RIs were then compared with those provided by the in-house analyser manufacturers and the commercial laboratory. Plasma samples were collected from 53 clinically normal cats. After centrifugation, plasma was divided into four aliquots; one aliquot was sent to the commercial laboratory and the remaining three were tested using the in-house biochemistry analysers. The distribution of results was used to choose the appropriate statistical technique for each analyte from each analyser to calculate RIs. Provided reference limits were deemed appropriate if they fell within the 90% CIs of the calculated reference limits. Transference validation was performed on provided and calculated RIs. Twenty-nine of a possible 102 provided reference limits (28%) were within the calculated 90% CIs. To ensure proper interpretation of laboratory results, practitioners should determine RIs for their practice populations and/or use reference change values when assessing their patients' clinical chemistry results.

  14. A Project-Based Biochemistry Laboratory Promoting the Understanding and Uses of Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Study of Biomolecular Structures and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briese, Nicholas; Jakubowsk, Henry V.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory project for a first semester biochemistry course is described, which integrates the traditional classroom study of the structure and function of biomolecules with the laboratory study of these molecules using fluorescence spectroscopy. Students are assigned a specific question addressing the stability/function of lipids, proteins, or…

  15. Doing That Thing That Scientists Do: A Discovery-Driven Module on Protein Purification and Characterization for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Teresa A.; Osmundson, Joseph; Isaacson, Marisa; Herrera, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In traditional introductory biochemistry laboratory classes students learn techniques for protein purification and analysis by following provided, established, step-by-step procedures. Students are exposed to a variety of biochemical techniques but are often not developing procedures or collecting new, original data. In this laboratory module,…

  16. Prepare, Do, Review: A skills-based approach for laboratory practical classes in biochemistry and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Peter; Ludwig, Martha; Castelli, Joane; Kirkwood, Paul; Attwood, Paul

    2016-05-01

    A new laboratory practical system is described which is comprised of a number of laboratory practical modules, each based around a particular technique or set of techniques, related to the theory part of the course but not designed to be dependent on it. Each module comprises an online recorded pre-lab lecture, the laboratory practical itself and a post-lab session in which students make oral presentations on different aspects of the practical. Each part of the module is assessed with the aim of providing rapid feedback to staff and students. Each laboratory practical is the responsibility of a single staff member and through this "ownership," continual review and updating is promoted. Examples of changes made by staff to modules as a result of student feedback are detailed. A survey of students who had experienced both the old-style laboratory course and the new one provided evidence of increased satisfaction with the new program. The assessment of acquired shills in the new program showed that it was much more effective than the old course. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:276-287, 2016.

  17. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    PubMed

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia.

  18. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia. PMID:26524965

  19. Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Lora; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Dorotić, Adrijana; Baršić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard – fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline – second edition. Practices related to processing of blood gas samples are not standardized in the Republic of Croatia. Each institution has its own protocol for ordering, collection and analysis of blood gases. Although many laboratories use state of the art analyzers, still many preanalytical procedures remain unchanged. The objective of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CSMBLM) is to standardize the procedures for BGA based on CLSI recommendations. The Working Group for Blood Gas Testing as part of the Committee for the Scientific Professional Development of the CSMBLM prepared a set of recommended protocols for sampling, transport, storage and processing of blood gas samples based on relevant CLSI documents, relevant literature search and on the results of Croatian survey study on practices and policies in acid-base testing. Recommendations are intended for laboratory professionals and all healthcare workers involved in blood gas processing. PMID:27812301

  20. An Undergraduate Investigation into the 10-23 DNA Enzyme that Cleaves RNA: DNA Can Cut It in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn-Charlebois, Amber; Burns, Jamie; Chapelliquen, Stephanie; Sanmartino, Holly

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost biochemistry experiment is described that demonstrates current techniques in the use of catalytic DNA molecules and introduces a nonradioactive, nonfluorescent, inexpensive, fast, and safe method for monitoring these nucleic acid reactions. The laboratory involves the exploration of the 10-23 DNA enzyme as it cleaves a specific RNA…

  1. An Inexpensive, Relatively Green, and Rapid Method to Purify Genomic DNA from "Escherichia Coli": An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.; Branscum, Katie M.; Kao, Lydia; Keaveny, Virginia R.

    2010-01-01

    A method to purify genomic DNA from "Escherichia coli" is presented. The method is an amalgam of published methods but has been modified and optimized for use in the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. Specifically, the method uses Tide Free 2x Ultra laundry detergent, which contains unspecified proteases and lipases, "n"-butanol, 2-propanol,…

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Secondary Structure Determination of a Silk-Inspired, Self-Assembling Peptide: A Laboratory Exercise for Organic and Biochemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Tyler J.; Fry, Melany M.; Murphy, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory experiment gives upper-division organic or biochemistry undergraduate students a comprehensive look at the synthesis, chemical characterization, self-assembly, and secondary structure determination of small, N-acylated peptides inspired by the protein structure of silkworm silk. All experiments can be completed in one 4 h lab…

  3. Affinity Chromatography of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alexander J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a laboratory technique of enzyme purification by affinity chromatography as part of an undergraduate biochemical methodology course. Provides preparation details of the rat muscle homogenate and reagents. Proposes column requirements and assaying information. (MVL)

  4. Systems engineering and integration: Advanced avionics laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop the new generation of avionics which will be necessary for upcoming programs such as the Lunar/Mars Initiative, Advanced Launch System, and the National Aerospace Plane, new Advanced Avionics Laboratories are required. To minimize costs and maximize benefits, these laboratories should be capable of supporting multiple avionics development efforts at a single location, and should be of a common design to support and encourage data sharing. Recent technological advances provide the capability of letting the designer or analyst perform simulations and testing in an environment similar to his engineering environment and these features should be incorporated into the new laboratories. Existing and emerging hardware and software standards must be incorporated wherever possible to provide additional cost savings and compatibility. Special care must be taken to design the laboratories such that real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance is not sacrificed in the pursuit of these goals. A special program-independent funding source should be identified for the development of Advanced Avionics Laboratories as resources supporting a wide range of upcoming NASA programs.

  5. A Static Method as an Alternative to Gel Chromatography: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burum, Alex D.; Splittgerber, Allan G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a static method as an alternative to gel chromatography, which may be used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment. In this method, a constant mass of Sephadex gel is swollen in a series of protein solutions. UV-vis spectrophotometry is used to find a partition coefficient, KD, that indicates the fraction of the interior…

  6. A Metabolic Murder Mystery: A Case-Based Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs-Disney, Jessica L.; Kauffmann, Andrew D.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Lysiak, Daniel R.; Stewart, Robert J.; Arcadi, Jane K.; Dinan, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, a woman was wrongly convicted of poisoning her infant son and was sentenced to life in prison. Her conviction was based on laboratory work that wrongly identified ethylene glycol as present in her son's blood and in the formula he drank prior to his death. The actual cause of the infant's death, a metabolic disease, was eventually…

  7. Analysis of a p53 Mutation Associated with Cancer Susceptibility for Biochemistry and Genetic Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Cruz, Isabel; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of a p53 polymorphism associated with cancer susceptibility. First, students collected a drop of peripheral blood cells using a sterile sting and then used FTA cards to extract the genomic DNA. The p53 region is then PCR…

  8. Evaluation of an Online Instructional Database Accessed by QR Codes to Support Biochemistry Practical Laboratory Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tor; Melling, Louise; Shaw, Kirsty J.

    2016-01-01

    An online instructional database containing information on commonly used pieces of laboratory equipment was created. In order to make the database highly accessible and to promote its use, QR codes were utilized. The instructional materials were available anytime and accessed using QR codes located on the equipment itself and within undergraduate…

  9. Dishonesty in the Biochemistry Classroom Laboratory: A Synthesis of Causes and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Carlo, Dawn; Bodner, George

    2006-01-01

    Although reports of academic cheating are abundant, there are relatively few papers in the literature that focus on cheating in the context of science courses and even fewer that address dishonest practices, such as "cooking" or fudging data, within the classroom laboratory. This paper briefly reviews the existing literature on academic dishonesty…

  10. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  11. Laboratory testing of extravascular body fluids in Croatia: a survey of the Working group for extravascular body fluids of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Vogrinc, Zeljka; Kocijan, Irena; Culej, Jelena; Aralica, Merica; Jokic, Anja; Antoncic, Dragana; Bozovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that extravascular body fluid (EBF) analysis in Croatia is not harmonized and aimed to investigate preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures used in EBF analysis in order to identify key aspects that should be addressed in future harmonization attempts. Materials and methods An anonymous online survey created to explore laboratory testing of EBF was sent to secondary, tertiary and private health care Medical Biochemistry Laboratories (MBLs) in Croatia. Statements were designed to address preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical procedures of cerebrospinal, pleural, peritoneal (ascites), pericardial, seminal, synovial, amniotic fluid and sweat. Participants were asked to declare the strength of agreement with proposed statements using a Likert scale. Mean scores for corresponding separate statements divided according to health care setting were calculated and compared. Results The survey response rate was 0.64 (58 / 90). None of the participating private MBLs declared to analyse EBF. We report a mean score of 3.45 obtained for all statements evaluated. Deviations from desirable procedures were demonstrated in all EBF testing phases. Minor differences in procedures used for EBF analysis comparing secondary and tertiary health care MBLs were found. The lowest scores were obtained for statements regarding quality control procedures in EBF analysis, participation in proficiency testing programmes and provision of interpretative comments on EBF’s test reports. Conclusions Although good laboratory EBF practice is present in Croatia, procedures for EBF analysis should be further harmonized to improve the quality of EBF testing and patient safety. PMID:27812307

  12. Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy: serial, clinical and laboratory (urine, serum biochemistry and hematology) studies.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, B; Valli, V E; Thorner, P; Baumal, R; Lumsden, J H

    1987-01-01

    Human hereditary nephritis refers to familial glomerular diseases which may progress to renal failure. Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy has been shown previously to be a model for hereditary nephritis. Clinical and laboratory studies were performed to follow progression to renal failure in 44 dogs in a family with Samoyed hereditary glomerulopathy. Affected males appeared healthy for their first three months but then became progressively wasted. Proteinuria was detected between two to three months of age; after five months, urine protein electrophoresis showed pre-albumin, albumin and alpha and beta globulin peaks. From three months onward, a reduced glomerular filtration rate was detected. Serum albumin decreased while amylase, urea, creatinine and phosphate increased from four to five months of age. Death from renal failure occurred by 15 months. Carrier females also became thinner and developed proteinuria between two and three months of age, but neither renal failure nor death ensured. Hence, SHG progressed rapidly in affected males but not in carrier females. PMID:3651895

  13. Environmental regulation of plant gene expression: an RT-qPCR laboratory project for an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry or molecular biology course.

    PubMed

    Eickelberg, Garrett J; Fisher, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel laboratory project employing "real-time" RT-qPCR to measure the effect of environment on the expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS C gene, a key regulator of floral timing in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The project requires four 3-hr laboratory sessions and is aimed at upper-level undergraduate students in biochemistry or molecular biology courses. The project provides students with hands-on experience with RT-qPCR, the current "gold standard" for gene expression analysis, including detailed data analysis using the common 2-ΔΔCT method. Moreover, it provides a convenient starting point for many inquiry-driven projects addressing diverse questions concerning ecological biochemistry, naturally occurring genetic variation, developmental biology, and the regulation of gene expression in nature.

  14. Comparison of the microbial dynamics and biochemistry of laboratory sourdoughs prepared with grape, apple and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gordún, Elena; del Valle, Luis J; Ginovart, Marta; Carbó, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid. In all sourdoughs, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased during processing and were the dominant microorganisms (>1E+8 CFU/g). GS, as well as AS, had high diversity of LAB species. In ripe YS, Pediococcus pentosaceus was the only species identified; in GS and AS, several Lactobacilli were also found, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis, and Lb. sakei; in addition, in GS Weisella cibaria also appeared. Regarding the yeast population, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from GS and AS showed a very high specific population (>1E+7 CFU/g), but this was reduced in ripe sourdough (<1E+4 CFU/g). Finally, the Saccharomyces group dominated in all sourdoughs. Starting ingredients or raw material provided microbiological specificity to sourdoughs, and grape could be considered one of them. PMID:25008077

  15. Comparison of the microbial dynamics and biochemistry of laboratory sourdoughs prepared with grape, apple and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gordún, Elena; del Valle, Luis J; Ginovart, Marta; Carbó, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid. In all sourdoughs, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased during processing and were the dominant microorganisms (>1E+8 CFU/g). GS, as well as AS, had high diversity of LAB species. In ripe YS, Pediococcus pentosaceus was the only species identified; in GS and AS, several Lactobacilli were also found, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis, and Lb. sakei; in addition, in GS Weisella cibaria also appeared. Regarding the yeast population, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from GS and AS showed a very high specific population (>1E+7 CFU/g), but this was reduced in ripe sourdough (<1E+4 CFU/g). Finally, the Saccharomyces group dominated in all sourdoughs. Starting ingredients or raw material provided microbiological specificity to sourdoughs, and grape could be considered one of them.

  16. Biochemistry and metabolism of lake trout: laboratory and field studies on the effects of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of ambient and higher concentrations of PCB's (Aroclor 1254) and DDE in food and water on fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan, I measured several biochemical indicators of stress in exposed and unexposed (control) fry. No differences between treatments were observed in oxygen consumption rates or lactate concentrations of unexercised fry, but apparent differences in specific swimming speed and lactate response in fry that swam to exhaustion suggested that exposed fry had lower stamina. Observed differences between biochemical profiles of 1-day-old sac fry reared from eggs originating from lake trout collected off Saugatuck and those originating from eggs of brood stock at the Marquette (Michigan) hatchery may have been caused by organochlorine contamination or by genetic and dietary differences between the parental stocks. Activity of the enzyme allantoinase was measured in juvenile and adult lake trout as an indicator of sublethal effects of Great Lakes contaminants. The 50% inhibition of allantoinase in vitro occurred at 6.0 mg/L Cu++, 6.7 mg/L Cd++, 34 mg/L Hg++, and 52 mg/L Pb++. Allantoinase was not affected by in vitro exposure to PCB's up to 7 μg/g, or DDE or DDT up to 10 μg/g; however, in vivo exposure resulting in 2.6 μg/g PCB's in the whole fish activated allantoinase slightly (10% significance level). Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with total length for fish from Lake Michigan but not for fish from Lake Superior or from laboratory stocks. Mercury, PCB's, and DDT, possibly acting in combination with each other and with additional contaminants, may be the cause of the negative correlation of allantoinase activity with size in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  17. Current practice in laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. 
Survey of the Working group for laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Andrea Tešija; Đerek, Lovorka; Kozmar, Ana; Drvar, Vedrana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the trend of increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases, laboratories are faced with exponential growth of the requests for tests relating the diagnosis of these diseases. Unfortunately, the lack of laboratory personnel experienced in this specific discipline of laboratory diagnostic, as well as an unawareness of a method limitation often results in confusion for clinicians. The aim was to gain insight into number and type of Croatian laboratories that perform humoral diagnostics with the final goal to improve and harmonize laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. Materials and methods In order to get insight into current laboratory practice two questionnaires, consisting of 42 questions in total, were created. Surveys were conducted using SurveyMonkey application and were sent to 88 medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia for the first survey. Out of 33 laboratories that declared to perform diagnostic from the scope, 19 were selected for the second survey based on the tests they pleaded to perform. The survey comprised questions regarding autoantibody hallmarks of systemic autoimmune diseases while regarding organ-specific autoimmune diseases was limited to diseases of liver, gastrointestinal and nervous system. Results Response rate was high with 80 / 88 (91%) laboratories which answered the first questionnaire, and 19 / 19 (1.0) for the second questionnaire. Obtained results of surveys indicate high heterogeneity in the performance of autoantibody testing among laboratories in Croatia. Conclusions Results indicate the need of creating recommendations and algorithms in order to harmonize the approach to laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. PMID:27812306

  18. A Freshman Biochemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Toma, Francis J.; Campbell, Mary K.

    1982-01-01

    A one-semester biochemistry course was developed as an alternative to traditional freshman chemistry. Lecture topics and laboratory exercises focus on the course's unifying theme of the origin and early stages of the evolution of life on earth. (Author/SK)

  19. Advances in genetic circuit design: novel biochemistries, deep part mining, and precision gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Voigt, Christopher A

    2013-12-01

    Cells use regulatory networks to perform computational operations to respond to their environment. Reliably manipulating such networks would be valuable for many applications in biotechnology; for example, in having genes turn on only under a defined set of conditions or implementing dynamic or temporal control of expression. Still, building such synthetic regulatory circuits remains one of the most difficult challenges in genetic engineering and as a result they have not found widespread application. Here, we review recent advances that address the key challenges in the forward design of genetic circuits. First, we look at new design concepts, including the construction of layered digital and analog circuits, and new approaches to control circuit response functions. Second, we review recent work to apply part mining and computational design to expand the number of regulators that can be used together within one cell. Finally, we describe new approaches to obtain precise gene expression and to reduce context dependence that will accelerate circuit design by more reliably balancing regulators while reducing toxicity.

  20. Advanced Materials Laboratory User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orndoff, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  1. Doing that thing that scientists do: A discovery-driven module on protein purification and characterization for the undergraduate biochemistry laboratory classroom.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Teresa A; Osmundson, Joseph; Isaacson, Marisa; Herrera, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In traditional introductory biochemistry laboratory classes students learn techniques for protein purification and analysis by following provided, established, step-by-step procedures. Students are exposed to a variety of biochemical techniques but are often not developing procedures or collecting new, original data. In this laboratory module, students develop research skills through work on an original research project and gain confidence in their ability to design and execute an experiment while faculty can enhance their scholarly pursuits through the acquisition of original data in the classroom laboratory. Students are prepared for a 6-8 week discovery-driven project on the purification of the Escherichia coli cytidylate kinase (CMP kinase) through in class problems and other laboratory exercises on bioinformatics and protein structure analysis. After a minimal amount of guidance on how to perform the CMP kinase in vitro enzyme assay, SDS-PAGE, and the basics of protein purification, students, working in groups of three to four, develop a protein purification protocol based on the scientific literature and investigate some aspect of CMP kinase that interests them. Through this process, students learn how to implement a new but perhaps previously worked out procedure to answer their research question. In addition, they learn the importance of keeping a clear and thorough laboratory notebook and how to interpret their data and use that data to inform the next set of experiments. Following this module, students had increased confidence in their ability to do basic biochemistry techniques and reported that the "self-directed" nature of this lab increased their engagement in the project.

  2. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  3. The introduction of metagenomics into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course yielded a predicted reductase that decreases triclosan susceptibility in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Donato, Justin J; Klimstra, Mikhail A; Byrnes, James R; White, Robert J; Marsh, Thomas C

    2012-06-01

    Traditional undergraduate science classes often include a laboratory component aimed at enabling the students to experience the classroom topics firsthand. Typically, these experiments are chosen because they have known outcomes that will clearly demonstrate particular aspects of scientific theory. While this approach has its benefits in skill development and concept reinforcement, the lack of novelty inherent in repeating experiments that have been repeated for many years does not accurately convey the feeling of true scientific discovery to the students. In this work, we have designed and implemented a series of experiments into an undergraduate biochemistry curriculum that incorporates the opportunity for scientific discovery, while simultaneously creating an environment for learning routine laboratory techniques. Through this set of experiments, students enrolled in the course were successful in identifying and beginning to characterize an unknown bacterial gene that confers increased tolerance to triclosan on its host.

  4. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  5. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Rabies: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. The true disease burden and public health impact due to rabies remain underestimated due to lack of sensitive laboratory diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnosis of rabies can help initiate prompt infection control and public health measures, obviate the need for unnecessary treatment/medical tests, and assist in timely administration of pre- or postexposure prophylactic vaccination to family members and medical staff. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies provides an impetus for clinicians to attempt experimental therapeutic approaches in some patients, especially after the reported survival of a few cases of human rabies. Traditional methods for antemortem and postmortem rabies diagnosis have several limitations. Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. These assays which complement traditional methods have the potential to revolutionize rabies diagnosis in future. PMID:24348170

  6. Prepare, Do, Review: A Skills-Based Approach for Laboratory Practical Classes in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Peter; Ludwig, Martha; Castelli, Joane; Kirkwood, Paul; Attwood, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A new laboratory practical system is described which is comprised of a number of laboratory practical modules, each based around a particular technique or set of techniques, related to the theory part of the course but not designed to be dependent on it. Each module comprises an online recorded pre-lab lecture, the laboratory practical itself and…

  7. Using an ePortfolio System as an Electronic Laboratory Notebook in Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Practical Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jill; Kant, Sashi; Gysbers, Vanessa; Hancock, Dale; Denyer, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Despite many apparent advantages, including security, back-up, remote access, workflow, and data management, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) in the modern research laboratory is still developing. This presents a challenge to instructors who want to give undergraduate students an introduction to the kinds of data curation and…

  8. Expression, purification, and characterization of a carbohydrate-active enzyme: A research-inspired methods optimization experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Willbur, Jaime F; Vail, Justin D; Mitchell, Lindsey N; Jakeman, David L; Timmons, Shannon C

    2016-01-01

    The development and implementation of research-inspired, discovery-based experiences into science laboratory curricula is a proven strategy for increasing student engagement and ownership of experiments. In the novel laboratory module described herein, students learn to express, purify, and characterize a carbohydrate-active enzyme using modern techniques and instrumentation commonly found in a research laboratory. Unlike in a traditional cookbook-style experiment, students generate their own hypotheses regarding expression conditions and quantify the amount of protein isolated using their selected variables. Over the course of three 3-hour laboratory periods, students learn to use sterile technique to express a protein using recombinant DNA in E. coli, purify the resulting enzyme via affinity chromatography and dialysis, analyze the success of their purification scheme via SDS-PAGE, assess the activity of the enzyme via an HPLC-based assay, and quantify the amount of protein isolated via a Bradford assay. Following the completion of this experiment, students were asked to evaluate their experience via an optional survey. All students strongly agreed that this laboratory module was more interesting to them than traditional experiments because of its lack of a pre-determined outcome and desired additional opportunities to participate in the experimental design process. This experiment serves as an example of how research-inspired, discovery-based experiences can benefit both the students and instructor; students learned important skills necessary for real-world biochemistry research and a more concrete understanding of the research process, while generating new knowledge to enhance the scholarly endeavors of the instructor. PMID:26710673

  9. Expression, purification, and characterization of a carbohydrate-active enzyme: A research-inspired methods optimization experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Willbur, Jaime F; Vail, Justin D; Mitchell, Lindsey N; Jakeman, David L; Timmons, Shannon C

    2016-01-01

    The development and implementation of research-inspired, discovery-based experiences into science laboratory curricula is a proven strategy for increasing student engagement and ownership of experiments. In the novel laboratory module described herein, students learn to express, purify, and characterize a carbohydrate-active enzyme using modern techniques and instrumentation commonly found in a research laboratory. Unlike in a traditional cookbook-style experiment, students generate their own hypotheses regarding expression conditions and quantify the amount of protein isolated using their selected variables. Over the course of three 3-hour laboratory periods, students learn to use sterile technique to express a protein using recombinant DNA in E. coli, purify the resulting enzyme via affinity chromatography and dialysis, analyze the success of their purification scheme via SDS-PAGE, assess the activity of the enzyme via an HPLC-based assay, and quantify the amount of protein isolated via a Bradford assay. Following the completion of this experiment, students were asked to evaluate their experience via an optional survey. All students strongly agreed that this laboratory module was more interesting to them than traditional experiments because of its lack of a pre-determined outcome and desired additional opportunities to participate in the experimental design process. This experiment serves as an example of how research-inspired, discovery-based experiences can benefit both the students and instructor; students learned important skills necessary for real-world biochemistry research and a more concrete understanding of the research process, while generating new knowledge to enhance the scholarly endeavors of the instructor.

  10. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, S. D.; Frisbee, R. H.; Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts were selected for study because each offers the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability or enabling bold, ambitious new missions.

  11. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  12. An inquiry-based biochemistry laboratory structure emphasizing competency in the scientific process: a guided approach with an electronic notebook format.

    PubMed

    L Hall, Mona; Vardar-Ulu, Didem

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory setting is an exciting and gratifying place to teach because you can actively engage the students in the learning process through hands-on activities; it is a dynamic environment amenable to collaborative work, critical thinking, problem-solving and discovery. The guided inquiry-based approach described here guides the students through their laboratory work at a steady pace that encourages them to focus on quality observations, careful data collection and thought processes surrounding the chemistry involved. It motivates students to work in a collaborative manner with frequent opportunities for feedback, reflection, and modification of their ideas. Each laboratory activity has four stages to keep the students' efforts on track: pre-lab work, an in-lab discussion, in-lab work, and a post-lab assignment. Students are guided at each stage by an instructor created template that directs their learning while giving them the opportunity and flexibility to explore new information, ideas, and questions. These templates are easily transferred into an electronic journal (termed the E-notebook) and form the basic structural framework of the final lab reports the students submit electronically, via a learning management system. The guided-inquiry based approach presented here uses a single laboratory activity for undergraduate Introductory Biochemistry as an example. After implementation of this guided learning approach student surveys reported a higher level of course satisfaction and there was a statistically significant improvement in the quality of the student work. Therefore we firmly believe the described format to be highly effective in promoting student learning and engagement.

  13. An inquiry-based biochemistry laboratory structure emphasizing competency in the scientific process: a guided approach with an electronic notebook format.

    PubMed

    L Hall, Mona; Vardar-Ulu, Didem

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory setting is an exciting and gratifying place to teach because you can actively engage the students in the learning process through hands-on activities; it is a dynamic environment amenable to collaborative work, critical thinking, problem-solving and discovery. The guided inquiry-based approach described here guides the students through their laboratory work at a steady pace that encourages them to focus on quality observations, careful data collection and thought processes surrounding the chemistry involved. It motivates students to work in a collaborative manner with frequent opportunities for feedback, reflection, and modification of their ideas. Each laboratory activity has four stages to keep the students' efforts on track: pre-lab work, an in-lab discussion, in-lab work, and a post-lab assignment. Students are guided at each stage by an instructor created template that directs their learning while giving them the opportunity and flexibility to explore new information, ideas, and questions. These templates are easily transferred into an electronic journal (termed the E-notebook) and form the basic structural framework of the final lab reports the students submit electronically, via a learning management system. The guided-inquiry based approach presented here uses a single laboratory activity for undergraduate Introductory Biochemistry as an example. After implementation of this guided learning approach student surveys reported a higher level of course satisfaction and there was a statistically significant improvement in the quality of the student work. Therefore we firmly believe the described format to be highly effective in promoting student learning and engagement. PMID:24376181

  14. A Multistep Synthesis for an Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Ji; Peters, Dennis G.

    2006-01-01

    Multistep syntheses are often important components of the undergraduate organic laboratory experience and a three-step synthesis of 5-(2-sulfhydrylethyl) salicylaldehyde was described. The experiment is useful as a special project for an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course and offers opportunities for students to master a…

  15. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  16. Effects of Various Dental Materials on Alkaline Phosphatase Extracted from Pulp: An Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lorin R.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that demonstrates the effects of various dental materials on a representative enzyme from the pulp is outlined. The experiment encourages students to consider the effects that various restorative materials and techniques might have on enzymes in the living pulp. (Author/MLW)

  17. The Biochemistry of the Muscle Contraction Process: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Using Viscosity to Follow the Progress of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belliveau, James F.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment using viscosity to follow the progress of the contractile process in muscles. This simple, short experiment illustrates the action of ATP as the source of energy in the contractile process and the catalytic effect of calcium ions as a control in the energy producing process. (CS)

  18. Using an ePortfolio system as an electronic laboratory notebook in undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology practical classes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill; Kant, Sashi; Gysbers, Vanessa; Hancock, Dale; Denyer, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Despite many apparent advantages, including security, back-up, remote access, workflow, and data management, the use of electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs) in the modern research laboratory is still developing. This presents a challenge to instructors who want to give undergraduate students an introduction to the kinds of data curation and notebook keeping skills that will inevitably be required as ELNs penetrate normal laboratory practice. An additional problem for the teacher is that ELNs do not generally have student-administrative functions and are prohibitively expensive. In this report, we describe the use and impact of an ePortfolio system as a surrogate ELN. Introduction of the system led to several pedagogic outcomes, namely: increased preparedness of students for class, encouragement of creativity and reflection with respect to experimental methods, greatly enhanced engagement between students and tutors, and it gave instructors the ability to scrutinize original data files and monitor student-tutor feedback cycles. However, implementation led to a disruption of tutor workloads and incurred new levels of accountability that threatened to undermine the initiative. Through course evaluations and other reflective processes, we reached an appreciation of how an ELN should be introduced into practical class teaching so that it not only becomes an appropriate aid for teaching the laboratory experience, but also becomes a life-long resource for students.

  19. Detection of an ABCA1 Variant Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Susceptibility for Biochemistry and Genetic Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legorreta-Herrera, M.; Mosqueda-Romo, N. A.; Hernández-Clemente, F.; Soto-Cruz, I.

    2013-01-01

    We selected diabetes mellitus for this laboratory exercise to provide students with an explicit model for scientific research concerning the association between the R230C polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is highly prevalent in the Mexican population. We used a collaborative project-based learning to engage…

  20. Teachers as Learners in a Cooperative Learning Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Marcy P.; Mitchell, Steve M.; Anderson, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Upper level college students majoring in biochemistry at the University of New Mexico have the opportunity to participate in an advanced biochemistry course entitled "Biochemistry Education." This course introduces theories of teaching and learning, provides opportunities for participation in course organization, design, and assessment strategies,…

  1. NMR of a Phospholipid: Modules for Advanced Laboratory Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaede, Holly C.; Stark, Ruth E.

    2001-09-01

    A laboratory project is described that builds upon the NMR experience undergraduates receive in organic chemistry with a battery of NMR experiments that investigate egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC). This material, often labeled in health food stores as lecithin, is a major constituent of mammalian cell membranes. The NMR experiments may be used to make resonance assignments, to study molecular organization in model membranes, to test the effects of instrumental parameters, and to investigate the physics of nuclear spin systems. A suite of modular NMR exercises is described, so that the instructor may tailor the laboratory sessions to biochemistry, instrumental analysis, or physical chemistry. The experiments include solution-state one-dimensional (1D) 1H, 13C, and 31P experiments; two-dimensional (2D) TOtal Correlated SpectroscopY (TOCSY); and the spectral editing technique of Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT). To demonstrate the differences between solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy and instrumentation, a second set of experiments generates 1H, 13C, and 31P spectra of egg PC dispersed in aqueous solution, under both static and magic-angle spinning conditions.

  2. Synthesis and Purification of a Hammerhead Ribozyme and a Fluorescein-Labeled RNA Substrate. A Biochemistry Laboratory: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Christine S.; Somne, Smita

    1999-05-01

    The applications of in vitro transcription and chemical synthesis of RNA are discussed. This laboratory describes the in vitro synthesis of a 38-nucleotide hammerhead ribozyme and the synthesis of a 17-nucleotide fluorescein-labeled RNA substrate by using standard phosphoramidite methodologies, two widely used methods in modern RNA research. The synthesis and purification procedures outlined allow students to develop an understanding of RNA handling procedures, synthesis of modified nucleic acids, gel electrophoresis, visualization of RNA by nonradioactive techniques, and quantitation of nucleic acids. The RNAs that are synthesized have applications in biotechnology and medicine; thus the students gain access to current problems in chemical and clinical research.

