Science.gov

Sample records for advanced biofuel payment

  1. 76 FR 24343 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Service Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 4288 RIN 0570-AA75 Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction... Advanced Biofuel Payment Program authorized under the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. This... contracts with advanced biofuel producers to pay such producers for the production of eligible...

  2. 76 FR 13345 - Notice of Contract Proposal (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...This Notice announces the acceptance of applications to enter into Contracts to make payments to eligible advanced biofuel producers under the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels to support and ensure an expanding production of advanced biofuels. To be eligible for payments, advanced biofuels must be produced from renewable biomass, excluding corn kernel starch, in a biofuel facility......

  3. 76 FR 7935 - Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Federal Register on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 20085), with a 60-day comment period that ended June 15, 2010... must be produced from renewable biomass, excluding corn kernel starch, in a biofuel facility located in a State. In addition, this interim rule establishes new program requirements for applicants...

  4. 75 FR 21191 - Subpart B-Advanced Biofuel Payment Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ..., 2010 at 75 FR 20085 proposing a payment program for producers of advanced biofuels to supporting existing advanced biofuel production and to encourage new production of advanced biofuels. As published.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction In the Federal Register of April 16, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-8278, on...

  5. 75 FR 50986 - Notice of Contract Proposal (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...) requested advanced biofuels producers determined eligible under the June 12, 2009, NOCP (74 FR 27998) to... 12, 2010 at 75 FR 11836 for the distribution of the remaining available Fiscal Year 2009 program... determined eligible under the June 12, 2009 NOCP (74 FR 27998) to submit a request for additional payment...

  6. 75 FR 20085 - Subpart B-Advanced Biofuel Payment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... biorefineries produce biodiesel, and for these biorefineries, the small business definition is 1,000 employees..., payments were made for the production of ethanol and biodiesel from eligible commodities including, but not... can be used to produce long-chain hydrocarbons; algae and jatropha can be used to produce...

  7. 78 FR 34975 - Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for the Advanced Biofuels Payment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... with 7 CFR 4288, Subpart B, section 4288.120 (b). In addition, applications received by July 11, 2013... be submitted in accordance with 7 CFR 4288, Subpart B, section 4288.130(d). The Biofuel Payment....110, the applicant must: (a) Be registered in the SAM prior to submitting an application or plan;...

  8. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions Payment Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity...

  9. 75 FR 11836 - Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Program for Advanced Biofuels under criteria established in the prior NOCP, which was published in this publication on June 12, 2009 (74 FR 27998). All payments will be made based upon the terms and conditions... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels AGENCY: Rural...

  10. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the...

  11. 7 CFR 4288.137 - Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel... PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.137 Succession and loss of control of advanced biofuel facilities and production. (a) Contract succession. An entity who becomes the...

  12. 7 CFR 4288.132 - Payment adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... to the advanced biofuel producer if there is a difference between the amount actually produced...

  13. 7 CFR 4288.132 - Payment adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... to the advanced biofuel producer if there is a difference between the amount actually produced...

  14. 7 CFR 4288.133 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... lien against the advanced biofuel, or proceeds thereof, in favor of the owner or any other...

  15. 7 CFR 4288.133 - Payment liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... lien against the advanced biofuel, or proceeds thereof, in favor of the owner or any other...

  16. Analysis of advanced biofuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, John E.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Welz, Oliver; Yang, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. Rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols efficiently. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially replace ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. The elementary autoignition reactions of isopentanol is investigated by analyzing product formation from laser-photolytic Cl-initiated isopentanol oxidation. Carbon-carbon bond-scission reactions in the low-temperature oxidation chemistry may provide an explanation for the intermediate-temperature heat release observed in the engine experiments. Overall, the results indicate that isopentanol has a good potential as a HCCI fuel, either in neat form or in blend with gasoline.

  17. 7 CFR 4288.130 - Payment applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... process and procedures the Agency will use to make payments to eligible advanced biofuel producers. In order to receive payments under this Program, eligible advanced biofuel producers with valid...

  18. 7 CFR 4288.130 - Payment applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... process and procedures the Agency will use to make payments to eligible advanced biofuel producers. In order to receive payments under this Program, eligible advanced biofuel producers with valid...

  19. 24 CFR 2002.15 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... make an advance payment of the full amount of the estimated fee before HUD begins to process a new... THE PUBLIC § 2002.15 Advance payments. (a) HUD may not require a requester to make an advance payment, i.e., payment before work is commenced or continued on a request, unless: (1) HUD estimates...

  20. 24 CFR 2002.15 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... make an advance payment of the full amount of the estimated fee before HUD begins to process a new... THE PUBLIC § 2002.15 Advance payments. (a) HUD may not require a requester to make an advance payment, i.e., payment before work is commenced or continued on a request, unless: (1) HUD estimates...

  1. Advancing Biofuels: Balancing for Sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with most technologies, use of biofuels has both benefits and risks, which vary by feedstock. Expected benefits include increased energy independence, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, reduced emission of greenhouse gases and invigorated rural economies. Anticipated risks include potential com...

  2. 7 CFR 4288.111 - Biofuel eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biofuel eligibility. 4288.111 Section 4288.111... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.111 Biofuel eligibility. To be eligible for this Program, a biofuel must...

  3. 7 CFR 4288.111 - Biofuel eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biofuel eligibility. 4288.111 Section 4288.111... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.111 Biofuel eligibility. To be eligible for this Program, a biofuel must...

  4. National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC), Biofuels for Advancing America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Introduction to the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium, a collaboration between 17 national laboratory, university, and industry partners that is conducting cutting-edge research to develop infrastructure-compatible, sustainable, biomass-based hydrocarbon fuels.

  5. 32 CFR 750.50 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.50 Advance payments. (a) Scope. This paragraph applies exclusively to the payment... spouse or next of kin of a proper claimant who is incapacitated; (3) The provable damages are...

  6. 32 CFR 750.50 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.50 Advance payments. (a) Scope. This paragraph applies exclusively to the payment... spouse or next of kin of a proper claimant who is incapacitated; (3) The provable damages are...

  7. 32 CFR 750.50 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.50 Advance payments. (a) Scope. This paragraph applies exclusively to the payment... spouse or next of kin of a proper claimant who is incapacitated; (3) The provable damages are...

  8. 32 CFR 750.50 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.50 Advance payments. (a) Scope. This paragraph applies exclusively to the payment... spouse or next of kin of a proper claimant who is incapacitated; (3) The provable damages are...

  9. 32 CFR 750.50 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Military Claims Act § 750.50 Advance payments. (a) Scope. This paragraph applies exclusively to the payment... spouse or next of kin of a proper claimant who is incapacitated; (3) The provable damages are...

  10. 77 FR 43083 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Advance Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Advance Payments AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning advance payments. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection... 9000- 0073 Advance Payments by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  11. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  12. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance payments. 1206.704 Section 1206.704 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will...

  13. 7 CFR 4288.131 - Payment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... advanced biofuels during the previous fiscal year. Payment for incremental production will be determined.... (1) For each participating advanced biofuel facility that produced eligible advanced biofuels during... facility has fewer than 20 days (excluding weekends) of non-production of eligible advanced biofuels...

  14. 7 CFR 4288.131 - Payment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-production of eligible advanced biofuels during the previous fiscal year. Payment for incremental production.... (1) For each participating advanced biofuel facility that produced eligible advanced biofuels during... facility has fewer than 20 days (excluding weekends) of non-production of eligible advanced biofuels...

  15. 7 CFR 4288.131 - Payment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... advanced biofuels during the previous fiscal year. Payment for incremental production will be determined.... (1) For each participating advanced biofuel facility that produced eligible advanced biofuels during... facility has fewer than 20 days (excluding weekends) of non-production of eligible advanced biofuels...

  16. 32 CFR 842.149 - Separate advance payment claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate advance payment claims. 842.149 Section... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Advance Payments (10 U.S.C. 2736) § 842.149 Separate advance payment claims. Every person suffering injury or property loss may submit a separate request for an advance payment....

  17. From first generation biofuels to advanced solar biofuels.

    PubMed

    Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Roadmaps towards sustainable bioeconomy, including the production of biofuels, in many EU countries mostly rely on biomass use. However, although biomass is renewable, the efficiency of biomass production is too low to be able to fully replace the fossil fuels. The use of land for fuel production also introduces ethical problems in increasing the food price. Harvesting solar energy by the photosynthetic machinery of plants and autotrophic microorganisms is the basis for all biomass production. This paper describes current challenges and possibilities to sustainably increase the biomass production and highlights future technologies to further enhance biofuel production directly from sunlight. The biggest scientific breakthroughs are expected to rely on a new technology called "synthetic biology", which makes engineering of biological systems possible. It will enable direct conversion of solar energy to a fuel from inexhaustible raw materials: sun light, water and CO2. In the future, such solar biofuels are expected to be produced in engineered photosynthetic microorganisms or in completely synthetic living factories. PMID:26667057

  18. 7 CFR 27.92 - Method of payment; advance deposit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of payment; advance deposit. 27.92 Section 27... Micronaire § 27.92 Method of payment; advance deposit. Any payment or advance deposit under this subpart...,” and may not be made in cash except in cases where the total payment or deposit does not exceed...

  19. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  20. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Soloiu, Valentin A.

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  1. Systems-Level Synthetic Biology for Advanced Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffing, Anne; Jensen, Travis J.; Strickland, Lucas Marshall; Meserole, Stephen; Tallant, David

    2015-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have been shown to be capable of producing a variety of advanced biofuels; however, product yields remain well below those necessary for large scale production. New genetic tools and high throughput metabolic engineering techniques are needed to optimize cyanobacterial metabolisms for enhanced biofuel production. Towards this goal, this project advances the development of a multiple promoter replacement technique for systems-level optimization of gene expression in a model cyanobacterial host: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. To realize this multiple-target approach, key capabilities were developed, including a high throughput detection method for advanced biofuels, enhanced transformation efficiency, and genetic tools for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Moreover, several additional obstacles were identified for realization of this multiple promoter replacement technique. The techniques and tools developed in this project will help to enable future efforts in the advancement of cyanobacterial biofuels.

  2. Enzymatic biofuel cells: 30 years of critical advancements.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Michelle; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-02-15

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are bioelectronic devices that utilize oxidoreductase enzymes to catalyze the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. This review details the advancements in the field of enzymatic biofuel cells over the last 30 years. These advancements include strategies for improving operational stability and electrochemical performance, as well as device fabrication for a variety of applications, including implantable biofuel cells and self-powered sensors. It also discusses the current scientific and engineering challenges in the field that will need to be addressed in the future for commercial viability of the technology. PMID:26163747

  3. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  4. 76 FR 68011 - Medicare Program; Advanced Payment Model

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Medicare Program; Advanced Payment Model; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 212 / Wednesday... Services Medicare Program; Advanced Payment Model AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the testing of the Advance Payment Model...

  5. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will not... request, unless: (1) NASA estimates or determines that the allowable charges are likely to exceed $250. NASA will notify the requester of the likely cost and obtain satisfactory assurance of full...

  6. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will not... request, unless: (1) NASA estimates or determines that the allowable charges are likely to exceed $250. NASA will notify the requester of the likely cost and obtain satisfactory assurance of full...

  7. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF THE PUBLIC Search, Review, and Duplication Fees § 1206.704 Advance payments. (a) NASA will not... request, unless: (1) NASA estimates or determines that the allowable charges are likely to exceed $250. NASA will notify the requester of the likely cost and obtain satisfactory assurance of full...

  8. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  9. 36 CFR 223.223 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.223 Section 223.223 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Contract and Permit Conditions...

  10. 36 CFR 223.223 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.223 Section 223.223 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  11. 36 CFR 223.223 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.223 Section 223.223 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  12. 36 CFR 223.223 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.223 Section 223.223 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  13. 36 CFR 223.223 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.223 Section 223.223 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  14. 36 CFR 223.34 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.34 Section 223.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  15. 36 CFR 223.34 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.34 Section 223.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  16. 36 CFR 223.34 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.34 Section 223.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  17. 36 CFR 223.34 - Advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance payment. 223.34 Section 223.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  18. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  20. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  1. 38 CFR 21.5135 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance payments. 21.5135 Section 21.5135 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38...

  2. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kutchan, Toni M.

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  3. 7 CFR 4288.134 - Refunds and interest payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., any interest, penalties, and administrative costs as determined appropriate under 31 CFR 901.9. (d... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.134 Refunds and interest payments. An eligible advanced biofuel...

  4. 7 CFR 4288.134 - Refunds and interest payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., any interest, penalties, and administrative costs as determined appropriate under 31 CFR 901.9. (d... SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.134 Refunds and interest payments. An eligible advanced biofuel...

  5. Lessons learned from advanced practice nursing payment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Marx, Eileen M

    2008-05-01

    For more than 25 years, advanced practice nurses have been incrementally included as a part of the health care financing structure. Following physician payment revisions at the federal level, advanced practice nurses were overtly recognized as Medicare providers and have participated in the establishment of current procedural terminology codes and the subsequent relative work values associated with payment. Success in this regard has been the result of business, political, and policy savvy that has important lessons for moving forward in any health care restructuring for both nurses and advanced practice nurses. Principles of valuing nurse work, time, and intensity in the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale are discussed with implications for future opportunities of measuring nursing work and any potential relationship to quality outcomes of care. PMID:18650417

  6. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  7. Biofuels

    NASA Video Gallery

    What’s green, slimy and packed full of energy? Algae, of course! This biofuel is just one of the many renewable energies NASA studies. Biofuels could generate and store energy for long-term human...

  8. 20 CFR 416.520 - Emergency advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency advance payments. 416.520 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Payment of Benefits, Overpayments, and Underpayments § 416.520 Emergency advance... for benefits who is presumptively eligible for SSI benefits and who has a financial emergency....

  9. 48 CFR 232.470 - Advance payment pool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial... for the financing of cost-type contracts with nonprofit educational or research institutions for.... When appropriate, pooled advance payments may also be used to finance other types of contracts held...

  10. 38 CFR 21.9715 - Advance payment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance payment certification. 21.9715 Section 21.9715 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9715 Advance payment certification. All...

  11. 48 CFR 32.408 - Application for advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract. (2) A cash flow forecast showing estimated disbursements and receipts for the period of contract... shall limit the forecast to the contract to be financed by advance payments. (3) The proposed total amount of advance payments. (4) The name and address of the financial institution at which the...

  12. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Post-Award Administration § 603.1105 Advance payments or payable milestones. The contracting officer must: (a) For any expenditure-based TIA...

  13. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  14. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  15. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a) Unless...

  16. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  17. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  18. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  19. 34 CFR 682.403 - Federal advances for claim payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payments. (a) The Secretary makes an advance to a guaranty agency that has a reinsurance agreement. The advance may be used only to pay guarantee claims. The Secretary makes an advance to— (1) A State guaranty... Secretary in order to receive an initial advance. (c)(1) An advance may be made to a new guaranty agency...

  20. 47 CFR 0.469 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... payment of estimated FOIA fees except as provided in paragraph (b) or where the Commission estimates or... the requester has no history of payment. Where allowable charges are likely to exceed $250.00 and the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees the Commission may notify the requester of...

  1. 47 CFR 0.469 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payment of estimated FOIA fees except as provided in paragraph (b) or where the Commission estimates or... the requester has no history of payment. Where allowable charges are likely to exceed $250.00 and the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees the Commission may notify the requester of...

  2. 38 CFR 21.7151 - Advance payment and accelerated payment certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7151 Advance payment... payment of educational assistance, the application or other document must be signed by the veteran or the enrollment certification must be signed by an authorized official of the educational institution....

  3. 38 CFR 21.7151 - Advance payment and accelerated payment certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7151 Advance payment... payment of educational assistance, the application or other document must be signed by the veteran or the enrollment certification must be signed by an authorized official of the educational institution....

  4. 38 CFR 21.7151 - Advance payment and accelerated payment certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7151 Advance payment... payment of educational assistance, the application or other document must be signed by the veteran or the enrollment certification must be signed by an authorized official of the educational institution....

  5. 38 CFR 21.7151 - Advance payment and accelerated payment certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7151 Advance payment... payment of educational assistance, the application or other document must be signed by the veteran or the enrollment certification must be signed by an authorized official of the educational institution....

  6. 38 CFR 21.7151 - Advance payment and accelerated payment certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Educational Assistance Program (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Pursuit of Courses § 21.7151 Advance payment... payment of educational assistance, the application or other document must be signed by the veteran or the enrollment certification must be signed by an authorized official of the educational institution....

  7. 14 CFR § 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) NASA will not require a requester to make an advance payment, i.e., payment before work is commenced or continued on a request, unless: (1) NASA estimates or determines that the allowable charges are likely to exceed $250. NASA will notify the requester of the likely cost and obtain satisfactory assurance of...

  8. 34 CFR 5.62 - Advance payment of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance payment of fees. 5.62 Section 5.62 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC PURSUANT TO... anticipated cost and obtains satisfactory assurance of full payment if the requester has a history of...

