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Sample records for advanced breeding clones

  1. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  2. MARKETING POTENTIAL OF ADVANCED BREEDING CLONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  3. Marketing Potential of Advanced Breeding Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  4. Advanced potato breeding clones: storage and processing evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  5. Screening of advanced potato breeding clones for resistance to cold-induced-sweetening (CIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advantages of processing potatoes from low temperature storage are well known. It had previously been reported that clones with A-II isozymes of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) and low vacuolar acid invertase (VAcInv) activity demonstrate increased resistance to CIS. This study reports o...

  6. [Advances in Molecular Cloning].

    PubMed

    Ashwini, M; Murugan, S B; Balamurugan, S; Sathishkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    "Molecular cloning" meaning creation of recombinant DNA molecules has impelled advancement throughout life sciences. DNA manipulation has become easy due to powerful tools showing exponential growth in applications and sophistication of recombinant DNA technology. Cloning genes has become simple what led to an explosion in the understanding of gene function by seamlessly stitching together multiple DNA fragments or by the use of swappable gene cassettes, maximizing swiftness and litheness. A novel archetype might materialize in the near future with synthetic biology techniques that will facilitate quicker assembly and iteration of DNA clones, accelerating the progress of gene therapy vectors, recombinant protein production processes and new vaccines by in vitro chemical synthesis of any in silico-specified DNA construct. The advent of innovative cloning techniques has opened the door to more refined applications such as identification and mapping of epigenetic modifications and high-throughput assembly of combinatorial libraries. In this review, we will examine the major breakthroughs in cloning techniques and their applications in various areas of biological research that have evolved mainly due to easy construction of novel expression systems. PMID:27028806

  7. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  8. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu. PMID:21106134

  9. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  10. Influence of somatic cell donor breed on reproductive performance and comparison of prenatal growth in cloned canines.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Hwang, Kyu Chan; Hwang, In-sung; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Han, Ho Jae; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2014-06-01

    Using in vivo-flushed oocytes from a homogenous dog population and subsequent embryo transfer after nuclear transfer, we studied the effects of donor cells collected from 10 different breeds on cloning efficiency and perinatal development of resulted cloned puppies. The breeds were categorized into four groups according to their body weight: small (≤9 kg), medium (>9-20 kg), large (>20-40 kg), and ultra large (>40 kg). A total of 1611 cloned embryos were transferred into 454 surrogate bitches for production of cloned puppies. No statistically significant differences were observed for initial pregnancy rates at Day 30 of embryo transfer for the donor cells originated from different breeds. However, full-term pregnancy rates were 16.5%, 11.0%, 10.0%, and 7.1% for the donor cells originated from ultra-large breed, large, medium, and small breeds, respectively, where pregnancy rate in the ultra-large group was significantly higher compared with the small breeds (P < 0.01). Perinatal mortality until weaning was significantly higher in small breeds (33.3%) compared with medium, large, or ultra-large breeds where no mortality was observed. The mean birth weight of cloned pups significantly increased proportional to breed size. The highest litter size was examined in ultra-large breeds. There was no correlation between the number of embryo transferred and litter size. Taken together, the efficiency of somatic cell cloning and fetal survival after embryo transfer may be affected significantly by selecting the appropriate genotype. PMID:24613602

  11. Advances in Maize Genomics and Their Value for Enhancing Genetic Gains from Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunbi; Skinner, Debra J.; Wu, Huixia; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Araus, Jose Luis; Yan, Jianbing; Gao, Shibin; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Crouch, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    Maize is an important crop for food, feed, forage, and fuel across tropical and temperate areas of the world. Diversity studies at genetic, molecular, and functional levels have revealed that, tropical maize germplasm, landraces, and wild relatives harbor a significantly wider range of genetic variation. Among all types of markers, SNP markers are increasingly the marker-of-choice for all genomics applications in maize breeding. Genetic mapping has been developed through conventional linkage mapping and more recently through linkage disequilibrium-based association analyses. Maize genome sequencing, initially focused on gene-rich regions, now aims for the availability of complete genome sequence. Conventional insertion mutation-based cloning has been complemented recently by EST- and map-based cloning. Transgenics and nutritional genomics are rapidly advancing fields targeting important agronomic traits including pest resistance and grain quality. Substantial advances have been made in methodologies for genomics-assisted breeding, enhancing progress in yield as well as abiotic and biotic stress resistances. Various genomic databases and informatics tools have been developed, among which MaizeGDB is the most developed and widely used by the maize research community. In the future, more emphasis should be given to the development of tools and strategic germplasm resources for more effective molecular breeding of tropical maize products. PMID:19688107

  12. Clonal forestry, heterosis and advanced-generation breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.

    1997-08-01

    This report discusses the clonal planting stock offers many advantages to the forest products industry. Advanced-generation breeding strategies should be designed to maximize within-family variance and at the same time allow the capture of heterosis. Certainly there may be a conflict in the choice of breeding strategy based on the trait of interest. It may be that the majority of the traits express heterosis due to overdominance. Alternatively, disease resistance is expressed as the lack of a specific metabolite or infection court then the homozygous recessive genotype may be the most desirable. Nonetheless, as the forest products industry begins to utilize the economic advantages of clonal forestry, breeding strategies will have to be optimized for these commercial plant materials. Here, molecular markers can be used to characterize the nature of heterosis and therefore define the appropriate breeding strategy.