  3. Detection of an ABCA1 variant associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility for biochemistry and genetic laboratory courses.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, M; Mosqueda-Romo, N A; Hernández-Clemente, F; Soto-Cruz, I

    2013-01-01

    We selected diabetes mellitus for this laboratory exercise to provide students with an explicit model for scientific research concerning the association between the R230C polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is highly prevalent in the Mexican population. We used a collaborative project-based learning to engage students to direct their own learning process. Students worked in small groups with the same learning goal to research, organize data, and present seminars to experimentally genotype the C230 variant and correctly interpret their results. At the conclusion of this laboratory exercise, the students were able to demonstrate a clear understanding of the relevant biological molecular principles to genotype the C230 variant, showed technical competency to carry out the experimental protocols with proficiency, and interpret their results using statistical analyses. The students discussed their understanding of the genetic technologies and the broader social and ethical implications of the research. A randomly selected team was trained to work as a "sentinel" to monitor their classmates and ensure the proper application of techniques. Moreover, the evaluation of this exercise is shared between the students and the instructors; the students evaluate their own work and the performance of their classmates. At the end of the course, the students complete a questionnaire to anonymously provide feedback and information regarding their perception of the learning outcomes. Overall, the student feedback was positive, indicating that the exercise was useful and that it would help to prepare the students for professional practice.

  4. Technological advances in the hemostasis laboratory.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2014-03-01

    Automation is conventionally defined as the use of machines, control systems, and information technologies to optimize productivity. Although automation is now commonplace in several areas of diagnostic testing, especially in clinical chemistry and immunochemistry, the concept of extending this process to hemostasis testing has only recently been advanced. The leading drawbacks are still represented by the almost unique biological matrix because citrated plasma can only be used for clotting assays and few other notable exceptions, and by the highly specific pretreatment of samples, which is particularly distinct to other test systems. Despite these important limitations, a certain degree of automation is also now embracing hemostasis testing. The more relevant developments include the growing integration of routine hemostasis analyzers with track line systems and workcells, the development of specific instrumentation tools to enhance reliability of testing (i.e., signal detection with different technologies to increase test panels, plasma indices for preanalytical check of interfering substances, failure patterns sensors for identifying insufficient volume, clots or bubbles, cap-piercing for enhancing operator safety, automatic reflex testing, automatic redilution of samples, and laser barcode readers), preanalytical features (e.g., positive identification, automatic systems for tube(s) labeling, transillumination devices), and postphlebotomy tools (pneumatic tube systems for reducing turnaround time, sample transport boxes for ensuring stability of specimens, monitoring systems for identifying unsuitable conditions of transport). Regardless of these important innovations, coagulation/hemostasis testing still requires specific technical and clinical expertise, not only in terms of measurement procedures but also for interpreting and then appropriately utilizing the derived information. Thus, additional and special caution has to be used when designing projects of

  5. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  6. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  7. Glycoprotein Biochemistry--Some Clinical Aspects of Interest to Biochemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe some clinical features of glycoprotein biochemistry, including recognition, selected blood glycoproteins, glycated proteins, histochemistry, and cancer. The material presented has largely been taught to medical laboratory students; however, it can be used to teach premedical students and pure biochemistry students. Includes two…

  8. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals". PMID:15633495

  9. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Laudicina, R J

    2001-01-01

    Retention of recent graduates and other laboratory practitioners in the workplace will play a key role in addressing current and projected shortages of clinical laboratory scientists (CLS) and technicians (CLT). In addition, with overrepresentation of the aging Baby Boomer generation in laboratory supervisory and management positions, it is crucial not only to retain younger practitioners, but to prepare them for assuming these important functions in the future. Mentoring, a practice commonly employed in other professions, is widely considered to be useful in employee retention and career advancement. Mentoring has probably been used in the clinical laboratory profession, but has not been well documented. In the clinical laboratory environment, potential mentors are in the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations, and new practitioners who could benefit from mentoring are in Generation X. Generational differences among these groups may present challenges to the use of mentoring. This article will attempt to provide a better understanding of generational differences and show how mentoring can be applied in the setting of the clinical laboratory in order to increase retention and promote career advancement of younger practitioners. A panel of five laboratory managers provided examples of mentoring strategies. Definitions, benefits, and examples of mentoring are addressed in the accompanying article, "Passing the Torch: Mentoring the Next Generation of Laboratory Professionals".

  10. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  11. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  12. Clinical biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, W. C.; Leach, C. S.; Fischer, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of the biochemical studies conducted for the Apollo program were (1) to provide routine laboratory data for assessment of preflight crew physical status and for postflight comparisons; (2) to detect clinical or pathological abnormalities which might have required remedial action preflight; (3) to discover as early as possible any infectious disease process during the postflight quarantine periods following certain missions; and (4) to obtain fundamental medical knowledge relative to man's adjustment to and return from the space flight environment. The accumulated data presented suggest that these requirements were met by the program described. All changes ascribed to the space flight environment were subtle, whereas clinically significant changes were consistent with infrequent illnesses unrelated to the space flight exposure.

  13. New virtual laboratories presenting advanced motion control concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubej, Martin; Krejčí, Alois; Reitinger, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with development of software framework for rapid generation of remote virtual laboratories. Client-server architecture is chosen in order to employ real-time simulation core which is running on a dedicated server. Ordinary web browser is used as a final renderer to achieve hardware independent solution which can be run on different target platforms including laptops, tablets or mobile phones. The provided toolchain allows automatic generation of the virtual laboratory source code from the configuration file created in the open- source Inkscape graphic editor. Three virtual laboratories presenting advanced motion control algorithms have been developed showing the applicability of the proposed approach.

  14. Combining content and elements of communication into an upper-level biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Carli P; Pellock, Samuel J; Cunningham, Rebecca L; Cox, James R

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established techniques and incorporated them into various presentations throughout the course. Three students describe their use of specific resources and how the skills learned relate to their future career. The importance and relevance of science communication are receiving unprecedented national attention. The academic scientific community must respond by incorporating more communication-centered instruction and opportunities in the classroom and laboratory.

  15. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  16. A Reverse Osmosis System for an Advanced Separation Process Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, C. S.; Paccione, J. D.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the development of a pilot unit for use in an advanced separations process laboratory in an effort to develop experiments on such processes as reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, adsorption, and chromatography. Discusses reverse osmosis principles, the experimental system design, and some experimental studies. (TW)

  17. A Simultaneous Analysis Problem for Advanced General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, J. J.; Gallaher, T. N.

    1983-01-01

    Oxidation of magnesium metal in air has been used as an introductory experiment for determining the formula of a compound. The experiment described employs essentially the same laboratory procedure but is significantly more advanced in terms of information sought. Procedures and sample calculations/results are provided. (JN)

  18. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  19. Bringing the Excitement and Motivation of Research to Students; Using Inquiry and Research-Based Learning in a Year-Long Biochemistry Laboratory: Part II--Research-Based Laboratory--A Semester-Long Research Approach Using Malate Dehydrogenase as a Research Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Kristopher; Smith, Jennifer; Nichols, Paul; Wallert, Mark A.; Provost, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Research-based learning in a teaching environment is an effective way to help bring the excitement and experience of independent bench research to a large number of students. The program described here is the second of a two-semester biochemistry laboratory series. Here, students are empowered to design, execute and analyze their own experiments…

  20. Education in Medical Biochemistry in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Medical biochemistry is the usual name for clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in Serbia. Medical biochemistry laboratories and medical biochemists as a profession are part of Health Care System and are regulated through: the Health Care Law and rules issued by the Chamber of Medical Biochemists of Serbia. The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Serbia dates from 1945, when Department of Medical Biochemistry was established at Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1987 at the same Faculty a five years undergraduate branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program. Since 2006 the new five year undergraduate (according to Bologna Declaration) and postgraduate program of four-year specialization according to EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has been established. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health accredits the programs. There are four requirements for practicing medical biochemistry in the Health Care System: University Diploma of the Faculty of Pharmacy (Medical Biochemistry), successful completion of the profession exam at the Ministry of Health after completion of one additional year of obligatory practical training in medical laboratories, membership in the Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists and licence for skilled work issued by Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists.

  1. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  2. Performance evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's advanced servomanipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Schrock, S.L.; Handel, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing technology for future nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. This responsibility includes developing advanced telerobotic systems for repair and maintenance of such facilities. In response to a requirement for a highly reliable, remotely maintainable manipulator system, CFRP designed and built the advanced servomanipulator (ASM). This paper reports results of a recent comparison of ASM's performance to that of another highly dexterous manipulator, the Sargeant Industries/Central Research Laboratory's (CRL's) model M-2. Operators using ASM were able to complete tasks in about the same amount of time required to complete tasks with the CRL M-2. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Laboratory Demonstrations for PDE and Metals Combustion at NASA MSFC's Advanced Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Report provides status reporting on activities under order no. H-30549 for the period December 1 through December 31, 1999. Details the activities of the contract in the coordination of planned conduct of experiments at the MSFC Advanced Propulsion Laboratory in pulse detonation MHD power production and metals combustion.

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  5. Curricular Guidelines in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, A. Birk; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Curricular guidelines for biochemistry are presented, developed by the Section on Biochemistry and Nutrition and the Section on Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. (MLW)

  6. Teaching Experimental Science: Enzymes and the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Hampshire College needed to create opportunities for advanced undergraduates to have extensive laboratory or field experience in experimental sciences. A general biochemistry course, taught almost entirely in the laboratory, is described. The focus of the course is enzymes as catalysts and as proteins. (MLW)

  7. A biochemistry and molecular biology course for secondary school teachers*.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Novell, J M; Cid, E; Gomis, R; Barberà, A; Guinovart, J J

    2004-11-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular biology, this course aims to provide teachers with a set of relevant laboratory practices that can be applied in their practical lessons.

  8. [Advanced data analysis and visualization for clinical laboratory].

    PubMed

    Inada, Masanori; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes visualization techniques that help identify hidden structures in clinical laboratory data. The visualization of data is helpful for a rapid and better understanding of the characteristics of data sets. Various charts help the user identify trends in data. Scatter plots help prevent misinterpretations due to invalid data by identifying outliers. The representation of experimental data in figures is always useful for communicating results to others. Currently, flexible methods such as smoothing methods and latent structure analysis are available owing to the presence of advanced hardware and software. Principle component analysis, which is a well-known technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets, can be carried out on a personal computer. These methods could lead to advanced visualization with regard to exploratory data analysis. In this paper, we present 3 examples in order to introduce advanced data analysis. In the first example, a smoothing spline was fitted to a time-series from the control chart which is not in a state of statistical control. The trend line was clearly extracted from the daily measurements of the control samples. In the second example, principal component analysis was used to identify a new diagnostic indicator for Graves' disease. The multi-dimensional data obtained from patients were reduced to lower dimensions, and the principle components thus obtained summarized the variation in the data set. In the final example, a latent structure analysis for a Gaussian mixture model was used to draw complex density functions suitable for actual laboratory data. As a result, 5 clusters were extracted. The mixed density function of these clusters represented the data distribution graphically. The methods used in the above examples make the creation of complicated models for clinical laboratories more simple and flexible.

  9. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Soloiu, Valentin A.

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  10. Incorporation of Advanced Laboratory Equipment into Introductory Physics Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, John; Bellis, Matt; Cummings, John

    2015-04-01

    Siena College recently completed construction of the Stewart's Advanced Instrumentation and Technology Center (SAInt Center) which includes both a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The goal of this project is to design laboratory exercises for introductory physics courses that make use of this equipment. Early involvement with the SAInt center aims to increase undergraduate lab skills and expand research possibilities. These lab exercises are tested on select students and evaluated as to their effectiveness in contributing to the learning goals.The current status of this work is presented here.

  11. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  12. Using Pamphlets to Teach Biochemistry: A Service-Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melinda A.; Dunbar, David; Lopatto, David

    2013-01-01

    A service-learning project appropriate for a biochemistry or advanced biochemistry course was designed and implemented. The project involved students partnering with a homeless shelter to design informational pamphlets to be displayed at the shelter for the clients' use. The pamphlet topics were based on diseases studied within the course.…

  13. A Streamlined Molecular Biology Module for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Gregory W.; Chihade, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology techniques, including plasmid manipulation and restriction analysis, are commonly used tools in the biochemistry research laboratory. In redesigning our biochemistry lab curricula, we sought to integrate these techniques into a term-long, project-based course. In the module presented here,…

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium: An advanced undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon; Olson, Abraham

    2008-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be used to modify the optical response of an atomic medium to a resonant laser field. In EIT, a non-resonant pump laser beam can result in the reduction of absorption of a weak, resonant probe laser beam, provided the fields are coherently coupled by a common state. EIT provides a unique means of coherently controlling photons and has potential applications in fields ranging from quantum computing to telecommunications. In this advanced laboratory we describe the theory and experiment for investigating ladder-type EIT in rubidium gas. The theoretical absorption profile of a weak probe laser beam tuned across the 5S 1/2 to 5P 3/2 transition (780.2 nm) is modeled in the presence of a strong coupling laser beam tuned to the 5P 3/2 to 5D 5/2 transition (776.0 nm) and the absorption transparency window is characterized. Using grating-feedback diode lasers, we observe EIT experimentally in rubidium gas and compare the results to the theoretical model. Applications of EIT to high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy are also discussed. This laboratory uses much of the same equipment as the saturated absorption experiment commonly performed on the D2 line in rubidium, so it is easily implemented in laboratories with the equipment to conduct that experiment.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium: An advanced undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon; Olson, Abraham

    2008-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a quantum interference effect used to modify the optical response of an atomic medium to a resonant laser field. In EIT, a non-resonant pump laser beam can result in the reduction of absorption of a weak, resonant probe laser beam, provided the fields are coherently coupled by a common state. EIT provides a unique means of coherently controlling photons and has potential applications in fields ranging from quantum computing to telecommunications. In this advanced laboratory we describe the theory and experiment for investigating ladder-type EIT in rubidium gas. The theoretical absorption profile of a weak probe laser beam tuned across the 5S 1/2 to 5P 3/2 transition (780.2 nm) is modeled in the presence of a strong coupling laser beam tuned to the 5P 3/2 to 5D 5/2 transition (776.0 nm) and the absorption transparency window is characterized. Using grating-feedback diode lasers, we observe EIT experimentally in rubidium gas and compare the results to the theoretical model. Applications of EIT to high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy are also discussed. This laboratory uses much of the same equipment as the saturated absorption experiment commonly performed on the D2 line in rubidium, so it is easily implemented in laboratories with the equipment to conduct that experiment.

  16. Biochemistry (by Jochanan Stenesh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasfeld, Arthur

    1999-06-01

    visuals would be most useful (such as protein and DNA structure), the figures are reminiscent of those from textbooks of the 1970s. For my tastes, this text takes an overly conservative approach to biochemistry. The subject, which has expanded rapidly in the past few decades, can be presented in a format that reflects those changes. My preference would be for a more restricted selection of topics presented with greater emphasis on how mechanism and structure play a role in our understanding in those areas. However, for those who are looking for a no-frills approach to teaching a single-semester course in biochemistry, Stenesh's text may be a welcome option. It puts all the basic material of biochemistry on the table, and in departments that offer advanced courses, this could be enough for the first semester. In one of the testimonials in the promotional literature that accompanied the book, the text is described as "clearly written, intelligently organized and devoid of extraneous, distracting 'glitz'." It appears that one person's "substance" can be another's "glitz". Consider adopting this text accordingly.

  17. The Advanced Laboratory: beyond the ``black box'' to real physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, George; Sulak, Lawrence

    2008-04-01

    The balance between theory and experiment in present physics curricula is too heavily weighted towards theory. Our physics majors do not realize that ``truth in physics'' depends either on experimental verification of theoretical predictions or on serendipitous discovery. Nor do they appreciate that most theories originate to explain experimental facts. They regard instruments as ``black boxes'' (although usually they are painted a different color). The Advanced Laboratory is essentially the only place in the curriculum where students confront the link between theory and experiment. In this age of disposing of (rather than repairing) equipment, Advanced Lab gives students insight into the inner workings of instruments and essential hands-on skills exploiting them: soldering wires, transferring cryo liquids, achieving high vacuum, acquiring reliable data, evaluating errors, fitting data, and drafting a PRL. Students learn techniques critical to several branches of physics, leading to different experimental approaches in their eventual work. If a student pursues theory, AdLab teaches her how to evaluate experiments, experimentalists, and their data. The basic skills learned, and the resulting understanding of physics, will be illustrated with the experiment on the Quantum Hall Effect from our AdLab.

  18. National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization at UNAM - Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Marina; Constantin Manea, Vlad; Varela, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) joined the family of Universities and Research Centers where advanced visualization and computing plays a key role to promote and advance missions in research, education, community outreach, as well as business-oriented consulting. This initiative provides access to a great variety of advanced hardware and software resources and offers a range of consulting services that spans a variety of areas related to scientific visualization, among which are: neuroanatomy, embryonic development, genome related studies, geosciences, geography, physics and mathematics related disciplines. The National Laboratory for Advanced Scientific Visualization delivers services through three main infrastructure environments: the 3D fully immersive display system Cave, the high resolution parallel visualization system Powerwall, the high resolution spherical displays Earth Simulator. The entire visualization infrastructure is interconnected to a high-performance-computing-cluster (HPCC) called ADA in honor to Ada Lovelace, considered to be the first computer programmer. The Cave is an extra large 3.6m wide room with projected images on the front, left and right, as well as floor walls. Specialized crystal eyes LCD-shutter glasses provide a strong stereo depth perception, and a variety of tracking devices allow software to track the position of a user's hand, head and wand. The Powerwall is designed to bring large amounts of complex data together through parallel computing for team interaction and collaboration. This system is composed by 24 (6x4) high-resolution ultra-thin (2 mm) bezel monitors connected to a high-performance GPU cluster. The Earth Simulator is a large (60") high-resolution spherical display used for global-scale data visualization like geophysical, meteorological, climate and ecology data. The HPCC-ADA, is a 1000+ computing core system, which offers parallel computing resources to applications that requires

  19. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Canopy Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Margolis, Hank; Charest, Martin; Sy, Mikailou

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-9 team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set contains canopy biochemistry data collected in 1994 in the NSA at the YJP, OJR, OBS, UBS, and OA sites, including biochemistry lignin, nitrogen, cellulose, starch, and fiber concentrations. These data were collected to study the spatial and temporal changes in the canopy biochemistry of boreal forest cover types and how a high-resolution radiative transfer model in the mid-infrared could be applied in an effort to obtain better estimates of canopy biochemical properties using remote sensing. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  20. Electrospray and tandem mass spectrometry in biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, W J; Jonsson, A P; Liu, S; Rai, D K; Wang, Y

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, biological MS has changed out of all recognition. This is primarily due to the development in the 1980s of 'soft ionization' methods that permit the ionization and vaporization of large, polar, and thermally labile biomolecules. These developments in ionization mode have driven the design and manufacture of smaller and cheaper mass analysers, making the mass spectrometer a routine instrument in the biochemistry laboratory today. In the present review the revolutionary 'soft ionization' methods will be discussed with particular reference to electrospray. The mass analysis of ions will be described, and the concept of tandem MS introduced. Where appropriate, examples of the application of MS in biochemistry will be provided. Although the present review will concentrate on the MS of peptides/proteins and lipids, all classes of biomolecules can be analysed, and much excellent work has been done in the fields of carbohydrate and nucleic acid biochemistry. PMID:11311115

  1. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  2. Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease - Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Adriana R.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States and Europe. Culture for B. burgdorferi is not routinely available. PCR can be helpful in synovial fluid of patients with Lyme arthritis. The majority of laboratory tests performed for the diagnosis of Lyme disease are based on detection of the antibody responses against B. burgdorferi in serum. The sensitivity of antibody-based tests increases with the duration of the infection, and patients who present very early in their illness are more likely to have a negative result. Patients with erythema migrans should receive treatment based on the clinical diagnosis. The current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease is a 2-tiered algorithm, an initial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by separate IgM and IgG Western blots if the first EIA test result is positive or borderline. The IgM result is only relevant for patients with illness duration of less than a month. While the 2-tier algorithm works well for later stages of the infection, it has low sensitivity during early infection. A major advance has been the discovery of VlsE and its C6 peptide as markers of antibody response in Lyme disease. Specificity is extremely important in Lyme disease testing, as the majority of tests are being performed in situations with low likelihood of the disease, a situation where a positive result is more likely to be a false positive. Current assays do not distinguish between active and inactive infection, and patients may continue to be seropositive for years. There is a need to simplify the testing algorithm for Lyme disease, improving sensitivity in early disease while still maintaining high specificity and providing information about the stage of infection. The development of a point of care assay and biomarkers for active infection would be major advances for the field. PMID:25999225

  3. The Advanced Labs Website: resources for upper-level laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Isea, Ramon

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Labs web resource collection is an effort to create a central, comprehensive information base for college/university faculty who teach upper-level undergraduate laboratories. The website is produced by the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT). It is a part of ComPADRE, the online collection of resources in physics and astronomy education, which itself is a part of the National Science Foundation-funded National Science Digital Library (NSDL). After a brief review of its history, we will discuss the current status of the website while describing the various types of resources available at the site and presenting examples of each. We will detail a step-by-step procedure for submitting resources to the website. The resource collection is designed to be a community effort and thus welcomes input and contributions from its users. We will also present plans, and will seek audience feedback, for additional website services and features. The constraints, roadblocks, and rewards of this project will also be addressed.

  4. Biochemistry Off the Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jerry L.

    1985-01-01

    Provides sources of nonanimal biochemical materials (which are relatively inexpensive, readily available, and require no special storage) suitable for use in biochemistry experiments. They are presented under these headings: (1) enzymes and other proteins; (2) carbohydrates; (3) lipids; (4) nucleic acids; and (5) metabolism. (JN)

  5. Bringing the Excitement and Motivation of Research to Students; Using Inquiry and Research-Based Learning in a Year-Long Biochemistry Laboratory: Part I--Guided Inquiry--Purification and Characterization of a Fusion Protein--Histidine Tag, Malate Dehydrogenase, and Green Fluorescent Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Kristopher; Smith, Jennifer; Wallert, Mark A.; Provost, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    A successful laboratory experience provides the foundation for student success, creating active participation in the learning process. Here, we describe a new approach that emphasizes research, inquiry and problem solving in a year-long biochemistry experience. The first semester centers on the purification, characterization, and analysis of a…

  6. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme: A Research-Inspired Methods Optimization Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willbur, Jaime F.; Vail, Justin D.; Mitchell, Lindsey N.; Jakeman, David L.; Timmons, Shannon C.

    2016-01-01

    The development and implementation of research-inspired, discovery-based experiences into science laboratory curricula is a proven strategy for increasing student engagement and ownership of experiments. In the novel laboratory module described herein, students learn to express, purify, and characterize a carbohydrate-active enzyme using modern…

  7. Environmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression: An Rt-qPCR Laboratory Project for an Upper-Level Undergraduate Biochemistry or Molecular Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickelberg, Garrett J.; Fisher, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel laboratory project employing "real-time" RT-qPCR to measure the effect of environment on the expression of the "FLOWERING LOCUS C" gene, a key regulator of floral timing in "Arabidopsis thaliana" plants. The project requires four 3-hr laboratory sessions and is aimed at upper-level undergraduate…

  8. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Michele; Rosa, Antonella De; Serao, Rosalba; Picone, Ilaria; Vietri, Maria Teresa

    2015-02-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in man. Despite some common features, these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition, risk factors and clinical, endoscopic and histological characteristics. The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown, but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immune response directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora. Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD. Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations. The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed. These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications. The ability to determine the type, severity, prognosis and response to therapy of UC, using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers. We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC, with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter, we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future: (1) serum markers of acute phase response: The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count, leukocyte count, and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations; (2) serologic markers/antibodies: In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies. In UC, the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response; and (3) future biomarkers: The development of biomarkers in UC will be very

  9. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Michele; Rosa, Antonella De; Serao, Rosalba; Picone, Ilaria; Vietri, Maria Teresa

    2015-02-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in man. Despite some common features, these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition, risk factors and clinical, endoscopic and histological characteristics. The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown, but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immune response directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora. Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD. Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations. The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed. These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications. The ability to determine the type, severity, prognosis and response to therapy of UC, using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers. We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC, with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter, we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future: (1) serum markers of acute phase response: The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count, leukocyte count, and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations; (2) serologic markers/antibodies: In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies. In UC, the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response; and (3) future biomarkers: The development of biomarkers in UC will be very

  10. Teachers as learners in a cooperative learning biochemistry class.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Marcy P; Mitchell, Steve M; Anderson, William L

    2005-11-01

    Upper level college students majoring in biochemistry at the University of New Mexico have the opportunity to participate in an advanced biochemistry course entitled "Biochemistry Education." This course introduces theories of teaching and learning, provides opportunities for participation in course organization, design, and assessment strategies, and requires practice in lecturing, exam writing, and grading. One component of this course required the biochemistry majors to act as educational assistants, leading problem-based learning sessions in a cooperative learning introductory survey biochemistry course for nonmajors. Problem-based learning scenarios used in this course were based on real-life biochemistry problems. As a result of their participation, the educational assistants increased their understanding of the biochemistry principles, gained an appreciation for the difficulty of the job of a "good teacher," developed new approaches to their own learning, and became more confident speakers. The participating biochemistry faculty were also positively affected by the collaborative approach they were attempting to model for the two sets of students and realized the benefits of truly cooperative team teaching.

  11. The biochemistry of memory.

    PubMed

    Stock, Jeffry B; Zhang, Sherry

    2013-09-01

    Almost fifty years ago, Julius Adler initiated a program of research to gain insights into the basic biochemistry of intelligent behavior by studying the molecular mechanisms that underlie the chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli. All living organisms share elements of a common biochemistry for metabolism, growth and heredity - why not intelligence? Neurobiologists have demonstrated that this is the case for nervous systems in animals ranging from worms to man. Motile unicellular organisms such as E. coli exhibit rudimentary behaviors that can be loosely described in terms of cognitive phenomena such as memory and learning. Adler's initiative at least raised the prospect that, because of the numerous experimental advantages provided by E. coli, it would be the first organism whose behavior could be understood at molecular resolution.

  12. Biochemistry and endocrinology results

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    Blood (plasma or serum) biochemistry findings show postflight decreases below preflight findings for uric acid triglycerides, and AST. Postflight increases above preflight values were observed in glucose, cholesterol, BUN, calcium phosphate, angiotensin I, aldosterone, insulin, T3, T4, HGH, ACTH and GGTP. It is suggested that special attention should be given to the fluid and electrolyte intake in the astronauts so that homeostatic perturbations are not consequential.

  13. Current topics in plant biochemistry and physiology: Volume 4: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.D.; Blevins, D.G.; Larson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Fourth Annual Plant Biochemistry and Physiology Symposium held at the University of Missouri-Columbia, April 10-12, 1985 and hosted by the Interdisciplinary Plant Biochemistry and Physiology Group. This Interdisciplinary Group was organized to facilitate research and training through interdisciplinary and cooperative approaches to problems facing Plant Biochemistry and Physiology. A key objective of this group is to maintain an awareness of the advances in research in this field. This annual symposium is one means of meeting this objective. Topics are selected each year in three to five areas in order to broaden our individual horizons.

  14. STRUCTURED LEARNING AND TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS--A PREPARATION LABORATORY FOR ADVANCED MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIEL, NICHOLAS J.; JOHNSTON, RAYMOND F.

    A PREPARATION LABORATORY WAS DESIGNED TO FAMILIARIZE STUDENTS IN ADVANCED MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY WITH LABORATORY SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES AND THUS SHORTEN THE TIME THEY SPEND IN SETTING UP ACTUAL EXPERIMENTS. THE LABORATORY LASTS 30 MINUTES, IS FLEXIBLE AND SIMPLE OF OPERATION, AND DOES NOT REQUIRE A PROFESSOR'S PRESENCE. THE BASIC TRAINING UNIT IS THE…

  15. [superscript 1]H NMR Spectroscopy-Based Configurational Analysis of Mono- and Disaccharides and Detection of ß-Glucosidase Activity: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Periyannan, Gopal R.; Lawrence, Barbara A.; Egan, Annie E.

    2015-01-01

    A [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy-based laboratory experiment explores mono- and disaccharide structural chemistry, and the enzyme-substrate specificity of glycosidic bond cleavage by ß-glucosidase towards cellobiose (ß-linked gluco-disaccharide) and maltose (a-linked gluco-disaccharide). Structural differences between cellobiose, maltose, and…

  16. An Inquiry-Based Biochemistry Laboratory Structure Emphasizing Competency in the Scientific Process: A Guided Approach with an Electronic Notebook Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Mona L.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory setting is an exciting and gratifying place to teach because you can actively engage the students in the learning process through hands-on activities; it is a dynamic environment amenable to collaborative work, critical thinking, problem-solving and discovery. The guided inquiry-based approach described here guides the students…

  17. Monitoring Hammerhead Ribozyme-Catalyzed Cleavage with a Fluorescein-Labeled Substrate: Effects of Magnesium Ions and Antibiotic Inhibitors. A Biochemistry Laboratory: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Christine S.; Somne, Smita; Llano-Sotelo, Beatriz

    1999-05-01

    An experiment is presented that demonstrates current techniques in modern RNA research and introduces a method for nonradioactive monitoring of RNA reactions. The laboratory involves the study of hammerhead ribozyme activity and the influence of metal ions and antibiotics on these important RNA-based reactions. The ribozyme class of RNA catalysts has current applications in both biotechnology and medicine and therefore should be of great interest to upper-level undergraduate students who anticipate careers in these areas. The students gain hands-on experience in working with RNA on a picomole level and also learn about gel electrophoresis, the use of fluorescent tagging, RNA-small molecule interactions, and the role of metal ions in biological systems. This laboratory offers students an opportunity to work with molecules that have direct applications in drug therapy and RNA catalysis.

  18. Environmental biochemistry of current environmental levels of heavy metals: preparation of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity for metallobiochemical experiments on laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Sabbioni, E; Goetz, L; Birattari, C; Bonardi, M

    1981-03-01

    Environmental toxicology research on dose-response relationships of heavy metals requires experiments on laboratory animals exposed to "low doses" of trace elements which should reflect "present or actual environmental levels" characteristic of polluted environments. Unfortunately no criteria exist to establish the "low doses" to which laboratory animals must be exposed, in practice the choice of the level used is made in an almost arbitrary manner. In order to define the "present environmental levels" of heavy metals which should be administered to laboratory animals an approach is suggested, based upon knowledge of the concentrations of trace elements in the diet, air and food as well as the fractions absorbed. Today daily intakes of trace elements by man are of the order of few micrograms or nanograms thus requiring the use of extremely sensitive analytical techniques to determine the very low amounts of heavy metals in tissues and cellular components. In these fields of research the use of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity appears particularly advantageous but requires considerable care during their preparation and use. The first part of this paper deals with a definition of the ranges of concentrations of trace elements which should be used for metabolic studies on laboratory animals when they are exposed via different routes such as ingestion, inhalation in injection; the second part describes the production of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity by proton activation in the cyclotron and by neutron irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Their use to label present levels of heavy metals under conditions adapted for biochemical purposes, as well as the preparation of different metal-labelled chemical species is also reported. Particular attention is directed to quality control of the radiotracer solutions which are administered to the animals including those of radioactivity concentrations, radioisotopic purity, radiochemical purity

  19. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  20. Thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The present studies have shown that GSH metabolism arose in the purple bacteria and cyanobacteria where it functions to protect against oxygen toxicity. Evidence was obtained indicating that GSH metabolism was incorporated into eucaryotes via the endosymbiosis giving rise to mitochrondria and chloroplasts. Aerobic bacteria lacking GSH utilize other thiols for apparently similar functions, the thiol being coenzyme A in Gram positive bacteria and chi-glutamylcysteine in the halobacteria. The thiol biochemistry of prokaryotes is thus seen to be much more highly diversified than that of eucaryotes and much remains to be learned about this subject.