  9. Partnering with Industry to Advance Biofuels and Bioproducts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility, a biochemical pilot plant and partnership facility containing equipment and lab space for pretreatement, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, compositional analysis, and downstream processing. For more than 30 years, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been at the leading edge of research and technology advancements to develop renewable fuels and bioproducts. NREL works to develop cost-competitive alternatives to conventional transportation fuels and value-added biobased chemicals that can be used to manufacture clothing, plastics, lubricants, and other products. NREL is developing technologies and processes to produce a range of sustainable, energy-dense advanced biofuels that are compatible with our existing transportation fuel infrastructure. As part of that effort, NREL's National Bioenergy Center has entered into more than 90 collaborations in the past five years with companies ranging in size from start-ups to those that appear on Fortune magazine's Fortune 100 list. The new Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) showcases NREL's commitment to collaboration and to meeting the nation's biofuels and bioproducts development and deployment goals. Designed to speed the growth of the biofuels and bioproducts industries, the IBRF is a unique $33.5 million pilot facility capable of supporting a variety of projects. The IBRF is available to industry partners who work with NREL through cooperative research and development, technical, and analytical service agreements. With 27,000 ft2 of high bay space, the IBRF provides industry partners with the opportunity to operate, test, and develop their own biorefining technology and equipment.

  10. 32 CFR 536.61 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determined, would be a proper claimant, including an incapacitated claimant's spouse or next-of-kin. (4) The... payment acceptance agreement has been obtained. This acceptance agreement must state that it does...

  11. 32 CFR 536.61 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determined, would be a proper claimant, including an incapacitated claimant's spouse or next-of-kin. (4) The... payment acceptance agreement has been obtained. This acceptance agreement must state that it does...

  12. Prospective and development of butanol as an advanced biofuel.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Liu, Chen-Guang; Chen, Li-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2013-12-01

    Butanol has been acknowledged as an advanced biofuel, but its production through acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by clostridia is still not economically competitive, due to low butanol yield and titer. In this article, update progress in butanol production is reviewed. Low price and sustainable feedstocks such as lignocellulosic residues and dedicated energy crops are needed for butanol production at large scale to save feedstock cost, but processes are more complicated, compared to those established for ABE fermentation from sugar- and starch-based feedstocks. While rational designs targeting individual genes, enzymes or pathways are effective for improving butanol yield, global and systems strategies are more reasonable for engineering strains with stress tolerance controlled by multigenes. Compared to solvent-producing clostridia, engineering heterologous species such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with butanol pathway might be a solution for eliminating the formation of major byproducts acetone and ethanol so that butanol yield can be improved significantly. Although batch fermentation has been practiced for butanol production in industry, continuous operation is more productive for large scale production of butanol as a biofuel, but a single chemostat bioreactor cannot achieve this goal for the biphasic ABE fermentation, and tanks-in-series systems should be optimized for alternative feedstocks and new strains. Moreover, energy saving is limited for the distillation system, even total solvents in the fermentation broth are increased significantly, since solvents are distilled to ~40% by the beer stripper, and more than 95% water is removed with the stillage without phase change, even with conventional distillation systems, needless to say that advanced chemical engineering technologies can distil solvents up to ~90% with the beer stripper, and the multistage pressure columns can well balance energy consumption for solvent fraction

  13. Life cycle assessment of cellulosic and advanced biofuel crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production is important in order to meet greenhouse gas (GHG) targets set by government policy. Nitrous oxide emissions are the largest source and soil carbon the largest sink of GHGs for determining the carbon intensity of biofuels during their production ...

  14. Improving butanol fermentation to enter the advanced biofuel market.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Bryan P

    2012-01-01

    1-Butanol is a large-volume, intermediate chemical with favorable physical and chemical properties for blending with or directly substituting for gasoline. The per-volume value of butanol, as a chemical, is sufficient for investing into the recommercialization of the classical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) (E. M. Green, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 22:337-343, 2011) fermentation process. Furthermore, with modest improvements in three areas of the ABE process, operating costs can be sufficiently decreased to make butanol an economically viable advanced biofuel. The three areas of greatest interest are (i) maximizing yields of butanol on any particular substrate, (ii) expanding substrate utilization capabilities of the host microorganism, and (iii) reducing the energy consumption of the overall production process, in particular the separation and purification operations. In their study in the September/October 2012 issue of mBio, Jang et al. [mBio 3(5):e00314-12, 2012] describe a comprehensive study on driving glucose metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum to the production of butanol. Moreover, they execute a metabolic engineering strategy to achieve the highest yet reported yields of butanol on glucose. PMID:23232720

  15. Improving Butanol Fermentation To Enter the Advanced Biofuel Market

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Bryan P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1-Butanol is a large-volume, intermediate chemical with favorable physical and chemical properties for blending with or directly substituting for gasoline. The per-volume value of butanol, as a chemical, is sufficient for investing into the recommercialization of the classical acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) (E. M. Green, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 22:337–343, 2011) fermentation process. Furthermore, with modest improvements in three areas of the ABE process, operating costs can be sufficiently decreased to make butanol an economically viable advanced biofuel. The three areas of greatest interest are (i) maximizing yields of butanol on any particular substrate, (ii) expanding substrate utilization capabilities of the host microorganism, and (iii) reducing the energy consumption of the overall production process, in particular the separation and purification operations. In their study in the September/October 2012 issue of mBio, Jang et al. [mBio 3(5):e00314-12, 2012] describe a comprehensive study on driving glucose metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum to the production of butanol. Moreover, they execute a metabolic engineering strategy to achieve the highest yet reported yields of butanol on glucose. PMID:23232720

  16. 78 FR 13159 - Proposed Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment.... This notice solicits comments on information needed to authorize advance payment of educational.... Title: Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment, VA Form 22-1999V. OMB Control...

  17. 75 FR 16911 - Proposed Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment.... This notice solicits comments on information needed to authorize advance payment of educational.... ] Title: Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment, VA Form 22-1999V. OMB Control...

  18. 78 FR 5449 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission of OMB Review; Advance Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... collection requirement concerning advance payments. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR... Regulation; Submission of OMB Review; Advance Payments AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General... Collection 9000- 0073 Advance Payments by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  19. 7 CFR 1486.406 - Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? 1486... Reimbursements § 1486.406 Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? (a) Policy. In general, CCC operates the EMP on a cost reimbursable basis. (b) Exception. Upon request, CCC may make advance payments to...

  20. 7 CFR 1486.406 - Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? 1486... Reimbursements § 1486.406 Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? (a) Policy. In general, CCC operates the EMP on a cost reimbursable basis. (b) Exception. Upon request, CCC may make advance payments to...

  1. 7 CFR 1486.406 - Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? 1486... Reimbursements § 1486.406 Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? (a) Policy. In general, CCC operates the EMP on a cost reimbursable basis. (b) Exception. Upon request, CCC may make advance payments to...

  2. 48 CFR 752.232-70 - Letter of credit advance payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Letter of credit advance....232-70 Letter of credit advance payment. As required by 732.406-73 insert the following clause in contracts being paid by Letter of Credit. Letter of Credit Advance Payment (OCT 1989) (a) Payment under...

  3. 75 FR 32539 - Agency Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment.... 2900-0325.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and... deliveries to VA. VA Form 22-1999V serves as the certificate of delivery of advance payment and to report...

  4. 78 FR 41996 - Agency Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment... INFORMATION: Title: Certificate of Delivery of Advance Payment and Enrollment, VA Form 22-1999V. OMB Control... delivers the advance payment to the student and is required to certify the deliveries to VA. VA Form...

  5. 48 CFR 970.5232-2 - Payments and advances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation subpart 48 CFR 970.31 in effect on the date of this contract and other provisions of... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5232-2 Payments and advances. As prescribed in 48 CFR 970... under the contract; (ii) A closing financial statement; (iii) The accounting for...

  6. 48 CFR 52.232-12 - Advance Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Government. Interest need not be charged on advance payments to nonprofit educational or research subcontractors for experimental, developmental, or research work. (3) If interest is required under the contract... that the Government by virtue of any other terms of this contract, or otherwise, shall have valid...

  7. 25 CFR 227.16 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Crediting advance annual payments. 227.16 Section 227.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties §...

  8. 25 CFR 227.16 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crediting advance annual payments. 227.16 Section 227.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties §...

  9. 25 CFR 227.16 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crediting advance annual payments. 227.16 Section 227.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties §...

  10. 25 CFR 227.16 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crediting advance annual payments. 227.16 Section 227.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties §...

  11. 25 CFR 227.16 - Crediting advance annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crediting advance annual payments. 227.16 Section 227.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Rents and Royalties §...

  12. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... point is 44% ($40,000 out of the total $90,000 expended, with the balance provided by the...

  13. 10 CFR 603.820 - Interest on advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interest on advance payments. 603.820 Section 603.820 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award... or minimum balance so high that it would not be feasible within the expected Federal and...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... point is 44% ($40,000 out of the total $90,000 expended, with the balance provided by the...

  15. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance payments or payable milestones. 603.1105 Section 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... projected budget for completing the milestone; and (2) Adjust future payable milestones, as needed,...

  16. 38 CFR 21.9715 - Advance payment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance payment certification. 21.9715 Section 21.9715 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9715...

  17. 38 CFR 21.9715 - Advance payment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance payment certification. 21.9715 Section 21.9715 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9715...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9715 - Advance payment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance payment certification. 21.9715 Section 21.9715 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9715...

  19. 38 CFR 21.9715 - Advance payment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance payment certification. 21.9715 Section 21.9715 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9715...

  20. An Energy-limited Model of Algal Biofuels Production: Towards the Next Generation of Advanced Biofuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dunlop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are increasingly important as a source of renewable energy. The absence of reliable thermodynamic and other property data, and the large amount of kinetic data that would normally be required have created a major barrier to simulation. Additionally, the absence of a generally accepted flowsheet for biofuel production means that detailed simulation of the wrong approach is a real possibility. This model of algal biofuel production estimates the necessary data and places it into a heuristic model using a commercial simulator that back-calculates the process structure required. Furthermore, complex kinetics can be obviated for now by putting themore » simulator into energy limitation and forcing it to solve for the missing design variables, such as bioreactor surface area, productivity, and oil content. The model does not attempt to prescribe a particular approach, but provides a guide towards a sound engineering approach to this challenging and important problem.« less

  1. An Energy-limited Model of Algal Biofuels Production: Towards the Next Generation of Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are increasingly important as a source of renewable energy. The absence of reliable thermodynamic and other property data, and the large amount of kinetic data that would normally be required have created a major barrier to simulation. Additionally, the absence of a generally accepted flowsheet for biofuel production means that detailed simulation of the wrong approach is a real possibility. This model of algal biofuel production estimates the necessary data and places it into a heuristic model using a commercial simulator that back-calculates the process structure required. Furthermore, complex kinetics can be obviated for now by putting the simulator into energy limitation and forcing it to solve for the missing design variables, such as bioreactor surface area, productivity, and oil content. The model does not attempt to prescribe a particular approach, but provides a guide towards a sound engineering approach to this challenging and important problem.

  2. 7 CFR 4288.135 - Unauthorized payments and offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 11; (vi) Describe the Agency's available remedies regarding enforced collection...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel... assistance has been made to an advanced biofuel producer under this Program, the Agency reserves the right...

  3. 7 CFR 4288.135 - Unauthorized payments and offsets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 11; (vi) Describe the Agency's available remedies regarding enforced collection...-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel... assistance has been made to an advanced biofuel producer under this Program, the Agency reserves the right...

  4. 25 CFR 273.43 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable provisions of 41 CFR part 1 as supplemented by 41 CFR part 14 and 41 CFR part 14H except 41 CFR... EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Contract Requirements § 273.43 Advance...

  5. 25 CFR 273.43 - Advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicable provisions of 41 CFR part 1 as supplemented by 41 CFR part 14 and 41 CFR part 14H except 41 CFR... EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT General Contract Requirements § 273.43 Advance...

  6. 40 CFR 35.4095 - What can my group pay for with an advance payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... used only for the purchase of supplies, postage, the payment of the first deposit to open a bank... for contracts for technical advisors or other contractors. (c) Advance payments are not available...

  7. Molecular Breeding of Advanced Microorganisms for Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Sakuragi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Large amounts of fossil fuels are consumed every day in spite of increasing environmental problems. To preserve the environment and construct a sustainable society, the use of biofuels derived from different kinds of biomass is being practiced worldwide. Although bioethanol has been largely produced, it commonly requires food crops such as corn and sugar cane as substrates. To develop a sustainable energy supply, cellulosic biomass should be used for bioethanol production instead of grain biomass. For this purpose, cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this method has many limitations such as low productivity and low solvent tolerance of microorganisms. Despite these problems, biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biodiesel are potential energy sources that can help establish a sustainable society. PMID:21318120

  8. Microalgal Triacylglycerols as Feedstocks for Biofuel Production: Perspectives and Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q.; Sommerfeld, M.; Jarvis, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Posewitz, M; Seibert, M.; Darzins, A.

    2008-01-01

    Microalgae represent an exceptionally diverse but highly specialized group of micro-organisms adapted to various ecological habitats. Many microalgae have the ability to produce substantial amounts (e.g. 20-50% dry cell weight) of triacylglycerols (TAG) as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. Fatty acids, the building blocks for TAGs and all other cellular lipids, are synthesized in the chloroplast using a single set of enzymes, of which acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is key in regulating fatty acid synthesis rates. However, the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis is poorly understood in microalgae. Synthesis and sequestration of TAG into cytosolic lipid bodies appear to be a protective mechanism by which algal cells cope with stress conditions, but little is known about regulation of TAG formation at the molecular and cellular level. While the concept of using microalgae as an alternative and renewable source of lipid-rich biomass feedstock for biofuels has been explored over the past few decades, a scalable, commercially viable system has yet to emerge. Today, the production of algal oil is primarily confined to high-value specialty oils with nutritional value, rather than commodity oils for biofuel. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge on oleaginous algae and their fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis, algal model systems and genomic approaches to a better understanding of TAG production, and a historical perspective and path forward for microalgae-based biofuel research and commercialization.

  9. Recent advances on enzymatic glucose/oxygen and hydrogen/oxygen biofuel cells: Achievements and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosnier, Serge; J. Gross, Andrew; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of producing electrical power from chemical energy with biological catalysts has induced the development of biofuel cells as viable energy sources for powering portable and implanted electronic devices. These power sources employ biocatalysts, called enzymes, which are highly specific and catalytic towards the oxidation of a biofuel and the reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes, on one hand, are promising candidates to replace expensive noble metal-based catalysts in fuel cell research. On the other hand, they offer the exciting prospect of a new generation of fuel cells which harvest energy from body fluids. Biofuel cells which use glucose as a fuel are particularly interesting for generating electricity to power electronic devices inside a living body. Hydrogen consuming biofuel cells represent an emerging alternative to platinum catalysts due to comparable efficiencies and the capability to operate at lower temperatures. Currently, these technologies are not competitive with existing commercialised fuel cell devices due to limitations including insufficient power outputs and lifetimes. The advantages and challenges facing glucose biofuel cells for implantation and hydrogen biofuel cells will be summarised along with recent promising advances and the future prospects of these exotic energy-harvesting devices.

  10. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Comparing the Climate Mitigation Potential of Advanced Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The federal policy known as the Renewable Fuel Standard mandates that by 2022, 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels will be used in the U.S. fuel supply. So far this policy has resulted in drastically increased production of corn ethanol and only a small amount of advanced fuels. While most corn ethanol plants are not required to achieve a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (when compared to gasoline), advanced biofuels are required to reduce emissions by 50 or 60 percent. But not all fuels that qualify for advanced status according to the Environmental Protection Agency have the same climate mitigation potential. This study ranks advanced fuel pathways approved by the EPA from good, to bad…to worse. Climate mitigation potential of these fuels is compared to previous research and examined using the EPA's modeling framework.

  11. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING... Standards for tracking each advance payment and its recoupment. (g) Requirements for CMS. (1) In...

  12. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING... Standards for tracking each advance payment and its recoupment. (g) Requirements for CMS. (1) In...

  13. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE CONTRACTING... Standards for tracking each advance payment and its recoupment. (g) Requirements for CMS. (1) In...

  14. Genomic Advances to Improve Biomass for Biofuels (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Rokhsar, Daniel

    2011-04-28

    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab bioscientist Daniel Rokhsar discusses genomic advances to improve biomass for biofuels. He presented his talk Feb. 11, 2008 in Berkeley, California as part of Berkeley Lab's community lecture series. Rokhsar works with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and Berkeley Lab's Genomics Division.

  15. Producing sorghum cellulosic feedstock for advanced biofuels production and its impact on soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According Energy Policy Act of 2005, the U.S. must produce 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels in 2022. Cellulosic material is considered a renewable and environmental improved alternative source for energy production. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is considered a high cellulosic biomass producti...

  16. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M; Steen, Eric J; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Lee, Taek Soon; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A; Simmons, Blake A; Keasling, Jay D

    2011-12-13

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels. PMID:22123987

  17. Synthesis of three advanced biofuels from ionic liquid-pretreated switchgrass using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bokinsky, Gregory; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; George, Anthe; Holmes, Bradley M.; Steen, Eric J.; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Soon Lee, Taek; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle; Voigt, Christopher A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2011-01-01

    One approach to reducing the costs of advanced biofuel production from cellulosic biomass is to engineer a single microorganism to both digest plant biomass and produce hydrocarbons that have the properties of petrochemical fuels. Such an organism would require pathways for hydrocarbon production and the capacity to secrete sufficient enzymes to efficiently hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose. To demonstrate how one might engineer and coordinate all of the necessary components for a biomass-degrading, hydrocarbon-producing microorganism, we engineered a microorganism naïve to both processes, Escherichia coli, to grow using both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of several types of plant biomass pretreated with ionic liquids. Our engineered strains express cellulase, xylanase, beta-glucosidase, and xylobiosidase enzymes under control of native E. coli promoters selected to optimize growth on model cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates. Furthermore, our strains grow using either the cellulose or hemicellulose components of ionic liquid-pretreated biomass or on both components when combined as a coculture. Both cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains were further engineered with three biofuel synthesis pathways to demonstrate the production of fuel substitutes or precursors suitable for gasoline, diesel, and jet engines directly from ionic liquid-treated switchgrass without externally supplied hydrolase enzymes. This demonstration represents a major advance toward realizing a consolidated bioprocess. With improvements in both biofuel synthesis pathways and biomass digestion capabilities, our approach could provide an economical route to production of advanced biofuels. PMID:22123987

  18. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  19. 26 CFR 1.451-5 - Advance payments for goods and long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accounting for tax purposes if such method results in including advance payments in gross receipts no later... the case of a taxpayer accounting for advance payments for tax purposes pursuant to a long-term... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3507-2 - Earned income credit advance payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Earned income credit advance payment... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-2 Earned income credit advance payment certificates. (a) Definition. For the...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3507-2 - Earned income credit advance payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Earned income credit advance payment... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-2 Earned income credit advance payment certificates. (a) Definition. For the...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3507-2 - Earned income credit advance payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Earned income credit advance payment... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-2 Earned income credit advance payment certificates. (a) Definition. For the...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advance payments of earned income credit. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-1 Advance payments of earned income credit. (a) General rule—(1) In general....

  4. 26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advance payments of earned income credit. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-1 Advance payments of earned income credit. (a) General rule—(1) In general....

  5. 26 CFR 31.3507-2 - Earned income credit advance payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Earned income credit advance payment... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-2 Earned income credit advance payment certificates. (a) Definition. For the...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3507-2 - Earned income credit advance payment certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Earned income credit advance payment... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-2 Earned income credit advance payment certificates. (a) Definition. For the...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advance payments of earned income credit. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-1 Advance payments of earned income credit. (a) General rule—(1) In general....

  8. 26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advance payments of earned income credit. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME... 1954) § 31.3507-1 Advance payments of earned income credit. (a) General rule—(1) In general....

  9. 7 CFR 1486.406 - Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? 1486... PROGRAM Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.406 Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? (a) Policy. In general, CCC operates the EMP on a cost reimbursable basis. (b) Exception. Upon request,...

  10. 7 CFR 1486.406 - Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? 1486... PROGRAM Contributions and Reimbursements § 1486.406 Will CCC make advance payments to Recipients? (a) Policy. In general, CCC operates the EMP on a cost reimbursable basis. (b) Exception. Upon request,...

  11. 77 FR 38066 - Medicare Program; Announcement of a New Opportunity for Participation in the Advance Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Register (76 FR 68012), we published a notice entitled ``Medicare Program; Advance Payment Model'' that... the application process. In November 30, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 74067), we published a second... Opportunity for Participation in the Advance Payment Model for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs)...

  12. Processing of cellulose for the advancement of biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Brian James

    2011-12-01

    The enzymatic degradation of cellulose polymers is currently a rate-limiting step in the bioconversion of biomass to biofuels. Cellulose polymers self assemble to form crystalline structures stabilized by a complex network of intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding. The network of interactions in crystalline cellulose (cellulose nanostructure) poses an energy barrier that limits enzymatic degradation as apparent from the activity of Cel5H. To improve the degradability of cellulose the intermolecular interactions must be disrupted. The interactions of the cellulose nanostructure prevent solubilization by water and most other common solvents, but some organic solvents aid degradation of cellulose suggesting they influence cellulose nanostructure. The objective of this work is to understand the influence of solvents on cellulose nanostructure with the goal of improving the degradability of cellulose nanostructure using solvents. To understand solvent interaction with cellulose, phosphoric acid was used to first solubilize cellulose (PAS cellulose) followed by adding an organic liquid or water to wash the phosphate from the system. The Flory Huggins theory was used to predict wash liquids that could favorably interact with cellulose. A favorable wash liquid was predicted to prevent the reformation of crystalline domains to yield a disrupted cellulose nanostructure, which should be more degradable. Low molecular weight alcohols and glycols were calculated to be favorable wash liquids. Washing PAS cellulose with the predicted favorable liquids yielded semi-transparent gel-like materials compared to the opaque white precipitate formed when water or unfavorable solvents were used in the wash. Fractal analysis of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) of these apparent gels indicated cellulose polymers likely have the properties of clustered rods. This partial disruption increased degradability relative to the water washed PAS cellulose. The apparent rod

  13. Identification and microbial production of a terpene-based advanced biofuel.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; Ouellet, Mario; Chan, Rossana; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek Soon

    2011-01-01

    Rising petroleum costs, trade imbalances and environmental concerns have stimulated efforts to advance the microbial production of fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we identify a novel biosynthetic alternative to D2 diesel fuel, bisabolane, and engineer microbial platforms for the production of its immediate precursor, bisabolene. First, we identify bisabolane as an alternative to D2 diesel by measuring the fuel properties of chemically hydrogenated commercial bisabolene. Then, via a combination of enzyme screening and metabolic engineering, we obtain a more than tenfold increase in bisabolene titers in Escherichia coli to >900 mg l(-1). We produce bisabolene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (>900 mg l(-1)), a widely used platform for the production of ethanol. Finally, we chemically hydrogenate biosynthetic bisabolene into bisabolane. This work presents a framework for the identification of novel terpene-based advanced biofuels and the rapid engineering of microbial farnesyl diphosphate-overproducing platforms for the production of biofuels. PMID:21952217

  14. Identification and microbial production of a terpene-based advanced biofuel

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Ouellet, Mario; Chan, Rossana; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.; Lee, Taek Soon

    2011-01-01

    Rising petroleum costs, trade imbalances and environmental concerns have stimulated efforts to advance the microbial production of fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Here we identify a novel biosynthetic alternative to D2 diesel fuel, bisabolane, and engineer microbial platforms for the production of its immediate precursor, bisabolene. First, we identify bisabolane as an alternative to D2 diesel by measuring the fuel properties of chemically hydrogenated commercial bisabolene. Then, via a combination of enzyme screening and metabolic engineering, we obtain a more than tenfold increase in bisabolene titers in Escherichia coli to >900 mg l−1. We produce bisabolene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (>900 mg l−1), a widely used platform for the production of ethanol. Finally, we chemically hydrogenate biosynthetic bisabolene into bisabolane. This work presents a framework for the identification of novel terpene-based advanced biofuels and the rapid engineering of microbial farnesyl diphosphate-overproducing platforms for the production of biofuels. PMID:21952217

  15. An integrated approach: advances in the use of Clostridium for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kök, M Samil

    2015-01-01

    Almost 90% of our energy comes from fossil fuels, which are both limited and polluting, hence the need to find alternative sources. Biofuels can provide a sustainable and renewable source of energy for the future. Recent significant advances in genetic engineering and fermentation technology have made microbial bio-based production of chemicals from renewable resources more viable. Clostridium species are considered as promising micro-organisms for the production of a wide range of chemicals for industrial use. However, a number of scientific challenges still need to be overcome to facilitate an economically viable production system. These include the use of cheap non-food-based substrates, a better understanding of the metabolic processes involved, improvement of strains through genetic engineering and innovation in process technology. This paper reviews recent developments in these areas, advancing the use of Clostridium within an industrial context especially for the production of biofuels. PMID:27160660

  16. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joao C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-10-10

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary.The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu) project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergymore » production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. We review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.« less

  17. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    SciTech Connect

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, Joao C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-10-10

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary.The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu) project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. We review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  18. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, João C; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  19. Genetic resources for advanced biofuel production described with the Gene Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Torto-Alalibo, Trudy; Purwantini, Endang; Lomax, Jane; Setubal, João C.; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Tyler, Brett M.

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO) fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial ENergy processes Gene Ontology () project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat), can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way. PMID:25346727

  20. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.214... Standards for tracking each advance payment and its recoupment. (g) Requirements for CMS. (1) In...

  1. 42 CFR 421.214 - Advance payments to suppliers furnishing items or services under Part B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.214... Standards for tracking each advance payment and its recoupment. (g) Requirements for CMS. (1) In...

  2. 20 CFR 416.520 - Emergency advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of expected eligibility for payment of benefits. (2) For a couple, we separately compute each member... not established. If a presumptively eligible individual (or spouse) or couple is determined to...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1105 - Advance payments or payable milestones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 603.1105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... projected budget for completing the milestone; and (2) Adjust future payable milestones, as needed, if... milestone payment of Federal funds). For this example, the contracting officer should adjust...

  4. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schroën, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. PMID:26097113

  5. From flavors and pharmaceuticals to advanced biofuels: production of isoprenoids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, Stefan; Chen, Yun; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Isoprenoids denote the largest group of chemicals in the plant kingdom and are employed for a wide range of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, isoprenoids have additionally been recognized as suitable replacements for petroleum-derived fuels and could thus promote the transition towards a more sustainable society. To realize the biofuel potential of isoprenoids, a very efficient production system is required. While complex chemical structures as well as the low abundance in nature demonstrate the shortcomings of chemical synthesis and plant extraction, isoprenoids can be produced by genetically engineered microorganisms from renewable carbon sources. In this article, we summarize the development of isoprenoid applications from flavors and pharmaceuticals to advanced biofuels and review the strategies to design microbial cell factories, focusing on Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of these compounds. While the high complexity of biosynthetic pathways and the toxicity of certain isoprenoids still denote challenges that need to be addressed, metabolic engineering has enabled large-scale production of several terpenoids and thus, the utilization of these compounds is likely to expand in the future. PMID:24227704

  6. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  7. Structure of a three-domain sesquiterpene synthase: a prospective target for advanced biofuels production.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Ryan P; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P; DeGiovanni, Andy; Pereira, Jose H; Hadi, Masood Z; Keasling, Jay D; Adams, Paul D

    2011-12-01

    The sesquiterpene bisabolene was recently identified as a biosynthetic precursor to bisabolane, an advanced biofuel with physicochemical properties similar to those of D2 diesel. High-titer microbial bisabolene production was achieved using Abies grandis α-bisabolene synthase (AgBIS). Here, we report the structure of AgBIS, a three-domain plant sesquiterpene synthase, crystallized in its apo form and bound to five different inhibitors. Structural and biochemical characterization of the AgBIS terpene synthase Class I active site leads us to propose a catalytic mechanism for the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate into bisabolene via a bisabolyl cation intermediate. Further, we describe the nonfunctional AgBIS Class II active site whose high similarity to bifunctional diterpene synthases makes it an important link in understanding terpene synthase evolution. Practically, the AgBIS crystal structure is important in future protein engineering efforts to increase the microbial production of bisabolene. PMID:22153510

  8. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  9. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  10. 48 CFR 32.405 - Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applying Pub. L. 85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts. 32.405 Section 32.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 32.405...

  11. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  12. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  13. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Peterson, Steven O.

    2015-09-03

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  14. Stimulating learning-by-doing in advanced biofuels: effectiveness of alternative policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Khanna, Madhu; Yeh, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    This letter examines the effectiveness of various biofuel and climate policies in reducing future processing costs of cellulosic biofuels due to learning-by-doing. These policies include a biofuel production mandate alone and supplementing the biofuel mandate with other policies, namely a national low carbon fuel standard, a cellulosic biofuel production tax credit or a carbon price policy. We find that the binding biofuel targets considered here can reduce the unit processing cost of cellulosic ethanol by about 30% to 70% between 2015 and 2035 depending on the assumptions about learning rates and initial costs of biofuel production. The cost in 2035 is more sensitive to the speed with which learning occurs and less sensitive to uncertainty in the initial production cost. With learning rates of 5-10%, cellulosic biofuels will still be at least 40% more expensive than liquid fossil fuels in 2035. The addition of supplementary low carbon/tax credit policies to the mandate that enhance incentives for cellulosic biofuels can achieve similar reductions in these costs several years earlier than the mandate alone; the extent of these incentives differs across policies and different kinds of cellulosic biofuels.

  15. 25 CFR 170.615 - Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities? 170.615 Section 170.615 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  16. 25 CFR 170.615 - Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities? 170.615 Section 170.615 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  17. 25 CFR 170.615 - Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe receive advance payments for non-construction activities? 170.615 Section 170.615 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation Roads Contracts...

  18. 26 CFR 1.451-5 - Advance payments for goods and long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting for purchases and sales or a long-term contract method of accounting (described in § 1.451-3), pursuant to, and to be applied against, an agreement: (i) For the sale... accounting for tax purposes if such method results in including advance payments in gross receipts no...

  19. 26 CFR 1.36B-4 - Reconciling the premium tax credit with advance credit payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... no dependents. The Exchange for D's rating area approves advance credit payments for D based on 2014... initiates the 3-month grace period under section 1412(c)(2)(B)(iv)(II) of the Affordable Care Act and 45 CFR... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Reconciling the premium tax credit with...

  20. 28 CFR 0.154 - Advance and evacuation payments and special allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Advance and evacuation payments and special allowances. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries, the... Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Director of the......

  1. 28 CFR 0.154 - Advance and evacuation payments and special allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Advance and evacuation payments and special allowances. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Director of the Bureau of Prisons, the Commissioner of Federal Prison Industries, the... Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, the Director of the......

  2. 43 CFR 5461.1 - Payment in advance of cutting or removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment in advance of cutting or removal. 5461.1 Section 5461.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION...

  3. 43 CFR 5461.1 - Payment in advance of cutting or removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment in advance of cutting or removal. 5461.1 Section 5461.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) SALES ADMINISTRATION...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... credit advance payment certificate and the payroll periods for which the certificate is effective, see... amount of an employee is determined, with respect to any payroll period, on the basis of the employee's... the Commissioner of Internal Revenue and then in effect for the payroll period. See,...

  5. 76 FR 74067 - Medicare Program; Announcement of a New Application Deadline for the Advance Payment Model

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... Register (76 FR 68012), we published a notice announcing the Advance Payment Model. Additional information.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces a new application deadline for participation in the... portion of future shared savings could increase participation in the Medicare Shared Savings Program,...

  6. 75 FR 24865 - Notice of Contract Proposal (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... reported in Form RD 9005-1. Biodiesel. A mono alkyl ester, manufactured in the United States and its... where needed to ensure program integrity. (C) Biodiesel, biomass-based diesel, and liquid...

  7. 77 FR 5229 - Notice of Contract Proposals (NOCP) for Payments to Eligible Advanced Biofuel Producers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ..., through October 31, 2011 in accordance with 7 CFR part 4288, subpart B, section 4288.120(b). Applications....110, the applicant must: (a) Be registered in the CCR prior to submitting an application or plan; (b... rejected and providing such applicant appeal rights as specified in 7 CFR 4288.103. B. Administrative...

  8. 12 CFR 1402.24 - Advance payments-notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chargeable will amount to more than $25 and the requester has not indicated in advance a willingness to pay... requester will fully pay the fees anticipated. (c) If the anticipated fees exceed $250 and if the requester.... (d) If the requester has previously failed to pay a fee charged within 30 days of the date of...

  9. 12 CFR 1402.24 - Advance payments-notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chargeable will amount to more than $25 and the requester has not indicated in advance a willingness to pay... requester will fully pay the fees anticipated. (c) If the anticipated fees exceed $250 and if the requester.... (d) If the requester has previously failed to pay a fee charged within 30 days of the date of...

  10. 22 CFR 201.24 - Progress and advance payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of work and the first required delivery will exceed four months; (ii) There will be substantial predelivery costs that may have a material impact on a suppliers's working capital; (iii) The total FAS... of the advance is based on an analysis of the working capital required under the procurement...

  11. A self-sustaining advanced lignocellulosic biofuel production by integration of anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Ruan, Zhenhua; Zhong, Yingkui; Archer, Steven; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    High energy demand hinders the development and application of aerobic microbial biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials. In order to address this issue, this study focused on developing an integrated system including anaerobic digestion and aerobic fungal fermentation to convert corn stover, animal manure and food wastes into microbial lipids for biodiesel production. Dairy manure and food waste were first anaerobically digested to produce energy and solid digestate (AD fiber). AD fiber and corn stover were then processed by a combined alkali and acid hydrolysis, followed by fungal lipid accumulation. The integrated process can generate 1L biodiesel and 1.9 kg methane from 12.8 kg dry dairy manure, 3.1 kg dry food wastes and 12.2 kg dry corn stover with a positive net energy of 57 MJ, which concludes a self-sustaining lignocellulosic biodiesel process and provides a new route to co-utilize corn stover and organic wastes for advanced biofuel production. PMID:25543542

  12. 48 CFR 252.232-7005 - Reimbursement of subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program. 252.232-7005 Section 252.232-7005 Federal... subcontractor advance payments—DoD pilot mentor-protege program. As prescribed in 232.412-70(c), use the following clause: Reimbursement of Subcontractor Advance Payments—DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program (SEP...