  1. The Synthesis and Proton NMR Spectrum of Methyl 7-Cycloheptatrienylacetate: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurch, G. R., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes an advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment designed to give the senior chemistry student an opportunity to apply several synthetic and purification techniques as well as possibilities for the application of NMR spectroscopy. (CS)

  2. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  3. Cavity Ring down Spectroscopy Experiment for an Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacewicz, T.; Wasylczyk, P.; Kowalczyk, P.; Semczuk, M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple experiment is described that permits advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of the cavity ring down spectroscopy technique. The apparatus is used for measurements of low concentrations of NO[subscript 2] produced in air by an electric discharge. We present the setup, experimental procedure, data analysis and some…

  4. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy for the advanced undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Villafañe, J. A.; Flores-Olmedo, E.; Báez, G.; Gandarilla-Carrillo, O.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2012-11-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the principles and applications of spectroscopy. The technique, known as acoustic resonance spectroscopy, is applied to study a vibrating rod. The setup includes electromagnetic-acoustic transducers, an audio amplifier and a vector network analyzer. Typical results of compressional, torsional and bending waves are analyzed and compared with analytical results.

  5. In Situ Techniques for Monitoring Electrochromism: An Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Uce, Musa; Koca, Atif

    2010-01-01

    This experiment employs current technology to enhance and extend existing lab content. The basic principles of spectroscopic and electroanalytical techniques and their use in determining material properties are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, there are limited examples of laboratory experiments with in…

  6. A Simple Photochemical Experiment for the Advanced Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an experiment to provide students with: (1) an introduction to photochemical techniques and theory; (2) an experience with semimicro techniques; (3) an application of carbon-14 nuclear magnetic resonance; and (4) a laboratory with some qualities of a genuine experiment. These criteria are met in the photooxidation of 9,…

  7. Advances in adaptive structures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Garba, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Future proposed NASA missions with the need for large deployable or erectable precision structures will require solutions to many technical problems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing new technologies in Adaptive Structures to meet these challenges. The technology requirements, approaches to meet the requirements using Adaptive Structures, and the recent JPL research results in Adaptive Structures are described.

  8. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  9. Advanced coordinate measuring machine at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkey, R. D.; Klevgard, P. A.

    1993-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/California has acquired a new Moore M-48V CNC five-axis universal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Site preparation, acceptance testing, and initial performance results are discussed. Unique features of the machine include a ceramic ram and vacuum evacuated laser pathways (VELPS). The implementation of a VELPS system on the machine imposed certain design requirements and entailed certain start-up problems. The machine's projected capabilities, workload, and research possibilities are outlined.

  10. Advanced coordinate measuring machine at Sandia National Laboratories/California

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, R.D.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/California has acquired a new Moore M-48V CNC five-axis universal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Site preparation, acceptance testing, and initial performance results are discussed. Unique features of the machine include a ceramic ram and vacuum evacuated laser pathways (VELPS). The implementation of a VELPS system on the machine imposed certain design requirements and entailed certain start-up problems. The machine's projected capabilities, workload, and research possibilities are outlined.

  11. Advanced coordinate measuring machine at Sandia National Laboratories/California

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, R.D.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/California has acquired a new Moore M-48V CNC five-axis universal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Site preparation, acceptance testing, and initial performance results are discussed. Unique features of the machine include a ceramic ram and vacuum evacuated laser pathways (VELPS). The implementation of a VELPS system on the machine imposed certain design requirements and entailed certain start-up problems. The machine`s projected capabilities, workload, and research possibilities are outlined.

  12. Advanced Benchmarking for Complex Building Types: Laboratories as an Exemplar

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul A.; Clear, Robert; Kircher, Kevin; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho; Hoyt, Tyler

    2010-08-01

    Complex buildings such as laboratories, data centers and cleanrooms present particular challenges for energy benchmarking because it is difficult to normalize special requirements such as health and safety in laboratories and reliability (i.e., system redundancy to maintain uptime) in data centers which significantly impact energy use. For example, air change requirements vary widely based on the type of work being performed in each laboratory space. We present methods and tools for energy benchmarking in laboratories, as an exemplar of a complex building type. First, we address whole building energy metrics and normalization parameters. We present empirical methods based on simple data filtering as well as multivariate regression analysis on the Labs21 database. The regression analysis showed lab type, lab-area ratio and occupancy hours to be significant variables. Yet the dataset did not allow analysis of factors such as plug loads and air change rates, both of which are critical to lab energy use. The simulation-based method uses an EnergyPlus model to generate a benchmark energy intensity normalized for a wider range of parameters. We suggest that both these methods have complementary strengths and limitations. Second, we present"action-oriented" benchmarking, which extends whole-building benchmarking by utilizing system-level features and metrics such as airflow W/cfm to quickly identify a list of potential efficiency actions which can then be used as the basis for a more detailed audit. While action-oriented benchmarking is not an"audit in a box" and is not intended to provide the same degree of accuracy afforded by an energy audit, we demonstrate how it can be used to focus and prioritize audit activity and track performance at the system level. We conclude with key principles that are more broadly applicable to other complex building types.

  13. Advances in the laboratory culture of octopuses for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, R T; Forsythe, J W

    1985-02-01

    Five species of Octopus were cultured in pilot, large-scale 2,600 liter circulating seawater systems. Improvements in system design, water management and culture methodology were described. These five species all produced large eggs and correspondingly large hatchlings that had no planktonic or larval stage and thus were easier to culture. Octopuses grew well only when fed live marine crustaceans, fishes and other molluscs. Growth occurred as a 4-7% increase in body weight per day during the early exponential growth phase and 2-4% during the latter 1/2 to 3/4 of the life cycle, which ranged from 6-15 months depending upon species. All species reproduced in captivity. Survival was 70-80% when octopuses were reared in individual containers, but in group culture survival dropped to as low as 40% by the adult stage. Causes of mortality were species-specific and included hatchling abnormalities, escapes, aggression, cannibalism, disease, senescence and laboratory accidents. Octopus bimaculoides showed superior qualities for laboratory culture. The future potential of providing American scientists with laboratory-cultured octopuses was discussed along with their uses in biomedical research.

  14. Advances in the laboratory culture of octopuses for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, R T; Forsythe, J W

    1985-02-01

    Five species of Octopus were cultured in pilot, large-scale 2,600 liter circulating seawater systems. Improvements in system design, water management and culture methodology were described. These five species all produced large eggs and correspondingly large hatchlings that had no planktonic or larval stage and thus were easier to culture. Octopuses grew well only when fed live marine crustaceans, fishes and other molluscs. Growth occurred as a 4-7% increase in body weight per day during the early exponential growth phase and 2-4% during the latter 1/2 to 3/4 of the life cycle, which ranged from 6-15 months depending upon species. All species reproduced in captivity. Survival was 70-80% when octopuses were reared in individual containers, but in group culture survival dropped to as low as 40% by the adult stage. Causes of mortality were species-specific and included hatchling abnormalities, escapes, aggression, cannibalism, disease, senescence and laboratory accidents. Octopus bimaculoides showed superior qualities for laboratory culture. The future potential of providing American scientists with laboratory-cultured octopuses was discussed along with their uses in biomedical research. PMID:3981958

  15. Final Report - Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program - Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Whitten, W.B.

    2002-12-18

    This report covers the three main projects that collectively comprised the Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program. Chapter 1 describes the direct interrogation of individual particles by laser desorption within the ion trap mass spectrometer analyzer. The goals were (1) to develop an ''intelligent trigger'' capable of distinguishing particles of biological origin from those of nonbiological origin in the background and interferent particles and (2) to explore the capability for individual particle identification. Direct interrogation of particles by laser ablation and ion trap mass spectrometry was shown to have good promise for discriminating between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin, although detailed protocols and operating conditions were not worked out. A library of more than 20,000 spectra of various types of biological particles has been assembled. Methods based on multivariate analysis and on neural networks were used to discriminate between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin. It was possible to discriminate between at least some species of bacteria if mass spectra of several hundred similar particles were obtained. Chapter 2 addresses the development of a new ion trap mass analyzer geometry that offers the potential for a significant increase in ion storage capacity for a given set of analyzer operating conditions. This geometry may lead to the development of smaller, lower-power field-portable ion trap mass spectrometers while retaining laboratory-scale analytical performance. A novel ion trap mass spectrometer based on toroidal ion storage geometry has been developed. The analyzer geometry is based on the edge rotation of a quadrupolar ion trap cross section into the shape of a torus. Initial performance of this device was poor, however, due to the significant contribution of nonlinear fields introduced by the rotation of the symmetric ion-trapping geometry. These nonlinear resonances

  16. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John

    2014-04-24

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  17. Advancing Materials Science using Neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Carpenter, John

    2016-07-12

    Jack Carpenter, pioneer of accelerator-based pulsed spallation neutron sources, talks about neutron science at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and a need for a second target station at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). ORNL is the Department of Energy's largest multiprogram science and energy laboratory, and is home to two scientific user facilities serving the neutron science research community: the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and SNS. HFIR and SNS provide researchers with unmatched capabilities for understanding the structure and properties of materials, macromolecular and biological systems, and the fundamental physics of the neutron. Neutrons provide a window through which to view materials at a microscopic level that allow researchers to develop better materials and better products. Neutrons enable us to understand materials we use in everyday life. Carpenter explains the need for another station to produce long wavelength neutrons, or cold neutrons, to answer questions that are addressed only with cold neutrons. The second target station is optimized for that purpose. Modern technology depends more and more upon intimate atomic knowledge of materials, and neutrons are an ideal probe.

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory's capabilities for advanced analyses of cyber threats

    SciTech Connect

    DePhillips, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    BNL has several ongoing, mature, and successful programs and areas of core scientific expertise that readily could be modified to address problems facing national security and efforts by the IC related to securing our nation’s computer networks. In supporting these programs, BNL houses an expansive, scalable infrastructure built exclusively for transporting, storing, and analyzing large disparate data-sets. Our ongoing research projects on various infrastructural issues in computer science undoubtedly would be relevant to national security. Furthermore, BNL frequently partners with researchers in academia and industry worldwide to foster unique and innovative ideas for expanding research opportunities and extending our insights. Because the basic science conducted at BNL is unique, such projects have led to advanced techniques, unlike any others, to support our mission of discovery. Many of them are modular techniques, thus making them ideal for abstraction and retrofitting to other uses including those facing national security, specifically the safety of the nation’s cyber space.

  19. A field emission microscope in an advanced students' laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Mazur, Piotr; Debowska, Ewa

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes a university level experiment during which students can observe the surface structure and determine the work function of a clean single tungsten crystal and a crystal covered with barium. The authors used a commercial field emission microscope offered by Leybold Didactic and designed an experiment which can be easily reproduced and performed in a students' laboratory. The use of a digital camera and computer allowed simultaneous observation and imaging of the surface of the body-centred cubic structure of the single tungsten crystal. Some interesting results about the changes in tungsten work function with time and with barium coverage are presented and discussed. The data help to improve knowledge and skills in the calculation of measurement uncertainty.

  20. Outcomes of a Research-Driven Laboratory and Literature Course Designed to Enhance Undergraduate Contributions to Original Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasche, Madeline E.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes outcomes of a research-driven advanced microbiology laboratory and literature research course intended to enhance undergraduate preparation for and contributions to original research. The laboratory section was designed to teach fundamental biochemistry and molecular biology techniques in the context of an original research…

  1. Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

  2. Incorporation of Ethical and Societal Issues in Biochemistry into a Senior Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspers, Mary Lou; Roberts-Kirchhoff, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    In their senior year, biochemistry majors at the University of Detroit Mercy take a senior seminar course entitled "Recent Advances in Biochemistry Related to Societal Issues." Students read papers selected from the current literature and take turns presenting these papers to the class. Papers are grouped into units dealing with molecular biology,…

  3. A Biochemistry of Human Disease Course for Undergraduate and Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glew, Robert H.; VanderJagt, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a medical school faculty who have been offering for more than 10 years a two-course series in the biochemistry of human disease to undergraduate students majoring in biochemistry, biology, or chemistry. Recommends the teaching of specialized, advanced courses to undergraduate, pre-professional students. (DDR)

  4. Combining Content and Elements of Communication into an Upper-Level Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Carli P.; Pellock, Samuel J.; Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Cox, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes how a science communication module was incorporated into an advanced biochemistry course. Elements of communication were taught synergistically with biochemistry content in this course in an effort to expose students to a variety of effective oral communication strategies. Students were trained to use these established…

  5. Advanced robotic technologies for transfer at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.

    1994-10-01

    Hazardous operations which have in the past been completed by technicians are under increased scrutiny due to high costs and low productivity associated with providing protective clothing and environments. As a result, remote systems are needed to accomplish many hazardous materials handling tasks such as the clean-up of waste sites in which the exposure of personnel to radiation, chemical, explosive and other hazardous constituents is unacceptable. Computer models augmented by sensing, and structured, modular computing environments are proving effective in automating many unstructured hazardous tasks. Work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has focused on applying flexible automation (robotics) to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). Dismantling facilities, environmental remediation, and materials handling in changing, hazardous environments lead to many technical challenges. Computer planning, monitoring and operator assistance shorten training cycles, reduce errors, and speed execution of operations. Robotic systems that re-use well-understood generic technologies can be much better characterized than robotic systems developed for a particular application, leading to a more reliable and safer systems. Further safety in robotic operations results from use of environmental sensors and knowledge of the task and environment. Collision detection and avoidance is achieved from such sensor integration and model-based control. This paper discusses selected technologies developed at SNL for use within the USDOE complex that have been or are ready for transfer to government and industrial suppliers. These technologies include sensors, sub-systems, and the design philosophy applied to quickly integrate them into a working robotic system. This paper represents the work of many people at the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at SNL, to whom the credit belongs.

  6. Biochemistry of Statins.

    PubMed

    Egom, Emmanuel Eroume A; Hafeez, Hafsa

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated blood lipids may be a major risk factor for CVD. Due to consistent and robust association of higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels with CVD across experimental and epidemiologic studies, therapeutic strategies to decrease risk have focused on LDL-cholesterol reduction as the primary goal. Current medication options for lipid-lowering therapy include statins, bile acid sequestrants, a cholesterol-absorption inhibitor, fibrates, nicotinic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids, which all have various mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetic properties. The most widely prescribed lipid-lowering agents are the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins. Since their introduction in the 1980s, statins have emerged as the one of the best-selling medication classes to date, with numerous trials demonstrating powerful efficacy in preventing cardiovascular outcomes (Kapur and Musunuru, 2008 [1]). The statins are commonly used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and mixed hyperlipidemia. This chapter focuses on the biochemistry of statins including their structures, pharmacokinetics, and mechanism of actions as well as the potential adverse reactions linked to their clinical uses. PMID:26975972

  7. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  8. Land plant biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Raven, J A

    2000-06-29

    Biochemical studies have complemented ultrastructural and, subsequently molecular genetic evidence consistent with the Charophyceae being the closest extant algal relatives of the embryophytes. Among the genes used in such molecular phylogenetic studies is that rbcL) for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RUBISCO). The RUBISCO of the embryophytes is derived, via the Chlorophyta. from that of the cyanobacteria. This clade of the molecular phylogeny of RUBISCO shows a range of kinetic characteristics, especially of CO2 affinities and of CO2/O2 selectivities. The range of these kinetic values within the bryophytes is no greater than in the rest of the embryophytes; this has implications for the evolution of the embryophytes in the high atmospheric CO2 environment of the late Lower Palaeozoic. The differences in biochemistry between charophycean algae and embryophytes can to some extent be related functionally to the structure and physiology of embryophytes. Examples of components of embryophytes, which are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those of charophytes, are the water repellent/water resistant extracellular lipids, the rigid phenolic polymers functional in water-conducting elements and mechanical support in air, and in UV-B absorption, flavonoid phenolics involved in UV-B absorption and in interactions with other organisms, and the greater emphasis on low Mr organic acids. retained in the plant as free acids or salts, or secreted to the rhizosphere. The roles of these components are discussed in relation to the environmental conditions at the time of evolution of the terrestrial embryophytes. A significant point about embryophytes is the predominance of nitrogen-free extracellular structural material (a trait shared by most algae) and UV-B screening components, by contrast with analogous components in many other organisms. An important question, which has thus far been incompletely addressed, is the extent to which

  9. Land plant biochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J A

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical studies have complemented ultrastructural and, subsequently molecular genetic evidence consistent with the Charophyceae being the closest extant algal relatives of the embryophytes. Among the genes used in such molecular phylogenetic studies is that rbcL) for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RUBISCO). The RUBISCO of the embryophytes is derived, via the Chlorophyta. from that of the cyanobacteria. This clade of the molecular phylogeny of RUBISCO shows a range of kinetic characteristics, especially of CO2 affinities and of CO2/O2 selectivities. The range of these kinetic values within the bryophytes is no greater than in the rest of the embryophytes; this has implications for the evolution of the embryophytes in the high atmospheric CO2 environment of the late Lower Palaeozoic. The differences in biochemistry between charophycean algae and embryophytes can to some extent be related functionally to the structure and physiology of embryophytes. Examples of components of embryophytes, which are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those of charophytes, are the water repellent/water resistant extracellular lipids, the rigid phenolic polymers functional in water-conducting elements and mechanical support in air, and in UV-B absorption, flavonoid phenolics involved in UV-B absorption and in interactions with other organisms, and the greater emphasis on low Mr organic acids. retained in the plant as free acids or salts, or secreted to the rhizosphere. The roles of these components are discussed in relation to the environmental conditions at the time of evolution of the terrestrial embryophytes. A significant point about embryophytes is the predominance of nitrogen-free extracellular structural material (a trait shared by most algae) and UV-B screening components, by contrast with analogous components in many other organisms. An important question, which has thus far been incompletely addressed, is the extent to which

  10. Land plant biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Raven, J A

    2000-06-29

    Biochemical studies have complemented ultrastructural and, subsequently molecular genetic evidence consistent with the Charophyceae being the closest extant algal relatives of the embryophytes. Among the genes used in such molecular phylogenetic studies is that rbcL) for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RUBISCO). The RUBISCO of the embryophytes is derived, via the Chlorophyta. from that of the cyanobacteria. This clade of the molecular phylogeny of RUBISCO shows a range of kinetic characteristics, especially of CO2 affinities and of CO2/O2 selectivities. The range of these kinetic values within the bryophytes is no greater than in the rest of the embryophytes; this has implications for the evolution of the embryophytes in the high atmospheric CO2 environment of the late Lower Palaeozoic. The differences in biochemistry between charophycean algae and embryophytes can to some extent be related functionally to the structure and physiology of embryophytes. Examples of components of embryophytes, which are qualitatively or quantitatively different from those of charophytes, are the water repellent/water resistant extracellular lipids, the rigid phenolic polymers functional in water-conducting elements and mechanical support in air, and in UV-B absorption, flavonoid phenolics involved in UV-B absorption and in interactions with other organisms, and the greater emphasis on low Mr organic acids. retained in the plant as free acids or salts, or secreted to the rhizosphere. The roles of these components are discussed in relation to the environmental conditions at the time of evolution of the terrestrial embryophytes. A significant point about embryophytes is the predominance of nitrogen-free extracellular structural material (a trait shared by most algae) and UV-B screening components, by contrast with analogous components in many other organisms. An important question, which has thus far been incompletely addressed, is the extent to which

  11. Marine Biochemistry: A New Interdisciplinary Course for the Interim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Arthur S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an undergraduate course which includes lectures, laboratory, and field trips and is designed for the interim winter semester. The course is interdisciplinary, involving a study of the biochemistry, pharmacology, and physiological significance of compounds from marine flora and fauna. (MLH)

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  13. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  14. An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

  15. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  16. Ring-Closing Metathesis: An Advanced Guided-Inquiry Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepmann, Hala G.; Mynderse, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The design and implementation of an advanced guided-inquiry experiment for the organic laboratory is described. Grubbs's second-generation catalyst is used to effect the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The reaction is carried out under an inert atmosphere at room temperature and monitored by argentic TLC. The crude reaction is…

  17. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  18. Advanced Undergraduate-Laboratory Experiment on Electron Spin Resonance in Single-Crystal Ruby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lee A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An electron-spin-resonance experiment which has been successfully performed in an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory is described. A discussion of that part of the theory of magnetic resonance necessary for the understanding of the experiment is also provided in this article. (DT)

  19. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  20. Status report on the Advanced Photon Source Project at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, R.H. Sr.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is designed as a national synchrotron radiation user facility which will provide extremely bright, highly energetic x-rays for multidisciplinary research. When operational, the Advanced Photon Source will accelerate positrons to a nominal energy of 7 GeV. The positrons will be manipulated by insertion devices to produce x-rays 10,000 times brighter than any currently available for research. Accelerator components, insertion devices, optical elements, and optical-element cooling schemes have been and continue to be the subjects of intensive research and development. A call for Letters of Intent from prospective users of the Advanced Photon Source has resulted in a substantial response from industrial, university, and national laboratory researchers.

  1. Status report on the Advanced Photon Source Project at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, R.H. Sr.

    1989-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory is designed as a national synchrotron radiation user facility which will provide extremely bright, highly energetic x-rays for multidisciplinary research. When operational, the Advanced Photon Source will accelerate positrons to a nominal energy of 7 GeV. The positrons will be manipulated by insertion devices to produce x-rays 10,000 times brighter than any currently available for research. Accelerator components, insertion devices, optical elements, and optical-element cooling schemes have been and continue to be the subjects of intensive research and development. A call for Letters of Intent from prospective users of the Advanced Photon Source has resulted in a substantial response from industrial, university, and national laboratory researchers.

  2. Toward a global approach of biochemistry in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boigne, J M; Moisdon, J C; Tonneau, D

    1985-01-01

    This article summarizes three different presentations delivered at the CRESGE congress by three members of GREBIO, a reflection group about biochemistry; created in the Paris hospitals, this group was concerned with these problems at a time of great technological change. Physicians, biochemists and administrators have been working in GREBIO for 7 years, with the methodological assistance of management from the School of Mines; they used new approaches, and careful investigations on the field and proposed analyses sometimes upsetting but always enriching the questionings. Starting from these results, briefly described, GREBIO proposed the creation of an observatory for biochemistry, that could take into account both the complexity and diversity in the laboratories. It also proposed that current reform in analytical accountancy allow biochemistry to work its own managing tools separately from accountancy purposes.

  3. Commentary: Biochemistry Re-Natured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    In his last commentary on "Biochemistry Denatured," this author dealt with his perception that college students today have spent too little of their childhood years playing outside in nature and as a consequence have not learned basic things about the world from personal experience. This "nature-deficit disorder" removes many opportunities for…

  4. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  5. Promising New Directions in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2003-01-01

    "Biochemistry," by Lubert Stryer, has become one of the standard textbooks for the field. The Fifth Edition has two new authors: Jeremy Berg, Professor and Director of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; and John Tymoczko, the Towsley Professor of Biology at Carleton College. The new edition does,…

  6. New Edition of Chinese Biochemistry Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian-Chuan, Ma

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the four previous editions of the biochemistry medical textbooks called the "Nationwide Unified Textbooks." Notes the new (1989) edition is much smaller, is organized differently, has new material, has a reorganized Dynamic Biochemistry core, and shows great importance to clinical biochemistry. (MVL)

  7. Jonathan F. Reichert and Barbara Wolff-Reichert Award for Excellence in Advanced Laboratory Instruction: Advanced Instructional Labs: Why Bother?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistrow, Van

    What aren't we teaching about physics in the traditional lecture course? Plenty! By offering the Advanced Laboratory Course, we hope to shed light on the following questions: How do we develop a systematic process of doing experiments? How do we record procedures and results? How should we interpret theoretical concepts in the real world? What experimental and computational techniques are available for producing and analyzing data? With what degree of confidence can we trust our measurements and interpretations? How well does a theory represent physical reality? How do we collaborate with experimental partners? How do we best communicate our findings to others?These questions are of fundamental importance to experimental physics, yet are not generally addressed by reading textbooks, attending lectures or doing homework problems. Thus, to provide a more complete understanding of physics, we offer laboratory exercises as a supplement to the other modes of learning. The speaker will describe some examples of experiments, and outline the history, structure and student impressions of the Advanced Lab course at the University of Chicago Department of Physics.

  8. Laboratory evaluation and analysis of advanced lead-acid load-leveling batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. F.; Mulcahey, T. P.; Christianson, C. C.; Marr, J. J.; Smaga, J. A.

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted an extensive evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries developed by the Exide Corporation for load-leveling applications. This paper presents the results of performance and accelerated life tests conducted on these batteries over a five-year period. This paper describes the operational reliability and maintenance requirements for this technology, and also includes analyses of the batteries' thermal characteristics, arsine/stibine emission rates, and cell degradation modes as determined from post-test examinations.

  9. Integrated safeguards testing laboratories in support of the advanced fuel cycle initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Demuth, Scott F; Klasky, Kristen L; Lee, Haeok; Miller, Michael C; Sprinkle, James K; Tobin, Stephen J; Williams, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    A key enabler for advanced fuel cycle safeguards research and technology development for programs such as the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is access to facilities and nuclear materials. This access is necessary in many cases in order to ensure that advanced safeguards techniques and technologies meet the measurement needs for which they were designed. One such crucial facility is a hot cell based laboratory which would allow developers from universities, national laboratories, and commercial companies to perform iterative research and development of advanced safeguards instrumentation under realistic operating conditions but not be subject to production schedule limitations. The need for such a facility arises from the requirement to accurately measure minor actinide and/or fission product bearing nuclear materials that cannot be adequately shielded in glove boxes. With the contraction of the DOE nuclear complex following the end of the cold war, many suitable facilities at DOE sites are increasingly costly to operate and are being evaluated for closure. A hot cell based laboratory that allowed developers to install and remove instrumentation from the hot cell would allow for both risk mitigation and performance optimization of the instrumentation prior to fielding equipment in facilities where maintenance and repair of the instrumentation is difficult or impossible. These benefits are accomplished by providing developers the opportunity to iterate between testing the performance of the instrumentation by measuring realistic types and amounts of nuclear material, and adjusting and refining the instrumentation based on the results of these measurements. In this paper, we review the requirements for such a facility using the Wing 9 hot cells in the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility as a model for such a facility and describe recent use of these hot cells in support of AFCI.

  10. Advanced Control Design and Field Testing for Wind Turbines at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Fingersh, L. J.; Wright, A. D.

    2004-05-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines require active control systems to operate at variable rotational speeds. As turbines become larger and more flexible, advanced control algorithms become necessary to meet multiple objectives such as speed regulation, blade load mitigation, and mode stabilization. At the same time, they must maximize energy capture. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed control design and testing capabilities to meet these growing challenges.

  11. Precision laser range finder system design for Advanced Technology Laboratory applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, K. E.; Kohn, R. L.; Seib, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary system design of a pulsed precision ruby laser rangefinder system is presented which has a potential range resolution of 0.4 cm when atmospheric effects are negligible. The system being proposed for flight testing on the advanced technology laboratory (ATL) consists of a modelocked ruby laser transmitter, course and vernier rangefinder receivers, optical beacon retroreflector tracking system, and a network of ATL tracking retroreflectors. Performance calculations indicate that spacecraft to ground ranging accuracies of 1 to 2 cm are possible.

  12. The use of multiple tools for teaching medical biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sé, Alexandre B; Passos, Renato M; Ono, André H; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2008-03-01

    In this work, we describe the use of several strategies employing the philosophies of active learning and problem-based learning (PBL) that may be used to improve the teaching of metabolic biochemistry to medical and nutritional undergraduate students. The main activities are as follows: 1) a seminar/poster system in a mini-congress format (using topics of applied biochemistry); 2) a true/false applied biochemistry exam (written by peer tutors); 3) a 9-h exam on metabolism (based in real publications); 4) the Advanced Biochemistry course (directed to peer tutors, where students learn how to read and criticize real medical papers); 5) experiments about nutrition and metabolism, using students as volunteers, and about free radicals (real science for students); 6) the BioBio blog (taking advantage of the "web age," this enhances out of class exchanges of information between the professor, students, and peer tutors); 7) student lectures on public health issues and metabolic disorders directed to the community and lay people; and 8) the BioBio quiz show. The main objective of these activities is to provide students with a more practical and interesting approach to biochemistry, such as the application of theoretical knowledge to real situations (diseases, experiments, media information, and scientific discoveries). In addition, we emphasize the importance of peer tutor activities for optimized learning of both students and peer tutors, the importance of a closer interaction between students and teaching staff, and the necessity to initiate students precociously in two broad fields of medical activity: "real" basic science and contact with the public (also helping students--future doctors and nutritionists--to be able to communicate with lay people). Most activities were evaluated by the students through written questionnaires and informal conversations, along various semesters, indicating good acceptance and approval of these methods. Good student scores in the

  13. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  14. Wanderings in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Peter

    2014-07-11

    My Ph.D. thesis in the laboratory of Severo Ochoa at New York University School of Medicine in 1962 included the determination of the nucleotide compositions of codons specifying amino acids. The experiments were based on the use of random copolyribonucleotides (synthesized by polynucleotide phosphorylase) as messenger RNA in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. At Yale University, where I joined the faculty, my co-workers and I first studied the mechanisms of protein synthesis. Thereafter, we explored the interferons (IFNs), which were discovered as antiviral defense agents but were revealed to be components of a highly complex multifunctional system. We isolated pure IFNs and characterized IFN-activated genes, the proteins they encode, and their functions. We concentrated on a cluster of IFN-activated genes, the p200 cluster, which arose by repeated gene duplications and which encodes a large family of highly multifunctional proteins. For example, the murine protein p204 can be activated in numerous tissues by distinct transcription factors. It modulates cell proliferation and the differentiation of a variety of tissues by binding to many proteins. p204 also inhibits the activities of wild-type Ras proteins and Ras oncoproteins.

  15. Metabolism and biochemistry in hypogravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    The headward shift of body fluid and increase in stress-related hormones that occur in hypogravity bring about a number of changes in metabolism and biochemistry of the human body. Such alterations may have important effects on health during flight and during a recovery period after return to earth. Body fluid and electrolytes are lost, and blood levels of several hormones that control metabolism are altered during space flight. Increased serum calcium may lead to an increased risk of renal stone formation during flight, and altered drug metabolism could influence the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Orthostatic intolerance and an increased risk of fracturing weakened bones are concerns at landing. It is important to understand biochemistry and metabolism in hypogravity so that clinically important developments can be anticipated and prevented or ameliorated.