  13. 48 CFR 252.232-7005 - Reimbursement of subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program. 252.232-7005 Section 252.232-7005 Federal... subcontractor advance payments—DoD pilot mentor-protege program. As prescribed in 232.412-70(c), use the following clause: Reimbursement of Subcontractor Advance Payments—DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program (SEP...

  14. 48 CFR 252.232-7005 - Reimbursement of subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program. 252.232-7005 Section 252.232-7005 Federal... subcontractor advance payments—DoD pilot mentor-protege program. As prescribed in 232.412-70(c), use the following clause: Reimbursement of Subcontractor Advance Payments—DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program (SEP...

  15. 48 CFR 252.232-7005 - Reimbursement of subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program. 252.232-7005 Section 252.232-7005 Federal... subcontractor advance payments—DoD pilot mentor-protege program. As prescribed in 232.412-70(c), use the following clause: Reimbursement of Subcontractor Advance Payments—DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program (SEP...

  16. 48 CFR 252.232-7005 - Reimbursement of subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subcontractor advance payments-DoD pilot mentor-protege program. 252.232-7005 Section 252.232-7005 Federal... subcontractor advance payments—DoD pilot mentor-protege program. As prescribed in 232.412-70(c), use the following clause: Reimbursement of Subcontractor Advance Payments—DoD Pilot Mentor-Protege Program (SEP...

  17. Advancement of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Payment

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lixing; Shirey, Don; Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Sharma, Chandan; Lawrie, Linda; Strand, Rick; Pedersen, Curt; Fisher, Dan; Lee, Edwin; Witte, Mike; Glazer, Jason; Barnaby, Chip

    2011-09-30

    EnergyPlus{sup TM} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. The 5-year project was managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory and was divided into 5 budget period between 2006 and 2011. During the project period, 11 versions of EnergyPlus were released. This report summarizes work performed by an EnergyPlus development team led by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC). The team members consist of DHL Consulting, C. O. Pedersen Associates, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Oklahoma State University, GARD Analytics, Inc., and WrightSoft Corporation. The project tasks involved new feature development, testing and validation, user support and training, and general EnergyPlus support. The team developed 146 new features during the 5-year period to advance the EnergyPlus capabilities. Annual contributions of new features are 7 in budget period 1, 19 in period 2, 36 in period 3, 41 in period 4, and 43 in period 5, respectively. The testing and validation task focused on running test suite and publishing report, developing new IEA test suite cases, testing and validating new source code, addressing change requests, and creating and testing installation package. The user support and training task provided support for users and interface developers, and organized and taught workshops. The general support task involved upgrading StarTeam (team sharing) software and updating existing utility software. The project met the DOE objectives and completed all tasks successfully. Although the EnergyPlus software was enhanced significantly

  18. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  19. Biorefinery developments for advanced biofuels from a widening array of biomass feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When the United States passed the Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) of 2007 into law it mandated that, by the year 2022, 36 billion gallons of biofuels be produced annually in the U.S. to displace petroleum. This targeted quota, which required that at least half of domestic transportation fuel be “adva...

  20. One-pot bioconversion of algae biomass into terpenes for advanced biofuels and bioproducts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Wu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rising demand for transportation fuels, diminishing reserved of fossil oil, and the concerns with fossil fuel derived environmental pollution as well as the green-house gas emission derived climate change have resulted in the compelling need for alternative, sustainable new energy sources(1). Algae-based biofuels have been considered one of the promising alternatives to fossil fuels as they can overcome some of these issues (2-4). The current state-of-art of algal biofuel technologies have primarily focused on biodiesel production through prompting high algal lipid yields under the nutrient stress conditions. There are less interests of using algae-based carbohydrate and proteinsmore » as carbon sources for the fermentative production of liquid fuel compounds or other high-value bioproducts(5-7).« less

  1. One-pot bioconversion of algae biomass into terpenes for advanced biofuels and bioproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan Wesley; Wu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    In this study, rising demand for transportation fuels, diminishing reserved of fossil oil, and the concerns with fossil fuel derived environmental pollution as well as the green-house gas emission derived climate change have resulted in the compelling need for alternative, sustainable new energy sources(1). Algae-based biofuels have been considered one of the promising alternatives to fossil fuels as they can overcome some of these issues (2-4). The current state-of-art of algal biofuel technologies have primarily focused on biodiesel production through prompting high algal lipid yields under the nutrient stress conditions. There are less interests of using algae-based carbohydrate and proteins as carbon sources for the fermentative production of liquid fuel compounds or other high-value bioproducts(5-7).

  2. 7 CFR 4288.113 - Payment record requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... renewable biomass used in the production of advanced biofuel; (b) The quantity of advanced biofuel produced from eligible renewable biomass at each advanced biofuel facility; (c) The quantity of eligible renewable biomass used at each advanced biofuel facility to produce the advanced biofuel; and (d) All...

  3. 41 CFR 302-10.301 - May I receive an advance of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency? 302-10.301 Section 302-10.301... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Advance of Funds § 302-10.301 May I receive an advance of funds when payment is...

  4. 41 CFR 302-10.301 - May I receive an advance of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of funds when payment is made directly to the carrier by my agency? 302-10.301 Section 302-10.301... TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE Advance of Funds § 302-10.301 May I receive an advance of funds when payment is...

  5. 77 FR 23673 - Notice of Stakeholder Meeting: Industry Roundtable-DON/USDA/DOE/DOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Drop-In Biofuels Initiative AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of public meeting... biofuels supply chain. The purpose of the roundtable meeting is for the federal government to present... Biofuels Production Project. Questions related to the Special Notices or the pending Broad...

  6. Assessing the quality of a deliberative democracy mini-public event about advanced biofuel production and development in Canada.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Holly; Secko, David M

    2016-02-01

    The importance of evaluating deliberative public engagement events is well recognized, but such activities are rarely conducted for a variety of theoretical, political and practical reasons. In this article, we provide an assessment of the criteria presented in the 2008 National Research Council report on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making (NRC report) as explicit indicators of quality for the 2012 'Advanced Biofuels' deliberative democracy event. The National Research Council's criteria were selected to evaluate this event because they are decision oriented, are the products of an exhaustive review of similar past events, are intended specifically for environmental processes and encompass many of the criteria presented in other evaluation frameworks. It is our hope that the results of our study may encourage others to employ and assess the National Research Council's criteria as a generalizable benchmark that may justifiably be used in forthcoming deliberative events exploring different topics with different audiences. PMID:25164558

  7. γ-Alumina as a process advancing tool for a new generation biofuel.

    PubMed

    Syngiridis, Kostas; Bekatorou, Argyro; Kallis, Mihalis; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-03-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in a continuous process using a synthetic glucose medium as model substrate in the presence of γ-alumina as promoter is described. The results showed formation of acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric and valeric acids, with acetic acid being more than 90% of the total VFAs produced. It is also highlighted that γ-alumina enhanced the simultaneous production of acetic acid and ethanol, which in some cases was formed at concentrations able to esterify about 85% of the produced VFAs. Since most agro-industrial effluents can be treated by anaerobic acidogenic digestion, while lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to VFAs after hydrolysis, this contribution can lead to a breakthrough in the research of biofuel production from renewable waste sources. PMID:23399494

  8. Dynamic Modeling of Learning in Emerging Energy Industries: The Example of Advanced Biofuels in the United States; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steve; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura

    2015-07-19

    This paper (and its supplemental model) presents novel approaches to modeling interactions and related policies among investment, production, and learning in an emerging competitive industry. New biomass-to-biofuels pathways are being developed and commercialized to support goals for U.S. advanced biofuel use, such as those in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. We explore the impact of learning rates and techno-economics in a learning model excerpted from the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM), developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to explore the impact of biofuel policy on the evolution of the biofuels industry. The BSM integrates investment, production, and learning among competing biofuel conversion options that are at different stages of industrial development. We explain the novel methods used to simulate the impact of differing assumptions about mature industry techno-economics and about learning rates while accounting for the different maturity levels of various conversion pathways. A sensitivity study shows that the parameters studied (fixed capital investment, process yield, progress ratios, and pre-commercial investment) exhibit highly interactive effects, and the system, as modeled, tends toward market dominance of a single pathway due to competition and learning dynamics.

  9. ChiNet uncovers rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Z. Lewis; Song, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rewired upstream subnetworks impacting downstream differential gene expression aids the delineation of evolving molecular mechanisms. Cumulative statistics based on conventional differential correlation are limited for subnetwork rewiring analysis since rewiring is not necessarily equivalent to change in correlation coefficients. Here we present a computational method ChiNet to quantify subnetwork rewiring by statistical heterogeneity that enables detection of potential genotype changes causing altered transcription regulation in evolving organisms. Given a differentially expressed downstream gene set, ChiNet backtracks a rewired upstream subnetwork from a super-network including gene interactions known to occur under various molecular contexts. We benchmarked ChiNet for its high accuracy in distinguishing rewired artificial subnetworks, in silico yeast transcription-metabolic subnetworks, and rewired transcription subnetworks for Candida albicans versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, against two differential-correlation based subnetwork rewiring approaches. Then, using transcriptome data from tolerant S. cerevisiae strain NRRL Y-50049 and a wild-type intolerant strain, ChiNet identified 44 metabolic pathways affected by rewired transcription subnetworks anchored to major adaptively activated transcription factor genes YAP1, RPN4, SFP1 and ROX1, in response to toxic chemical challenges involved in lignocellulose-to-biofuels conversion. These findings support the use of ChiNet in rewiring analysis of subnetworks where differential interaction patterns resulting from divergent nonlinear dynamics abound. PMID:25897127

  10. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  11. Potential for Electrified Vehicles to Contribute to U.S. Petroleum and Climate Goals and Implications for Advanced Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Meier, Paul J; Cronin, Keith R; Frost, Ethan A; Runge, Troy M; Dale, Bruce E; Reinemann, Douglas J; Detlor, Jennifer

    2015-07-21

    To examine the national fuel and emissions impacts from increasingly electrified light-duty transportation, we reconstructed the vehicle technology portfolios from two national vehicle studies. Using these vehicle portfolios, we normalized assumptions and examined sensitivity around the rates of electrified vehicle penetration, travel demand growth, and electricity decarbonization. We further examined the impact of substituting low-carbon advanced cellulosic biofuels in place of petroleum. Twenty-seven scenarios were benchmarked against a 50% petroleum-reduction target and an 80% GHG-reduction target. We found that with high rates of electrification (40% of miles traveled) the petroleum-reduction benchmark could be satisfied, even with high travel demand growth. The same highly electrified scenarios, however, could not satisfy 80% GHG-reduction targets, even assuming 80% decarbonized electricity and no growth in travel demand. Regardless of precise consumer vehicle preferences, emissions are a function of the total reliance on electricity versus liquid fuels and the corresponding greenhouse gas intensities of both. We found that at a relatively high rate of electrification (40% of miles and 26% by fuel), an 80% GHG reduction could only be achieved with significant quantities of low-carbon liquid fuel in cases with low or moderate travel demand growth. PMID:26086692

  12. 40 CFR 35.4090 - If my group is eligible for an advance payment, how do we get our funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If my group is eligible for an advance payment, how do we get our funds? 35.4090 Section 35.4090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance How You Get the Money § 35.4090 If...

  13. 40 CFR 35.4090 - If my group is eligible for an advance payment, how do we get our funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If my group is eligible for an advance payment, how do we get our funds? 35.4090 Section 35.4090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance How You Get the Money § 35.4090 If...

  14. 40 CFR 35.4090 - If my group is eligible for an advance payment, how do we get our funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If my group is eligible for an advance payment, how do we get our funds? 35.4090 Section 35.4090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance How You Get the Money § 35.4090 If...

  15. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  16. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  17. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  18. 7 CFR 4288.113 - Payment record requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... each advanced biofuel facility indicating: (a) The type of eligible renewable biomass used in the production of advanced biofuel; (b) The quantity of advanced biofuel produced from eligible renewable biomass at each advanced biofuel facility; (c) The quantity of eligible renewable biomass used at...

  19. 7 CFR 4288.113 - Payment record requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... each advanced biofuel facility indicating: (a) The type of eligible renewable biomass used in the production of advanced biofuel; (b) The quantity of advanced biofuel produced from eligible renewable biomass at each advanced biofuel facility; (c) The quantity of eligible renewable biomass used at...

  20. Transition Metal Phosphide Nanoparticles Supported on SBA-15 as Highly Selective Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts for the Production of Advanced Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxing; Ochoa-Hernández, Cristina; de la Peña O'Shea, Víctor A; Pizarro, Patricia; Coronado, Juan M; Serrano, David P

    2015-09-01

    for hydrodeoxygenation MoP/SBA-15 appears as a very promising catalyst for the production of advanced biofuels. PMID:26716223

  1. 20 CFR 266.8 - Advance notice of the determination to make representative payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... minor under age 18, or an individual who is legally incompetent, the individual acting on his or her... section under part 260 of this chapter shall not prevent the Board from making payments to a... determinations and consider any additional information provided. The Board will then issue a decision on...

  2. Cyanobacterial biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Iara M P; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-11-30

    The development of new technologies for production of alternative fuel became necessary to circumvent finite petroleum resources, associate rising costs, and environmental concerns due to rising fossil fuel CO₂ emissions. Several alternatives have been proposed to develop a sustainable industrial society and reduce greenhouse emissions. The idea of biological conversion of CO₂ to fuel and chemicals is receiving increased attention. In particular, the direct conversion of CO₂ with solar energy to biofuel by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria has several advantages compared to traditional biofuel production from plant biomass. Photosynthetic microorganisms have higher growth rates compared with plants, and the production systems can be based on non-arable land. The advancement of synthetic biology and genetic manipulation has permitted engineering of cyanobacteria to produce non-natural chemicals typically not produced by these organisms in nature. This review addresses recent publications that utilize different approaches involving engineering cyanobacteria for production of high value chemicals including biofuels. PMID:22446641

  3. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  4. Hydrothermal treatment of oleaginous yeast for the recovery of free fatty acids for use in advanced biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gonzalez, Isabel; Parashar, Archana; Bressler, David C

    2014-10-10

    Microbial oils hold great potential as a suitable feedstock for the renewable production of biofuels. Specifically, the use of oleaginous yeasts offers several advantages related to cultivation and quality of lipid products. However, one of the major bottlenecks for large-scale production of yeast oils is found in the lipid extraction process. This work investigated the hydrothermal treatment of oleaginous yeast for hydrolysis and lipid extraction resulting in fatty acids used for biofuel production. The oleaginous yeast, Cryptococcus curvatus, was grown in 5 L bioreactors and the biomass slurry with 53±4% lipid content (dry weight basis) was treated at 280 °C for 1h with an initial pressure of 500 psi in batch stainless steel reactors. The hydrolysis product was separated and each of the resulting streams was further characterized. The hexane soluble fraction contained fatty acids from the hydrolysis of yeast triacylglycerides, and was low in nitrogen and minerals and could be directly integrated as feedstock into pyrolysis processing to produce biofuels. The proposed hydrothermal treatment addresses some current technological bottlenecks associated with traditional methodologies such as dewatering, oil extraction and co-product utilization. It also enhances the feasibility of using microbial biomass for production of renewable fuels and chemicals. PMID:25034431

  5. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation. PMID:24773576

  6. Payment of Advanced Placement Exam Fees by Virginia Public School Divisions and Its Impact on Advanced Placement Enrollment and Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirillo, Mary Grupe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Virginia school divisions' policy of paying the fee for students to take Advanced Placement exams on Advanced Placement course enrollment, the number of Advanced Placement exams taken by students, the average scores earned and the percent of students earning qualifying scores of 3, 4, or 5…

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP demand advance... 102-118.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use...

  8. Biofuel feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many forms of feedstocks for biofuel production. Animal manures and municipal solid wastes have been used to generate methane for on-farm and municipality energy uses. Fuel ethanol has been produced commercially using plant-derived starch and sugar feedstocks. Technologies for productio...

  9. 7 CFR 1484.57 - Will FAS make advance payments to a Cooperator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special advance is outstanding from a prior marketing plan year. Cooperators shall deposit and maintain... reimbursement claim. All checks shall be mailed to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA....

  10. 7 CFR 1484.57 - Will FAS make advance payments to a Cooperator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... where a special advance is outstanding from a prior marketing plan year. Cooperators shall deposit and... reimbursement claim. All checks shall be mailed to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA....

  11. 7 CFR 1484.57 - Will FAS make advance payments to a Cooperator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... where a special advance is outstanding from a prior marketing plan year. Cooperators shall deposit and... reimbursement claim. All checks shall be mailed to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA....

  12. 7 CFR 1484.57 - Will FAS make advance payments to a Cooperator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... special advance is outstanding from a prior marketing plan year. Cooperators shall deposit and maintain... reimbursement claim. All checks shall be mailed to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA....

  13. 7 CFR 1484.57 - Will FAS make advance payments to a Cooperator?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special advance is outstanding from a prior marketing plan year. Cooperators shall deposit and maintain... reimbursement claim. All checks shall be mailed to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA....

  14. 7 CFR 3430.51 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment. 3430.51 Section 3430.51 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.51 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted (see § 3430.3) or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to...

  15. 7 CFR 2500.041 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 2500.041 Section 2500.041 Agriculture... Closeout § 2500.041 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to the awardee shall be made...

  16. 7 CFR 2500.041 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 2500.041 Section 2500.041 Agriculture... Closeout § 2500.041 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to the awardee shall be made...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.51 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 3430.51 Section 3430.51 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.51 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted (see § 3430.3) or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to...

  18. 7 CFR 2500.041 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 2500.041 Section 2500.041 Agriculture... Closeout § 2500.041 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to the awardee shall be made...

  19. 7 CFR 3430.51 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 3430.51 Section 3430.51 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.51 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted (see § 3430.3) or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.51 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 3430.51 Section 3430.51 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.51 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted (see § 3430.3) or as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. All payments to...

  1. Biofuels from food processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanying; O'Hara, Ian M; Mundree, Sagadevan; Gao, Baoyu; Ball, Andrew S; Zhu, Nanwen; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Food processing industry generates substantial high organic wastes along with high energy uses. The recovery of food processing wastes as renewable energy sources represents a sustainable option for the substitution of fossil energy, contributing to the transition of food sector towards a low-carbon economy. This article reviews the latest research progress on biofuel production using food processing wastes. While extensive work on laboratory and pilot-scale biosystems for energy production has been reported, this work presents a review of advances in metabolic pathways, key technical issues and bioengineering outcomes in biofuel production from food processing wastes. Research challenges and further prospects associated with the knowledge advances and technology development of biofuel production are discussed. PMID:26874262

  2. Biofuels and biodiversity: principles for creating better policies for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Groom, Martha J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Townsend, Patricia A

    2008-06-01

    Biofuels are a new priority in efforts to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; nevertheless, the rapid increase in production of biofuel feedstock may threaten biodiversity. There are general principles that should be used in developing guidelines for certifying biodiversity-friendly biofuels. First, biofuel feedstocks should be grown with environmentally safe and biodiversity-friendly agricultural practices. The sustainability of any biofuel feedstock depends on good growing practices and sound environmental practices throughout the fuel-production life cycle. Second, the ecological footprint of a biofuel, in terms of the land area needed to grow sufficient quantities of the feedstock, should be minimized. The best alternatives appear to be fuels of the future, especially fuels derived from microalgae. Third, biofuels that can sequester carbon or that have a negative or zero carbon balance when viewed over the entire production life cycle should be given high priority. Corn-based ethanol is the worst among the alternatives that are available at present, although this is the biofuel that is most advanced for commercial production in the United States. We urge aggressive pursuit of alternatives to corn as a biofuel feedstock. Conservation biologists can significantly broaden and deepen efforts to develop sustainable fuels by playing active roles in pursuing research on biodiversity-friendly biofuel production practices and by helping define biodiversity-friendly biofuel certification standards. PMID:18261147

  3. Analysis of Tax-deductible Interest Payments for Re-advanceable Canadian Mortgages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseem, Almas; Reesor, Mark

    2011-11-01

    According to Canadian tax law the interest on loans used for investment purposes is tax deductible while interest on personal mortgage loans is not. One way of transforming from non-tax deductible to tax deductible interest expenses is to borrow against home equity to make investments. A re-advanceable mortgage is a product specifically designed to take advantage of this tax discrepancy. Using simulation we study the risk associated with the re-advanceable mortgage strategy to provide a better description of the mortgagor's position. We assume that the mortgagor invests the borrowings secured by home equity into a single risky asset (e.g., stock or mutual fund) whose evolution is described by geometric Brownian motion (GBM). With a re-advanceable mortgage we find that the average mortgage payoff time is less than the original mortgage term. However, there is considerable variation in the payoff times with a significant probability of a payoff time exceeding the original mortgage term. Higher income homeowners enjoy a payoff time distribution with both a lower average and a lower standard deviation than low-income homeowners. Thus this strategy is most beneficial to those with the highest income. We also find this strategy protects the homeowner in the event of job loss. This work is important to lenders, financial planners and homeowners to more fully understand the benefits and risk associated with this strategy.

  4. Administrative costs for advance payment of health coverage tax credits: an initial analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Stan

    2007-03-01

    Health Coverage Tax Credits (HCTCs), created under the Trade Act of 2002, pay 65 percent of health insurance premiums for certain workers displaced by international trade and early retirees. These credits can be paid directly to insurers when monthly premiums are due, in advance of annual tax return filing. While HCTC administrative costs have fallen significantly since program start-ups, they still comprise approximately 34 percent of total spending. Changes to the HCTC program could lower administrative costs, but the size of the resulting savings is unknown. These findings have important implications for any future tax credit plan intended to cover the uninsured. PMID:17419151

  5. 45 CFR 156.1215 - Payment and collections processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under the same taxpayer identification number for advance payments of the premium tax credit, advance... the same taxpayer identification number for advance payments of the premium tax credit, advance... the premium tax credit, advance payments of and reconciliation of cost-sharing reductions,...

  6. 22 CFR 226.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients will... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.22 Payment. (a) Payment...

  7. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Advance payment method and requirements. (1) Recipients will be... mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients are authorized to submit requests for advances and...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment...

  8. 14 CFR 151.129 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payments. 151.129 Section 151.129... Payments. (a) The United States' share of advance planning costs is paid in two installments unless the advance planning grant agreement provides otherwise. Upon request by sponsor, the first payment may...

  9. 14 CFR 151.129 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payments. 151.129 Section 151.129... Payments. (a) The United States' share of advance planning costs is paid in two installments unless the advance planning grant agreement provides otherwise. Upon request by sponsor, the first payment may...

  10. 14 CFR 151.129 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payments. 151.129 Section 151.129... Payments. (a) The United States' share of advance planning costs is paid in two installments unless the advance planning grant agreement provides otherwise. Upon request by sponsor, the first payment may...

  11. 14 CFR 151.129 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payments. 151.129 Section 151.129... Payments. (a) The United States' share of advance planning costs is paid in two installments unless the advance planning grant agreement provides otherwise. Upon request by sponsor, the first payment may...

  12. Scope of Algae as Third Generation Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Shuvashish; Singh, Richa; Arora, Richa; Sharma, Nilesh Kumar; Shukla, Madhulika; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass has been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production have been explored. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security. PMID:25717470

  13. Scope of algae as third generation biofuels.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shuvashish; Singh, Richa; Arora, Richa; Sharma, Nilesh Kumar; Shukla, Madhulika; Kumar, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass has been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production have been explored. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security. PMID:25717470

  14. A Survey of Biofuel Production potentials in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykova, Natalya; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Due to the abundance of fossil fuel resources in Russia, the development of the renewable energy market there was delayed. Recent technological advancement has led to an increasing interest in biofuel production. The aim of research was to evaluate how biofuels are introduced into the current energy scheme of the country. The potential production of biofuels was estimated based on sustainable approaches which provide solution for carbon emission reduction and environmental benefits. Russia still requires biofuel policy to make biofuels compatible with traditional fossil fuels.

  15. Biofuels Issues and Trends

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report presents data on biofuels consumption, production, imports and exports, including data collected by others than the U.S. Energy Information Administration. It also discusses important developments in biofuels markets.

  16. The benefits of biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, N.D.

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses the economic, environmental, and national security advantages of using biofuels instead of petroleum products in vehicles. Smog and carbon monoxide, two of the most trouble-some urban air pollutants, are largely caused by combustion of conventional petroleum based fuels. Topics include sustainable transportation fuels, emphasis on ethanol, the process of producing biofuels, and the growing market for biofuels. 1 tab.

  17. 7 CFR 1450.214 - Annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... biofuels as defined by 40 CFR 80.1401; (ii) By 10 percent if the eligible crop is delivered to a biomass...; (2) The applicable marginal pastureland rental rate for all other land except for nonindustrial... forest land productivity for nonindustrial private forest land; and (4) Any incentive payment...

  18. 7 CFR 1450.214 - Annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... biofuels as defined by 40 CFR 80.1401; (ii) By 10 percent if the eligible crop is delivered to a biomass...; (2) The applicable marginal pastureland rental rate for all other land except for nonindustrial... forest land productivity for nonindustrial private forest land; and (4) Any incentive payment...

  19. 7 CFR 1450.214 - Annual payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... biofuels as defined by 40 CFR 80.1401; (ii) By 10 percent if the eligible crop is delivered to a biomass...; (2) The applicable marginal pastureland rental rate for all other land except for nonindustrial... forest land productivity for nonindustrial private forest land; and (4) Any incentive payment...

  20. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Advance payment method and requirements. (1) Recipients will be..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability...

  1. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Advance payment method and requirements. (1) Recipients will be..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability...

  2. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Advance payment method and requirements. (1) Recipients will be..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... instrumentalities shall be consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR... funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods shall minimize the...

  4. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. Federal payments to recipients shall be made by electronic funds... 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances and reimbursements on a monthly... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.22 Payment. (a) Payment...

  5. 7 CFR 3430.51 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment. 3430.51 Section 3430.51 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.51 Payment. (a) General. All payments will be made in advance unless a deviation is accepted (see § 3430.3) or as specified in...

  6. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at the... period of years, the next and succeeding payments shall be due and payable annually in advance. The...

  7. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at the... period of years, the next and succeeding payments shall be due and payable annually in advance. The...

  8. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at the... period of years, the next and succeeding payments shall be due and payable annually in advance. The...

  9. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at the... period of years, the next and succeeding payments shall be due and payable annually in advance. The...

  10. 25 CFR 173.10 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payments. 173.10 Section 173.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.10 Payments. Each permittee shall pay at the... period of years, the next and succeeding payments shall be due and payable annually in advance. The...

  11. 10 CFR 600.312 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the designated contracting officer. (2) Advance payments. Under this method, DOE makes a payment... compliance with paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section. (b) Selecting a method. (1) The preferred payment... definitions of “debt” and “delinquent debt” in 32 CFR 22.105). In that case, the contracting officer may,...

  12. 10 CFR 600.122 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances... codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or demonstrate... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 600.122 Section 600.122 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  13. 10 CFR 600.122 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances... codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or demonstrate... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 600.122 Section 600.122 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  14. 10 CFR 600.122 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances... codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or demonstrate... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 600.122 Section 600.122 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  15. Limits to biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  16. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2013-10-01

    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. PMID:23499181

  17. Biofuels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  18. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production. PMID:21936941

  19. NREL biofuels program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  20. Increasing Feedstock Production for Biofuels: Economic Drivers, Environmental Implications, and the Role of Research

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Biomass Research and Development Board (Board) commissioned an economic analysis of feedstocks to produce biofuels. The Board seeks to inform investments in research and development needed to expand biofuel production. This analysis focuses on feedstocks; other interagency teams have projects underway for other parts of the biofuel sector (e.g., logistics). The analysis encompasses feedstocks for both conventional and advanced biofuels from agriculture and forestry sources.

  1. 40 CFR 30.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance.... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to... Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment...

  2. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.22 Payment....

  3. 29 CFR 1470.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment. 1470.21 Section 1470.21 Labor Regulations Relating... Administration § 1470.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  4. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Advance payment method and requirements. (1) Recipients will be... mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients are authorized to submit requests for advances and... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment. 435.22 Section 435.22...

  5. 15 CFR 24.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR Part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment. 24.21 Section 24.21 Commerce... Administration § 24.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  6. 29 CFR 1470.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment. 1470.21 Section 1470.21 Labor Regulations Relating... Administration § 1470.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  7. 45 CFR 92.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR Part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment. 92.21 Section 92.21 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  8. 45 CFR 2541.210 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment. 2541.210 Section 2541.210 Public Welfare... Requirements § 2541.210 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  9. 13 CFR 143.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment. 143.21 Section 143.21... Administration § 143.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  10. 45 CFR 2541.210 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment. 2541.210 Section 2541.210 Public Welfare... Requirements § 2541.210 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  11. 14 CFR 1273.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment. 1273.21 Section 1273.21... Administration § 1273.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  12. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment. 49.22 Section...

  13. 45 CFR 2541.210 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 2541.210 Section 2541.210 Public Welfare... Requirements § 2541.210 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  14. 45 CFR 602.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 602.21 Section 602.21 Public Welfare....21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under which...

  15. 29 CFR 1470.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment. 1470.21 Section 1470.21 Labor Regulations Relating... Administration § 1470.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  16. 14 CFR § 1273.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. § 1273.21 Section § 1273.21... Administration § 1273.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  17. 45 CFR 2541.210 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 2541.210 Section 2541.210 Public Welfare... Requirements § 2541.210 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  18. 45 CFR 92.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR Part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 92.21 Section 92.21 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  19. 15 CFR 24.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR Part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 24.21 Section 24.21 Commerce... Administration § 24.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  20. 13 CFR 143.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 143.21 Section 143.21... Administration § 143.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  1. 45 CFR 92.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 92.21 Section 92.21 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  2. 10 CFR 600.221 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 600.221 Section 600.221 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under which a...

  3. 45 CFR 602.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 602.21 Section 602.21 Public Welfare....21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under which...

  4. 13 CFR 143.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 143.21 Section 143.21... Administration § 143.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  5. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment. 49.22 Section...

  6. 45 CFR 2541.210 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 2541.210 Section 2541.210 Public Welfare... Requirements § 2541.210 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  7. 10 CFR 600.221 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 600.221 Section 600.221 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under which a...

  8. 10 CFR 600.221 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 600.221 Section 600.221 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under which a...

  9. 45 CFR 602.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 602.21 Section 602.21 Public Welfare....21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under which...

  10. 29 CFR 1470.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment. 1470.21 Section 1470.21 Labor Regulations Relating... Administration § 1470.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  11. 15 CFR 24.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR Part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 24.21 Section 24.21 Commerce... Administration § 24.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  12. 15 CFR 24.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR Part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 24.21 Section 24.21 Commerce... Administration § 24.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods under...

  13. 14 CFR 1273.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 1273.21 Section 1273.21... Administration § 1273.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic standard and the methods...

  14. 22 CFR 226.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients...

  15. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3)...

  16. Algal Biofuels Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    This fact sheet provides information on algal biofuels, which are generating considerable interest around the world. They may represent a sustainable pathway for helping to meet the U.S. biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  17. Biofuels Research at EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of sustainable and clean biofuels is a national priority. To do so requires a life-cycle approach that includes consideration of feedstock production and logistics, and biofuel production, distribution, and end use. The US Environmental Protection Agency is suppor...

  18. 7 CFR 4288.110 - Applicant eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... requirements associated with advanced biofuel producer eligibility, biofuel eligibility, eligibility... not eligible for this Program. (a) Eligible producer. The applicant must be an advanced...

  19. 7 CFR 4288.110 - Applicant eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... requirements associated with advanced biofuel producer eligibility, biofuel eligibility, eligibility... not eligible for this Program. (a) Eligible producer. The applicant must be an advanced...

  20. Biofuels and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Barry D

    2010-01-01

    Interest in liquid biofuels production and use has increased worldwide as part of government policies to address the growing scarcity and riskiness of petroleum use, and, at least in theory, to help mitigate adverse global climate change. The existing biofuels markets are dominated by U.S. ethanol production based on cornstarch, Brazilian ethanol production based on sugarcane, and European biodiesel production based on rapeseed oil. Other promising efforts have included programs to shift toward the production and use of biofuels based on residues and waste materials from the agricultural and forestry sectors, and perennial grasses, such as switchgrass and miscanthus--so-called cellulosic ethanol. This article reviews these efforts and the recent literature in the context of ecological economics and sustainability science. Several common dimensions for sustainable biofuels are discussed: scale (resource assessment, land availability, and land use practices); efficiency (economic and energy); equity (geographic distribution of resources and the "food versus fuel" debate); socio-economic issues; and environmental effects and emissions. Recent proposals have been made for the development of sustainable biofuels criteria, culminating in standards released in Sweden in 2008 and a draft report from the international Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels. These criteria hold promise for accelerating a shift away from unsustainable biofuels based on grain, such as corn, and toward possible sustainable feedstock and production practices that may be able to meet a variety of social, economic, and environmental sustainability criteria. PMID:20146765

  1. Next generation biofuel engineering in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gronenberg, Luisa S.; Marcheschi, Ryan J.; Liao, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation biofuels must be compatible with current transportation infrastructure and be derived from environmentally sustainable resources that do not compete with food crops. Many bacterial species have unique properties advantageous to the production of such next-generation fuels. However, no single species possesses all characteristics necessary to make high quantities of fuels from plant waste or CO2. Species containing a subset of the desired characteristics are used as starting points for engineering organisms with all desired attributes. Metabolic engineering of model organisms has yielded high titer production of advanced fuels, including alcohols, isoprenoids and fatty acid derivatives. Technical developments now allow engineering of native fuel producers, as well as lignocellulolytic and autotrophic bacteria, for the production of biofuels. Continued research on multiple fronts is required to engineer organisms for truly sustainable and economical biofuel production. PMID:23623045

  2. Sandia's Biofuels Program

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Lane, Todd; Reichardt, Tom; Davis, Ryan

    2014-07-22

    Sandia's biofuels program is focused on developing next-generation, renewable fuel solutions derived from biomass. In this video, various Sandia researchers discuss the program and the tools they employ to tackle the technical challenges they face.