  16. A Two-Week Guided Inquiry Protein Separation and Detection Experiment for Undergraduate Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, James P.; Nolta, Kathleen V.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for teaching protein separation and detection in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course is described. This experiment, performed in two, 4 h laboratory periods, incorporates guided inquiry principles to introduce students to the concepts behind and difficulties of protein purification. After using size-exclusion…

  17. Gender Performance Differences in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberger, Matthew M.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the historical performance of students at Michigan State University in a two-part biochemistry series Biochem I (n = 5,900) and Biochem II (n = 5,214) for students enrolled from 1997 to 2009. Multiple linear regressions predicted 54.9-87.5% of the variance in student from Biochem I grade and 53.8-76.1% of the variance in…

  18. The combination of specimen tracking with an advanced AutoLog in a laboratory information system.

    PubMed

    Emmerich, K A; Quam, E F; Bowers, K L; Eggert, A A

    1998-06-01

    The ability to provide timely laboratory results is an important aspect of quality which must be continually monitored. In order to complete all testing before the maximum turnaround time requirements are exceeded, laboratorians need to have immediate and automatic access to the location of specimens and the status of tests ordered on each specimen. Any such automated approach must be able to monitor continually the status of work in progress, while simultaneously linking it to a specimen tracking (history) system that allows real-time tracing of the path of specimens through all laboratory operations. The authors have greatly advanced the capabilities of the AutoLog technology and have added to it a tracking system that captures specimen movement with minimum user assistance. This has been accomplished without the need to implement total process automation.

  19. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  20. The impact of recent advances in laboratory astrophysics on our understanding of the cosmos.

    PubMed

    Savin, D W; Brickhouse, N S; Cowan, J J; Drake, R P; Federman, S R; Ferland, G J; Frank, A; Gudipati, M S; Haxton, W C; Herbst, E; Profumo, S; Salama, F; Ziurys, L M; Zweibel, E G

    2012-03-01

    An emerging theme in modern astrophysics is the connection between astronomical observations and the underlying physical phenomena that drive our cosmos. Both the mechanisms responsible for the observed astrophysical phenomena and the tools used to probe such phenomena-the radiation and particle spectra we observe-have their roots in atomic, molecular, condensed matter, plasma, nuclear and particle physics. Chemistry is implicitly included in both molecular and condensed matter physics. This connection is the theme of the present report, which provides a broad, though non-exhaustive, overview of progress in our understanding of the cosmos resulting from recent theoretical and experimental advances in what is commonly called laboratory astrophysics. This work, carried out by a diverse community of laboratory astrophysicists, is increasingly important as astrophysics transitions into an era of precise measurement and high fidelity modeling.

  1. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  2. Cattle Uterus: A Novel Animal Laboratory Model for Advanced Hysteroscopic Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Ewies, Ayman A. A.; Khan, Zahid R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to reduced training opportunities, the major shift in surgical training is towards the use of simulation and animal laboratories. Despite the merits of Virtual Reality Simulators, they are far from representing the real challenges encountered in theatres. We introduce the “Cattle Uterus Model” in the hope that it will be adopted in training courses as a low cost and easy-to-set-up tool. It adds new dimensions to the advanced hysteroscopic surgery training experience by providing tactile sensation and simulating intraoperative difficulties. It complements conventional surgical training, aiming to maximise clinical exposure and minimise patients' harm. PMID:26265918

  3. A driver linac for the Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory : physics design and beam dynamics simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.; Physics

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory (AEBL) being developed at ANL consists of an 833 MV heavy-ion driver linac capable of producing uranium ions up to 200 MeV/u and protons to 580 MeV with 400 kW beam power. We have designed all accelerator components including a two charge state LEBT, an RFQ, a MEBT, a superconducting linac, a stripper station and chicane. We present the results of an optimized linac design and end-to-end simulations including machine errors and detailed beam loss analysis. The Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory (AEBL) has been proposed at ANL as a reduced scale of the original Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) project with about half the cost but the same beam power. AEBL will address 90% or more of RIA physics but with reduced multi-users capabilities. The focus of this paper is the physics design and beam dynamics simulations of the AEBL driver linac. The reported results are for a multiple charge state U{sup 238} beam.

  4. An ultrafast optics undergraduate advanced laboratory with a mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, Andrew; Fredrick, Connor; Hoyt, Chad; Jones, Jason

    2015-05-01

    We describe an ultrafast optics undergraduate advanced laboratory comprising a mode-locked erbium fiber laser, auto-correlation measurements, and an external, free-space parallel grating dispersion compensation apparatus. The simple design of the stretched pulse laser uses nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locking to produce pulses at a repetition rate of 55 MHz and average power of 5.5 mW. Interferometric and intensity auto-correlation measurements are made using a Michelson interferometer that takes advantage of the two-photon nonlinear response of a common silicon photodiode for the second order correlation between 1550 nm laser pulses. After a pre-amplifier and compression, pulse widths as narrow as 108 fs are measured at 17 mW average power. A detailed parts list includes previously owned and common components used by the telecommunications industry, which may decrease the cost of the lab to within reach of many undergraduate and graduate departments. We also describe progress toward a relatively low-cost optical frequency comb advanced laboratory. NSF EIR #1208930.

  5. Design and Laboratory Evaluation of Future Elongation and Diameter Measurements at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; J. C. Crepeau; S. Solstad

    2015-07-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. In order to accurately predict these changes, real-time data must be obtained under prototypic irradiation conditions for model development and validation. To provide such data, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) are developing several instrumented test rigs to obtain data real-time from specimens irradiated in well-controlled pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop and evaluate prototype test rigs that rely on Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) in laboratory settings. Although similar LVDT-based test rigs have been deployed in lower flux Materials Testing Reactors (MTRs), this effort is unique because it relies on robust LVDTs that can withstand higher temperatures and higher fluxes than often found in other MTR irradiations. Specifically, the test rigs are designed for detecting changes in length and diameter of specimens irradiated in ATR PWR loops. Once implemented, these test rigs will provide ATR users with unique capabilities that are sorely needed to obtain measurements such as elongation caused by thermal expansion and/or creep loading and diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  6. Genesis of "Biochemistry: A Problems Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    When the author began teaching as a young assistant professor at Caltech in 1966, his assignment was to take over the undergraduate biochemistry course taught for many years by Henry Borsook, who was about to retire. Students dreaded this course. Having delighted in biochemistry during his graduate training at Stanford, he was determined to put…

  7. Lipid membranes and single ion channel recording for the advanced physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapper, Yvonne; Nienhaus, Karin; Röcker, Carlheinz; Ulrich Nienhaus, G.

    2014-05-01

    We present an easy-to-handle, low-cost, and reliable setup to study various physical phenomena on a nanometer-thin lipid bilayer using the so-called black lipid membrane technique. The apparatus allows us to precisely measure optical and electrical properties of free-standing lipid membranes, to study the formation of single ion channels, and to gain detailed information on the ion conduction properties of these channels using statistical physics and autocorrelation analysis. The experiments are well suited as part of an advanced physics or biophysics laboratory course; they interconnect physics, chemistry, and biology and will be appealing to students of the natural sciences who are interested in quantitative experimentation.

  8. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  9. Utilizing Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Enzymes as Project-Oriented Labs for Undergraduate Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Hurst, Michael O.

    1997-02-01

    Senior-level biochemistry labs are mostly verification-type laboratories with little chance for exploration. We have developed a project-based biochemistry laboratory which gives them a chance to carry out a major biochemistry project. In the first quarter it is based on the purification of the enzyme lysozyme. The students are given some basic information, and then work out the details of their own procedures, make up their own solutions, and work at their own pace. Students use centrifugation, ion-exchange chromatography, spectral enzyme assays, and SDS-gel electrophoresis to purify and characterize the protein. In the second quarter students are given acid phosphatase and the basic assay for the enzyme, and then develop and carry out a method for determining the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. These experiments continue the development of laboratory independence of the students which steadily progresses in most curriculum

  10. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  11. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  12. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-01

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan.

  13. Annual review of biochemistry. Volume 59

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.C. ); Abelson, J.N. ); Meister, A. ); Walsh, C.T. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains articles reviewing significant developments in the field of biochemistry. Topics covered include: How to Succeed in Research Without Being a Genius, Pgruvagl-Dependent Enzymes, and Phytochelatins.

  14. Useful Demonstrations for a Medial Biochemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragatz, Barth H.; Modrak, Gina

    1986-01-01

    Describes six demonstrations used in a medical biochemistry course. These demonstrations focus on: (1) platelet aggregometry; (2) ion-transporting antibiotics; (3) glycosylated hemoglobin; (4) molecular models; (5) serum preparation; and (6) bioluminescence. (JN)

  15. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for biochemistry was modeled on extensive work related to TCs across a range of disciplines and included faculty workshops and student interviews. Using an iterative process, we prioritized five concepts on which to focus future development of instructional materials. Broadly defined, the concepts are steady state, biochemical pathway dynamics and regulation, the physical basis of interactions, thermodynamics of macromolecular structure formation, and free energy. The working list presented here is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather is meant to identify a subset of TCs for biochemistry for which instructional and assessment tools for undergraduate biochemistry will be developed. PMID:25185234

  16. Identification of threshold concepts for biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for biochemistry was modeled on extensive work related to TCs across a range of disciplines and included faculty workshops and student interviews. Using an iterative process, we prioritized five concepts on which to focus future development of instructional materials. Broadly defined, the concepts are steady state, biochemical pathway dynamics and regulation, the physical basis of interactions, thermodynamics of macromolecular structure formation, and free energy. The working list presented here is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather is meant to identify a subset of TCs for biochemistry for which instructional and assessment tools for undergraduate biochemistry will be developed.

  17. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  18. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  19. The Advanced Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory: A Student Team Approach to the Fourth-Year Research Thesis Project Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Boyd, Cleo; Barzda, Virginijus; Gradinaru, Claudiu C.; Krull, Ulrich J.; Stefanovic, Sasa; Stewart, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The advanced interdisciplinary research laboratory (AIRLab) represents a novel, effective, and motivational course designed from the interdisciplinary research interests of chemistry, physics, biology, and education development faculty members as an alternative to the independent thesis project experience. Student teams are assembled to work…

  20. Complementary Spectroscopic Assays for Investigating Protein-Ligand Binding Activity: A Project for the Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascotti, David P.; Waner, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    A protein-ligand binding, guided-inquiry laboratory project with potential application across the advanced undergraduate curriculum is described. At the heart of the project are fluorescence and spectrophotometric assays utilizing biotin-4-fluorescein and streptavidin. The use of the same stock solutions for an assay that may be examined by two…

  1. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  2. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  3. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Testing at The Idaho National Laboratory for the Advanced Remediation Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Roach; Nick Soelberg; Mike Ancho; Eric Tchemitcheff; John Richardson

    2009-03-01

    AREVA Federal Services (AFS) is performing a multi-year, multi-phase Advanced Remediation Technologies (ART) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of replacing the existing joule-heated melter (JHM) used to treat high level waste (HLW) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site with a cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). The AFS ART CCIM project includes several collaborators from AREVA subsidiaries, French companies, and DOE national laboratories. The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Commissariat a l’Energie Atomique (CEA) have performed laboratory-scale studies and testing to determine a suitable, high-waste-loading glass matrix. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and CEA are performing CCIM demonstrations at two different pilot scales to assess CCIM design and operation for treating SRS sludge wastes that are currently being treated in the DWPF. SGN is performing engineering studies to validate the feasibility of retrofitting CCIM technology into the DWPF Melter Cell. The long-term project plan includes more lab-testing, pilot- and large-scale demonstrations, and engineering activities to be performed during subsequent project phases. This paper provides preliminary results of tests using the engineering-scale CCIM test system located at the INL. The CCIM test system was operated continuously over a time period of about 58 hours. As the DWPF simulant feed was continuously fed to the melter, the glass level gradually increased until a portion of the molten glass was drained from the melter. The glass drain was operated semi-continuously because the glass drain rate was higher than the glass feedrate. A cold cap of unmelted feed was controlled by adjusting the feedrate and melter power levels to obtain the target molten glass temperatures with varying cold cap levels. Three test conditions were performed per the test plan, during which the melter was

  4. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  5. Student Estimates of Probability and Uncertainty in Advanced Laboratory and Statistical Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountcastle, Donald B.; Bucy, Brandon R.; Thompson, John R.

    2007-11-01

    Equilibrium properties of macroscopic systems are highly predictable as n, the number of particles approaches and exceeds Avogadro's number; theories of statistical physics depend on these results. Typical pedagogical devices used in statistical physics textbooks to introduce entropy (S) and multiplicity (ω) (where S = k ln(ω)) include flipping coins and/or other equivalent binary events, repeated n times. Prior to instruction, our statistical mechanics students usually gave reasonable answers about the probabilities, but not the relative uncertainties, of the predicted outcomes of such events. However, they reliably predicted that the uncertainty in a measured continuous quantity (e.g., the amount of rainfall) does decrease as the number of measurements increases. Typical textbook presentations assume that students understand that the relative uncertainty of binary outcomes will similarly decrease as the number of events increases. This is at odds with our findings, even though most of our students had previously completed mathematics courses in statistics, as well as an advanced electronics laboratory course that included statistical analysis of distributions of dart scores as n increased.

  6. The entrance system laboratory prototype for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, F.; Desai, M. I.; Livi, R.; Livi, S.; McComas, D. J.; Randol, B.

    2009-10-15

    Electrostatic analyzers (ESA) have been used extensively for the characterization of plasmas in a variety of space environments. They vary in shape, geometry, and size and are adapted to the specific particle population to be measured and the configuration of the spacecraft. Their main function is to select the energy per charge of the particles within a passband. An energy-per-charge range larger than that of the passband can be sampled by varying the voltage difference between the ESA electrodes. The voltage sweep takes time and reduces the duty cycle for a particular energy-per-charge passband. Our design approach for an advanced mass and ionic charge composition experiment (AMICCE) has a novel electrostatic analyzer that essentially serves as a spectrograph and selects ions simultaneously over a broad range of energy-per-charge (E/q). Only three voltage settings are required to cover the entire range from {approx}10 to 270 keV/q, thus dramatically increasing the product of the geometric factor times the duty cycle when compared with other instruments. In this paper, we describe the AMICCE concept with particular emphasis on the prototype of the entrance system (ESA and collimator), which we designed, developed, and tested. We also present comparisons of the laboratory results with electrostatic simulations.

  7. Vibration considerations in the design of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), a new synchrotron radiation facility being built at Argonne National Laboratory, will provide the world's most brilliant X-ray beams for research in a wide range of technical fields. Successful operation of the APS requires an extremely stable positron closed orbit. Vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets, even in the submicron range, can lead to distortion of the positron closed orbit and to potentially unacceptable beam emittance growth, which results in degraded performance. This paper presents an overview of the technical approach used to minimize vibration response, beginning at the conceptual stage, through design and construction, and on to successful operation. Acceptance criteria relating to maximum allowable quadrupole magnet vibration are discussed. Soil properties are used to determine resonant frequencies of foundations and to predict attenuation characteristics. Two sources are considered to have the potential to excite the foundation: far-field sources, which are produced external to the facility, and near-field sources, which are produced within the facility. Measurements of ambient ground motion, monitored to determine far- field excitation, are presented. Ambient vibration was measured at several operating facilities within Argonne to gain insight on typical near-field excitation sources. Discussion covers the dynamic response characteristics of a prototypic magnet support structure to various excitations, including ambient floor motion, coolant flow, and magnet power. 19 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  9. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  10. The Biochemistry Tetrahedron and the Development of the Taxonomy of Biochemistry External Representations (TOBER)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Marcy H.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Becker, Nicole; Harle, Marissa; Sutcliffe, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Visual literacy, the ability to interpret and create external representations (ERs), is essential to success in biochemistry. Studies have been conducted that describe students' abilities to use and interpret specific types of ERs. However, a framework for describing ERs derived through a naturalistic inquiry of biochemistry classrooms has not…

  11. A Course Designed for Undergraduate Biochemistry Students to Learn about Cultural Diversity Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2006-01-01

    Biology, biochemistry, and other science students are well trained in science and familiar with how to conduct and evaluate scientific experiments. They are less aware of cultural issues or how these will impact their careers in research, education, or as professional health care workers. A course was developed for advanced undergraduate science…

  12. Preparative Protein Production from Inclusion Bodies and Crystallization: A Seven-Week Biochemistry Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Megan J.; Snyder, W. Kalani; Westerman, Shelley; McFarland, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe how to produce and purify proteins from "Escherichia coli" inclusion bodies by adapting versatile, preparative-scale techniques to the undergraduate laboratory schedule. This 7-week sequence of experiments fits into an annual cycle of research activity in biochemistry courses. Recombinant proteins are expressed as inclusion bodies,…

  13. Comprehensive Experiment--Clinical Biochemistry: Determination of Blood Glucose and Triglycerides in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a…

  14. Physical Models Enhance Molecular Three-Dimensional Literacy in an Introductory Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline R.; Hagedorn, Eric; Dillenburg, Paul; Patrick, Michael; Herman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the results of a recent study to evaluate the usefulness of physical models of molecular structures as a new tool with which to teach concepts of molecular structure and function. Of seven different learning tools used by students in this introductory biochemistry class, the use of the physical models in a laboratory was rated…

  15. Use of Molecular Models for Active Learning in Biochemistry Lecture Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hageman, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The pedagogical value of having biochemistry and organic chemistry students build and manipulate physical models of chemical species is well established in the literature. Nevertheless, for the most part, the use of molecular models is generally limited to several laboratory exercises or to demonstrations in the classroom setting. A simple…

  16. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry.

  17. Phase 1 environmental report for the Advanced Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Brown, R.A.; Cada, G.F.; Easterly, C.; Feldman, D.L.; Hagan, C.W.; Harrington, R.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Ketelle, R.H.; Kroodsma, R.L.; McCold, L.N.; Reich, W.J.; Scofield, P.A.; Socolof, M.L.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), a 330-MW(f) reactor, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support neutron scattering and nuclear physics experiments. ANS would provide a steady-state source of neutrons that are thermalized to produce sources of hot, cold, and very coal neutrons. The use of these neutrons in ANS experiment facilities would be an essential component of national research efforts in basic materials science. Additionally, ANS capabilities would include production of transplutonium isotopes, irradiation of potential fusion and fission reactor materials, activation analysis, and production of medical and industrial isotopes such as {sup 252}Cf. Although ANS would not require licensing by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), DOE regards the design, construction, and operation of ANS as activities that would produce a licensable facility; that is, DOE is following the regulatory guidelines that NRC would apply if NRC were licensing the facility. Those guidelines include instructions for the preparation of an environmental report (ER), a compilation of available data and preliminary analyses regarding the environmental impacts of nuclear facility construction and operation. The ER, described and outlined in NRC Regulatory Guide 4.2, serves as a background document to facilitate the preparation of environmental impact statements (EISs). Using Regulatory Guide 4.2 as a model, this ANS ER provides analyses and information specific to the ANS site and area that can be adopted (and modified, if necessary) for the ANS EIS. The ER is being prepared in two phases. Phase 1 ER includes many of the data and analyses needed to prepare the EIS but does not include data or analyses of alternate sites or alternate technologies. Phase 2 ER will include the additional data and analyses stipulated by Regulatory Guide 4.2.

  18. Fossil energy: From laboratory to marketplace. Part 2, The role of advanced research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide a summary description of the role of advanced research in the overall Fossil Energy R&D program successes. It presents the specific Fossil Energy advanced research products that have been adopted commercially or fed into other R&D programs as part of the crosscutting enabling technology base upon which advanced systems are based.

  19. A focused assignment encouraging deep reading in undergraduate biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Spiegelberg, Bryan D

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging undergraduate students to access, read, and analyze current primary literature can positively impact learning, especially in advanced courses. The incorporation of literature into coursework typically involves reading and responding to full research reports. Such exercises have clear value as students make connections between experiments and are able to probe and critique scientific logic. The exclusive use of full papers, though, may reinforce certain students' tendencies to rely on textual clues rather than a critical analysis of the actual data presented. I propose that structured activities requiring students to focus on individual parts of research papers, even on a single figure, are beneficial in a literature-centered advanced undergraduate course, because they promote the deep reading that is critical to scientific discourse. In addition, I describe how one such focused assignment boosted learning and was well received by students in a second-semester biochemistry course.

  20. Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1995-10-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AM0, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials. Over the last few years, NRL and Steve Wojtczuk at

  1. Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has been involved in developing InP solar cell technology since 1988. The purpose of these programs was to produce advanced cells for use in very high radiation environments, either as a result of operating satellites in the Van Allen belts or for very long duration missions in other orbits. Richard Statler was technical representative on the first program, with Spire Corporation as the contractor, which eventually produced several hundred, high efficiency 2 x 2 sq cm single crystal InP cells. The shallow homojunction technology which was developed in this program enabled cells to be made with AMO, one sun efficiencies greater than 19%. Many of these cells have been flown on space experiments, including PASP Plus, which have confirmed the high radiation resistance of InP cells. NRL has also published widely on the radiation response of these cells and also on radiation-induced defect levels detected by DLTS, especially the work of Rob Walters and Scott Messenger. In 1990 NRL began another Navy-sponsored program with Tim Coutts and Mark Wanlass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to develop a one sun, two terminal space version of the InP-InGaAs tandem junction cell being investigated at NREL for terrestrial applications. These cells were grown on InP substrates. Several cells with AM0, one sun efficiencies greater than 22% were produced. Two 2 x 2 sq cm cells were incorporated on the STRV lA/B solar cell experiment. These were the only two junction, tandem cells on the STRV experiment. The high cost and relative brittleness of InP wafers meant that if InP cell technology were to become a viable space power source, the superior radiation resistance of InP would have to be combined with a cheaper and more robust substrate. The main technical challenge was to overcome the effect of the dislocations produced by the lattice mismatch at the interface of the two materials. Over the last few years, NRL and Steve Wojtczuk at

  2. Advances with the Chinese anthelminthic drug tribendimidine in clinical trials and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shu-Hua; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Keiser, Jennifer; Xue, Jian

    2013-05-01

    The anthelminthic drug tribendimidine has been approved by Chinese authorities for human use in 2004, and a first comprehensive review was published in Acta Tropica in 2005. Here, we summarise further advances made through additional clinical trials and laboratory investigations. Two phase IV trials have been conducted in the People's Republic of China, the first one enrolling 1292 adolescents and adults aged 15-70 years and the second one conducted with 899 children aged 4-14 years who were infected with one or multiple species of soil-transmitted helminths. Oral tribendimidine (single 400mg enteric-coated tablet given to adolescents/adults and 200mg to children) showed high cure rates against Ascaris lumbricoides (90.1-95.0%) and moderate-to-high cure rates against hookworm (82.0-88.4%). Another trial done in school-aged children using a rigorous diagnostic approach found a cure rate against hookworm of 76.5%. A single oral dose of tribendimidine showed only low cure rates against Trichuris trichiura (23.9-36.8%) confirming previous results. Tribendimidine administered to children infected with Enterobius vermicularis (two doses of 200mg each on consecutive days) resulted in a high cure rate (97.1%). Importantly, a series of randomised, exploratory trials revealed that tribendimidine shows interesting activity against the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, the tapeworm Taenia spp. and the threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis with respective cure rates of 70.0%, 40.0%, 53.3% and 36.4%. Pharmacokinetic studies in healthy Chinese volunteers indicated that after oral administration of tribendimidine, no parent drug was detected in plasma, but its primary metabolite, p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino) aniline (aminoamidine, deacylated amidantel) (dADT), was found in plasma. dADT is then further metabolised to acetylated dADT (AdADT). dADT exhibits activity against several species of hookworm and C. sinensis in experimental studies, similar to

  3. Behavior of vortices generated by an advancing ejecta curtain in theory, in the laboratory, and on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnouin, O. S.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    Several papers assess the interaction between an atmosphere and advancing ejecta to assess possible atmospheric processes affecting ejecta emplacement. Ejecta travel through an atmosphere in two modes: larger ejecta blocks follow ballistic trajectories unhindered by the atmosphere; finer ejecta are entrained in a turbulent basal cloud, which develops as the advancing ejecta curtain generates strong atmospheric winds. Laboratory experiments reveal that this cloud of fine ejecta produce ramparts, flow lobes, or radial scouring that superposes larger ballistic ejecta emplaced earlier. Martian, Venusian, and terrestrial ejecta facies can be interpreted in terms of processes observed in the laboratory with appropriate first-order corrections for scaling. A continuum model of the atmospheric flow around an advancing inclined plate simulated and reproduced some of the complex flow patterns observed in front and at the top of the curtain. Here we consider improvements to the model to compare quantitatively the approximate position of ejecta deposition (i.e., run-out distance) with laboratory experiments and Martian ejecta facies.

  4. Determining the hydraulic properties of saturated, low-permeability geological materials in the laboratory: Advances in theory and practice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, M.; Takahashi, M.; Morin, R.H.; Endo, H.; Esaki, T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The accurate hydraulic characterization of low-permeability subsurface environments has important practical significance. In order to examine this issue from the perspective of laboratory-based approaches, we review some recent advancements in the theoretical analyses of three different laboratory techniques specifically applied to low-permeability geologic materials: constant-head, constant flow-rate and transient-pulse permeability tests. Some potential strategies for effectively decreasing the time required to confidently estimate the permeability of these materials are presented. In addition, a new and versatile laboratory system is introduced that can implement any of these three test methods while simultaneously subjecting a specimen to high confining pressures and pore pressures, thereby simulating in situ conditions at great depths. The capabilities and advantages of this innovative system are demonstrated using experimental data derived from Shirahama sandstone and Inada granite, two rock types widely encountered in Japan.

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Copper-Alanine System: An Advanced Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, John J.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated physical-analytical-inorganic chemistry laboratory procedure for use with undergraduate biology majors is described. The procedure requires five to six laboratory periods and includes acid-base standardizations, potentiometric determinations, computer usage, spectrophotometric determinations of crystal-field splitting…

  6. The Advancement in Using Remote Laboratories in Electrical Engineering Education: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almarshoud, A. F.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in Internet technology and its big popularity has led some universities around the world to incorporate web-based learning in some of their programmes. The present paper introduces a comprehensive survey of the publications about using remote laboratories in electrical engineering education. Remote laboratories are web-based,…

  7. The advancement in using remote laboratories in electrical engineering education: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarshoud, A. F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid development in Internet technology and its big popularity has led some universities around the world to incorporate web-based learning in some of their programmes. The present paper introduces a comprehensive survey of the publications about using remote laboratories in electrical engineering education. Remote laboratories are web-based, real-time laboratories that enable students to measure and control the measurements remotely in their own time. The survey highlights the features of many recent remote laboratories and demonstrates the software and networking technologies used. The paper provides a comprehensive overview on several aspects related to remote laboratories development. The paper concentrates on the publications appearing during the last decade. The review is arranged according to the area of specialisation, then chronologically.

  8. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  9. Commentary: PhDs in biochemistry education-5 years later.

    PubMed

    Offerdahl, Erika G; Momsen, Jennifer L; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  10. Identification of Threshold Concepts for Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer; Green, David; Lewis, Jennifer E.; Lin, Sara; Minderhout, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    Threshold concepts (TCs) are concepts that, when mastered, represent a transformed understanding of a discipline without which the learner cannot progress. We have undertaken a process involving more than 75 faculty members and 50 undergraduate students to identify a working list of TCs for biochemistry. The process of identifying TCs for…

  11. Teaching Receptor Theory to Biochemistry Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benore-Parsons, Marilee; Sufka, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Receptor:ligand interactions account for numerous reactions critical to biochemistry and molecular biology. While students are typically exposed to some examples, such as hemoglobin binding of oxygen and signal transduction pathways, the topic could easily be expanded. Theory and kinetic analysis, types of receptors, and the experimental assay…

  12. Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanoksilapatham, Budsaba

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a move analysis [Swales, J. (1990). "Genre analysis." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] of 60 biochemistry research articles. First, a corpus was systematically compiled to ensure that it represents core journals in the focused discipline. Then, coding reliability analysis was conducted to demonstrate…

  13. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Receptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Judy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The syllabus for a refresher course on the physiology and biochemistry of receptors (presented at the 1983 American Physiological Society meeting) is provided. Topics considered include receptor regulation, structural/functional aspects of receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factors, calcium channel inhibitors, and role of lipoprotein…

  14. Jmol-Enhanced Biochemistry Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saderholm, Matthew; Reynolds, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We developed a protein research project for a one-semester biochemistry lecture class to enhance learning and more effectively train students to understand protein structure and function. During this semester-long process, students select a protein with known structure and then research its structure, sequence, and function. This project…

  15. Television Medical Dramas as Case Studies in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Julie T.

    2009-01-01

    Several case studies from popular television medical dramas are described for use in an undergraduate biochemistry course. These cases, which illustrate fundamental principles of biochemistry, are used as the basis for problems that can be discussed further in small groups. Medical cases provide an interesting context for biochemistry with video…

  16. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  17. Utilization of advanced metal-ceramic technology: clinical and laboratory procedures for a lower-fusing porcelain.

    PubMed

    McLaren, E A

    1998-09-01

    Metal-ceramic restorations remain the most widely accepted type of indirect restorative modality, and have been applied successfully for years. Recent advances in material science have resulted in the development of a new class of metal-ceramic materials that have been termed lower-fusing ceramics. Following proper procedures for preparation and metal framework design, these metal-ceramic porcelains achieve the aesthetics normally demonstrated by conventional all-ceramic restorations. This article provides an overview of the clinical and laboratory processes utilizing these materials and is illustrated by two case presentations.

  18. [beta]-Lactamases in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amador, Paula; Prudencio, Cristina; Vieira, Monica; Ferraz, Ricardo; Fonte, Rosalia; Silva, Nuno; Coelho, Pedro; Fernandes, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    [beta]-lactamases are hydrolytic enzymes that inactivate the [beta]-lactam ring of antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The major diversity of studies carried out until now have mainly focused on the characterization of [beta]-lactamases recovered among clinical isolates of Gram-positive staphylococci and Gram-negative…

  19. E-Learning in Engineering Education: Design of a Collaborative Advanced Remote Access Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandra A. P., Jagadeesh; Samuel, R. D. Sudhaker

    2010-01-01

    Attaining excellence in technical education is a worthy challenge to any life goal. Distance learning opportunities make these goals easier to reach with added quality. Distance learning in engineering education is possible only through successful implementations of remote laboratories in a learning-by-doing environment. This paper presents one…

  20. Conditions for Building a Community of Practice in an Advanced Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation…

  1. NMR Studies of Structure-Reactivity Relationships in Carbonyl Reduction: A Collaborative Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marincean, Simona; Smith, Sheila R.; Fritz, Michael; Lee, Byung Joo; Rizk, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    An upper-division laboratory project has been developed as a collaborative investigation of a reaction routinely taught in organic chemistry courses: the reduction of carbonyl compounds by borohydride reagents. Determination of several trends regarding structure-activity relationship was possible because each student contributed his or her results…

  2. ERA-experiment ``space biochemistry''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Meinert, H.; Nawroth, T.; Risi, S.; Stridde, C.

    The general goal of the experiment was to study the response of anhydrobiotic (metabolically dormant) microorganisms (spores of Bacillus subtilis, cells of Deinococcus radiodurans, conidia of Aspergillus species) and cellular constituents (plasmid DNA, proteins, purple membranes, amino acids, urea) to the extremely dehydrating conditions of open space, in some cases in combination with irradiation by solar UV-light. Methods of investigation included viability tests, analysis of DNA damages (strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links) and analysis of chemical effects by spectroscopic, electrophoretic and chromatographic methods. The decrease in viability of the microorganisms was as expected from simulation experiments in the laboratory. Accordingly, it could be correlated with the increase in DNA damages. The purple membranes, amino acids and urea were not measurably effected by the dehydrating condition of open space (in the dark). Plasmid DNA, however, suffered a significant amount of strand breaks under these conditions. The response of these biomolecules to high fluences of short wavelength solar UV-light is very complex. Only a brief survey can be given in this paper. The data on the relatively good survival of some of the microorganisms call for strict observance of COSPAR Planetary Protection Regulations during interplanetary space missions.