  3. Sandia's Biofuels Program

    ScienceCinema

    Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Lane, Todd; Reichardt, Tom; Davis, Ryan

    2014-07-24

    Sandia's biofuels program is focused on developing next-generation, renewable fuel solutions derived from biomass. In this video, various Sandia researchers discuss the program and the tools they employ to tackle the technical challenges they face.

  4. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  5. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Dennis; Narayan, Ramani; Berglund, Kris; Lira, Carl; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad; Lee, Tonghun; Anderson, James; Wallington, Timothy; Kurtz, Eric; Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  6. Biofuels and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John; Fargione, Joseph; Hill, Jason

    2011-06-01

    The recent increase in liquid biofuel production has stemmed from a desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil, mitigate rising energy prices, promote rural economic development, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The growth of this industry has important implications for biodiversity, the effects of which depend largely on which biofuel feedstocks are being grown and the spatial extent and landscape pattern of land requirements for growing these feedstocks. Current biofuel production occurs largely on croplands that have long been in agricultural production. The additional land area required for future biofuels production can be met in part by reclaiming reserve or abandoned croplands and by extending cropping into lands formerly deemed marginal for agriculture. In the United States, many such marginal lands have been enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing important habitat for grassland species. The demand for corn ethanOl has changed agricultural commodity economics dramatically, already contributing to loss of CRP lands as contracts expire and lands are returned to agricultural production. Nevertheless, there are ways in which biofuels can be developed to enhance their coexistence with biodiversity. Landscape heterogeneity can be improved by interspersion of land uses, which is easier around facilities with smaller or more varied feedstock demands. The development of biofuel feedstocks that yield high net energy returns with minimal carbon debts or that do not require additional land for production, such as residues and wastes, should be encouraged. Competing land uses, including both biofuel production and biodiversity protection, should be subjected to comprehensive cost-benefit analysis, so that incentives can be directed where they will do the most good. PMID:21774415

  7. 34 CFR 74.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... check, and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment. 74.22 Section 74.22 Education Office of...

  8. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.22 Payment. (a) Payment methods must... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients may be paid in advance, provided they maintain or... transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management systems that meet...

  9. 42 CFR 422.304 - Monthly payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... makes advance monthly payments of the amounts determined under paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this... month. (1) Payment of bid for plans with bids below benchmark. For MA plans that have average per capita... benchmarks. The rebate amount under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section is the amount of the monthly...

  10. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.21 Payment. (a) Scope....

  11. 32 CFR 33.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment. 33.21 Section 33.21 National Defense... Requirements Financial Administration § 33.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  12. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.21 Payment. (a) Scope....

  13. 40 CFR 35.6280 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 31.21 (f) through (h). (1) Assignment of payment. The recipient cannot assign the right to receive... is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 31.21(i), “Interest earned on advances.” (b) Payment method... comply with the requirements regarding letter of credit described in 40 CFR 31.20 (b)(7) and...

  14. 41 CFR 105-71.121 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment. 105-71.121...-Award Requirements/Financial Administration § 105-71.121 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  15. 40 CFR 31.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment. 31.21 Section 31.21 Protection... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  16. 7 CFR 3016.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment. 3016.21 Section 3016.21 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  17. 24 CFR 84.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... rules (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in...

  18. 29 CFR 97.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment. 97.21 Section 97.21 Labor Office of the Secretary... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  19. 40 CFR 35.6280 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 31.21 (f) through (h). (1) Assignment of payment. The recipient cannot assign the right to receive... is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 31.21(i), “Interest earned on advances.” (b) Payment method... comply with the requirements regarding letter of credit described in 40 CFR 31.20 (b)(7) and...

  20. 41 CFR 105-71.121 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment. 105-71.121...-Award Requirements/Financial Administration § 105-71.121 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  1. 7 CFR 3016.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment. 3016.21 Section 3016.21 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  2. 38 CFR 43.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment. 43.21 Section 43... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  3. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.21 Payment. (a) Scope....

  4. 29 CFR 97.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Payment. 97.21 Section 97.21 Labor Office of the Secretary... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  5. 38 CFR 43.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment. 43.21 Section 43... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  6. 43 CFR 12.61 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 12.61 Section 12.61 Public Lands... State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.61 Payment. (a) Scope. This section...

  7. 40 CFR 31.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment. 31.21 Section 31.21 Protection... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  8. 7 CFR 3016.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 3016.21 Section 3016.21 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  9. 32 CFR 33.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment. 33.21 Section 33.21 National Defense... Requirements Financial Administration § 33.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  10. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be... instrumentalities shall be consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 2543.22 Section 2543.22 Public...

  11. 7 CFR 3016.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 3016.21 Section 3016.21 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  12. 41 CFR 105-71.121 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 105-71.121...-Award Requirements/Financial Administration § 105-71.121 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  13. 38 CFR 43.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment. 43.21 Section 43... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  14. 40 CFR 35.6280 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 31.21 (f) through (h). (1) Assignment of payment. The recipient cannot assign the right to receive... is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 31.21(i), “Interest earned on advances.” (b) Payment method... comply with the requirements regarding letter of credit described in 40 CFR 31.20 (b)(7) and...

  15. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. Federal payments to recipients shall be made by electronic funds... 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances and reimbursements on a monthly... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 14.22 Section 14.22...

  16. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.21 Payment. (a) Scope....

  17. 24 CFR 85.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment. 85.21 Section 85.21... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.21 Payment. (a) Scope....

  18. 24 CFR 84.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... rules (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in...

  19. 43 CFR 12.61 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Payment. 12.61 Section 12.61 Public Lands... State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.61 Payment. (a) Scope. This section...

  20. 24 CFR 84.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... rules (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in...

  1. 29 CFR 97.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment. 97.21 Section 97.21 Labor Office of the Secretary... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  2. 40 CFR 30.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to... Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in...

  3. 43 CFR 12.61 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 12.61 Section 12.61 Public Lands... State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.61 Payment. (a) Scope. This section...

  4. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. Federal payments to recipients shall be made by electronic funds... 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances and reimbursements on a monthly... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 14.22 Section 14.22...

  5. 40 CFR 30.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to... Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in...

  6. 44 CFR 13.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 13.21 Section 13.21... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  7. 22 CFR 145.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Treasury check and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment. 145.22 Section 145.22...

  8. 22 CFR 145.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Treasury check and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment. 145.22 Section 145.22...

  9. 40 CFR 31.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment. 31.21 Section 31.21 Protection... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes the basic...

  10. 24 CFR 84.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... rules (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in...

  11. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. Federal payments to recipients shall be made by electronic funds... 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances and reimbursements on a monthly... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment. 14.22 Section 14.22...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6280 - Payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 31.21 (f) through (h). (1) Assignment of payment. The recipient cannot assign the right to receive... is subject to the requirements of 40 CFR 31.21(i), “Interest earned on advances.” (b) Payment method... comply with the requirements regarding letter of credit described in 40 CFR 31.20 (b)(7) and...

  13. 22 CFR 145.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Treasury check and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment. 145.22 Section 145.22...

  14. 7 CFR 3016.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment. 3016.21 Section 3016.21 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  15. 44 CFR 13.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Payment. 13.21 Section 13.21... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.21 Payment. (a) Scope. This...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be... instrumentalities shall be consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 2543.22 Section 2543.22 Public...

  17. 41 CFR 105-71.121 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment. 105-71.121...-Award Requirements/Financial Administration § 105-71.121 Payment. (a) Scope. This section prescribes...

  18. 34 CFR 74.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1... check, and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment. 74.22 Section 74.22 Education Office of...

  19. 29 CFR 97.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... from payment to contractors to assure satisfactory completion of work. Payments shall be made by the... to escrow accounts established to assure satisfactory completion of work. (h) Cash depositories....

  20. Regulatory mechanisms related to biofuel tolerance in producing microbes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Chen, L; Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Production of renewable biofuels through either native or engineered microbes has drawn significant attention in recent years, mostly due to the increasing concerns on the energy crisis and the environmental consequences of the overutilization of petroleum-based fuels. Although significant progress has been achieved thus far, further advances are still necessary in order to decrease the manufacturing cost so that the producing processes can be more competitive to petroleum fuels. Among various possible approaches, the increase in biofuel tolerance in microbes has been suggested as one aspect which is important for the success of biofuel production at industry-scale. In this article, we critically summarize recent advances in deciphering regulatory mechanisms for enhancing biofuel tolerance in various micro-organisms, focusing on functions and utilization of several well-studied regulatory mechanisms in microbes, such as two-component signal transduction systems, sigma factors, transcription factors, noncoding RNA and other regulators. PMID:27123568

  1. World Biofuels Study

    SciTech Connect

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over

  2. Biofuels and Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    The world obtains 86% of its energy from fossil fuels, 40% from petroleum, a majority of which goes to the transportation sector (www.IEA.gov). Well-recognized alternatives are fuels derived from renewable sources known as biofuels. There are a number of biofuels useful for transportation fuels, which include ethanol, biobutanol, mixed alcohols, biodiesel, and hydrogen. These biofuels are produced from biologically derived feedstock, almost exclusively being plant materials, either food or feed sources or inedible plant material called biomass. This chapter will discuss technologies for production of liquid transportation biofuels from renewable feedstocks, but hydrogen will not be included, as the production technology and infrastructure are not near term. In addition, a specific emphasis will be placed upon the research opportunities and potential for application of system biology tools to dissect and understand the biological processes central to production of these biofuels from biomass and biological materials. There are a number of technologies for production of each of these biofuels that range from fully mature processes such as grain-derived ethanol, emerging technology of ethanol form cellulose derived ethanol and immature processes such thermochemical conversion technologies and production of hydrogen all produced from renewable biological feedstocks. Conversion of biomass by various thermochemical and combustion technologies to produce thermochemical biodiesel or steam and electricity provide growing sources of bioenergy. However, these technologies are outside of the scope of this chapter, as is the use of biological processing for upgrading and conversion of fossil fuels. Therefore, this chapter will focus on the current status of production of biofuels produced from biological-derived feedstocks using biological processes. Regardless of the status of development of the biological process for production of the biofuels, each process can benefit from

  3. BioFuels Atlas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, K.

    2011-02-01

    Presentation for biennial merit review of Biofuels Atlas, a first-pass visualization tool that allows users to explore the potential of biomass-to-biofuels conversions at various locations and scales.

  4. Microalgae biofuel potentials (review).

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Naseri, A T; Montazeri-Najafabady, N; Mobasher, M A; Dabbagh, F

    2012-01-01

    With the decrease of fossil based fuels and the environmental impact of them over the planet, it seems necessary to seek the sustainable sources of clean energy. Biofuels, is becoming a worldwide leader in the development of renewable energy resources. It is worthwhile to say that algal biofuel production is thought to help stabilize the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and decrease global warming impacts. Also, among algal fuels' attractive characteristics, algal biodiesel is non toxic, with no sulfur, highly biodegradable and relatively harmless to the environment if spilled. Algae are capable of producing in excess of 30 times more oil per acre than corn and soybean crops. Currently, algal biofuel production has not been commercialized due to high costs associated with production, harvesting and oil extraction but the technology is progressing. Extensive research was conducted to determine the utilization of microalgae as an energy source and make algae oil production commercially viable. PMID:22586908

  5. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    PubMed Central

    Goldemberg, José

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion. PMID:18471272

  6. 15 CFR 14.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. Federal payments to recipients shall be made by electronic funds... 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances and reimbursements on a...

  7. 22 CFR 145.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be..., Treasury check and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part...

  8. Enzymatic deconstruction of xylan for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    DODD, DYLAN; CANN, ISAAC K. O.

    2010-01-01

    The combustion of fossil-derived fuels has a significant impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and correspondingly is an important contributor to anthropogenic global climate change. Plants have evolved photosynthetic mechanisms in which solar energy is used to fix CO2 into carbohydrates. Thus, combustion of biofuels, derived from plant biomass, can be considered a potentially carbon neutral process. One of the major limitations for efficient conversion of plant biomass to biofuels is the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall, which is composed mostly of lignocellulosic materials (lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose). The heteropolymer xylan represents the most abundant hemicellulosic polysaccharide and is composed primarily of xylose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid. Microbes have evolved a plethora of enzymatic strategies for hydrolyzing xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent fermentation to biofuels. Therefore, microorganisms are considered an important source of biocatalysts in the emerging biofuel industry. To produce an optimized enzymatic cocktail for xylan deconstruction, it will be valuable to gain insight at the molecular level of the chemical linkages and the mechanisms by which these enzymes recognize their substrates and catalyze their reactions. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and structural biology have revolutionized our understanding of the microbial xylanolytic enzymes. This review focuses on current understanding of the molecular basis for substrate specificity and catalysis by enzymes involved in xylan deconstruction. PMID:20431716

  9. Engineering microbial biofuel tolerance and export using efflux pumps

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Mary J; Dossani, Zain Y; Szmidt, Heather L; Chu, Hou Cheng; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D; Hadi, Masood Z; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2011-01-01

    Many compounds being considered as candidates for advanced biofuels are toxic to microorganisms. This introduces an undesirable trade-off when engineering metabolic pathways for biofuel production because the engineered microbes must balance production against survival. Cellular export systems, such as efflux pumps, provide a direct mechanism for reducing biofuel toxicity. To identify novel biofuel pumps, we used bioinformatics to generate a list of all efflux pumps from sequenced bacterial genomes and prioritized a subset of targets for cloning. The resulting library of 43 pumps was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, where we tested it against seven representative biofuels. By using a competitive growth assay, we efficiently distinguished pumps that improved survival. For two of the fuels (n-butanol and isopentanol), none of the pumps improved tolerance. For all other fuels, we identified pumps that restored growth in the presence of biofuel. We then tested a beneficial pump directly in a production strain and demonstrated that it improved biofuel yields. Our findings introduce new tools for engineering production strains and utilize the increasingly large database of sequenced genomes. PMID:21556065

  10. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: provider payment and service supply behaviour and incentives in the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme – a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assuring equitable universal access to essential health services without exposure to undue financial hardship requires adequate resource mobilization, efficient use of resources, and attention to quality and responsiveness of services. The way providers are paid is a critical part of this process because it can create incentives and patterns of behaviour related to supply. The objective of this work was to describe provider behaviour related to supply of health services to insured clients in Ghana and the influence of provider payment methods on incentives and behaviour. Methods A mixed methods study involving grey and published literature reviews, as well as health management information system and primary data collection and analysis was used. Primary data collection involved in-depth interviews, observations of time spent obtaining service, prescription analysis, and exit interviews with clients. Qualitative data was analysed manually to draw out themes, commonalities, and contrasts. Quantitative data was analysed in Excel and Stata. Causal loop and cause tree diagrams were used to develop a qualitative explanatory model of provider supply incentives and behaviour related to payment method in context. Results There are multiple provider payment methods in the Ghanaian health system. National Health Insurance provider payment methods are the most recent additions. At the time of the study, the methods used nationwide were the Ghana Diagnostic Related Groupings payment for services and an itemized and standardized fee schedule for medicines. The influence of provider payment method on supply behaviour was sometimes intuitive and sometimes counter intuitive. It appeared to be related to context and the interaction of the methods with context and each other rather than linearly to any given method. Conclusions As countries work towards Universal Health Coverage, there is a need to holistically design, implement, and manage provider payment methods reforms

  11. Sustainable Biofuels Redux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuel sustainability has environmental, economic, and social facets that all interconnect. Tradeoffs among them vary widely by types of fuels and where they are grown, and thus need to be explicitly considered using a framework that allows the outcomes of alternative systems to be consistently eva...

  12. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  13. Agriculture - Sustainable biofuels Redux

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G. Phillip; Dale, Virginia H; Doering, Otto C.; Hamburg, Steven P; Melillo, Jerry M; Wander, Michele M; Parton, William

    2008-10-01

    Last May's passage of the 2008 Farm Bill raises the stakes for biofuel sustainability: A substantial subsidy for the production of cellulosic ethanol starts the United States again down a path with uncertain environmental consequences. This time, however, the subsidy is for both the refiners ($1.01 per gallon) and the growers ($45 per ton of biomass), which will rapidly accelerate adoption and place hard-to-manage pressures on efforts to design and implement sustainable production practices - as will a 2007 legislative mandate for 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol per year by 2022. Similar directives elsewhere, e.g., the European Union's mandate that 10% of all transport fuel in Europe be from renewable sources by 2020, make this a global issue. The European Union's current reconsideration of this target places even more emphasis on cellulosic feedstocks (1). The need for knowledge- and science-based policy is urgent. Biofuel sustainability has environmental, economic, and social facets that all interconnect. Tradeoffs among them vary widely by types of fuels and where they are grown and, thus, need to be explicitly considered by using a framework that allows the outcomes of alternative systems to be consistently evaluated and compared. A cellulosic biofuels industry could have many positive social and environmental attributes, but it could also suffer from many of the sustainability issues that hobble grain-based biofuels, if not implemented the right way.