  3. Biochemistry and genetics of starch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Peter L; Myers, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    Enormous progress has been made in understanding the genetics and biochemistry of starch synthesis in crop plants. Furthermore, starch remains at the very epicenter of the world's food and feed chains and has even now become one of the world's most important sources of biorenewable energy (biofuel). Yet, despite this remarkable progress and the obvious economic importance, very little has been achieved in terms of adding value to starch or increasing starch yield, particularly in cereal crops. Here, we review the genetics and biochemistry of starch synthesis in crop plants, particularly maize. With all this know-how in place and a chasm of opportunity ahead, the time is right to see science deliver progress into a new frontier. Thus, in our view the stage is set for a new era of changes in starch synthesis, delivering enhancements in functionality and yield.

  4. Advanced detector development, laboratory simulations, diagnostic development, and data analysis on wake physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbet, John M.; Chan, Chung

    1994-06-01

    We have performed a number of experiments and have developed a theoretical analysis of the current scaling issues of a negatively biased probe in a plasma wake. The end product of the laboratory research performed in the large vacuum chamber JUMBO at Phillips Laboratory can be found in the associated publication. Theoretical assumptions have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the use of the POLAR computer code. For a plasma with a constant beam energy, the analysis shows that the I-V collection characteristics are unaffected by Mach variations for Mach numbers above the value of two. For the same case, the current was found to scale with the 3/7 power of the density.

  5. Advanced Yellow Fever Virus Genome Detection in Point-of-Care Facilities and Reference Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pranav; Yillah, Jasmin; Weidmann, Manfred; Méndez, Jairo A.; Nakouné, Emmanuel Rivalyn; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reported methods for the detection of the yellow fever viral genome are beset by limitations in sensitivity, specificity, strain detection spectra, and suitability to laboratories with simple infrastructure in areas of endemicity. We describe the development of two different approaches affording sensitive and specific detection of the yellow fever genome: a real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and an isothermal protocol employing the same primer-probe set but based on helicase-dependent amplification technology (RT-tHDA). Both assays were evaluated using yellow fever cell culture supernatants as well as spiked and clinical samples. We demonstrate reliable detection by both assays of different strains of yellow fever virus with improved sensitivity and specificity. The RT-qPCR assay is a powerful tool for reference or diagnostic laboratories with real-time PCR capability, while the isothermal RT-tHDA assay represents a useful alternative to earlier amplification techniques for the molecular diagnosis of yellow fever by field or point-of-care laboratories. PMID:23052311

  6. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-06-01

    We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation process is facilitated by four specific structural features of the course and supported by a primary instructional choice. The four structural features are "paucity of instructor time," "all in a room together," "long and difficult experiments," and "same experiments at different times." The instructional choice is the encouragement of the sharing and development of knowledge and understanding by the instructor. The combination of the instructional choice and structural features promotes the development of the learning community in which students engage in authentic practices of a physicist. This results in a classroom community that can provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of a practice of physicists. We support our claims with video-based observations of laboratory classroom interactions and individual, semistructured interviews with students about their laboratory experiences and physics identity.

  7. Emotions beyond the laboratory: theoretical fundaments, study design, and analytic strategies for advanced ambulatory assessment.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Grossman, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Questionnaire and interview assessment can provide reliable data on attitudes and self-perceptions on emotion, and experimental laboratory assessment can examine functional relations between stimuli and reactions under controlled conditions. On the other hand, ambulatory assessment is less constrained and provides naturalistic data on emotion in daily life, with the potential to (1) assure external validity of laboratory findings, (2) provide normative data on prevalence, quality and intensity of real-life emotion and associated processes, (3) characterize previously unidentified emotional phenomena, and (4) model real-life stimuli for representative laboratory research design. Technological innovations now allow for detailed ambulatory study of emotion across domains of subjective experience, overt behavior and physiology. However, methodological challenges abound that may compromise attempts to characterize biobehavioral aspects of emotion in the real world. For example, emotional effects can be masked by social engagement, mental and physical workloads, as well as by food intake and circadian and quasi-random variation in metabolic activity. The complexity of data streams and multitude of factors that influence them require a high degree of context specification for meaningful data interpretation. We consider possible solutions to typical and often overlooked issues related to ambulatory emotion research, including aspects of study design decisions, recording devices and channels, electronic diary implementation, and data analysis. PMID:20132861

  8. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed a non-nuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC), a Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EM (engineering model) 2 & 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS) which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASC's in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and supercapacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS and RSIL ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 V or exceeded 36 V. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASC's. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  9. Establishment of Biochemistry Reference Values for Healthy Tanzanian Infants, Children, and Adolescents in Kilimanjaro Region

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Ann M.; Fiorillo, Suzanne P.; Omondi, Michael W.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish common biochemistry reference intervals for Tanzanian infants, children, and adolescents living in the Kilimanjaro Region. Methods We recruited healthy, HIV-uninfected Tanzanian infants, children, and youth between the ages of one month and 17 years from local schools and clinics to participate in this study. Only afebrile children without signs of physical or chronic illness were enrolled. Nonparametric methods were used to determine 95% reference limits and their 90% confidence intervals, with outliers removed by the Tukey method. Results A total of 619 healthy infants, children, and adolescents were enrolled into the study. Twenty-three biochemistry parameters were measured. Compared to U.S. reference intervals, several of the biochemistry parameters showed notable differences; namely, alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, amylase, and lipase. Comparing our data to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) grading criteria for classification of adverse events, we found that for select parameters, up to 15% of infants or children in certain age groups would have been categorized as having an adverse event as defined by DAIDS. Conclusions Our study further confirms the need to use locally established reference intervals to define reference laboratory parameters among children in Africa, rather than relying on those derived from U.S. or European populations. To our knowledge, this study provides the first set of locally validated biochemistry reference ranges for a pediatric population in Tanzania. PMID:26224122

  10. Design and Implementation of a Laboratory-Based Drug Design and Synthesis Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. Design. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Assessment. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project’s success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. Conclusion. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences. PMID:25995518

  11. New Perspectives for Advanced Science at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Tolentino, Helio C.N.

    2003-01-24

    The LNLS (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron) is a national laboratory in Brazil that operates a 1.37 GeV storage ring for synchrotron light users since July 1997. Eleven bending magnet beamlines are open to a wide range of possibilities for research in ultra-violet and X-ray spectroscopy, single crystal and powder diffraction, magnetic and anomalous scattering, protein crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray lithography and small angle X-ray scattering. The recent conclusion of the booster injector opened the way for insertion devices to be accommodated in the four straight sections available. A multipolar wiggler, for protein crystallography using the MAD technique, is the first planned to be installed during 2003. The construction of the first LNLS undulator, for the vaccum ultra-violet and soft X-ray domain, has already started and will expand the possibilities in atomic, molecular and surface physics, as well as in catalysis and magnetism. LNLS has expanded its infra-structure as an open multidisciplinary research laboratory into complementary areas, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, nanostructure synthesis and molecular biology. Many technological and scientific achievements have been attained in these last five years. Some of them will be highlighted here, with emphasis in the area of nanostructured and magnetic materials.

  12. Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation.

    PubMed

    Panaccione, G; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Krizmancic, D; Annese, E; Giovanelli, L; Maccherozzi, F; Salvador, F; De Luisa, A; Benedetti, D; Gruden, A; Bertoch, P; Polack, F; Cocco, D; Sostero, G; Diviacco, B; Hochstrasser, M; Maier, U; Pescia, D; Back, C H; Greber, T; Osterwalder, J; Galaktionov, M; Sancrotti, M; Rossi, G

    2009-04-01

    We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

  13. Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Panaccione, G.; Vobornik, I.; Fujii, J.; Krizmancic, D.; Annese, E.; Giovanelli, L.; Maccherozzi, F.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Benedetti, D.; Gruden, A.; Bertoch, P.; Rossi, G.; Polack, F.; Cocco, D.; Sostero, G.; Diviacco, B.; Hochstrasser, M.; Maier, U.; Pescia, D.; and others

    2009-04-15

    We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

  14. The Coso geothermal area: A laboratory for advanced MEQ studies for geothermal monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.; Richards-Dinger, K.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent 16-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the Coso geothermal area, California, supplemented by 14 temporary instruments deployed in connection with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) recordings that are well suited to monitoring a producing geothermal area. We are currently using these data to investigate structure and active processes within the geothermal reservoir by applying three advanced methods: a) high-precision MEQ hypocenter location; b) time-dependent tomography; c) complete (moment tensor) MEQ source mechanism determination. Preliminary results to date resolve seismogenic structures in the producing field more clearly than is possible with conventional earthquake-location techniques. A shallow part of the producing field shows clear changes in the ratio of the seismic wave speeds, Vp/V s, between 1996 and 2002, which are probably related to physical changes in the reservoir caused by fluid extraction.

  15. Fifty Years of Diazeniumdiolate Research. From Laboratory Curiosity to Broad-Spectrum Biomedical Advances

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Here I show that a “pure” research project, seemingly totally lacking in practical application when it was first published, can years later spark a whole new scientific field with the potential to revolutionize clinical practice. A 1961 publication describing adducts of nitric oxide (NO) with certain nucleophiles attracted little notice at the time, but later work showing that the adducts could be hydrolyzed to regenerate the NO in bioactive form has provided the foundation for a host of biomedical applications. Crucial to the discovery of widely used tools for studying NO’s chemical biology as well as for the design of a variety of promising therapeutic advances has been the increasingly detailed understanding of the physicochemical properties of these “diazeniumdiolates” (also known as NONOates). PMID:21932836

  16. One-dimensional light localization with classical scatterers: An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, K. J.; Barker, S.; Guthrie, J.; Hagood, B.; Havey, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    The phenomenon of electronic wave localization through disorder remains an important area of fundamental and applied research. Localization of all wave phenomena, including light, is thought to exist in a restricted one-dimensional geometry. We present here a series of experiments to illustrate, using a straightforward experimental arrangement and approach, the localization of light in a quasi-one-dimensional physical system. In the experiments, reflected and transmitted light from a stack of glass slides of varying thickness reveals an Ohm's law type behavior for small thicknesses, and evolution to exponential decay of the transmitted power for larger thicknesses. For larger stacks of slides, a weak departure from one-dimensional behavior is also observed. The experiment and analysis of the results, showing many of the essential features of wave localization, is relatively straightforward, economical, and suitable for laboratory experiments at an undergraduate level.

  17. Designing Ratchets in Ultra-cold Atoms for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, Andrew; Gillette, Matthew; Clements, Ethan; Zhong, Shan; Ducay, Rey; Bali, Samir

    2014-05-01

    We propose to perform ratchet experiments in cold Rubidium atoms using state-of-the-art home-built tapered amplifier and imaging systems. Our tapered amplifier system amplifies the output from home-built external cavity tunable diode lasers up to a factor 100 and costs less than 5,000, in contrast to commercial tapered amplifier systems, which cost upward of 20,000. We have developed an imaging system with LabVIEW integration, which allows for approximately 2 millisecond exposures and microsecond control of experimental parameters. Our imaging system also costs less than 5,000 in comparison to commercial options, which cost between 40-50,000. Progress toward implementation of a one-dimensional rocking ratchet is described. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund and Miami University. We also acknowledge the Miami University Instrumentation Laboratory for their invaluable contributions.

  18. A Phytase Enzyme-Based Biochemistry Practical Particularly Suited to Students Undertaking Courses in Biotechnology and Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Angela; Casey, Anne; Walsh, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Courses in introductory biochemistry invariably encompass basic principles of enzymology, with reinforcement of lecture-based material in appropriate laboratory practicals. Students undertaking practical classes are more enthusiastic, and generally display improved performance, when the specific experiments undertaken show direct relevance to…

  19. Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Determination Module for Introductory Biochemistry: Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Lyso-Glycerophospholipids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Teresa A.; Rose, Rebecca L.; Bell, Sidney M.

    2013-01-01

    In this laboratory module, introductory biochemistry students are exposed to two-dimensional [superscript 1]H-nuclear magnetic resonance of glycerophospholipids (GPLs). Working in groups of three, students enzymatically synthesized and purified a variety of 2-acyl lyso GPLs. The structure of the 2-acyl lyso GPL was verified using [superscript…

  20. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes: From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. Ohio University concentrates its efforts on the first part of the mission. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. For this reason we first embarked in introducing a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type.

  1. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes. From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, Filomena

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the Topical Collaboration on the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes (TORUS) was to develop new methods to advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes—particularly the (d,p) reaction in which a deuteron, composed of a proton and a neutron, transfers its neutron to an unstable nucleus. After benchmarking the state-of-the-art theories, the TORUS collaboration found that there were no exact methods to study (d,p) reactions involving heavy targets; the difficulty arising from the long-range nature of the well known, yet subtle, Coulomb force. To overcome this challenge, the TORUS collaboration developed a new theory where the complexity of treating the long-range Coulomb interaction is shifted to the calculation of so-called form-factors. An efficient implementation for the computation of these form factors was a major achievement of the TORUS collaboration. All the new machinery developed are essential ingredients to analyse (d,p) reactions involving heavy nuclei relevant for astrophysics, energy production, and stockpile stewardship.

  2. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  3. Development of an advanced multimode automatic ultrasonic texture measurement system for laboratory and production line application.

    PubMed

    Potter, M D G; Dixon, S; Morrison, J P; Suliamann, A S

    2006-12-22

    We present work on the development of an ultrasonic texture measurement system for sheet metals using non-contact transducers, suitable for use both in the laboratory and on the production line. Variation of the velocity of the zero-order symmetric (S0) Lamb wave is used to determine the crystallographic texture of polycrystalline metal sheets ranging in thickness from 0.1 to 3 mm. This system features improvements on previous state-of-the-art ultrasonic technology in that it probes velocity over a continuous range of angles using only two electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). This is demonstrated to offer a significant improvement in accuracy and allows the detection and investigation of asymmetric anisotropies in the sheets. Another advantage of the system is its potential for combining several different measurements using a single pair of transducers. The capability is demonstrated for through-thickness shear wave measurements as well as the zero-order symmetric Lamb wave measurements which are the primary means of determining the texture. The change between generating Lamb and through-thickness bulk waves can be made entirely by changing the electrical circuit connected to the EMATs without modifying the transducer assembly in any way. Measurement of all of the above waves can provide information on the sheet thickness and other physical properties of the sheet in addition to texture. Certain texture parameters can be calculated from both Lamb and shear wave velocities, allowing self-calibration of the system.

  4. Writing throughout the Biochemistry Curriculum: Synergistic Inquiry-Based Writing Projects for Biochemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Pamela; Streu, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a synergistic two-semester writing sequence for biochemistry courses. In the first semester, students select a putative protein and are tasked with researching their protein largely through bioinformatics resources. In the second semester, students develop original ideas and present them in the form of a research grant…

  5. Brain-wave measures of workload in advanced cockpits: The transition of technology from laboratory to cockpit simulator, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horst, Richard L.; Mahaffey, David L.; Munson, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The present Phase 2 small business innovation research study was designed to address issues related to scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) indices of mental workload and to transition this technology from the laboratory to cockpit simulator environments for use as a systems engineering tool. The project involved five main tasks: (1) Two laboratory studies confirmed the generality of the ERP indices of workload obtained in the Phase 1 study and revealed two additional ERP components related to workload. (2) A task analysis' of flight scenarios and pilot tasks in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS) defined cockpit events (i.e., displays, messages, alarms) that would be expected to elicit ERPs related to workload. (3) Software was developed to support ERP data analysis. An existing ARD-proprietary package of ERP data analysis routines was upgraded, new graphics routines were developed to enhance interactive data analysis, and routines were developed to compare alternative single-trial analysis techniques using simulated ERP data. (4) Working in conjunction with NASA Langley research scientists and simulator engineers, preparations were made for an ACFS validation study of ERP measures of workload. (5) A design specification was developed for a general purpose, computerized, workload assessment system that can function in simulators such as the ACFS.

  6. 252Cf fission-neutron spectrum using a simplified time-of-flight setup: An advanced teaching laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Febbraro, M.; Torres-Isea, R.; Ojaruega, M.; Baum, L.

    2013-02-01

    The removal of PuBe and AmBe neutron sources from many university teaching laboratories (due to heightened security issues) has often left a void in teaching various aspects of neutron physics. We have recently replaced such sources with sealed 252Cf oil-well logging sources (nominal 10-100 μCi), and developed several experiments using them as neutron sources. This includes a fission-neutron time-of-flight experiment using plastic scintillators, which utilizes the prompt γ rays emitted in 252Cf spontaneous fission as a fast timing start signal. The experiment can be performed with conventional nuclear instrumentation and a 1-D multi-channel pulse-height analyzer, available in most advanced teaching laboratories. Alternatively, a more sophisticated experiment using liquid scintillators and n/γ pulse-shape discrimination can be performed. Several other experiments using these neutron sources are also feasible. The experiments can introduce students to the problem of detecting the dark matter thought to dominate the universe and to the techniques used to detect contraband fissionable nuclear materials.

  7. Advanced Optical Diagnostics for Ice Crystal Cloud Measurements in the NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.; Fagan, Amy; Van Zante, Judith F.; Kirkegaard, Jonathan P.; Rohler, David P.; Maniyedath, Arjun; Izen, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    A light extinction tomography technique has been developed to monitor ice water clouds upstream of a direct connected engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The system consists of 60 laser diodes with sheet generating optics and 120 detectors mounted around a 36-inch diameter ring. The sources are pulsed sequentially while the detectors acquire line-of-sight extinction data for each laser pulse. Using computed tomography algorithms, the extinction data are analyzed to produce a plot of the relative water content in the measurement plane. To target the low-spatial-frequency nature of ice water clouds, unique tomography algorithms were developed using filtered back-projection methods and direct inversion methods that use Gaussian basis functions. With the availability of a priori knowledge of the mean droplet size and the total water content at some point in the measurement plane, the tomography system can provide near real-time in-situ quantitative full-field total water content data at a measurement plane approximately 5 feet upstream of the engine inlet. Results from ice crystal clouds in the PSL are presented. In addition to the optical tomography technique, laser sheet imaging has also been applied in the PSL to provide planar ice cloud uniformity and relative water content data during facility calibration before the tomography system was available and also as validation data for the tomography system. A comparison between the laser sheet system and light extinction tomography resulting data are also presented. Very good agreement of imaged intensity and water content is demonstrated for both techniques. Also, comparative studies between the two techniques show excellent agreement in calculation of bulk total water content averaged over the center of the pipe.

  8. [Observations on pe-eclampsia-eclampsia and the advances in the evolution of some laboratory tests].

    PubMed

    Noguera Sánchez, M F; Ayala Barahona, T; Arredondo Soberón, F; Morgan, M A

    1997-07-01

    The preeclampsia-eclampsia syndrome is a vasospastic disorder and probably has a placental origin. Once the hypertensive syndrome is established the uteroplacental blood flow is reduced as well as the intervillous blood flow. Since 18-24 weeks of gestation and before the symptoms of preeclampsia become overt, changes in placental flow velocity can be detected with Doppler technics. The placental theories for the etiology of preeclampsia are focused on the hypoxic effect in the trophoblastic tissue of second trimester. The placental ischemic changes are evident and seen in the uteroplacental bed. They are interrelated with the stages of trophoblastic invasion of the spiral arteries during the 14 and 20 weeks. When the trophoblastic invasion is over, the spiral arteries become a high resistance system. The defect observed in preeclampsia is the lack of invasion of the trophoblast to the maternal arteries. The diminished placental perfusion probably creates endothelial damage. This damage has several effects: decreased prostaglandin production, activated coagulation cascade, stimulated fibrin aggregation, and increased vascular permeability. The ideal laboratory test for preeclampsia shall predict the onset of this entity. Recent findings seem promising. The fibronectin concentration increases 2-3 wks. prior to the clinical manifestation of preeclampsia. Severe hypertension shows an abnormal decrease in fibronectin levels. Hypocalciuria has been described as an early predictor in the development of preeclampsia. Other agents undergoing extensive evaluation as predictors are: uric acid, b-thromboglobin, prolactin and atrial natriuretic peptide. Recently high levels of b-HCG (human corionic gonadotrophin) have been linked to a lack of trophoblastic invasion during the second trimester, therefore this is a potential marker for those patients that will eventually develop preeclampsia. PMID:9312519

  9. Naval Research Laboratory's programs in advanced indium phosphide solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.

    1996-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been involved in the development of solar cells for space applications since the 1960s. It quickly became apparent in this work that radiation damage caused to solar cells by electrons and protons trapped by the earth's magnetic field would seriously degrade the power output of photovoltaic arrays in extended missions. Techniques were therefore developed to harden the cells by shielding them with coverglass, etc. Ultimately, however, there is a limit to such approaches, which is determined by the radiation response of the semiconductor material employed. A desire for high efficiency and radiation resistance led to the development of alternative cell technologies such as GaAs, which has since become the technology of choice for many applications. InP cells are currently the most radiation resistant, high efficiency, planar cells known. NRL first sponsored InP solar cell technology in 1986, when Arizona State University was contracted to grow p/n cells by liquid phase epitaxy. NRL's interest in InP cells was generated by the results presented by Yamaguchi and his co-workers in the early 1980s on the remarkable radiation resistance of cells grown by diffusion of S into Zn doped p-type InP substrates. These cells also had beginning of life (BOL) efficiencies approximately 16%(AM0). Related to the radiation resistance of the cells was the fact that radiation-induced damage could be optically annealed by sunlight. Relatively large quantities of 1 x 2 cm(exp 2) diffused junction cells were made and were used on the MUSES-A and the EXOS-D satellites. These cells were also available in the U.S. through NIMCO, and were studied at NRL and elsewhere. Workers at NASA Lewis became involved in research in InP cells about the same time as NRL.

  10. In-Cell Biochemistry Using NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burz, David S.; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Biochemistry and structural biology are undergoing a dramatic revolution. Until now, mostly in vitro techniques have been used to study subtle and complex biological processes under conditions usually remote from those existing in the cell. We developed a novel in-cell methodology to post-translationally modify interactor proteins and identify the amino acids that comprise the interaction surface of a target protein when bound to the post-translationally modified interactors. Modifying the interactor proteins causes structural changes that manifest themselves on the interacting surface of the target protein and these changes are monitored using in-cell NMR. We show how Ubiquitin interacts with phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated components of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) endocytic sorting machinery: STAM2 (Signal-transducing adaptor molecule), Hrs (Hepatocyte growth factor regulated substrate) and the STAM2-Hrs heterodimer. Ubiquitin binding mediates the processivity of a large network of interactions required for proper functioning of the RTK sorting machinery. The results are consistent with a weakening of the network of interactions when the interactor proteins are phosphorylated. The methodology can be applied to any stable target molecule and may be extended to include other post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination or sumoylation, thus providing a long-awaited leap to high resolution in cell biochemistry. PMID:18626516

  11. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  12. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  13. The Sweetness of Aspartame: A Biochemistry Lab for Health Science Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Paul J.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory exercise for Health Science Biochemistry students to study the effect of aspartame concentration on sweetness has been developed. The concentration dependence of the absorbance of aspartame at 257 nm is also studied. Data from all members of the class are averaged and plotted on the same graph as absorbance and taste rating vs. [aspartame]. The absorbance plot follows Beer's law while the taste rating plot displays the typical hyperbolic response of protein-ligand binding plots. This laboratory exercise illustrates the concept of binding saturation to students.

  14. Comprehensive experiment-clinical biochemistry: determination of blood glucose and triglycerides in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Li; Xiujuan, Shi; Juan, Wang; Song, Jia; Lei, Xu; Guotong, Xu; Lixia, Lu

    2015-01-01

    For second year medical students, we redesigned an original laboratory experiment and developed a combined research-teaching clinical biochemistry experiment. Using an established diabetic rat model to detect blood glucose and triglycerides, the students participate in the entire experimental process, which is not normally experienced during a standard clinical biochemistry exercise. The students are not only exposed to techniques and equipment but are also inspired to think more about the biochemical mechanisms of diseases. When linked with lecture topics about the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the students obtain a better understanding of the relevance of abnormal metabolism in relation to diseases. Such understanding provides a solid foundation for the medical students' future research and for other clinical applications.

  15. Enhanced Podcasts for Teaching Biochemistry to Veterinary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Kevin C.

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of biochemistry within medical disciplines presents certain challenges; firstly to relay a large body of complex facts and abstract concepts, and secondly to motivate students that this relatively difficult topic is worth their time to study. Here, nutrient biochemistry was taught within a multidisciplinary module as part of an…

  16. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  17. Blended Learning in Biochemistry Education: Analysis of Medical Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardenski, Rosilaine de Fatima; de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Tais Rabetti

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for…

  18. The Biochemistry of Bereavement: Possible Basis for Chemotherapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrick, Jerome F.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the physiological effect of acute grief and explores the increased susceptibility to infectious disease agents in terms of the altered biochemistry of the bereaved individual. Until basic reactions of grief are defined and the altered biochemistry established, psychological methods appear to offer the best therapy. (Author/JAC)

  19. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  20. Incorporation of Bioinformatics Exercises into the Undergraduate Biochemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feig, Andrew L.; Jabri, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    The field of bioinformatics is developing faster than most biochemistry textbooks can adapt. Supplementing the undergraduate biochemistry curriculum with data-mining exercises is an ideal way to expose the students to the common databases and tools that take advantage of this vast repository of biochemical information. An integrated collection of…

  1. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acuña, María Amelia; Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry. PMID:27683497

  2. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry. PMID:27683497

  3. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  4. Rapid and Adaptable Measurement of Protein Thermal Stability by Differential Scanning Fluorimetry: Updating a Common Biochemical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Jeremy; Savas, Christopher J.; Kartje, Zachary; Hoops, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of protein denaturation and protein folding is a common laboratory technique used in undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) provides a rapid, sensitive, and general method for measuring protein thermal stability in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory. In this method, the thermal…

  5. Advanced x-ray spectrometric techniques for characterization of nuclear materials: An overview of recent laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in x-ray spectrometric techniques at different stages have made this technique suitable for characterization of nuclear materials with respect to trace/major element determinations and compositional uniformity studies. The two important features of total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry: 1) requirement of very small amount of sample in ng level 2) multielement analytical capability, in addition to other features, make this technique very much suitable to nuclear materials characterization as most of the nuclear materials are radioactive and the radioactive waste generated and radiation hazards to the operator are minimum when such low amount of sample is used. Similarly advanced features of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence e.g. better geometry for high flux, reduction in background due to application of radiation filters have made the measurements of samples sealed inside thin alkathene/PVC covers possible with good sensitivity. This approach avoids putting the instrument inside a glove box for measuring radioactive samples and makes the operation/maintenance of the instrument and analysis of the samples possible in easy and fast manner. This approach has been used for major element determinations in mixed uranium-plutonium samples. Similarly μ-XRF with brilliant and micro-focused excitation sources can be used for compositional uniformity study of reactor fuel pellets. A μ-XRF study using synchrotron light source has been made to assess the compositional uniformity of mixed uranium-thorium oxide pellets produced by different processes. This approach is simple as it does not involve any sample preparation and is non-destructive. A brief summary of such activities carried out in our laboratory in past as well as ongoing and planned for the future have been discussed in the present manuscript.

  6. Role of tautomerism in RNA biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vipender; Fedeles, Bogdan I; Essigmann, John M

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic nucleic acid bases and their analogs can adopt multiple tautomeric forms due to the presence of multiple solvent-exchangeable protons. In DNA, spontaneous formation of minor tautomers has been speculated to contribute to mutagenic mispairings during DNA replication, whereas in RNA, minor tautomeric forms have been proposed to enhance the structural and functional diversity of RNA enzymes and aptamers. This review summarizes the role of tautomerism in RNA biochemistry, specifically focusing on the role of tautomerism in catalysis of small self-cleaving ribozymes and recognition of ligand analogs by riboswitches. Considering that the presence of multiple tautomers of nucleic acid bases is a rare occurrence, and that tautomers typically interconvert on a fast time scale, methods for studying rapid tautomerism in the context of nucleic acids under biologically relevant aqueous conditions are also discussed.

  7. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Kinetics Laboratory: Enhanced Data Analysis and Student-Designed Mini-Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    2016-01-01

    A highly instructive, wide-ranging laboratory project in which students study the effects of various parameters on the enzymatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase has been adapted for the upper-division biochemistry and physical biochemistry laboratory. Our two main goals were to provide enhanced data analysis, featuring nonlinear regression, and…

  8. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  9. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

  10. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  11. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  12. Steam-explosion safety considerations for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.

    1990-02-01

    This report provides a perspective on steam-explosion safety and design issues for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor being designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A historical background along with a description of experiments and analytical work performed to date has been provided. Preliminary analyses (for the ANS) have been conducted to evaluate steam-explosion pressure- pulse loadings, the effects of reactor coolant system (RCS) overpressurization, and slug energetics. The method used for pressure-pulse magnitude evaluation was benchmarked with previous calculations, an aluminum-water steam-explosion experiment, and test reactor steam explosion data with good agreement. Predicted pressure-pulse magnitudes evaluated were found to be several orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values evaluated by correlating available energies with shock-wave pressures from equivalent chemical detonations. The preliminary best estimate, as well as conservative estimates for RCS volume-pressurization failure and slug energetics for RCS volume-pressurization failure and slug energetics, indicated that (1) steam explosions in the ANS have significant damage potential, and (2) steam-explosion issues must be considered during the design phase of the ANS Project. Recommendations are made for efficiently addressing this important safety and design issue. 38 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan : ASC software quality engineering practices Version 3.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Pilch, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Agency (DOE/NNSA) Quality Criteria, Revision 10 (QC-1) as 'conformance to customer requirements and expectations'. This quality plan defines the SNL ASC Program software quality engineering (SQE) practices and provides a mapping of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirement (CPR) 001.3.6; 'Corporate Software Engineering Excellence'. This plan also identifies ASC management's and the software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals. This SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitments to improving software products by applying cost-effective SQE practices. This plan enumerates the SQE practices that comprise the development of SNL ASC's software products and explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices.

  14. Advances in the design, development, and deployment of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly; Robertson, James

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in the design, development, and deployment of U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Multimodal Signature Database (MMSDB) create a state-of-the-art database system with Web-based access through a Web interface designed specifically for research and development. Tens of thousands of signatures are currently available for researchers to support their algorithm development and refinement for sensors and other security systems. Each dataset is stored in (Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) format for easy modeling and storing of signatures and archived sensor data, ground truth, calibration information, algorithms, and other documentation. Archived HDF5 formatted data provides the basis for computational interoperability across a variety of tools including MATLAB, Octave, and Python. The database has a Web-based front-end with public and restricted access interfaces, along with 24/7 availability and support. This paper describes the overall design of the system, and the recent enhancements and future vision, including the ability for researchers to share algorithms, data, and documentation in the cloud, and providing an ability to run algorithms and software for testing and evaluation purposes remotely across multiple domains and computational tools. The paper will also describe in detail the HDF5 format for several multimodal sensor types.