  14. Biofuels from urban landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass from urban landscapes is an untapped resource. Lawn thatch and clippings, fallen leaves and tree limbs are all potential sources of biofuels. Most cities already collect and transport these materials to disposal sites; but, alternatively could collect and transport these materials to a loc...

  15. Beetles, Biofuel, and Coffee

    SciTech Connect

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier

    2015-05-06

    Berkeley Lab scientist Javier Ceja-Navarro discusses his research on the microbial populations found the guts of insects, specifically the coffee berry borer, which may lead to better pest management and the passalid beetle, which could lead to improved biofuel production.

  16. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  17. Biofuels: Report to Congress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 204 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007) requires EPA to assess and report to Congress on the impacts to date and likely future impacts of the increased use of biofuels as required by the Clean Air Act, section 211(0). Environmental issues (...

  18. 7 CFR 4288.121 - Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.121 Contract. Advanced biofuel producers determined to be eligible to receive payments must... Agency will forward the contract to the advanced biofuel producer. The advanced biofuel producer...

  19. 7 CFR 4288.121 - Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program General Provisions § 4288.121 Contract. Advanced biofuel producers determined to be eligible to receive payments must... Agency will forward the contract to the advanced biofuel producer. The advanced biofuel producer...

  20. Biofuel on contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suer, Pascal; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Blom, Sonja; Bardos, Paul; Polland, Marcel; Track, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Desktop studies of two Swedish contaminated sites has indicated that growing biofuel crops on these sites may be more environmentally beneficial than alternative risk management approaches such as excavation / removal or containment The demand for biofuel increases pressure on the cultivatable soil of the world. While contaminated land is not very suitable for food production, cultivation of low and medium contaminated soil may remove some pressure from agricultural soils. For larger sites, biofuel cultivation may be economically viable without a remediation bonus. Suitable sites have topographic conditions that allow agricultural machinery, are not in urgent need of remediation, and contamination levels are not plant toxic. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was done for two cases. The (desk top) case studies were - Case K, a 5000 m2 site where salix (willow) was cultivated with hand-held machinery and the biofuel harvest was left on site, and - Case F, a 12 ha site were on site ensuring was being considered, and were salix might have rented an economic profit if the remediation had not been urgent due to exploitation pressure. Some selected results for biofuel K; biofuel F; excavation K; and on site ensuring F respectively: Energy: 0,05; 1,4; 3,5; 19 TJ Waste: 1; 9; 1200; 340 ton Land use off-site: 190; 3 500; 200 000; 1 400 000 m² a Global warming: 3; 86; 230; 1 200 ton CO2 eq Acidification: 25; 1 000; 2 600; 14 000 kg SO2 eq Photochemical smog: 10; 180; 410; 2 300 kg ethene eq Human health: 2; 51; 150; 620 index The environmental impact of the traditional remediation methods of excavation and on-site ensuring was mainly due to the transport of contaminated soil and replacement soil, and landfilling of the contaminated soil. Biofuel cultivation avoids these impacts, while fertiliser production and agricultural machinery would have a lower environmental impact than moving large volumes of soil around. Journeys of a controller to check on the groundwater quality also

  1. 10 CFR 600.122 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or demonstrate...) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may submit requests for advances... for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and...

  2. 44 CFR 13.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... grantee or subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees... disbursement. (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments... Development Agency, Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230. (2) A grantee or subgrantee shall maintain...

  3. 38 CFR 43.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid.... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a...

  4. 32 CFR 33.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid.... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a...

  5. 40 CFR 31.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid.... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a...

  6. 36 CFR 1207.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subgrantee, in accordance with Treasury regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and.... (e) Working capital advances. If a grantee cannot meet the criteria for advance payments described in... because the grantee lacks sufficient working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash or a...

  7. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant

  8. Arid Lands Biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, B. P.

    2013-05-01

    Dependence on imported petroleum, as well as consequences from burning fossil fuels, has increased the demand for biofuel sources in the United States. Competition between food crops and biofuel crops has been an increasing concern, however, since it has the potential to raise prices for US beef and grain products due to land and resource competition. Biofuel crops that can be grown on land not suitable for food crops are thus attractive, but also need to produce biofuels in a financially sustainable manner. In the intermountain west of Nevada, biofuel crops need to survive on low-organic soils with limited precipitation when grown in areas that are not competing with food and feed. The plants must also yield an oil content sufficiently high to allow economically viable fuel production, including growing and harvesting the crop as well as converting the hydrocarbons into a liquid fuel. Gumweed (Grindelia squarrosa) currently appears to satisfy all of these requirements and is commonly observed throughout the west. The plant favors dry, sandy soils and is most commonly found on roadsides and other freshly disturbed land. A warm season biennial, the gumweed plant is part of the sunflower family and normally grows 2-4 feet high with numerous yellow flowers and curly leaves. The gumweed plant contains a large store of diterpene resins—most abundantly grindelic acid— similar to the saps found on pine trees that are used to make inks and adhesives. The dry weight harvest on the experimental field is 5130 lbs/acre. Whole plant biomass yields between 11-15% (average 13%) biocrude when subjected to acetone extraction whereas the buds alone contains up to a maximum of 35% biocrude when harvested in 'white milky' stage. The extract is then converted to basic form (sodium grindelate) followed by extraction of nonpolar constituents (mostly terpenes) with hexane and extracted back to ethyl acetate in acidified condition. Ethyl acetate is removed under vacuum to leave a dark

  9. Sustainable multipurpose biorefineries for third-generation biofuels and value-added co-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern biorefinery facilities conduct many types of processes, including those producing advanced biofuels, commodity chemicals, biodiesel, and value-added co-products such as sweeteners and bioinsecticides, with many more co-products, chemicals and biofuels on the horizon. Most of these processes ...

  10. Biofuels: What Are They and How Can They Improve Practical Work and Discussions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the potential of bioenergy as a replacement for fossil fuels, the cutting-edge research being undertaken by scientists, and classroom resources available for teaching this topic. There is currently a large programme of scientific research aiming to develop advanced biofuels (replenishable liquid biofuels from non-food plants,…

  11. Recent progress in oxygen-reducing laccase biocathodes for enzymatic biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge

    2015-03-01

    This review summarizes different approaches and breakthroughs in the development of laccase-based biocathodes for bioelectrocatalytic oxygen reduction. The use of advanced electrode materials, such as nanoparticles and nanowires is underlined. The applications of recently developed laccase electrodes for enzymatic biofuel cells are reviewed with an emphasis on in vivo application of biofuel cells. PMID:25577279

  12. Plant-based biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    This review is a short synopsis of some of the latest breakthroughs in the areas of lignocellulosic conversion to fuels and utilization of oils for biodiesel. Although four lignocellulosic ethanol factories have opened in the USA and hundreds of biodiesel installations are active worldwide, technological improvements are being discovered that will rapidly evolve the biofuels industry into a new paradigm. These discoveries involve the feedstocks as well as the technologies to process them. PMID:26949525

  13. 32 CFR 37.1105 - What additional duties do I have as the administrator of a TIA with advance payments or payable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... share at that milestone to be 50% of project expenditures). If the milestone payment report shows $90,000 in expenditures, the recipient's share at this point is 44% ($40,000 out of the total $90,000..., you should adjust future milestones if you judge that a 6% difference in the recipient's share at...

  14. Biofuels from microbes.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Dominik; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2007-11-01

    Today, biomass covers about 10% of the world's primary energy demand. Against a backdrop of rising crude oil prices, depletion of resources, political instability in producing countries and environmental challenges, besides efficiency and intelligent use, only biomass has the potential to replace the supply of an energy hungry civilisation. Plant biomass is an abundant and renewable source of energy-rich carbohydrates which can be efficiently converted by microbes into biofuels, of which, only bioethanol is produced on an industrial scale today. Biomethane is produced on a large scale, but is not yet utilised for transportation. Biobutanol is on the agenda of several companies and may be used in the near future as a supplement for gasoline, diesel and kerosene, as well as contributing to the partially biological production of butyl-t-butylether, BTBE as does bioethanol today with ETBE. Biohydrogen, biomethanol and microbially made biodiesel still require further development. This paper reviews microbially made biofuels which have potential to replace our present day fuels, either alone, by blending, or by chemical conversion. It also summarises the history of biofuels and provides insight into the actual production in various countries, reviewing their policies and adaptivity to the energy challenges of foreseeable future. PMID:17891391

  15. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  16. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  17. Toward the design of sustainable biofuel landscapes: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izaurralde, R. C.; Zhang, X.; Manowitz, D. H.; Sahajpal, R.

    2011-12-01

    Biofuel crops have emerged as promising feedstocks for advanced bioenergy production in the form of cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel. However, large-scale deployment of biofuel crops for energy production has the potential to conflict with food production and generate a myriad of environmental outcomes related to land and water resources (e.g., decreases in soil carbon storage, increased erosion, altered runoff, deterioration in water quality). In order to anticipate the possible impacts of biofuel crop production on food production systems and the environment and contribute to the design of sustainable biofuel landscapes, we developed a spatially-explicit integrated modeling framework (SEIMF) aimed at understanding, among other objectives, the complex interactions among land, water, and energy. The framework is a research effort of the DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center. The SEIMF has three components: (1) a GIS-based data analysis system, (2) the biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate), and (3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for examining trade-offs between biofuel energy production and ecosystem responses. The SEIMF was applied at biorefinery scale to simulate biofuel production scenarios and the yield and environmental results were used to develop trade-offs, economic and life-cycle analyses. The SEIMF approach was also applied to test the hypothesis that growing perennial herbaceous species on marginal lands can satisfy a significant fraction of targeted demands while avoiding competition with food systems and maintaining ecosystem services.

  18. Biofuels program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The Federal government has supported research on biomass technology and energy from municipal waste since 1975. Separate research programs were conducted until 1985 when the two were merged into biofuels and municipal waste technology to take advantage of their many similarities in conversion requirements and research needs. The purpose of the biofuels program is to provide focus, direction, coordination, and funding for the development of technologies that produce tailored energy crops and convert these crops and wastes to fuels. The FY 1989 program includes research on the production (growth) of biomass and its conversion to fuels. Research on biomass production involves the development and use of genetically improved trees and grasses specifically for their energy conversion characteristics (terrestrial energy crops). The Biofuels Program Summary is prepared each year and consists of a two-volume reference set describing the technological advances, current projects, and future research and development (R and D) directions of the program. This volume (Volume 2-Research Summaries) is a compilation of detailed descriptions of the R and D projects performed by the national laboratories and their subcontractors from industry, universities, and nonprofit research institutions.

  19. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Reimbursement, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(1), if it is an expenditure-based award. (b) Advance payments, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(2), subject to the conditions in 10 CFR 600.312(b)(2)(i) through... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy...

  20. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Reimbursement, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(1), if it is an expenditure-based award. (b) Advance payments, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(2), subject to the conditions in 10 CFR 600.312(b)(2)(i) through... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy...

  1. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Reimbursement, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(1), if it is an expenditure-based award. (b) Advance payments, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(2), subject to the conditions in 10 CFR 600.312(b)(2)(i) through... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy...

  2. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Reimbursement, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(1), if it is an expenditure-based award. (b) Advance payments, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(2), subject to the conditions in 10 CFR 600.312(b)(2)(i) through... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy...

  3. CONNECTICUT BIOFUELS TECHNOLOGY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BARTONE, ERIK

    2010-09-28

    DBS Energy Inc. (“DBS”) intends on using the Connecticut Biofuels Technology Project for the purpose of developing a small-scale electric generating systems that are located on a distributed basis and utilize biodiesel as its principle fuel source. This project will include research and analysis on the quality and applied use of biodiesel for use in electricity production, 2) develop dispatch center for testing and analysis of the reliability of dispatching remote generators operating on a blend of biodiesel and traditional fossil fuels, and 3) analysis and engineering research on fuel storage options for biodiesel of fuels for electric generation.

  4. Biofuels: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  5. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as "plug-and-play" biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance. PMID:23613592

  6. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Rupak; Nguyen, Tuan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Engineering microorganisms to produce biofuels is currently among the most promising strategies in renewable energy. However, harvesting these organisms for extracting biofuels is energy- and cost-intensive, limiting the commercial feasibility of large-scale production. Here, we demonstrate the use of a class of transport proteins of pharmacological interest to circumvent the need to harvest biomass during biofuel production. We show that membrane-embedded transporters, better known to efflux lipids and drugs, can be used to mediate the secretion of intracellularly synthesized model isoprenoid biofuel compounds to the extracellular milieu. Transporter-mediated biofuel secretion sustainably maintained an approximate three- to fivefold boost in biofuel production in our Escherichia coli test system. Because the transporters used in this study belong to the ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette protein family, we propose their use as “plug-and-play” biofuel-secreting systems in a variety of bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, yeast, and algae used for biofuel production. This investigation showcases the potential of expressing desired membrane transport proteins in cell factories to achieve the export or import of substances of economic, environmental, or therapeutic importance. PMID:23613592

  7. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John; Sarisky-Reed, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  8. 22 CFR 226.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or... electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients will... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S....

  9. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients may be paid in advance, provided they maintain or.... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may be authorized to... right to recover the interest under CMIA. In keeping with Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR...

  10. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients may be paid in advance, provided they maintain or.... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may be authorized to... estimated disbursement needs for an initial period generally geared to the awardee's disbursing...

  11. 22 CFR 135.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment. 135.21 Section 135.21 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.21...

  12. 21 CFR 1403.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment. 1403.21 Section 1403.21 Food and Drugs... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403.21...

  13. 24 CFR 84.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance..., P.O. Box 6021, Rockville, MD 20852. In keeping with Electronic Funds Transfer rules (31 CFR part...

  14. 28 CFR 66.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment. 66.21 Section 66.21 Judicial... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 66.21...

  15. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  16. 45 CFR 602.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... disbursements. (f) Effect of program income, refunds, and audit recoveries on payment. (1) Grantees...

  17. 45 CFR 602.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations at 31 CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... disbursements. (f) Effect of program income, refunds, and audit recoveries on payment. (1) Grantees...

  18. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  19. 21 CFR 1403.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment. 1403.21 Section 1403.21 Food and Drugs... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403.21...

  20. 28 CFR 66.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment. 66.21 Section 66.21 Judicial... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 66.21...

  1. 28 CFR 66.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment. 66.21 Section 66.21 Judicial... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 66.21...

  2. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  3. 22 CFR 135.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment. 135.21 Section 135.21 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.21...

  4. 21 CFR 1403.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment. 1403.21 Section 1403.21 Food and Drugs... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403.21...

  5. 22 CFR 135.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment. 135.21 Section 135.21 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.21...

  6. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may be authorized to... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients may be paid in advance, provided they maintain or... right to recover the interest under CMIA. In keeping with Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR...

  7. 49 CFR 18.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment. 18.21 Section 18.21 Transportation Office... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 18.21...

  8. 28 CFR 70.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients may be authorized to... procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients may be paid in advance, provided they maintain or... right to recover the interest under CMIA. In keeping with Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR...

  9. 22 CFR 135.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment. 135.21 Section 135.21 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.21...

  10. 21 CFR 1403.21 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 205. (c) Advances. Grantees and subgrantees shall be paid in advance, provided they maintain... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment. 1403.21 Section 1403.21 Food and Drugs... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403.21...

  11. BIOWINOL TECHNOLOGIES: A HYBRID GREEN PROCESS FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of the unique bacteria to produce ethanol by utilizing H2 and CO2 will be determined. The project will be used to educate the community about advances and importance of bioenergy while building consumer confidence in biofuels in addressing...

  12. Production of Liquid Biofuels from Biomass: Emerging Technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an overview of the emerging technologies that have been developed recently or are in the process of development for ethanol (biofuel) production from agricultural residues. In this direction numerous advances have been made. Problems associated with inhibitor generation and detoxification,...

  13. First generation biofuels compete.

    PubMed

    Martin, Marshall A

    2010-11-30

    Rising petroleum prices during 2005-2008, and passage of the 2007 U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act with a renewable fuel standard of 36 billion gallons of biofuels by 2022, encouraged massive investments in U.S. ethanol plants. Consequently, corn demand increased dramatically and prices tripled. This created a strong positive correlation between petroleum, corn, and food prices resulting in an outcry from U.S. consumers and livestock producers, and food riots in several developing countries. Other factors contributed to higher grain and food prices. Economic growth, especially in Asia, and a weaker U.S. dollar encouraged U.S. grain exports. Investors shifted funds into the commodity's future markets. Higher fuel costs for food processing and transportation put upward pressure on retail food prices. From mid-2008 to mid-2009, petroleum prices fell, the U.S. dollar strengthened, and the world economy entered a serious recession with high unemployment, housing market foreclosures, collapse of the stock market, reduced global trade, and a decline in durable goods and food purchases. Agricultural commodity prices declined about 50%. Biotechnology has had modest impacts on the biofuel sector. Seed corn with traits that help control insects and weeds has been widely adopted by U.S. farmers. Genetically engineered enzymes have reduced ethanol production costs and increased conversion efficiency. PMID:20601265

  14. Biofuels: 1995 project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Domestic transportation fuels are derived primarily from petroleum and account for about two-thirds of the petroleum consumption in the United States. In 1994, more than 40% of our petroleum was imported. That percentage is likely to increase, as the Middle East has about 75% of the world`s oil reserves, but the United States has only about 5%. Because we rely so heavily on oil (and because we currently have no suitable substitutes for petroleum-based transportation fuels), we are strategically and economically vulnerable to disruptions in the fuel supply. Additionally, we must consider the effects of petroleum use on the environment. The Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The day-to-day research activities, which address these issues, are managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BSD focuses its research on biofuels-liquid and gaseous fuels made from renewable domestic crops-and aggressively pursues new methods for domestically producing, recovering, and converting the feedstocks to produce the fuels economically. The biomass resources include forage grasses, oil seeds, short-rotation woody crops, agricultural and forestry residues, algae, and certain industrial and municipal waste streams. The resulting fuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, and ethers.

  15. Cyanobacteria as a Platform for Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Nozzi, Nicole E.; Oliver, John W. K.; Atsumi, Shota

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have great potential as a platform for biofuel production because of their fast growth, ability to fix carbon dioxide gas, and their genetic tractability. Furthermore they do not require fermentable sugars or arable land for growth and so competition with cropland would be greatly reduced. In this perspective we discuss the challenges and areas for improvement most pertinent for advancing cyanobacterial fuel production, including: improving genetic parts, carbon fixation, metabolic flux, nutrient requirements on a large scale, and photosynthetic efficiency using natural light. PMID:25022311

  16. Enzymatic Biofuel Cells on Porous Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dan; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Biofuel cells (BFCs) that utilize enzymes as catalysts represent a new sustainable and renewable energy technology. Numerous efforts have been directed to improve the performance of the enzymatic BFCs (EBFCs) with respect to power output and operational stability for further applications in portable power sources, self-powered electrochemical sensing, implantable medical devices, etc. The latest advances in EBFCs based on porous nanoarchitectures over the past 5 years are detailed here. Porous matrices from carbon, noble metals, and polymers promote the development of EBFCs through the electron transfer and mass transport benefits. Some key issues regarding how these nanostructured porous media improve the performance of EBFCs are also discussed. PMID:27377976

  17. Biofuel from "humified" biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kpogbemabou, D.; Lemée, L.; Amblès, A.

    2009-04-01

    In France, 26% of the emissions of greenhouse effect gas originate from transportation which depends for 87% on fossil fuels. Nevertheless biofuels can contribute to the fight against climate change while reducing energetic dependence. Indeed biomass potentially represents in France 30 Mtoe a year that is to say 15% national consumption. But 80% of these resources are made of lignocellulosic materials which are hardly exploitable. First-generation biofuels are made from sugar, starch, vegetable oil, or animal fats. Due to their competition with human food chain, first-generation biofuels could lead to food shortages and price rises. At the contrary second-generation biofuel production can use a variety of non food crops while using the lignocellulosic part of biomass [1]. Gasification, fermentation and direct pyrolysis are the most used processes. However weak yields and high hydrogen need are limiting factors. In France, the National Program for Research on Biofuels (PNRB) aims to increase mobilizable biomass resource and to develop lignocellulosic biomass conversion. In this context, the LIGNOCARB project studies the liquefaction of biodegraded biomass in order to lower hydrogen consumption. Our aim was to develop and optimize the biodegradation of the biomass. Once the reactor was achieved, the influence of different parameters (starting material, aeration, moisture content) on the biotransformation process was studied. The monitored parameters were temperature, pH and carbon /nitrogen ratio. Chemical (IHSS protocol) and biochemical (van Soest) fractionations were used to follow the maturity ("humic acid"/"fulvic acid" ratio) and the biological stability (soluble, hemicelluloses, celluloses, lignin) of the organic matter (OM). In example, the increase in lignin can be related to the stabilization since the OM becomes refractory to biodegradation whereas the increase in the AH/AF ratio traduces "humification". However, contrarily to the composting process, we do

  18. Biofuel-Food Market Interactions:A Review of Modeling Approaches and Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Msangi, Siwa

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between biofuels and food markets remains a policy issue for a number of reasons. There is a continuing need to understand the role of biofuels in the recent spikes in global food prices. Also, there is an ongoing discussion of changes to biofuel policy as a means to cope with severe weather-induced crop losses. Lastly, there are potential interactions between food markets and advanced biofuels, although most of the latter are expected to be produced from non-food feedstocks. This study reviews the existing literature on the food market impacts of biofuels. Findings suggest that initial conclusions attributing most of the spike in global food prices between 2005 and 2008 to biofuels have been revised. Instead, a multitude of factors, in addition to biofuels, converged during the period. Quantitative estimates of the impacts of biofuels on food markets vary significantly due to differences in modeling approaches, geographical scope, and assumptions about a number of crucial factors. In addition, many studies do not adequately account for the effects of macroeconomic changes, adverse weather conditions and direct market interventions during the recent food price spikes when evaluating the role of biofuels.

  19. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  20. Winter barley ethanol - a new advanced biofuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 set an ambitious goal for the United States to annually produce and use 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022. Of this quantity, only 15 billion gallons may come from conventional sources, such as corn ethanol, and the remainder must b...

  1. Breakthrough: Using Microbes to Make Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab's Associate Director for Bioscience and the CEO of DOE's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), explains how special strains of microbes can convert the biomass of non-food crops and agricultural waste into fuels for cars, trucks and jet planes. Keasling's research team at JBEI has developed E.coli that can digest switchgrass and convert the plant sugars into gasoline, diesel or jet fuel, not unlike the process by which beer is brewed.

  2. Breakthrough: Using Microbes to Make Advanced Biofuels

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay

    2013-05-29

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab's Associate Director for Bioscience and the CEO of DOE's Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI), explains how special strains of microbes can convert the biomass of non-food crops and agricultural waste into fuels for cars, trucks and jet planes. Keasling's research team at JBEI has developed E.coli that can digest switchgrass and convert the plant sugars into gasoline, diesel or jet fuel, not unlike the process by which beer is brewed.

  3. Biofuels in the long-run global energy supply mix for transportation.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Govinda R

    2014-01-13

    Various policy instruments along with increasing oil prices have contributed to a sixfold increase in global biofuels production over the last decade (2000-2010). This rapid growth has proved controversial, however, and has raised concerns over potential conflicts with global food security and climate change mitigation. To address these concerns, policy support is now focused on advanced or second-generation biofuels instead of crop-based first-generation biofuels. This policy shift, together with the global financial crisis, has slowed the growth of biofuels production, which has remained stagnant since 2010. Based upon a review of the literature, this paper examines the potential long-run contribution of biofuels to the global energy mix, particularly for transportation. We find that the contribution of biofuels to global transportation fuel demand is likely to be limited to around 5% over the next 10-15 years. However, a number of studies suggest that biofuels could contribute up to a quarter of global transportation fuel demand by 2050, provided technological breakthroughs reduce the costs of sustainably produced advanced biofuels to a level where they can compete with petroleum fuels. PMID:24298077

  4. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area. PMID:26938514

  5. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  6. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  7. Is Payment a Benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Wertheimer, Alan

    2011-01-01

    What I call “the standard view” claims that IRBs should not regard financial payment as a benefit to subjects for the purpose of risk/benefit assessment. Although the standard view is universally accepted, there is little defense of that view in the canonical documents of research ethics or the scholarly literature. This article claims that insofar as IRBs should be concerned with the interests and autonomy of research subjects, they should reject the standard view and adopt “the incorporation view.” The incorporation view is more consistent with the underlying soft-paternalist justification for risk-benefit assessment and demonstrates respect for the autonomy of prospective subjects. Adoption of the standard view precludes protocols that advance the interests of subjects, investigators, and society. After considering several objections to the argument, I consider several arguments for the standard view that do not appeal to the interests and autonomy of research subjects. PMID:21726261

  8. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    SciTech Connect

    Fortman, J. L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel mar-ket, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  9. Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well

    SciTech Connect

    Fortman, J.L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-08-19

    Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has generated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel market, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

  10. 7 CFR 235.5 - Payments to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... payment. FNS will specify the terms and conditions of the State agency's annual grant of SAE funds in...) and/or § 235.6(c) of this part. The amount of SAE funds made available for payment to a State agency... year, FNS may advance SAE funds to the State agency, in amounts determined appropriate by FNS,...

  11. 7 CFR 235.5 - Payments to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... payment. FNS will specify the terms and conditions of the State agency's annual grant of SAE funds in...) and/or § 235.6(c) of this part. The amount of SAE funds made available for payment to a State agency... year, FNS may advance SAE funds to the State agency, in amounts determined appropriate by FNS,...

  12. 7 CFR 235.5 - Payments to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... payment. FNS will specify the terms and conditions of the State agency's annual grant of SAE funds in...) and/or § 235.6(c) of this part. The amount of SAE funds made available for payment to a State agency... year, FNS may advance SAE funds to the State agency, in amounts determined appropriate by FNS,...

  13. 7 CFR 235.5 - Payments to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... payment. FNS will specify the terms and conditions of the State agency's annual grant of SAE funds in...) and/or § 235.6(c) of this part. The amount of SAE funds made available for payment to a State agency... year, FNS may advance SAE funds to the State agency, in amounts determined appropriate by FNS,...

  14. 7 CFR 235.5 - Payments to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... payment. FNS will specify the terms and conditions of the State agency's annual grant of SAE funds in...) and/or § 235.6(c) of this part. The amount of SAE funds made available for payment to a State agency... year, FNS may advance SAE funds to the State agency, in amounts determined appropriate by FNS,...

  15. Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Shariff, M.

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  16. Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Medipally, Srikanth Reddy; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Shariff, M

    2015-01-01

    The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

  17. Protein engineering in designing tailored enzymes and microorganisms for biofuels production

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fei; Nair, Nikhil U; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lignocellulosic biofuels represent a sustainable, renewable, and the only foreseeable alternative energy source to transportation fossil fuels. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose poses technical hurdles to an economically viable biorefinery. Low enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and low productivity, yield, and titer of biofuels are among the top cost contributors. Protein engineering has been used to improve the performances of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, as well as proteins involved in biofuel synthesis pathways. Unlike its great success seen in other industrial applications, protein engineering has achieved only modest results in improving the lignocellulose-to-biofuels efficiency. This review will discuss the unique challenges that protein engineering faces in the process of converting lignocellulose to biofuels and how they are addressed by recent advances in this field. PMID:19660930

  18. 78 FR 77418 - Notice of Request for Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... payments to eligible entities to support and ensure an expanding production of advanced biofuels. Entities eligible to receive payments under the Program are producers of advanced biofuels that meet all of...

  19. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nam V; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  20. Potential for Genetic Improvement of Sugarcane as a Source of Biomass for Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Nam V.; Furtado, Agnelo; Botha, Frederik C.; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) has great potential as a major feedstock for biofuel production worldwide. It is considered among the best options for producing biofuels today due to an exceptional biomass production capacity, high carbohydrate (sugar + fiber) content, and a favorable energy input/output ratio. To maximize the conversion of sugarcane biomass into biofuels, it is imperative to generate improved sugarcane varieties with better biomass degradability. However, unlike many diploid plants, where genetic tools are well developed, biotechnological improvement is hindered in sugarcane by our current limited understanding of the large and complex genome. Therefore, understanding the genetics of the key biofuel traits in sugarcane and optimization of sugarcane biomass composition will advance efficient conversion of sugarcane biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The large existing phenotypic variation in Saccharum germplasm and the availability of the current genomics technologies will allow biofuel traits to be characterized, the genetic basis of critical differences in biomass composition to be determined, and targets for improvement of sugarcane for biofuels to be established. Emerging options for genetic improvement of sugarcane for the use as a bioenergy crop are reviewed. This will better define the targets for potential genetic manipulation of sugarcane biomass composition for biofuels. PMID:26636072

  1. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels are being

  2. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kenneth F.

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  3. Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, Dennis L.; Jones, Susan A.; Orth, Rick J.; Saffell, Bernard F.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2008-02-28

    The purpose of this report is to assemble the information needed to estimate the significance of the opportunity for producing biofuels in the region as well as the associated challenges. The report reviews the current state of the industry, the biomass resources that are available within current production practices, and the biofuels production technology that is available within the marketplace. The report also identifys the areas in which alternative approaches or strategies, or technologoical advances, might offer an opportunity to expand the Nortwest biofuels industry beyond its current state.

  4. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production.

    PubMed

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops-maize, sugarcane and sorghum-and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses-miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  5. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    van der Weijde, Tim; Alvim Kamei, Claire L.; Torres, Andres F.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Dolstra, Oene; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulosic feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops—maize, sugarcane and sorghum—and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses—miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of biofuel. PMID:23653628

  6. Cost goals for biofuels technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Flaim, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Federally funded energy research seeks to demonstrate that alternative fuels can be produced and then to induce private sector involvement by showing that they can be produced profitably. Prices for fossil fuels may be used as cost goals for biofuels to determine when profitability may be achieved. Achieving equality with fossil fuel prices drives out the highest-cost sources of supply and enables initial market penetration; as costs decrease, biofuels can potentially gain a greater market share. However, achieving competitive costs is not a sufficient condition for success unless prices of conventional substitutes are expected to rise. Cost goals are used for research planning purposes, as a common denominator to allow comparisons among many biofuels options. Application of standard investment criteria to biofuels R and D would require that benefits from their use pay back research costs. These benefits must be discounted because they are realized in the future. Furthermore, realization of future savings is uncertain, so risks must be accounted for. Research may be justified if the expected value of the discounted benefits is greater than the discounted cost of the research. Cost goals satisfying this condition might be substantially lower than projected fuel prices. This paper examines recent fossil fuel price projections and discusses the challenges biofuels research faces just to produce competitive products. In light of the difficult goals, researchers should adopt a strategy targeting major technological breakthroughs rather than incremental improvements. Production of ethanol from wood is used as an example of this strategy. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Isoprenoid drugs, biofuels, and chemicals--artemisinin, farnesene, and beyond.

    PubMed

    George, Kevin W; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Keasling, Jay D; Lee, Taek Soon

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids have been identified and used as natural pharmaceuticals, fragrances, solvents, and, more recently, advanced biofuels. Although isoprenoids are most commonly found in plants, researchers have successfully engineered both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways to produce these valuable chemicals in microorganisms at high yields. The microbial synthesis of the precursor to artemisinin--an important antimalarial drug produced from the sweet wormwood Artemisia annua--serves as perhaps the most successful example of this approach. Through advances in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, microbial-derived semisynthetic artemisinin may soon replace plant-derived artemisinin as the primary source of this valuable pharmaceutical. The richness and diversity of isoprenoid structures also make them ideal candidates for advanced biofuels that may act as "drop-in" replacements for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Indeed, the sesquiterpenes farnesene and bisabolene, monoterpenes pinene and limonene, and hemiterpenes isopentenol and isopentanol have been evaluated as fuels or fuel precursors. As in the artemisinin project, these isoprenoids have been produced microbially through synthetic biology and metabolic engineering efforts. Here, we provide a brief review of the numerous isoprenoid compounds that have found use as pharmaceuticals, flavors, commodity chemicals, and, most importantly, advanced biofuels. In each case, we highlight the metabolic engineering strategies that were used to produce these compounds successfully in microbial hosts. In addition, we present a current outlook on microbial isoprenoid production, with an eye towards the many challenges that must be addressed to achieve higher yields and industrial-scale production. PMID:25577395

  8. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  9. 36 CFR 1210.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR Part 205. (b) Recipients will be..., Treasury check and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR Part 205... Electronic Funds Transfer rules (31 CFR Part 206), interest earned should be remitted annually to...

  10. 34 CFR 74.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1... check, and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3... period generally geared to the awardee's disbursing cycle. Thereafter, the Secretary reimburses...

  11. 43 CFR 12.922 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be... subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to submit requests for advances and... Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment...

  12. 38 CFR 49.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 49.22 Payment. (a... agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be paid in advance... elapsing between the transfer of funds and disbursement by the recipient, and financial management...

  13. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Reimbursement, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(1), if it is an expenditure-based award. (b) Advance payments, as described in 10 CFR 600.312(a)(2), subject to the conditions in 10 CFR 600.312(b)(2)(i)...

  14. 43 CFR 12.922 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be... subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to submit requests for advances and... Electronic Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment...

  15. 10 CFR 600.122 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment. 600.122 Section 600.122 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative Requirements... codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients will be paid in advance, provided they maintain or...

  16. 22 CFR 518.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... instrumentalities shall be consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR... funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be... recipient for administrative expense. In keeping with Electric Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part...

  17. 41 CFR 105-72.302 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b)(1) Recipients are to... mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to submit requests for advances... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment....

  18. 32 CFR 32.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Improvement Act (CMIA) (31 U.S.C. 3335 and 6503) or default procedures in 31 CFR part 205. (b... CFR part 206), interest should be remitted to the HHS Payment Management System through an electronic... subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be authorized to submit requests for advances...

  19. 22 CFR 145.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR part 205. (b) Recipients are to be..., Treasury check and electronic funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management §...

  20. 22 CFR 518.22 - Payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... instrumentalities shall be consistent with Treasury-State CMIA agreements or default procedures codified at 31 CFR... funds transfer. (2) Advance payment mechanisms are subject to 31 CFR part 205. (3) Recipients shall be... recipient for administrative expense. In keeping with Electric Funds Transfer rules, (31 CFR part...