  15. Thalidomide Makes a Comeback: A Case Discussion Exercise That Integrates Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Nicole; Cornely, Kathleen

    2001-06-01

    The case discussion method, which involves teaching scientific theory in a framework that students can relate to their own world, is an interdisciplinary pedagogical tool. Therefore, case study exercises can be used to integrate biochemistry with other advanced chemistry courses. The case presented here can be used at the end of a second-semester organic chemistry course or in an introductory biochemistry course. The case is a fact-based, fictional story in which an FDA official must decide whether to carry out the agency's threat to shut down several buyers clubs that import thalidomide from overseas and dispense it to their members for the treatment of AIDS. Students are required to read the body of the case, analyze data, and search for information using limited leads. Using well-considered arguments based on their research, they are asked to come to conclusions about how the element of risk involved in thalidomide distribution is assessed. They apply their knowledge of biochemistry to assess how thalidomide acts at the cellular level and they apply their knowledge of organic chemistry in writing mechanisms of thalidomide hydrolysis and in the design of thalidomide analogs. Students are assessed on their ability to work in groups, to critically analyze scientific data, and to develop public policies based on risk-benefit analysis.

  16. Biochemical View: A Web Site Providing Material for Teaching Biochemistry Using Multiple Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Rodrigues, Higor S.; Lapouble, Oscar M. M.; Pereira, Márcio R.; Castro, Mariana S.; Fontes, Wagner

    2007-11-01

    Computational resources are valuable tools for teaching biochemistry. Often, however, the necessary information is dispersed throughout several Web sites and many of the biochemistry software programs are only available commercially. Considering the difficulties of understanding abstract biochemical concepts, a Web site, Biochemical View (accessed Aug 2007) has been developed at the University of Brasília (UnB), Brazil. Its main goals are to complement course instruction and materials already in use, provide material to teachers preparing conventional and online courses, and—because free, full access is allowed—popularize the use of these resources in undergraduate courses. The contents, which include the usual metabolic pathways explaining the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, and nucleic acids, are presented in two and three-dimensional formats, complemented with objective texts, schematics, and a description of regulation points. In this work, a new approach to metabolic pathways is employed, namely metabolic participation diagrams. In addition, experimental protocols for laboratory classes, study material, and detailed information about each molecule taking part in a specific metabolic pathway have been also made available in the Web site. The process of constructing the site is described and the results of students using this Web site are evaluated based on exam scores and survey forms, which show a significant improvement in students' success in learning biochemistry.

  17. Preparation of Buffers. An Experiment for Quantitative Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, P. T.

    2001-10-01

    In our experience, students who have a solid grounding in the theoretical aspects of buffers, buffer preparation, and buffering capacity are often at a loss when required to actually prepare a buffer in a research setting. However, there are very few published laboratory experiments pertaining to buffers. This laboratory experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis lab gives students hands-on experience in the preparation of buffers. By preparing a buffer to a randomly chosen pH value and comparing the theoretical pH to the actual pH, students apply their theoretical understanding of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, activity coefficients, and the effect of adding acid or base to a buffer. This experiment gives students experience in buffer preparation for research situations and helps them in advanced courses such as biochemistry where a fundamental knowledge of buffer systems is essential.

  18. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory: A high-brightness soft x-ray synchrotron-radiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Robinson, A.L.

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30--50 ns) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 20 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of hard x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Synthesis and Application of Ratiometric and "Turn-On" Fluorescent pH Sensors: An Advanced Organic Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutt, Johnathon T.; Aron, Zachary D.

    2014-01-01

    An upper-division organic chemistry laboratory experiment exploring fluorescent sensing over two laboratory periods and part of a third is described. Two functionally distinct pH-responsive sensors are prepared through a dehydrative three-component coupling reaction. During the abbreviated (<1 h) first laboratory period, students set up…

  20. Curriculum Guidelines on Biochemistry and Nutrition for Dental Hygienists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Sections of Biochemistry and Nutrition and Dental Hygiene Education of the American Association of Dental Schools are intended for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. (MLW)

  1. International Environmental Law and Biochemistry: An Innovative Teaching Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlish, John

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ties between international environmental law and biochemistry with respect to genetically modified organisms, biodiversity, marine pollution, cancer biology, and pesticide contamination of food. Contains 30 references. (DDR)

  2. A Continuing Education Project for Updating Women in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary Kieran, McElroy, Sister

    1978-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program in the areas of biochemistry, biology, and computer science offered at Chestnut Hill College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to update 30 women in order to prepare them to return to the job market in chemistry. (HM)

  3. One hundred years of American Women in biochemistry *.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Adele J

    2006-03-01

    The occasion of ASBMB's 100th anniversary provides an opportunity to consider the history and accomplishments of women biochemists over the past century. American women in biochemistry have ranged from the highly visible, such as Nobel Prize winners Gert Cori and Gertrude Elion, to those who contributed in relative obscurity to equally dramatic breakthroughs. Women with Ph.D.s in biochemistry established departments of public health, nutrition, and home economics when more prestigious academic departments were not open to them. As in all fields of science, women have made great progress in biochemistry in recent years, and ASBMB reflects that progress; the past, current, and incoming presidents of the Society are all women. The data and biographical information presented here should provide a basis for inclusion of more women in recounting the history of biochemistry. PMID:21638642

  4. Can biochemistry drive drug discovery beyond simple potency measurements?

    PubMed

    Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Among the fields of expertise required to develop drugs successfully, biochemistry holds a key position in drug discovery at the interface between chemistry, structural biology and cell biology. However, taking the example of protein kinases, it appears that biochemical assays are mostly used in the pharmaceutical industry to measure compound potency and/or selectivity. This limited use of biochemistry is surprising, given that detailed biochemical analyses are commonly used in academia to unravel molecular recognition processes. In this article, I show that biochemistry can provide invaluable information on the dynamics and energetics of compound-target interactions that cannot be obtained on the basis of potency measurements and structural data. Therefore, an extensive use of biochemistry in drug discovery could facilitate the identification and/or development of new drugs.

  5. An integrated strategy for teaching biochemistry to biotechnology specialty students.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-07-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of each pedagogy and better solve the main difficulties that lay in the teaching of biochemistry to biotechnology specialty students in the East China University of Science and Technology. PMID:21591104

  6. Writing throughout the biochemistry curriculum: Synergistic inquiry-based writing projects for biochemistry students.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Pamela; Streu, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a synergistic two-semester writing sequence for biochemistry courses. In the first semester, students select a putative protein and are tasked with researching their protein largely through bioinformatics resources. In the second semester, students develop original ideas and present them in the form of a research grant proposal. Both projects involve multiple drafts and peer review. The complementarity of the projects increases student exposure to bioinformatics and literature resources, fosters higher-order thinking skills, and develops teamwork and communication skills. Student feedback and responses on perception surveys demonstrated that the students viewed both projects as favorable learning experiences.

  7. NRCL-70, Review of the Activities of the Laboratories 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Included are descriptions of activities of each of the 12 laboratories in the National Research Council of Canada, including background information and a summary of the studies (research) and results. The 12 laboratories in the NRCL are the following: Atlantic Regional Laboratory, Biochemistry Laboratory, Division of Biology, Division of Building…

  8. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  9. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  10. Costing clinical biochemistry services as part of an operational management budgeting system.

    PubMed

    Tarbit, I F

    1986-08-01

    The process of costing clinical biochemistry tests as a component of the commissioning of a unit management budgeting system based on an International Computers Limited (ICL) minicomputer system was examined. Methods of apportioning consumable and labour costs under direct and indirect cost headings and as test and request charges were investigated, and in this currently operational system it was found that 38% of consumable costs and 57% of labour costs were not a direct component of the routine analysis function. Means of assigning test costs to a given request source and the incorporation of such charges into clinical budget statements were looked at. A reduction in laboratory workload did not produce a comparable reduction in laboratory costs. For a theoretical reduction in workload of 20% only a 3.8% laboratory saving in recoverable costs could be expected.

  11. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

  12. Can Polyphosphate Biochemistry Affect Biological Apatite Saturation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelon, S. J.; Matsuura, N.; Gorelikov, I.; Wynnyckyj, C.; Grynpas, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important and limiting element for life. One strategy for storing ortho phosphates (Pi) is polymerization. Polymerized Pi's (polyphosphates: (PO3-)n: polyPs) serve as a Pi bank, as well as a catiion chelator, energy source, & regulator of responses to stresses in the stationary phase of culture growth and development1. PolyP biochemistry has been investigated in yeasts, bacteria & plants2. Bigeochemical cycling of P includes the condensation of Pi into pyro (P2O7-4), & polyPs, & the release of Pi from these compounds by the hydrolytic degradation of Pi from phosphomonoester bonds. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the predominate enzymes for regenerating Pi in aquatic systems3, & it cleaves Pi from polyPs. ALP is also the enzyme associated with apatite biomineralization in vertebrates4. PolyP was proposed to be the ALP substrate in bone mineralization5. Where calcium ions are plentiful in many aquatic environments, there is no requirement for aquatic life to generate Ca-stores. However, terrestrial vertebrates benefit from a bioavailable Ca-store such as apatite. The Pi storage strategy of polymerizing PO4-3 into polyPs dovetails well with Ca-banking, as polyPs sequester Ca, forming a neutral calcium polyphosphate (Ca-polyP: (Ca(PO3)2)n) complex. This neutral complex represents a high total [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], without the threat of inadvertent apatite precipitation, as the free [Ca+2] & [PO4-3], and therefore apatite saturation, are zero. Recent identification of polyP in regions of bone resorption & calcifying cartilage5 suggests that vertebrates may use polyP chemistry to bank Ca+2 and PO4-3. In vitro experiments with nanoparticulate Ca-polyP & ALP were undertaken to determine if carbonated apatite could precipitate from 1M Ca-polyP in Pi-free “physiological fluid” (0.1 M NaCl, 2 mM Ca+2, 0.8 mM Mg+2, pH ~8.0 ±0.5, 37 °C), as this is estimated to generate the [Ca+2] & [PO4-3] required to form the apatite content of bone tissue

  13. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Operations of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory-East, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-06-27

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with continued and enhanced operation of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), including modifications, upgrades, and new facilities, at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) in DuPage County, Illinois. This proposed action is needed to meet DOE's mission of sponsoring cutting-edge science and technology. Continued operation would include existing research activities. In 2002, 23 user teams had beamlines in use in 28 sectors of the experiment hall, and approximately 2,000 individual users visited annually (see Section 3.1.1). Enhanced scientific capabilities would include research on Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) materials in an existing area originally constructed for such work, and would not require new construction or workforce (see Section 3.1.2). A new experimental unit, the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), would be constructed along the west side of the APS facility and would be used for bench-scale research in nanoscience (see Section 3.1.3). Under the No Action Alternative, current APS operations would continue. However, initiation of BSL-3 research would not occur, and the proposed CNM research facility would not be constructed. The environmental consequences of the Proposed Action are minor. Potential effects to the environment are primarily related to ecological effects during construction and operation of the proposed CNM and human health effects during BSL-3 activities. The potential ecological effects of construction and operation of the CNM would be impacts of stormwater runoff into a restored wetland to the north of the CNM. DOE would minimize stormwater impacts during construction of the CNM by ensuring adequate erosion control before and during construction. Stormwater impacts would be minimized during operation of the CNM by

  14. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science.

  15. Geobiochemistry: Placing Biochemistry in Its Geochemical Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.; Boyer, G. M.; Canovas, P. A., III; Prasad, A.; Dick, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Goals of geobiochemistry include simultaneously evaluating the relative stabilities of microbial cells and minerals, and predicting how the composition of biomolecules can change in response to the progress of geochemical reactions. Recent developments in theoretical geochemistry make it possible to predict standard thermodynamic properties of proteins, nucleotides, lipids, and many metabolites including the constituents of the citric acid cycle, at all temperatures and pressures where life is known to occur, and beyond. Combining these predictions with constraints from geochemical data makes it possible to assess the relative stabilities of biomolecules. Resulting independent predictions of the environmental occurrence of homologous proteins and lipid side-chains can be compared with observations from metagenomic and metalipidomic data to quantify geochemical driving forces that shape the composition of biomolecules. In addition, the energetic costs of generating biomolecules from within a diverse range of habitable environments can be evaluated in terms of prevailing geochemical variables. Comparisons of geochemical bioenergetic calculations across habitats leads to the generalization that the availability of H2 determines the cost of autotrophic biosynthesis relative to the aquatic environment external to microbial cells, and that pH, temperature, pressure, and availability of C, N, P, and S are typically secondary. Increasingly reduced conditions, which are determined by reactions of water with mineral surfaces and mineral assemblages, allow many biosynthetic reactions to shift from costing energy to releasing energy. Protein and lipid synthesis, as well as the reverse citric acid cycle, become energy-releasing processes under these conditions. The resulting energy balances that determine habitability contrast dramatically with assumptions derived from oxic surface conditions, such as those where human biochemistry operates.

  16. Bacterial dehalogenases: biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed Central

    Fetzner, S; Lingens, F

    1994-01-01

    This review is a survey of bacterial dehalogenases that catalyze the cleavage of halogen substituents from haloaromatics, haloalkanes, haloalcohols, and haloalkanoic acids. Concerning the enzymatic cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond, seven mechanisms of dehalogenation are known, namely, reductive, oxygenolytic, hydrolytic, and thiolytic dehalogenation; intramolecular nucleophilic displacement; dehydrohalogenation; and hydration. Spontaneous dehalogenation reactions may occur as a result of chemical decomposition of unstable primary products of an unassociated enzyme reaction, and fortuitous dehalogenation can result from the action of broad-specificity enzymes converting halogenated analogs of their natural substrate. Reductive dehalogenation either is catalyzed by a specific dehalogenase or may be mediated by free or enzyme-bound transition metal cofactors (porphyrins, corrins). Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 couples energy conservation to a reductive dechlorination reaction. The biochemistry and genetics of oxygenolytic and hydrolytic haloaromatic dehalogenases are discussed. Concerning the haloalkanes, oxygenases, glutathione S-transferases, halidohydrolases, and dehydrohalogenases are involved in the dehalogenation of different haloalkane compounds. The epoxide-forming halohydrin hydrogen halide lyases form a distinct class of dehalogenases. The dehalogenation of alpha-halosubstituted alkanoic acids is catalyzed by halidohydrolases, which, according to their substrate and inhibitor specificity and mode of product formation, are placed into distinct mechanistic groups. beta-Halosubstituted alkanoic acids are dehalogenated by halidohydrolases acting on the coenzyme A ester of the beta-haloalkanoic acid. Microbial systems offer a versatile potential for biotechnological applications. Because of their enantiomer selectivity, some dehalogenases are used as industrial biocatalysts for the synthesis of chiral compounds. The application of dehalogenases or bacterial

  17. Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students to Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Katherine B.; Padwa, Linda; Shen, Xiaoqi; Bazargan, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from…

  18. Introduction to the Minireview Series on Modern Technologies for In-cell Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2016-02-19

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in the exploration and understanding of the behavior of molecules in their natural cellular environments at increasingly high spatial and temporal resolution. Advances in microscopy and the development of new fluorescent reagents as well as genetic editing techniques have enabled quantitative analysis of protein interactions, intracellular trafficking, metabolic changes, and signaling. Modern biochemistry now faces new and exciting challenges. Can traditionally "in vitro" experiments, e.g. analysis of protein folding and conformational transitions, be done in cells? Can the structure and behavior of endogenous and/or non-tagged recombinant proteins be analyzed and altered within the cell or in cellular compartments? How can molecules and their actions be studied mechanistically in tissues and organs? Is personalized cellular biochemistry a reality? This thematic series summarizes recent studies that illustrate some first steps toward successfully answering these modern biochemical questions. The first minireview focuses on utilization of three-dimensional primary enteroids and organoids for mechanistic studies of intestinal biology with molecular resolution. The second minireview describes application of single chain antibodies (nanobodies) for monitoring and regulating protein dynamics in vitro and in cells. The third minireview highlights advances in using NMR spectroscopy for analysis of protein folding and assembly in cells.

  19. Post-remedial-action radiological survey of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pennsylvania, October 1-8, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.; Sholeen, C.M.; Smith, W.H.; Wynveen, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The post-remedial-action radiological assessment conducted by the ANL Radiological Survey Group in October 1981, following decommissioning and decontamination efforts by Westinghouse personnel, indicated that except for the Advanced Fuels Laboratory exhaust ductwork and north wall, the interior surfaces of the Plutonium Laboratory and associated areas within Building 7 and the Advanced Fuels Laboratory within Building 8 were below both the ANSI Draft Standard N13.12 and NRC Guideline criteria for acceptable surface contamination levels. Hence, with the exceptions noted above, the interior surfaces of those areas within Buildings 7 and 8 that were included in the assessment are suitable for unrestricted use. Air samples collected at the involved areas within Buildings 7 and 8 indicated that the radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations within the air were well below the limits prescribed by the US Surgeon General, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. The Building 7 drain lines are contaminated with uranium, plutonium, and americium. Radiochemical analysis of water and dirt/sludge samples collected from accessible Low-Bay, High-Bay, Shower Room, and Sodium laboratory drains revealed uranium, plutonium, and americium contaminants. The Building 7 drain lines hence are unsuitable for release for unrestricted use in their present condition. Low levels of enriched uranium, plutonium, and americium were detected in an environmental soil coring near Building 8, indicating release or spillage due to Advanced Reactors Division activities or Nuclear Fuel Division activities undr NRC licensure. /sup 60/Co contamination was detected within the Building 7 Shower Room and in soil corings from the environs of Building 7. All other radionuclide concentrations measured in soil corings and the storm sewer outfall sample collected from the environs about Buildings 7 and 8 were within the range of normally expected background concentrations.

  20. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  1. Blended learning in biochemistry education: analysis of medical students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    de Fátima Wardenski, Rosilaine; de Espíndola, Marina Bazzo; Struchiner, Miriam; Giannella, Taís Rabetti

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze first-year UFRJ medical students' perceptions about the implementation of a blended learning (BL) experience in their Biochemistry I course. During the first semester of 2009, three Biochemistry professors used the Constructore course management system to develop virtual learning environments (VLEs) for complementing course Modules I, II, and IV, using different resources and activities. Forty-nine students (46%) took part in the study. Results show that, in general, students gave positive evaluations to their experiences with BL, indicating that the VLEs have not only motivated but also facilitated learning. Most of the students reported that access to resources in the three modules provided a more in-depth approach to Biochemistry education and greater study autonomy. Students suggested that the VLEs could be better used for promoting greater communication among participants.

  2. My Lifelong Passion for Biochemistry and Anaerobic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Thauer, Rudolf Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early parental influence led me first to medical school, but after developing a passion for biochemistry and sensing the need for a deeper foundation, I changed to chemistry. During breaks between semesters, I worked in various biochemistry labs to acquire a feeling for the different areas of investigation. The scientific puzzle that fascinated me most was the metabolism of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri, which I took on in 1965 in Karl Decker's lab in Freiburg, Germany. I quickly realized that little was known about the biochemistry of strict anaerobes such as clostridia, methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate-reducing bacteria and that these were ideal model organisms to study fundamental questions of energy conservation, CO2 fixation, and the evolution of metabolic pathways. My passion for anaerobes was born then and is unabated even after 50 years of study.

  3. Inverting Organic and Biochemistry: A Curriculum Tweak That Benefits All

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingold, I. David

    2004-04-01

    This article makes the case for re-ordering the material currently taught in sophomore organic chemistry and junior biochemistry courses, so that most of the biochemistry appears in the sophomore course and some of the more esoteric organic chemistry material is postponed until junior year. That way, nonmajors taking organic chemistry for career purposes (premedical students, biology majors, environmental scientists) will learn chemistry more relevant to them, and chemistry majors will not suffer by having anything left out. The article also proposes details of what topics should be moved from sophomore to junior year, and vice versa.

  4. Biochemistry of nitric oxide and its redox-activated forms.

    PubMed

    Stamler, J S; Singel, D J; Loscalzo, J

    1992-12-18

    Nitric oxide (NO.), a potentially toxic molecule, has been implicated in a wide range of biological functions. Details of its biochemistry, however, remain poorly understood. The broader chemistry of nitrogen monoxide (NO) involves a redox array of species with distinctive properties and reactivities: NO+ (nitrosonium), NO., and NO- (nitroxyl anion). The integration of this chemistry with current perspectives of NO biology illuminates many aspects of NO biochemistry, including the enzymatic mechanism of synthesis, the mode of transport and targeting in biological systems, the means by which its toxicity is mitigated, and the function-regulating interaction with target proteins.

  5. Biochemistry, Science (Experimental): 5317.66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Ray S.

    This unit of instruction provides a laboratory oriented study of the chemical reaction involved in the life processes. Students enrolling in this course should have successfully completed the units on Scientific Mathematics, Introduction to Chemistry, Reactions of Atoms and Molecules, and Chemistry of Carbon and Its Compounds. The booklet lists…

  6. Current quality assurance concepts and considerations for quality control of in-clinic biochemistry testing.

    PubMed

    Lester, Sally; Harr, K E; Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul

    2013-01-15

    Quality assurance is an implied concept inherent in every consumer's purchase of a product or service. In laboratory testing, quality assurance encompasses preanalytic (sampling, transport, and handling prior to testing), analytic (measurement), and postanalytic (reporting and interpretation) factors. Quality-assurance programs require that procedures are in place to detect errors in all 3 components and that the procedures are characterized by both documentation and correction of errors. There are regulatory bodies that provide mandatory standards for and regulation of human medical laboratories. No such regulations exist for veterinary laboratory testing. The American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards Committee was formed in 1996 in response to concerns of ASVCP members about quality assurance and quality control in laboratories performing veterinary testing. Guidelines for veterinary laboratory testing have been developed by the ASVCP. The purpose of this report was to provide an overview of selected quality-assurance concepts and to provide recommendations for quality control for in-clinic biochemistry testing in general veterinary practice.

  7. A One-Pot Synthesis of m-Terphenyls: A Guided Exploration of Reaction Chemistry, Chromatography, and Spectroscopy. A Miniproject for the Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anam, Kishorekumar T.; Curtis, Michael P.; Irfan, Muhammad J.; Johnson, Michael P.; Royer, Andrew P.; Shahmohammadi, Kianor; Vinod, Thottumkara K.

    2002-05-01

    This four-week project-based laboratory exercise, developed for advanced organic chemistry students, involves a one-pot synthesis of m-terphenyls. Chemistry of aryl diazonium salts and Grignard reagents and reactivity of aryne intermediates toward nucleophilic reagents form the reaction chemistry basis for the project. The project exposes students to a number of important laboratory techniques (thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and column chromatography) for monitoring reaction progress and product isolation. A variety of spectroscopic techniques, including IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and attached proton test are used for product characterization. Students are also introduced to a useful empirical relationship to help predict (with considerable accuracy) the 13C chemical shift values of carbon atoms of substituted benzenes.

  8. NREL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Support of Ocean Renewable Power Company's TidGen™ Power System Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative Project

    SciTech Connect

    LiVecchi, Al

    2015-05-07

    This document summarizes the tasks identified for National Laboratory technical support of Ocean Renewable Power Corporation (ORPC) DOE grant awarded under the FY10 Industry Solicitation DE-FOA-0000293: Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative. The system ORPC will deploy in Cobscook Bay, ME is known as the TidGen™ Power System. The Turbine Generator Unit (TGU) each have a rated capacity of 150 to 175 kW, and they are mounted on bottom support frames and connected to an onshore substation using an underwater power and control cable. This system is designed for tidal energy applications in water depths from 60 to 150 feet. In funding provided separately by DOE, National Laboratory partners NREL and SNL will provide in-kind resources and technical expertise to help ensure that industry projects meet DOE WWPP (Wind and Water Power Program) objectives by reducing risk to these high value projects.

  9. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of the "Tennis Ball" Dimer and Subsequent Encapsulation of Methane. An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hof, Fraser; Palmer, Liam C.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

    2001-11-01

    While important to the biological and materials sciences, noncovalent interactions, self-folding, and self-assembly often receive little discussion in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. The synthesis and NMR characterization of a molecular "tennis ball" in an advanced undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory is a simple and effective way to introduce the relevance of these concepts. In appropriate solvents, the monomer dimerizes through a seam of eight hydrogen bonds with encapsulation of a guest molecule and symmetry reminiscent of a tennis ball. The entire experiment can be completed in three lab periods, however large-scale synthetic preparation of the starting monomer by a teaching assistant would reduce the laboratory to a single lab period for NMR studies.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1: ASC software quality engineering practices, Version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR 1.3.2 and 1.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan. Part 2, Mappings for the ASC software quality engineering practices. Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Molly A.; Heaphy, Robert; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR 1.3.2 and 1.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, 'ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines'. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan part 2 mappings for the ASC software quality engineering practices, version 2.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, Robert; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Minana, Molly A.; Hackney, Patricia; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. The plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to Sandia Corporate Requirements CPR001.3.2 and CPR001.3.6 and to a Department of Energy document, ''ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines''. This document also identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities in implementing the software quality practices and in assessing progress towards achieving their software quality goals.

  13. Synthesis of Di- and Trisubstituted Azulenes Using a Danheiser Annulation as the Key Step: An Advanced Organic Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rebecca M.; Shea, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-week advanced-level organic experiment provides students with an inquiry-based approach focused on learning traditional skills such as primary literature interpretation, reaction design, flash column chromatography, and NMR analysis. Additionally, students address higher-order concepts such as the origin of azulene's blue color,…

  14. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  15. Genomics and Bioinformatics in Undergraduate Curricula: Contexts for Hybrid Laboratory/Lecture Courses for Entering and Advanced Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Louise; Cresawn, Steven G.; Monroe, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging interest in genomics in the scientific community prompted biologists at James Madison University to create two courses at different levels to modernize the biology curriculum. The courses are hybrids of classroom and laboratory experiences. An upper level class uses raw sequence of a genome (plasmid or virus) as the subject on which to…

  16. Assembly of a Modular Fluorimeter and Associated Software: Using LabVIEW in an Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algar, W. Russ; Massey, Melissa; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory activity for an upper-level undergraduate course in instrumental analysis has been created around LabVIEW. Students learn rudimentary programming and interfacing skills during the construction of a fluorimeter assembled from common modular components. The fluorimeter consists of an inexpensive data acquisition module, LED light…

  17. Development of an Interdisciplinary Experimental Series for the Laboratory Courses of Cell and Molecular Biology and Advance Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Montserrat Rabago; McAllister, Robert; Newkirk, Kiera; Basing, Alexander; Wang, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to education has become more important in the development of science and technology, which requires universities to have graduates with broad knowledge and skills and to apply these skills in solving real-world problems. An interdisciplinary experimental series has been developed for the laboratories in cell and…

  18. Synthesis and Multinuclear Lanthanide Shift Reagent NMR Analysis of 1- and 2-Adamantanol: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Charles D., Jr.; Yoder, Claude H.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a project used in a junior-level laboratory in which students prepare two alcohols, characterize these compounds, and use a shift reagent for structure determination and peak assignment. Background information, materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)

  19. Synthesis of a Photoluminescent and Triboluminescent Copper(I) Compound: An Experiment for an Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Fabio; Di Nicola, Corrado; Pettinari, Riccardo; Timokhin, Ivan; Pettinari, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    A simple synthesis is proposed from inexpensive reactants of a copper(I) derivative that exhibits strong photoluminescence and, in the crystalline form, exhibits strong triboluminescence. This laboratory provides an opportunity for introducing students to the phenomenon of triboluminescence. (Contains 1 scheme and 4 figures.)

  20. Using Assessment to Improve Learning in the Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loertscher, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, major drivers of undergraduate science education reform including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) have called on college and university instructors to take a more scientific approach to their teaching. Although many biochemistry instructors are gaining confidence in using…

  1. Uncovering Students' Incorrect Ideas about Foundational Concepts for Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villafane, Sachel M.; Loertscher, Jennifer; Minderhout, Vicky; Lewis, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on how an assessment instrument with a unique structure can be used to identify common incorrect ideas from prior coursework at the beginning of a biochemistry course, and to determine whether these ideas have changed by the end of the course. The twenty-one multiple-choice items address seven different…

  2. Synthesis of Vitamin K Expoxide: An Undergraduate Biochemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry-Palmer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Provides procedures for synthesizing and purifying a vitamin K metabolite (2,3-epoxide) to introduce many of the techniques used in lipid biochemistry. Includes typical results obtained as well as an optional experiment designed to test the purity of the epoxide obtained. (JM)

  3. Biochemistry Instructors' Perceptions of Analogies and Their Classroom Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, MaryKay; Bussey, Thomas J.; Bodner, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry education relies heavily on students' abilities to conceptualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. From a constructivist standpoint, students build their understandings of these abstract processes by connecting, expanding, or revising their prior conceptions and experiences. As such, biochemistry…

  4. Assessment of Learning Gains in a Flipped Biochemistry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of…

  5. Positron Emission Tomography: Human Brain Function and Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Michael E.; Mazziotta, John C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the method, present status, and application of positron emission tomography (PET), an analytical imaging technique for "in vivo" measurements of the anatomical distribution and rates of specific biochemical reactions. Measurements and image dynamic biochemistry link basic and clinical neurosciences with clinical findings suggesting…

  6. A Problem-Based Learning Design for Teaching Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dods, Richard F.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the design of a biochemistry course that uses problem-based learning. Provides opportunities for students to question, dispute, confirm, and disconfirm their understanding of basic concepts. Emphasizes self-correction through dialogue. Topics covered include amino acids, metabolic pathways and inherited disease, proteins, enzymes and…

  7. The Use of Multiple Tools for Teaching Medical Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Se, Alexandre B.; Passos, Renato M.; Ono, Andre H.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we describe the use of several strategies employing the philosophies of active learning and problem-based learning (PBL) that may be used to improve the teaching of metabolic biochemistry to medical and nutritional undergraduate students. The main activities are as follows: 1) a seminar/poster system in a mini-congress format (using…

  8. Concepts and Skills in the Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Most colleges and universities throughout the world now offer a Biochemistry/Molecular Biology (BMB) lab course that is designed for undergraduate students in the molecular life sciences, chemistry, and related fields. To best serve our students, we must introduce them to the most current concepts, skills, and methods available. Suggestions for…

  9. Active Learning of Biochemistry Made Easy (for the Teacher)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobich, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    This active learning pedagogical technique aims to improve students' learning in a two-semester, upper-division biochemistry course sequence in which the vast majority of students enrolled will continue on to medical or graduate schools. Instead of lecturing, the Instructor moves to the side of the room, thereby becoming "the guide on the side".…

  10. Osmotic Stressing, Membrane Leakage, and Fluorescence: An Introductory Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seu, Kalani J.

    2015-01-01

    A fluorescence demonstration is described that incorporates several fundamental aspects of an introductory biochemistry course. A variation of a known leakage assay is utilized to prepare vesicles containing a quenched fluorophore. The vesicles are exposed to several osmotic environments ranging from isotonic to hypotonic. The degree of vesicle…

  11. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  12. Development of Student Writing in Biochemistry Using Calibrated Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartberg, Yasha; Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Simspon, Nancy J.; Balester, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This study investigating the effectiveness of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR )[TM] in a senior-level biochemistry class had three purposes: to (a) compare the CPR process for feedback with TA-generated feedback in improving students' ability to write scientific abstracts; (b) compare CPR results for males and females; and (c) observe whether CPR…

  13. Biochemistry in Undergraduate Health Courses: Structure and Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Irani F.; Batista, Nildo A.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the following aspects of teaching biochemistry in undergraduate health courses: objectives, number of hours, time in which the subject is studied, selection of content, teaching strategies, and evaluation methodologies used. Fifty-three courses distributed in 13 areas within the health field and offered by 12 institutions…

  14. [Biochemistry for the benefit of humanity (practical achievements of my scientific work)].

    PubMed

    Huliĭ, M F

    2005-01-01

    Science unites theory and practice, but theory is always in advance. Even our works (mentioned above) which are also important for practice and were awarded the State prizes could not be made without preliminary theoretical investigations. It should be said that our works with elaborated methods of therapy and drugs to treat chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, leucosis are rather of theoretical than of practical importance. Some our works which proved that carbon dioxide is the basis of life are also of especially great theoretical value. The paper deals with the investigations devoted to the problems of biochemistry in cattle breeding (the raising of fat content in milk; elaboration of the efficient method of fodder ensilage; raising of milk yield using the drug "Karboxilin"; development of the methods of isolation of crystalline glucose-oxidase and catalase used for clarifying blood) as well as to the problems of biochemistry in medicine (creation of the drug "Microcid", antileucosis drug "Corectin", drugs "Medichronal" and "Medicit" for treating alcoholism and drug addiction, drug "Namacit" for hindering the organism aging). Great attention is given to the problem of relations between the theoretical conception concerning the importance of CO2 in vital activity of human and animal organism and production of new drugs. PMID:16335264

  15. Biochemistry Students' Ideas about Shape and Charge in Enzyme-Substrate Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    Biochemistry is a visual discipline that requires students to develop an understanding of numerous representations. However, there is very little known about what students actually understand about the representations that are used to communicate ideas in biochemistry. This study investigated biochemistry students' understanding of multiple…

  16. Teaching structure: student use of software tools for understanding macromolecular structure in an undergraduate biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Sheila S; O'Hara, Patricia B; Williamson, Patrick L; Springer, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Because understanding the structure of biological macromolecules is critical to understanding their function, students of biochemistry should become familiar not only with viewing, but also with generating and manipulating structural representations. We report a strategy from a one-semester undergraduate biochemistry course to integrate use of structural representation tools into both laboratory and homework activities. First, early in the course we introduce the use of readily available open-source software for visualizing protein structure, coincident with modules on amino acid and peptide bond properties. Second, we use these same software tools in lectures and incorporate images and other structure representations in homework tasks. Third, we require a capstone project in which teams of students examine a protein-nucleic acid complex and then use the software tools to illustrate for their classmates the salient features of the structure, relating how the structure helps explain biological function. To ensure engagement with a range of software and database features, we generated a detailed template file that can be used to explore any structure, and that guides students through specific applications of many of the software tools. In presentations, students demonstrate that they are successfully interpreting structural information, and using representations to illustrate particular points relevant to function. Thus, over the semester students integrate information about structural features of biological macromolecules into the larger discussion of the chemical basis of function. Together these assignments provide an accessible introduction to structural representation tools, allowing students to add these methods to their biochemical toolboxes early in their scientific development.

  17. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of

  18. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  19. Playing with a double-edged sword: Analogies in biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, Marykay

    Analogy pervades our everyday reasoning. No situation we encounter is exactly like a situation we have encountered previously, and our ability to learn and survive in the world is based on our ability to find similarities between past and present situations and use the knowledge we have gained from past situations to manage current situations. Analogies can be powerful teaching tools because they can make new material intelligible to students by comparing it to material that is already familiar. It is clear, though, that not all analogies are good and that not all good analogies are useful to all students. In this study, I have used textbook analysis, classroom observations, student interviews and instructor interviews to determine the role that analogies play in biochemistry learning. Analogies are an important teaching technique in biochemistry classes, being used more often in both biochemistry classes and textbooks than they are in high school chemistry classes and textbooks. Most biochemistry students like, pay particular attention to, and remember the analogies their instructors provide; and they use these analogies to understand, visualize, and recall information from class. Even though students like and use analogies, they do not understand what analogies are or the mechanism by which they improve learning. For the students, analogies are simply any teaching technique that eases understanding, visualization, or recall. Instructors, on the other hand, have a good understanding of what analogies are and of how they should be presented in class; but they do not use analogies as effectively as they should. They do not plan, explain or identify the limitations of the analogies they use in class. However, regardless of how effectively instructors present analogies in class, this study indicates that, in general, analogies are useful in promoting understanding, visualization, recall, and motivation in biochemistry students at all levels. They would be even more

  20. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Experiments for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory: Suppression of Polarization Impurity and Stray Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Kaleb; Jackson, Richard; van Vleet, Matthew; Kuhnash, Kodi; Worth, Bradley; Day, Amanda; Bali, Samir

    2014-05-01

    We investigate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in rubidium vapor using a single laser beam and a scanning magnetic field co-aligned with the laser propagation direction. We show that polarization impurity, stray magnetic fields and imperfect optical alignments cause broadening of the EIT/EIA signal and other spurious effects. We describe a systematic approach to minimizing these undesired effects, which produces EIT/EIA signals nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than the natural linewidth. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund and Miami University. We also acknowledge the Miami University Instrumentation Laboratory for their invaluable contributions.

  1. Synthesis of a Partially Protected Azidodeoxy Sugar. A Project Suitable for the Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Peter; Freeze, Scott; Gabriel, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The synthetic chemistry of carbohydrates provides a wealth of possible experiments for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. However, few appropriate examples have been developed to date. With this simple two-step synthesis of a partially protected azidodeoxy sugar, we demonstrate several important concepts introduced in undergraduate chemistry (alcohol activation, steric hindrance, nucleophilic substitution) while offering products that are readily amenable to analysis by high field NMR. Students are exposed to techniques such as monitoring reactions by TLC, workup of reaction mixtures, and isolation by flash chromatography. Suitable methods for analysis of products include NMR, IR, MS, and polarimetry.

  2. Detection of the "cp4 epsps" Gene in Maize Line NK603 and Comparison of Related Protein Structures: An Advanced Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, Nicole K.; Fryfogle, Patrick J.; Sivy, Tami L.

    2015-01-01

    A flexible, rigorous laboratory experiment for upper-level biochemistry undergraduates is described that focuses on the Roundup Ready maize line. The work is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses that integrate biochemistry, molecular biology, or bioinformatics. In this experiment, DNA is extracted and purified from maize kernel and…

  3. The Maillard reaction--illicite (bio)chemistry in tissues and food.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Labat-Robert, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a review of our early work on the Maillard reaction, at the interface of food chemistry and tissue biochemistry, as well as the reinterpretation of our early findings in the light of recent advances in the chemistry of the involved reactions. These concern specifically the role of lower aldehydes, produced during the glycolytic pathways and especially acetaldehyde. We also review some of our recent findings on the cytotoxic and genotoxic aspect of these "illicit" organic reactions, taking place in tissues (and also in food products) besides the genetically "programmed" metabolic pathways. Some recent results in organic-pharmaceutical chemistry confirm the potential importance of the reviewed reactions both in food chemistry and in tissues as well as the pathological importance of reactions taking place in tissues. PMID:21640521

  4. The Maillard reaction--illicite (bio)chemistry in tissues and food.

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A-M; Labat-Robert, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a review of our early work on the Maillard reaction, at the interface of food chemistry and tissue biochemistry, as well as the reinterpretation of our early findings in the light of recent advances in the chemistry of the involved reactions. These concern specifically the role of lower aldehydes, produced during the glycolytic pathways and especially acetaldehyde. We also review some of our recent findings on the cytotoxic and genotoxic aspect of these "illicit" organic reactions, taking place in tissues (and also in food products) besides the genetically "programmed" metabolic pathways. Some recent results in organic-pharmaceutical chemistry confirm the potential importance of the reviewed reactions both in food chemistry and in tissues as well as the pathological importance of reactions taking place in tissues.

  5. Alien Biochemistries and Their Metabolic By-Products. Lessons from Synthetic Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, S.

    2014-03-01

    While the metabolisms of terran organisms are accessible for study and their byproducts are, for the most part, well known, the "diversity" of terran biology arises (as far as we know) from a single common ancestor, represents only a small fraction of possible chemical difersity, and may reflect only a fraction of the possible chemical diversity that might support Darwinian evolution [1]. This talk will consider laboratory experiments on origins [2] and synthetic biology [3], asking how they might inform us about alternative biochemistries, and whether we have any chance of observing remotely their by-products, recognizing the uncertanties in both our models for "weird life" and our models of abiotic processes in incompletely defined planetary environments.

  6. The Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - Site Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T W

    2008-12-03

    This report summarizes LLNL's progress for the period April through September of 2008 for the Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS) SciDAC. The TASCS project is organized into four major thrust areas: CCA Environment (72%), Component Technology Initiatives (16%), CCA Toolkit (8%), and User and Application Outreach & Support (4%). The percentage of LLNL's effort allocation is shown in parenthesis for each thrust area. Major thrust areas are further broken down into activity areas, LLNL's effort directed to each activity is shown in Figure 1. Enhancements, Core Tools, and Usability are all part of CCA Environment, and Software Quality is part of Component Technology Initiatives. The balance of this report will cover our accomplishments in each of these activity areas.

  7. Field and laboratory evaluations of commercial and next–generation alumina-forming austenitic foil for advanced recuperators

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Brady, Michael P.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Ruan, Bo; Robert D. McKeirnan, Jr.

    2016-07-19

    Alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels represent a new class of corrosion- and creep-resistant austenitic steels designed to enable higher temperature recuperators. Field trials are in progress for commercially rolled foil with widths over 39 cm. The first trial completed 3000 hrs in a microturbine recuperator with an elevated turbine inlet temperature and showed limited degradation. A longer microturbine trial is in progress. A third exposure in a larger turbine has passed 16,000 hrs. Furthermore, to reduce alloy cost and address foil fabrication issues with the initial AFA composition, several new AFA compositions are being evaluated in creep and laboratory oxidation testingmore » at 650–800 °C and the results compared to commercially fabricated AFA foil and conventional recuperator foil performance.« less

  8. Biochemistry of homologous recombination in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczykowski, S C; Dixon, D A; Eggleston, A K; Lauder, S D; Rehrauer, W M

    1994-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a fundamental biological process. Biochemical understanding of this process is most advanced for Escherichia coli. At least 25 gene products are involved in promoting genetic exchange. At present, this includes the RecA, RecBCD (exonuclease V), RecE (exonuclease VIII), RecF, RecG, RecJ, RecN, RecOR, RecQ, RecT, RuvAB, RuvC, SbcCD, and SSB proteins, as well as DNA polymerase I, DNA gyrase, DNA topoisomerase I, DNA ligase, and DNA helicases. The activities displayed by these enzymes include homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange, helicase, branch migration, Holliday junction binding and cleavage, nuclease, ATPase, topoisomerase, DNA binding, ATP binding, polymerase, and ligase, and, collectively, they define biochemical events that are essential for efficient recombination. In addition to these needed proteins, a cis-acting recombination hot spot known as Chi (chi: 5'-GCTGGTGG-3') plays a crucial regulatory function. The biochemical steps that comprise homologous recombination can be formally divided into four parts: (i) processing of DNA molecules into suitable recombination substrates, (ii) homologous pairing of the DNA partners and the exchange of DNA strands, (iii) extension of the nascent DNA heteroduplex; and (iv) resolution of the resulting crossover structure. This review focuses on the biochemical mechanisms underlying these steps, with particular emphases on the activities of the proteins involved and on the integration of these activities into likely biochemical pathways for recombination. Images PMID:7968921

  9. Isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries - Carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schidlowski, M.; Hayes, J. M.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    In processes of biological incorporation and subsequent biochemical processing sizable isotope effects occur as a result of both thermodynamic and kinetic fractionations which take place during metabolic and biosynthetic reactions. In this chapter a review is provided of earlier work and recent studies on isotope fractionations in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Attention is given to the biochemistry of carbon isotope fractionation, carbon isotope fractionation in extant plants and microorganisms, isotope fractionation in the terrestrial carbon cycle, the effects of diagenesis and metamorphism on the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon, the isotopic composition of sedimentary carbon through time, implications of the sedimentary carbon isotope record, the biochemistry of sulfur isotope fractionation, pathways of the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, and the D/H ratio in naturally occurring materials.

  10. How to Search for Life by the Detection of Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, C. P.; Davila, A.; Sun, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    We consider how to search for life by the detection of biochemistry in three relevance case: 1) in samples returned to Earth, 2) In situ in the organic rich plume of Enceladus, and 3) On Mars, following the discovery of organics. A search for organic biomarkers can address several questions including: 1) Evidence for present or past life, 2) Evidence for a second genesis of life, 3) Hazard assessment for human explorers and sample return and 4) Detection of bioload from Earth. Some useful analogs for the search for organic biomarkers on other worlds include 1) Ancient Earth sediment record, an example of a poorly preserved ancient biochemistry, 2) Modern environments including anoxic Antarctic sediments 3)Extreme cold desert surfaces in the High Antarctic Dry Valleys 4) Extremely dry soils such as the Atacama Desert 5) Evaporites. Sample preparation is a key issue, often unappreciated in past. Illustrated by the interference of perchlorate with organic detection on Viking and SAM.

  11. Assessment of learning gains in a flipped biochemistry classroom.

    PubMed

    Ojennus, Deanna Dahlke

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom has become an increasingly popular pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. In this study, learning gains were assessed in a flipped biochemistry course and compared to gains in a traditional lecture. Although measured learning gains were not significantly different between the two courses, student perception of learning gains did differ and indicates a higher level of satisfaction with the flipped lecture format.

  12. Particulate Emissions Control using Advanced Filter Systems: Final Report for Argonne National Laboratory, Corning Inc. and Hyundai Motor Company CRADA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Hee Je; Choi, Seungmok

    2015-10-09

    This is a 3-way CRADA project working together with Corning, Inc. and Hyundai Motor Co. (HMC). The project is to understand particulate emissions from gasoline direct-injection engines (GDI) and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, this project focuses on providing fundamental information about filtration and regeneration mechanisms occurring in gasoline particulate filter (GPF) systems. For the work, Corning provides most advanced filter substrates for GPF applications and HMC provides three-way catalyst (TWC) coating services of these filter by way of a catalyst coating company. Then, Argonne National Laboratory characterizes fundamental behaviors of filtration and regeneration processes as well as evaluated TWC functionality for the coated filters. To examine aging impacts on TWC and GPF performance, the research team evaluates gaseous and particulate emissions as well as back-pressure increase with ash loading by using an engine-oil injection system to accelerate ash loading in TWC-coated GPFs.

  13. Enhanced podcasts for teaching biochemistry to veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Gough, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of biochemistry within medical disciplines presents certain challenges; firstly to relay a large body of complex facts and abstract concepts, and secondly to motivate students that this relatively difficult topic is worth their time to study. Here, nutrient biochemistry was taught within a multidisciplinary module as part of an undergraduate veterinary curriculum. The teaching approach was initially focussed on a mixture of didactic lectures and student-centred activities such as directed group/self learning. In subsequent years the core didactic lectures were replaced with enhanced podcasts covering the same material, along with the introduction of student presentations delivered within groups with both peer and facilitator assessment. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the time dedicated to this topic to allow sufficient time for students to work through podcasts and prepare presentations. The combination of these changes resulted in significant improvements in student performance within an in-course biochemistry long essay. These changes in the teaching approach, and particularly the introduction of extensive podcasts, was well received by students who perceived the process of going through the podcasts as time consuming but allowing them flexibility in both the pace that they studied this topic as well as the location and times that they studied it.

  14. Study on severe accident fuel dispersion behavior in the Advanced Neutron Source reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Georgevich, V.; Xiang, J.Y.

    1995-12-31

    Core flow blockage events are a leading contributor to core damage initiation risk in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. During such an accident, insufficient cooling of the fuel could result in core heatup and melting under full coolant flow condition. Coolant inertia forces acting on the melt surface would likely break up the melt into small particles. Under thermal-hydraulic conditions of ANS coolant channel, micro-fine melt particles are expected. Heat transfer between melt particle and coolant, which affects particle breakup, was studied. The study indicates that the thermal effect on melt fragmentation seems to be negligible because the time corresponding to the breakup due to hydrodynamic forces is much shorter than the time for the melt surface to solidify. The study included modeling and analyses to predict transient behavior and transport of debris particles throughout the coolant system. The transient model accounts for the surface forces acting on the particle that results from the pressure variation on the surface, inertia, virtual mass, viscous force due to relative motion of particle in the coolant, gravitation, and resistance due to inhomogenous coolant velocity radially across piping due to possible turbulent coolant motions. Results indicate that debris particles would reside longest in heat exchangers because of lower coolant velocity there. Also core debris tends to move together upon melting and entrainment.

  15. Advances in the graphitization protocol at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macario, Kita D.; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Carvalho, Carla; Santos, Guaciara M.; Xu, Xiaomei; Chanca, Ingrid S.; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Jou, Renata M.; Oliveira, Maria Isabela; Pereira, Bruna B.; Moreira, Vinicius; Muniz, Marcelo C.; Linares, Roberto; Gomes, Paulo Roberto Silveira; dos Anjos, Roberto Meigikos; Castro, Maikel D.; dos Anjos, Leandro; Marques, Aguinaldo N.; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we summarize the sample preparation methods currently used at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil. We also report on a series of results with regards to the graphitization protocol. Tests with different temperatures and baking times were performed, and carbon stable isotope ratios of graphite were measured by an EA-IRMS (elemental analyzer coupled with an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer) to infer the completeness of the graphitization reaction. We monitored the muffle furnace temperature using an independent thermocouple and found a -60 °C offset, which may have caused the lower graphitization yields (detected from the large isotopic fractionation on several reference materials targets). At a temperature of 520 °C, the isotopic fractionation in the graphitization reaction was systematically lower (-5‰ in average) and the overall scattering was reduced. As long as isotopic fractionation corrections are made using the online stable isotopes ratios provided by the AMS system, the accuracy of the 14C results should be maintained.

  16. Toxaphene: chemistry, biochemistry, toxicity and environmental fate.

    PubMed

    Saleh, M A

    1991-01-01

    The chemistry of toxaphene is now well developed; 20 isomers have been isolated and identified. The molecular weight and molecular formula are known for the remaining major components. The major metabolic degradation mechanisms for toxaphene in all organisms from bacteria to primates are now believed to the reductive dechlorination, reductive dehydrochlorination, and in some cases, oxidative dechlorination to produce hydroxyl derivatives, acids or ketones. Earlier reports that toxaphene was biodegradable were published before the advent of state-of-the-art analytical methodology which has permitted detection at levels in the range of ppb. Toxaphene residues have recently been documented throughout the biosphere as well as in human milk, even though its use was banned in 1982. This global persistence is against previous beliefs that toxaphene was easily biodegradable. During the last decade advances have been achieved in the selectivity, accuracy, and sensitivity of detection techniques so that the presence of toxaphene throughout the biosphere has been extensively documented. Through the use of GC/MS and electron capture GC, toxaphene can now be detected at ppb levels, making possible a more consistent and accurate assessment of the compound's presence in organisms as well as in soil, water, and ground water. Toxaphene residues have been detected in human populations, fish and wildlife, soil, water, and ground water as well as in food. An FDA Food Survey study found residues of toxaphene exceeding regulatory limits in only 1% of the 14,492 food samples. Toxaphene was reported to be among the most frequently occurring residues found in total dietary foods for the period 1982-84. It was found 48 times based on two food consumption surveys, a level higher than the frequency of DDT, DCPA, pentachloroaniline, and methoxychlor. Toxaphene has been detected in two large, pooled samples of human milk collected from mothers living in Uppsala and Stockholm at a concentration

  17. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D.

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  18. Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory - a novel approach to undergraduate internships for first generation community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, C. L.; Davis, H. B.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory at UC Berkeley launched an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program in the summer of 2015. The "Advancing Space Sciences through Undergraduate Research Experiences" (ASSURE) program recruited heavily from local community colleges and universities, and provided a multi-tiered mentorship program for students in the fields of space science and engineering. The program was focussed on providing a supportive environment for 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates, many of whom were first generation and underrepresented students. This model provides three levels of mentorship support for the participating interns: 1) the primary research advisor provides academic and professional support. 2) The program coordinator, who meets with the interns multiple times per week, provides personal support and helps the interns to assimilate into the highly competitive environment of the research laboratory. 3) Returning undergraduate interns provided peer support and guidance to the new cohort of students. The impacts of this program on the first generation students and the research mentors, as well as the lessons learned will be discussed.

  19. Tackling diversity challenges in Geoscience with the "Advancing Space Science Undergraduate Research Experience" (ASSURE) program at UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raftery, C. L.; Paglierani, R.; Shackelford, R. L., III; Peticolas, L. M.; Frappier, R.; Mendez, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL) has a long history of undergraduates working within the various research groups that range from theoretical astrophysics through to mechanical engineering. This year, we have established for the first time, a formal summer program for the undergraduate students, focusing on students traditionally underserved in Geosciences. This program, called the Advancing Space Science through Undergraduate Research Experiences program brings best-practiced methods to the development of a cohort, academic achievement, and research methodologies to the summer interns, with emphasis on the needs of underrepresented students who have not been exposed to a research environment before. In addition, specific care was given when recruiting for the program. Community College students recommend to us by faculty partners within the Colleges were recruited in order to provide them with hands on experience in a laboratory setting that they would not otherwise have had. In addition, we selected a number of pre- and in-service teachers from the STEM Teacher and Researcher Program (STAR) program. The combination of these two demographics of students has provided a unique and supportive environment for all involved.

  20. Potential impact of the VITEK 2 system and the Advanced Expert System on the clinical laboratory of a university-based hospital.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C C; Peyret, M; Moland, E S; Cavalieri, S J; Shubert, C; Thomson, K S; Boeufgras, J M; Sanders, W E

    2001-07-01

    A study was designed to assess the impact of the VITEK 2 automated system and the Advanced Expert System (AES) on the clinical laboratory of a typical university-based hospital. A total of 259 consecutive, nonduplicate isolates of Enterobacteriaceae members, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected and tested by the VITEK 2 system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the results were analyzed by the AES. The results were also analyzed by a human expert and compared to the AES analyses. Among the 259 isolates included in this study, 245 (94.6%) were definitively identified by VITEK 2, requiring little input from laboratory staff. For 194 (74.9%) isolates, no inconsistencies between the identification of the strain and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined by VITEK 2 were detected by the AES. Thus, no input from laboratory staff was required for these strains. The AES suggested one or more corrections to results obtained with 65 strains to remove inconsistencies. The human expert thought that most of these corrections were appropriate and that some resulted from a failure of the VITEK 2 system to detect certain forms of resistance. Antimicrobial phenotypes assigned to the strains by the AES for beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, and glycopeptides were similar to those assigned by the human expert for 95.7 to 100% of strains. These results indicate that the VITEK 2 system and AES can provide accurate information in tests for most of the clinical isolates examined and remove the need for human analysis of results for many. Certain problems were identified in the study that should be remediable with further work on the software supporting the AES. PMID:11427542

  1. Preliminary Results of an On-Line, Multi-Spectrometer Fission Product Monitoring System to Support Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Testing and Qualification in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn M. Scates; John K. Hartwell; John B. Walter; Mark W. Drigert

    2007-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Reactor -1 (AGR-1) experiment is the first experiment in a series of eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments scheduled for placement in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The experiment began irradiation in the ATR with a cycle that reached full power on December 26, 2006 and will continue irradiation for about 2.5 years. During this time six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The goals of the irradiation experiment is to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. This paper presents the preliminary test details of the fuel performance, as measured by the control and acquisition software.

  2. Understanding Titan's Atmospheric Isotope Inventory through Laboratory Photolysis Experiments using Vacuum Ultraviolet Photons from Advanced Light Source Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.

    2015-12-01

    Titan, Saturn's planet-like moon with a thick atmosphere consists mainly of N2 (98.4 %) and CH4 (1.4%). It is debated whether the N2 is primordial, or the NH3, which later converted to N2 by physic-chemical processes and, if NH3 is primordial, what is the source of that material: Saturnian-subnebula or the comets? N2 is enriched in 15N (14N/15N = 160 compared to 272 for Earth) and in geochemical terminology, d15Nair = 700 ‰ (parts per thousand with respect to ambient air). On the same scale the solar wind and Jupiter's atmosphere are ~ -400 ‰ (depleted in 15N). The comets (NH3 and HCN) and insoluble organic matter in meteorites are also enriched in 15N in the range up to a few thousand ‰. On the contrary, the carbon isotopic ratio in CH4 in Titan is similar to the other solar system bodies (12C/13C~ 89). We have performed extensive low temperature (80 K) photodissociation of N2 and CO (in presence of H2) at VUV wavelengths to measure the isotopic fractionation in the products. The integrated instantaneous fractionation in the product NH3 is about 1000 ‰ over the N2 dissociation regime (80-100 nm), which arise due to quantum mechanical selection rules. CO2 and CH4, the products of CO photodissociation, show contradictory results for two elements. While product O (trapped in CO2) is enriched by few thousand ‰, there is no significant C isotopic enrichment in CH4. These laboratory measurements along with the measurements by Cassini-Huygens spacecraft constrain the origin of volatiles in Titan's atmosphere and indicate that Titan accreted comet-like NH3 and CH4, which are the 1st generation photolysis products (of the remaining materials after the formation of gas giants) in the solar nebula. Later, NH3 converted to N2 in a bulk fashion (within Titan) and retained mostly identical isotopic composition. 15N enrichment measured in HCN in the present day atmosphere (d15Nair > 1500 ‰), is possibly from the 2nd generation N2 photolysis in Titan's modern

  3. Effectiveness of UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the remediation of hydrocarbon pollution in the groundwater: a laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Mascolo, Giuseppe; Ciannarella, Ruggero; Balest, Lydia; Lopez, Antonio

    2008-04-15

    The effectiveness of advanced oxidation processes in a batch and a flow reactor was investigated for the remediation of hydrocarbon pollution in the groundwater underlying a petrochemical industrial site. The main organic contaminants present in the groundwater were MTBE, benzene, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes. Experimental results with a batch reactor showed that for all the organic contaminants the removal efficiency order is UV/TiO2 approximately UV/H2O2>UV (medium-pressure) in a synthetic aqueous solution, compared to UV/H2O2>UV (medium-pressure)>UV/TiO2 for the real polluted groundwater. The much lower performance of UV/TiO2 with respect to UV/H2O2 was inferred to the matrix of the groundwater, i.e. the salt content, as well as the organic and particulate matter. In fact, it is likely that the salts and dissolved organic matter quench the superoxide anion O2(-) and hydroxyl radicals just formed at the surface of the TiO2 catalyst. MTBE was the hardest compound to remove with each of the investigated treatments. UV and UV/TiO2 treatments were not able to reach a residual concentration of 10 microg/L (set by Italian legislation) even after 180 min. As for the UV/H2O2 process, only the MTBE degradation rate resulted affected by the initial H2O2 concentration, while for other compounds a complete removal was obtained within 20 min even with the lowest H2O2 concentration used (0.13 g/L). Only after 120 min of treatment, with an initial H2O2 concentration of 0.13 g/L, did the residual MTBE concentration fall below the above reported maximum admissible concentration. Instead, by using an initial concentration of 2g/L a residual concentration lower than 5 microg/L was obtained after just 30 min of reaction. The UV/H2O2 process was also investigated with a flow reactor. Results showed that it was more efficient than the batch reactor for removing MTBE, in terms of reaction time and initial H2O2 concentration required. This is consistent with the higher power of

  4. Stereospecificity of NAD+/NADH Reactions: A Project Experiment for Advanced Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrey, Jonathan S.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents background information, materials needed, and experimental procedures to study enzymes dependent on pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (NAD/NADH). The experiments, suitable for advanced organic or biochemistry courses, require approximately 10-15 hours to complete. (SK)

  5. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 140 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. Borehole USGS 141 was drilled and constructed as a monitor well without coring. Boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 are separated by about 375 feet (ft) and have similar geologic layers and hydrologic characteristics based on geophysical and aquifer test data collected. The final construction for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 required 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel well screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed about 50 ft into the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, between 496 and 546 ft below land surface (BLS) at both sites. Following construction and data collection, dedicated pumps and water-level access lines were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Borehole USGS 140 was cored continuously, starting from land surface to a depth of 543 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole USGS 140 was about 98 and 65 percent, respectively. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, about 32 basalt flows and 4 sediment layers were collected from borehole USGS 140 between 34 and 543 ft BLS. Basalt texture for borehole USGS 140 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic; rubble zones and flow mold structure also were described in recovered core material. Sediment layers, starting near 163 ft BLS, generally were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay; however, between 223 and 228 ft BLS, silt

  6. Hematological and Biochemistry Profile and Risk Factors Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Rajini; Flemming, Keon; Daniram, Sudish; Marks-James, Shenika; Roberts Martin, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the hematological and biochemistry profile of patients with or without HIV-TB at the Georgetown Chest Clinic, Guyana. Methods. An observational, laboratory based study was designed to assess the relationship of PTB and HIV with patients routine biochemical and hematological values. The study was conducted during the period January 2013 to December 2014; a total sample size of 316 patients was enrolled following exclusion and inclusion criteria. Results. Mean age of study population was 40.1 ± 13.8 (95% CI 38.6-41.7) and most were between 40 and 49 age group (27.8%, 95% CI 23.2-33.0). More males were in the study 74.4% (95% CI 69.3-78.8) than females 81% (95% CI 21.1-30.7). 30% (95% CI 25.3-35.3) had a sputum smear grade of 3+ and 62.5% (95% CI 47.0-75.7) showed a CD4 count <200. The study demonstrated significantly low hemoglobin (Hb) 91.7% (95% CI 78.2-97.1), low WBC 27.8% (95% CI 15.8-44.0), high indirect bilirubin 7.4% (95% CI 2.1-23.3), ALT 41.8% (95% CI 28.4-56.7), and AST 72.2% (95% CI 57.3-83.3) among TB-HIV patients. Homelessness RR (relative risk) 2.2 (95% CI 0.48-12.3), smoking RR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.19), and gender (male) RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.61-2.26) were main associated risk factors. Conclusions. There is slight variation among PTB and PTB-HIV coinfected patients in some hematological and biochemistry parameters. PMID:27190646

  7. The concept lens diagram: a new mechanism for presenting biochemistry content in terms of "big ideas".

    PubMed

    Rowland, Susan L; Smith, Christopher A; Gillam, Elizabeth M A; Wright, Tony

    2011-07-01

    A strong, recent movement in tertiary education is the development of conceptual, or "big idea" teaching. The emphasis in course design is now on promoting key understandings, core competencies, and an understanding of connections between different fields. In biochemistry teaching, this radical shift from the content-based tradition is being driven by the "omics" information explosion; we can no longer teach all the information we have available. Biochemistry is a core, enabling discipline for much of modern scientific research, and biochemistry teaching is in urgent need of a method for delivery of conceptual frameworks. In this project, we aimed to define the key concepts in biochemistry. We find that the key concepts we defined map well onto the core science concepts recommended by the Vision and Change project. We developed a new method to present biochemistry through the lenses of these concepts. This new method challenged the way we thought about biochemistry as teachers. It also stimulated the majority of the students to think more deeply about biochemistry and to make links between biochemistry and material in other courses. This method is applicable to the full spectrum of content usually taught in biochemistry.

  8. [Biochemistry, molecular mechanism of action and biological effects of endotoxin].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, H; Breyer, S

    1995-01-01

    This review is a brief attempt at providing an overview of a subject of enormous complexity-endotoxins and the mediators associated with its biological effects. More specifically it deals with biochemistry and biology of endotoxin, detection of endotoxin with the Limulus amebocyte lysate test, the molecular mechanisms and biological effects, and in the last part with future aspects of therapeutical strategies. It seems certain that the subject will become even more complex and possibly controversial as scientific knowledge further involves. However, because of the high mortality rate of patients suffering from gram-negative sepsis all efforts have to be made to find effective therapeutical strategies.

  9. Design and Performance Characteristics of the ORNL AdvancedMicroscopy Laboratory and JEOL 2200FS-AC Aberration-CorrectedSTEM/TEM

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; O'Keefe, Michael A.; Mishina, S.

    2005-02-15

    At ORNL, the new Advanced Microscopy Laboratory (AML) has recently been completed, with two aberration-corrected instruments installed, and two more planned in the near future to fill the 4-laboratory building. The installed JEOL 2200FS-AC has demonstrated aTEM information limit of 0.9A. This limit is expected given the measured instrument parameters (HT and OL power supply stabilities, beam energy spread, etc.), and illustrates that the environmental influences are not adversely affecting the instrument performance. In STEM high-angle annular dark-field (HA-ADF) mode, images of a thin Si crystal in<110>zone axis orientation, after primary aberrations in the illuminating beam were optimally corrected, showed a significant vibration effect. The microscope is fitted with three magnetically levitated turbo pumps (one on the column at about the specimen position,and two near floor level) that pump the Omega energy filter and detector chamber. These pumps run at 48,000 rpm, precisely equivalent to 800Hz. It was determined that the upper turbo pump was contributing essentially all of the 800Hz signal to the image, and in fact that the pump was defective. After replacing the pump with one significantly quieter than the original, the Si atomic column image and associated diffractogram(Fig. 4b) show a much-reduced effect of the 800Hz signal, but still some residual effect from the turbo pump. The upper pump will be removed from the main column to an adjacent frame on the floor, and will have a large-diameter, well-damped, pump line to the original connection to the column to effectively isolate the pump from the column. If the 800Hz signal results from mechanical vibrations, they will be damped, and if the signal results from acoustic coupling to the column, it can be damped by appropriate acoustic materials.

  10. Workable male sterility systems for hybrid rice: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Zhong; E, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Hua-Li; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-12-01

    The exploitation of male sterility systems has enabled the commercialization of heterosis in rice, with greatly increased yield and total production of this major staple food crop. Hybrid rice, which was adopted in the 1970s, now covers nearly 13.6 million hectares each year in China alone. Various types of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) systems have been applied in hybrid rice production. In this paper, recent advances in genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology are reviewed with an emphasis on major male sterility systems in rice: five CMS systems, i.e., BT-, HL-, WA-, LD- and CW- CMS, and two EGMS systems, i.e., photoperiod- and temperature-sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS). The interaction of chimeric mitochondrial genes with nuclear genes causes CMS, which may be restored by restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. The PGMS, on the other hand, is conditioned by a non-coding RNA gene. A survey of the various CMS and EGMS lines used in hybrid rice production over the past three decades shows that the two-line system utilizing EGMS lines is playing a steadily larger role and TGMS lines predominate the current two-line system for hybrid rice production. The findings and experience gained during development and application of, and research on male sterility in rice not only advanced our understanding but also shed light on applications to other crops.

  11. The Biochemistry and Epigenetics of Epilepsy: Focus on Adenosine and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy, one of the most prevalent neurological conditions, presents as a complex disorder of network homeostasis characterized by spontaneous non-provoked seizures and associated comorbidities. Currently used antiepileptic drugs have been designed to suppress neuronal hyperexcitability and thereby to suppress epileptic seizures. However, the current armamentarium of antiepileptic drugs is not effective in over 30% of patients, does not affect the comorbidities of epilepsy, and does not prevent the development and progression of epilepsy (epileptogenesis). Prevention of epilepsy and its progression remains the Holy Grail for epilepsy research and therapy development, requiring novel conceptual advances to find a solution to this urgent medical need. The methylation hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that changes in DNA methylation are implicated in the progression of the disease. In particular, global DNA hypermethylation appears to be associated with chronic epilepsy. Clinical as well as experimental evidence demonstrates that epilepsy and its progression can be prevented by biochemical manipulations and those that target previously unrecognized epigenetic functions contributing to epilepsy development and maintenance of the epileptic state. This mini-review will discuss, epigenetic mechanisms implicated in epileptogenesis and biochemical interactions between adenosine and glycine as a conceptual advance to understand the contribution of maladaptive changes in biochemistry as a major contributing factor to the development of epilepsy. New findings based on biochemical manipulation of the DNA methylome suggest that: (i) epigenetic mechanisms play a functional role in epileptogenesis; and (ii) therapeutic reconstruction of the epigenome is an effective antiepileptogenic therapy. PMID:27147960

  12. Tracking individual membrane proteins and their biochemistry: The power of direct observation.

    PubMed

    Barden, Adam O; Goler, Adam S; Humphreys, Sara C; Tabatabaei, Samaneh; Lochner, Martin; Ruepp, Marc-David; Jack, Thomas; Simonin, Jonathan; Thompson, Andrew J; Jones, Jeffrey P; Brozik, James A

    2015-11-01

    The advent of single molecule fluorescence microscopy has allowed experimental molecular biophysics and biochemistry to transcend traditional ensemble measurements, where the behavior of individual proteins could not be precisely sampled. The recent explosion in popularity of new super-resolution and super-localization techniques coupled with technical advances in optical designs and fast highly sensitive cameras with single photon sensitivity and millisecond time resolution have made it possible to track key motions, reactions, and interactions of individual proteins with high temporal resolution and spatial resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. Within the purview of membrane proteins and ligand gated ion channels (LGICs), these outstanding advances in single molecule microscopy allow for the direct observation of discrete biochemical states and their fluctuation dynamics. Such observations are fundamentally important for understanding molecular-level mechanisms governing these systems. Examples reviewed here include the effects of allostery on the stoichiometry of ligand binding in the presence of fluorescent ligands; the observation of subdomain partitioning of membrane proteins due to microenvironment effects; and the use of single particle tracking experiments to elucidate characteristics of membrane protein diffusion and the direct measurement of thermodynamic properties, which govern the free energy landscape of protein dimerization. The review of such characteristic topics represents a snapshot of efforts to push the boundaries of fluorescence microscopy of membrane proteins to the absolute limit. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'.

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura

    2015-07-19

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1 : ASC software quality engineering practices version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Minana, Molly A.; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in DOE/AL Quality Criteria (QC-1) as conformance to customer requirements and expectations. This quality plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirements (CPR 1.3.2 and CPR 1.3.6) and the Department of Energy (DOE) document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines (GP&G). This quality plan identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities for cost-effective software engineering quality practices. The SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitment to improving software products by applying cost-effective software engineering quality practices. This document explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices; enumerates the practices that compose the development of SNL ASC's software products; and includes a sample assessment checklist that was developed based upon the practices in this document.

  15. The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the scientific advancement of women in the early 20th century: the example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).

    PubMed

    Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist.

  16. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  17. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  18. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  19. Rasburicase in the prevention of laboratory/clinical tumour lysis syndrome in children with advanced mature B-NHL: A Children’s Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Galardy, Paul; Hochberg, Jessica; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Harrison, Lauren; Goldman, Stanton; Cairo, Mitchell S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Laboratory (LTLS) and clinical (CTLS) tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) are frequent complications in newly diagnosed children with advanced mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Rasburicase, compared to allopurinol, results in more rapid reduction of uric acid in paediatric patients at risk for TLS. However, the safety and efficacy of rasburicase for the treatment or or prevention of TLS has not been prospectively evaluated. Children with newly diagnosed stage III–IV, bone marrow+ and/or central nervous system+ mature B-NHL received hydration and rasburicase prior to cytoreductive therapy. Rasburicase was safe and well-tolerated and there were no grade III–IV toxicities probably or directly related to rasburicase. Patients with an initial lactate dehydrogenase ≥2x upper limit of normal had a significantly elevated uric acid level (P=0.005), increased incidence of TLS (p-0.005) and lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR; p<0.001). Following rasburicase, there was only a 9% and 5% incidence of LTLS and CTLS, respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in estimated GFR from Day 0 to Day 7 following rasburicase (p=0.0007) and only 1.3% of patients required new onset renal assisted support after rasburicase administration. A TLS strategy incorporating rasburicase prior to cytoreductive chemotherapy proved safe and effective in preventing new onset renal failure and was associated with a significant improvement in GFR. PMID:24032600

  20. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  1. Biochemical Pathways: An Atlas of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (edited by Gerhard Michal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voige, Reviewed By William H.

    2000-02-01

    For decades, a wall chart detailing living organisms' metabolic pathways has been a fixture in many classrooms and laboratories where biochemistry is taught. One of the most popular of those charts first appeared 30 years ago. Now its editor, Gerhard Michal, has produced a book that summarizes metabolism (broadly defined) in graphical and textual formats. The book retains the elegance of the chart. Names of molecules are printed in a crisp, easy-to-read font, and structural formulas are shown with exemplary clarity. Color coding serves multiple purposes: to differentiate enzymes, substrates, cofactors, and effector molecules; to indicate in which group or groups of organisms a reaction has been observed; and to distinguish enzymatic reactions from regulatory effects. The primary advantage of presenting this information in book format is immediately apparent. A typical metabolic chart covers about 2 m2; the book has a total surface area nearly 10 times greater. The extra space is used to add explanatory text to the figures and to include many topics not covered by the traditional definition of metabolism. Examples include replication, transcription, translation, reaction mechanisms for proteolytic enzymes, and the role of chaperones in protein folding. Illustrating these topics is not as straightforward as delineating a metabolic pathway, but the author has done an admirable job of designing figures that clarify these and other aspects of biochemistry and complement the accompanying text. A potential deficiency of book format is the inability to clearly show links between different realms of metabolism: carbohydrate and amino acid pathways, for example. The book overcomes this problem in two ways. A diagrammatic overview of metabolism (with references to applicable sections of the book) is printed inside its front cover, and key compounds (pyruvate, for example) have a distinctive green background to provide a visual link between pathways. (The author compares this

  2. Ethanol Metabolism and the Transition from Organic Chemistry to Biochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinman, Richard D.

    2001-09-01

    To ease the transition from organic chemistry at the beginning of a biochemistry course or at the beginning of the metabolism section of the organic course, an early presentation of the oxidation of ethanol is proposed. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions can smooth the introduction to biochemistry, since they involve three of the simplest compounds: ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Using these reactions as a model encourages the study of metabolic pathways by a systematic approach rather than by rote memorization. Reactions that can be presented as variations on a theme include methanol poisoning, the polyol reaction, and, most important, the sequence glycerol-3-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. This last sequence integrates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and, by comparison with the model reaction, brings out the principles of substrate-level phosphorylation. The method has evoked favorable verbal feedback from students and, in addition to medical and graduate courses, has been successfully used in the biochemical section of an undergraduate organic course.

  3. A national comparison of biochemistry and molecular biology capstone experiences.

    PubMed

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end, ASBMB conducted a series of regional workshops to build a BMB Concept Inventory containing validated assessment tools, based on foundational and discipline-specific knowledge and essential skills, for the community to use. A culminating activity, which integrates the educational experience, is often part of undergraduate molecular life science programs. These "capstone" experiences are commonly defined as an attempt to measure student ability to synthesize and integrate acquired knowledge. However, the format, implementation, and approach to outcome assessment of these experiences are quite varied across the nation. Here we report the results of a nation-wide survey on BMB capstone experiences and discuss this in the context of published reports about capstones and the findings of the workshops driving the development of the BMB Concept Inventory. Both the survey results and the published reports reveal that, although capstone practices do vary, certain formats for the experience are used more frequently and similarities in learning objectives were identified. The use of rubrics to measure student learning is also regularly reported, but details about these assessment instruments are sparse in the literature and were not a focus of our survey. Finally, we outline commonalities in the current practice of capstones and suggest the next steps needed to elucidate best practices.

  4. The Use of Case Studies in an Undergraduate Biochemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornely, Kathleen

    1998-04-01

    Most college biochemistry courses are taught in a format in which the professor lectures and the student memorizes. Although this is the best method for conveying large amounts of material, it puts the student in the position of passive learner. The lecture-based format has not been abandoned, but has been supplemented with case study projects assigned to the students upon completion of the intermediary metabolism unit. The case study assignment is modeled on similar exercises carried out in medical school biochemistry courses in the US and around the world. A description of the assignment follows: a group of 4-5 students is given a case study which gives the medical history of a patient with an inherited metabolic disease. The group is asked to provide biochemical explanations for the patient's symptoms and to suggest an effective course of treatment. The evaluation consists of a short paper that the students write as a group. The assignment provides the opportunity for small group interaction within a larger class and emphasizes cooperative-collaborative learning. Students learn by researching the topic on their own and debating it in small group discussions, and in so doing, gain a sense of confidence in themselves and the material they have learned over the course of the semester. Solving a "real-life" problem helps develop analytical and higher-order thinking skills and allows the students to see how biochemical concepts they have learned apply to a clinical situation.

  5. Biochemistry Instructors' Views toward Developing and Assessing Visual Literacy in Their Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors are inundated with various representations from which to choose to depict biochemical phenomena. Because of the immense amount of visual know-how needed to be an expert biochemist in the 21st century, there have been calls for instructors to develop biochemistry students' visual literacy. However, visual literacy has…

  6. Biochemistry Students' Ideas about How an Enzyme Interacts with a Substrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-substrate interactions are a fundamental concept of biochemistry that is built upon throughout multiple biochemistry courses. Central to understanding enzyme-substrate interactions is specific knowledge of exactly how an enzyme and substrate interact. Within this narrower topic, students must understand the various binding sites on an…

  7. Case Study of How Turkish University Students Improve Their Biochemistry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry courses have an important place as a common subject in faculties of medicine, food engineering, biology and chemistry. MSLQ, Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and Learning Approach Questionnaire were used. The study also involves repeated observations of the same instructor in a biochemistry class over eight weeks to describe…

  8. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Analogy Use in College-Level Biochemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, MaryKay; Bodner, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Science instructors and textbook authors often use analogies to help their students use information they already understand to develop an understanding of new concepts. This study reports the results of an analysis of the use of analogies in eight biochemistry textbooks, which included textbooks written for one-semester survey biochemistry courses…

  9. Teaching Arrangements of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Biochemistry Curriculum in Peking University Health Science Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hao; Ni, Ju-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry occupies a unique place in the medical school curricula, but the teaching of biochemistry presents certain challenges. One of these challenges is facilitating students' interest in and mastery of metabolism. The many pathways and modes of regulation can be overwhelming for students to learn and difficult for professors to teach…

  10. Teaching Structure: Student Use of Software Tools for Understanding Macromolecular Structure in an Undergraduate Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaswal, Sheila S.; O'Hara, Patricia B.; Williamson, Patrick L.; Springer, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Because understanding the structure of biological macromolecules is critical to understanding their function, students of biochemistry should become familiar not only with viewing, but also with generating and manipulating structural representations. We report a strategy from a one-semester undergraduate biochemistry course to integrate use of…

  11. Suitable Class Experiments in Biochemistry for High-school Chemistry and Biology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, A.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the scope of experimental investigations for biochemistry education in high school biology and chemistry courses. Gives a brief overview of biochemistry experiments with proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins, metabolism, electron transport, and photosynthesis including materials, procedures, and outcomes.…

  12. Reactivity II: A Second Foundation-Level Course in Integrated Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; McIntee, Edward J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Johnson, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    A foundation-level course is described that integrates material related to reactivity in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry. Designed for second-year students, the course serves majors in chemistry, biochemistry, and biology, as well as prehealth-professions students. Building on an earlier course that developed concepts of nucleophiles and…

  13. The Use of Contextual Learning to Teach Biochemistry to Dietetic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, J. O.; Van Damme, M. -P.; Walker, K. Z.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of contextualized and "blended" learning to teach biochemistry to dietetic students during the second year of their professional training in a 4-year undergraduate degree (Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics). Contextualized content was used to engage students and motivate them to learn biochemistry, which many…

  14. What Are the Appropriate Curriculum Contents for Biochemistry Courses in Veterinary Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia, A. A. D.; Correia, J. H. R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of the important items that the author's suggest should be included in a biochemistry course given to students in veterinary medicine. Presents a broad range of specific topics in biochemistry and strategies for covering as many topics as possible in one course. (LZ)

  15. Mammalian opiate alkaloid synthesis: lessons derived from plant biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Meijerink, W J; Molina, P E; Abumrad, N N

    1999-09-01

    The presence of opiate receptors in mammalian tissues has stimulated the search for endogenous ligands to these receptors and has led to the discovery and characterization of endogenous opioid peptides. However, recent studies have provided evidence for the presence of opiate alkaloids in mammalian tissues and for their endogenous synthesis. The study of their origin and synthetic pathway has been significantly influenced by the early classical biochemical studies performed in plants. This review is a historical account of the use and abuse of opiates, the elucidation of morphine's synthetic pathway in the poppy plant, and the subsequent characterization of its presence in mammalian tissues. Clearly, our understanding of its synthetic pathway and regulation is a reflection of observations originally made in plant biochemistry.

  16. Hallmarks of a new era in mitochondrial biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, David J.; Rutter, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Stemming from the pioneering studies of bioenergetics in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, mitochondria have become ingrained in the collective psyche of scientists as the “powerhouses” of the cell. While this remains a worthy moniker, more recent efforts have revealed that these organelles are home to a vast array of metabolic and signaling processes and possess a proteomic landscape that is both highly varied and largely uncharted. As mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly being implicated in a spectrum of human diseases, it is imperative that we construct a more complete framework of these organelles by systematically defining the functions of their component parts. Powerful new approaches in biochemistry and systems biology are helping to fill in the gaps. PMID:24352419

  17. Whither life? Conjectures on the future evolution of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Jodi L; Finn, Thomas J; Ramirez, Miguel A; Patrick, Wayne M

    2016-08-01

    Life has existed on the Earth for approximately four billion years. The sheer depth of evolutionary time, and the diversity of extant species, makes it tempting to assume that all the key biochemical innovations underpinning life have already happened. But we are only a little over halfway through the trajectory of life on our planet. In this Opinion piece, we argue: (i) that sufficient time remains for the evolution of new processes at the heart of metabolic biochemistry and (ii) that synthetic biology is providing predictive insights into the nature of these innovations. By way of example, we focus on engineered solutions to existing inefficiencies in energy generation, and on the complex, synthetic regulatory circuits that are currently being implemented. PMID:27555646

  18. Whither life? Conjectures on the future evolution of biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Jodi L.; Finn, Thomas J.; Ramirez, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Life has existed on the Earth for approximately four billion years. The sheer depth of evolutionary time, and the diversity of extant species, makes it tempting to assume that all the key biochemical innovations underpinning life have already happened. But we are only a little over halfway through the trajectory of life on our planet. In this Opinion piece, we argue: (i) that sufficient time remains for the evolution of new processes at the heart of metabolic biochemistry and (ii) that synthetic biology is providing predictive insights into the nature of these innovations. By way of example, we focus on engineered solutions to existing inefficiencies in energy generation, and on the complex, synthetic regulatory circuits that are currently being implemented. PMID:27555646

  19. Modelling Rho GTPase biochemistry to predict collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Brian; Feng, James

    The collective migration of cells, due to individual cell polarization and intercellular contact inhibition of locomotion, features prominently in embryogenesis and metastatic cancers. Existing methods for modelling collectively migrating cells tend to rely either on highly abstracted agent-based models, or on continuum approximations of the group. Both of these frameworks represent intercellular interactions such as contact inhibition of locomotion as hard-coded rules defining model cells. In contrast, we present a vertex-dynamics framework which predicts polarization and contact inhibition of locomotion naturally from an underlying model of Rho GTPase biochemistry and cortical mechanics. We simulate the interaction between many such model cells, and study how modulating Rho GTPases affects migratory characteristics of the group, in the context of long-distance collective migration of neural crest cells during embryogenesis.

  20. Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress-the production and accumulation of reduced oxygen intermediates such as superoxide radicals, singlet oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals-can damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. Many disease processes of clinical interest and the aging process involve oxidative stress in their underlying etiology. The production of reactive oxygen species is also prevalent in the world's oceans, and oxidative stress is an important component of the stress response in marine organisms exposed to a variety of insults as a result of changes in environmental conditions such as thermal stress, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, or exposure to pollution. As in the clinical setting, reactive oxygen species are also important signal transduction molecules and mediators of damage in cellular processes, such as apoptosis and cell necrosis, for marine organisms. This review brings together the voluminous literature on the biochemistry and physiology of oxidative stress from the clinical and plant physiology disciplines with the fast-increasing interest in oxidative stress in marine environments.

  1. Audio podcasting in a tablet PC-enhanced biochemistry course.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R

    2007-11-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals of this approach are described, and data from student attitudinal and informational surveys are presented. The survey data suggest that the students have a positive attitude toward the combination of tablet-based instruction and audio podcasting. In addition, three students provide testimonials on how these technological tools allowed them to utilize their preferred learning styles to succeed in the course. Possible negative consequences of this approach, in terms of class attendance and note taking, are also analyzed and discussed.

  2. The experimental teaching reform in biochemistry and molecular biology for undergraduate students in Peking University Health Science Center.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohan; Sun, Luyang; Zhao, Ying; Yi, Xia; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Pu; Lin, Hong; Ni, Juhua

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, second-year undergraduate students of an eight-year training program leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree or Doctor of Philosophy degree in Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) have been required to enter the "Innovative talent training project." During that time, the students joined a research lab and participated in some original research work. There is a critical educational need to prepare these students for the increasing accessibility of research experience. The redesigned experimental curriculum of biochemistry and molecular biology was developed to fulfill such a requirement, which keeps two original biochemistry experiments (Gel filtration and Enzyme kinetics) and adds a new two-experiment component called "Analysis of anti-tumor drug induced apoptosis." The additional component, also known as the "project-oriented experiment" or the "comprehensive experiment," consists of Western blotting and a DNA laddering assay to assess the effects of etoposide (VP16) on the apoptosis signaling pathways. This reformed laboratory teaching system aims to enhance the participating students overall understanding of important biological research techniques and the instrumentation involved, and to foster a better understanding of the research process all within a classroom setting. Student feedback indicated that the updated curriculum helped them improve their operational and self-learning capability, and helped to increase their understanding of theoretical knowledge and actual research processes, which laid the groundwork for their future research work.

  3. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zoltán; Beregi, Attila; Vajdovich, Péter; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Mátrai, Eszter; Pazár, Péter; Gaál, Tibor

    2010-03-01

    Hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters of the white stork (Ciconia ciconia) were studied. Blood samples were taken from a total of 80 adult white storks kept in captivity in Hungarian zoos and bird repatriation stations, between 2002 and 2006. Hematologic (packed cell volume, 46.3% +/- 5.3%; hemoglobin concentration, 127.8 +/- 20.4 g/L; red blood cell counts, 2.28 +/- 0.35 10(12)/l/l; white blood cell counts, 21.6 +/- 4.2 10(9)/l/ l; heterophils, 61.0% +/- 9.8% [13.1 +/- 3.2 x 10(9)/L]; lymphocytes, 34.3% +/- 9.1% [7.4 +/- 2.5 x 10(9)/L]; monocytes, 3.44% +/- 2.3% [0.78 +/- 0.57 x 10(9)/L]; eosinophils 0.75% +/- 0.91% [0.16 +/- 0.21 x 10(9)/L]; basophils 0.38% +/- 0.56% [0.04 +/- 0.07 x 10(9)/L]) and plasma biochemistry values (aspartate aminotransferase, 267.5 +/- 145.8 U/L; L-gamma-glutamyltransferase, 47.6 +/- 49.3 U/L; lipase, 70.3 +/- 60.6 U/L; creatine kinase, 443.9 +/- 182.2 U/L; lactate dehydrogenase, 880.4 +/- 293.6 U/L; alkaline phosphatase, 177.5 +/- 116.6 U/L; amylase, 917.6 +/- 314.3 U/L; glutamate dehydrogenase, 7.3 +/- 4.0 U/L; total protein, 45.2 +/- 8.1 g/L; uric acid, 459.2 +/- 254.3 micromol/L; and bile acids, 46.3 +/- 20.5 micromol/L) were determined. The results obtained can be used as reference values, because there are no established values previously reported for adult white storks.

  4. Commentary: Why Abandoning Undergraduate Laboratories Is Not an Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Manuel Joao

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory exercises (labs) are sometimes regarded as dispensable in biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) education for various reasons including a combination of increased class costs and small budget allocations, pressing demands for more time to lecture to fit in new BMB discoveries within constant time span of courses, and the fact that…

  5. Development of a Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Laboratory Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Patrick D.; Hartberg, Yasha

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory curriculum has been designed for an undergraduate biochemistry course that focuses on the investigation of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). The sequence of procedures extends from analysis of the DNA sequence through PCR amplification, recombinant plasmid DNA synthesis, bacterial transformation, expression, isolation, and…

  6. Seeding the Physical and Analytical Laboratory Curriculum with Interdisciplinary Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutt-Robey, Janice; Blough, Neil; Rebbert, Richard

    1999-02-01

    For the past five years, the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Maryland at College Park has worked to modernize all facets of the undergraduate laboratory experience. Students in the first-year biochemistry laboratory now utilize modern techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology to isolate and characterize the bacterial enzyme alkaline phosphatase. Organic chemistry laboratories are now conducted exclusively with microware. New laboratory-intensive introductory chemistry courses have been developed for out chemistry majors. This Highlight describes innovations in three upper-division laboratories, Physical Chemistry Laboratories I and II and Instrumental Methods of Analysis. Beyond serving as an experimental practicum, an important goal of these laboratories is that students begin to gain an appreciation for the power of chemical measurements to probe the properties of more complex chemical systems. Since physical and analytical methods are increasingly applied to biochemical systems in research, in industrial processes, and in health and environmental regulation, it is appropriate to introduce experiments involving biochemical, environmental, and materials systems to these upper-division laboratories.

  7. Minimal impact of organic chemistry prerequisite on student performance in introductory biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robin; Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without the organic chemistry prerequisite. However, students who had not completed the organic chemistry prerequisite before biochemistry were more likely to withdraw from the course than those who had completed the prerequisite. In contrast to the lack of correlation between performance in biochemistry and completion of organic chemistry, we observed a strong, highly significant positive relationship between cumulative GPA and the biochemistry grade. Our data suggest that excluding students without organic chemistry would have less positive impact on student success in biochemistry than would providing additional support for all students who enroll in biochemistry with a cumulative GPA below 2.5.

  8. Minimal Impact of Organic Chemistry Prerequisite on Student Performance in Introductory Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cotner, Sehoya; Winkel, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum design assumes that successful completion of prerequisite courses will have a positive impact on student performance in courses that require the prerequisite. We recently had the opportunity to test this assumption concerning the relationship between completion of the organic chemistry prerequisite and performance in introductory biochemistry. We found no statistically significant differences between average biochemistry grades or grade distribution among students with or without the organic chemistry prerequisite. However, students who had not completed the organic chemistry prerequisite before biochemistry were more likely to withdraw from the course than those who had completed the prerequisite. In contrast to the lack of correlation between performance in biochemistry and completion of organic chemistry, we observed a strong, highly significant positive relationship between cumulative GPA and the biochemistry grade. Our data suggest that excluding students without organic chemistry would have less positive impact on student success in biochemistry than would providing additional support for all students who enroll in biochemistry with a cumulative GPA below 2.5. PMID:19255135

  9. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... use will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment and thus that a FONSI... human environment. For the closure of the sanitary lagoon, the licensee elected to use the Residual... environment. Nine monitoring wells were installed over time for radiochemical sampling purposes. Wells...

  10. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  11. Integrating Responsible Conduct of Research Education into Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Tamara L.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these…

  12. Strain, biochemistry, and cultivation-dependent measurement variability of algal biomass composition.

    PubMed

    Laurens, Lieve M L; Van Wychen, Stefanie; McAllister, Jordan P; Arrowsmith, Sarah; Dempster, Thomas A; McGowen, John; Pienkos, Philip T

    2014-05-01

    Accurate compositional analysis in biofuel feedstocks is imperative; the yields of individual components can define the economics of an entire process. In the nascent industry of algal biofuels and bioproducts, analytical methods that have been deemed acceptable for decades are suddenly critical for commercialization. We tackled the question of how the strain and biochemical makeup of algal cells affect chemical measurements. We selected a set of six procedures (two each for lipids, protein, and carbohydrates): three rapid fingerprinting methods and three advanced chromatography-based methods. All methods were used to measure the composition of 100 samples from three strains: Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella sp., and Nannochloropsis sp. The data presented point not only to species-specific discrepancies but also to cell biochemistry-related discrepancies. There are cases where two respective methods agree but the differences are often significant with over- or underestimation of up to 90%, likely due to chemical interferences with the rapid spectrophotometric measurements. We provide background on the chemistry of interfering reactions for the fingerprinting methods and conclude that for accurate compositional analysis of algae and process and mass balance closure, emphasis should be placed on unambiguous characterization using methods where individual components are measured independently. PMID:24556245

  13. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  14. Characterizing canopy biochemistry from imaging spectroscopy and its application to ecosystem studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Asner, G.P.; Ollinger, S.V.; Martin, M.E.; Wessman, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    For two decades, remotely sensed data from imaging spectrometers have been used to estimate non-pigment biochemical constituents of vegetation, including water, nitrogen, cellulose, and lignin. This interest has been motivated by the important role that these substances play in physiological processes such as photosynthesis, their relationships with ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient cycling, and their use in identifying key plant species and functional groups. This paper reviews three areas of research to improve the application of imaging spectrometers to quantify non-pigment biochemical constituents of plants. First, we examine recent empirical and modeling studies that have advanced our understanding of leaf and canopy reflectance spectra in relation to plant biochemistry. Next, we present recent examples of how spectroscopic remote sensing methods are applied to characterize vegetation canopies, communities and ecosystems. Third, we highlight the latest developments in using imaging spectrometer data to quantify net primary production (NPP) over large geographic areas. Finally, we discuss the major challenges in quantifying non-pigment biochemical constituents of plant canopies from remotely sensed spectra.

  15. Propaganda and Philanthropy: The Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral, the Lisbon Site of Biochemistry (1925-1953).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ana; Amaral, Isabel

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the internal organization and dynamics of the Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral (IRC) in Lisbon, a privately-funded institution devoted to biomedical research, from the particular vantage point of its laboratory of biochemistry; in particular, the process through which the institution turned from medically-related to chemically-related research in the period spanning from 1925 to 1953. The history of the IRC raises interesting questions regarding the social politics of science as it materialized the desire of leading physicians of the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon to create proper physical facilities for medically-related scientific research. We argue that the process which led to the creation of the IRC coincided with the gradual professional and political ascendance of physicians in Portuguese society initiated in the late nineteenth century, and is closely associated with Portuguese republicanism and the process of Lisbon becoming the scientific capital.

  16. Fluorescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorescent Proteins: A Laboratory Experiment for a Biochemistry or Molecular Biophysics Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kathryn P.; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts…

  17. Bridging the Gap between Theory, Research and Practice: The Role of Child Development Laboratory Programs in Early Childhood Education. Advances in Early Education and Day Care, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A., Ed.; Barbour, Nancy E., Ed.

    The three-fold mission of facilitating and supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities has guided the actions of university-based child development laboratory programs since their inception. In recent years, campuses have reconsidered, reconceptualized, and restructured the ways in which these laboratory programs fit within the agendas…

  18. Brewing Beer in the Laboratory: Grain Amylases and Yeast's Sweet Tooth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Blake; Deutschman, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Brewing beer provides a straightforward and robust laboratory counterpart to classroom discussions of fermentation, a staple of the biochemistry curriculum. An exercise is described that provides several connections between lecture and laboratory content. Students first extract fermentable carbohydrates from whole grains, then ferment these with…

  19. A Streamlined Western Blot Exercise: An Efficient and Greener Approach in the Laboratory Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Traci L.; Robinson, Rebekah L.; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes…

  20. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…