  13. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan’s high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in ‘Neo Muscat’, ‘Kyoho’, and ‘Muscat Bailey A’. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many ‘Kyoho’-related cultivars, including ‘Pione’, many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed ‘Shine Muscat’ in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  14. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  15. Advances in molecular breeding of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the production and sales of ornamental crops represent significant contributions to the global economy, breeding and selection of ornamental plants using molecular markers lags far behind that used for agronomic crops. However, with the recent advances in molecular technologies including r...

  16. Cost and accuracy of advanced breeding trial designs in apple

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Julia M; Evans, Kate M; Hardner, Craig M

    2016-01-01

    Trialing advanced candidates in tree fruit crops is expensive due to the long-term nature of the planting and labor-intensive evaluations required to make selection decisions. How closely the trait evaluations approximate the true trait value needs balancing with the cost of the program. Designs of field trials of advanced apple candidates in which reduced number of locations, the number of years and the number of harvests per year were modeled to investigate the effect on the cost and accuracy in an operational breeding program. The aim was to find designs that would allow evaluation of the most additional candidates while sacrificing the least accuracy. Critical percentage difference, response to selection, and correlated response were used to examine changes in accuracy of trait evaluations. For the quality traits evaluated, accuracy and response to selection were not substantially reduced for most trial designs. Risk management influences the decision to change trial design, and some designs had greater risk associated with them. Balancing cost and accuracy with risk yields valuable insight into advanced breeding trial design. The methods outlined in this analysis would be well suited to other horticultural crop breeding programs. PMID:27019717

  17. Storage and processing evaluation of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to cold sweetening and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease pr...

  18. Storage/processing performance of advanced potato breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to "cold sweetening" and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  19. Advanced Potato Breeding Clones: Storage and Processing Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. Most, but not all, currently used potato cultivars are susceptible to Acold sweetening@ and are therefore stored at warmer temperatures that can accelerate disease ...

  20. Advances and applications of molecular cloning in clinical microbiology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kamal; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Mehraj, Vikram; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj

    2014-10-01

    Molecular cloning is based on isolation of a DNA sequence of interest to obtain multiple copies of it in vitro. Application of this technique has become an increasingly important tool in clinical microbiology due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapidity, and reliability. This review entails the recent advances in molecular cloning and its application in the clinical microbiology in the context of polymicrobial infections, recombinant antigens, recombinant vaccines, diagnostic probes, antimicrobial peptides, and recombinant cytokines. Culture-based methods in polymicrobial infection have many limitation, which has been overcome by cloning techniques and provide gold standard technique. Recombinant antigens produced by cloning technique are now being used for screening of HIV, HCV, HBV, CMV, Treponema pallidum, and other clinical infectious agents. Recombinant vaccines for hepatitis B, cholera, influenza A, and other diseases also use recombinant antigens which have replaced the use of live vaccines and thus reduce the risk for adverse effects. Gene probes developed by gene cloning have many applications including in early diagnosis of hereditary diseases, forensic investigations, and routine diagnosis. Industrial application of this technology produces new antibiotics in the form of antimicrobial peptides and recombinant cytokines that can be used as therapeutic agents. PMID:25023463

  1. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  2. The breeding systems of diploid and neoautotetraploid clones of Acacia mangium Willd. in a synthetic sympatric population in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Griffin, A R; Vuong, T D; Vaillancourt, R E; Harbard, J L; Harwood, C E; Nghiem, C Q; Thinh, H H

    2012-12-01

    Colchicine-induced neoautotetraploid genotypes of Acacia mangium were cloned and planted in mixture with a set of diploid clones in an orchard in southern Vietnam. Following good general flowering, open-pollinated seed was collected from trees of both cytotypes and microsatellite markers were used to determine the breeding system as characterised by the proportion of outcrosses in young seedling progeny. As predicted from the literature, the progeny of diploid clones were predominantly outcrossed (t(m) = 0.97). In contrast, the progeny of the tetraploid clones were almost entirely selfs (t(m) = 0.02; 3 of 161 seedlings assayed were tetraploid outcrosses and there were no triploids). Segregation at loci heterozygous in the tetraploid mothers followed expected ratios, indicating sexual reproduction rather than apomixis. Post-zygotic factors are primarily responsible for divergence of the breeding systems. Commonly, less than 1 % of Acacia flowers mature as a pod, and after mixed pollination, diploid outcrossed seed normally develops at the expense of selfs. Selfs of the tetraploid trees appear to express less genetic load and have a higher probability of maturing. However, this does not fully explain the observed deficiency of outcross tetraploid progeny. Presumably, there are cytogenetic reasons which remain to be investigated. In nature, selfing would increase the probability of establishment of neotetraploids irrespective of cytotype frequency in the population. Breeders need to review their open-pollinated breeding and seed production strategies. It remains to be seen whether this is an ephemeral problem, with strong fertility selection restoring potential for outcrossing over generations. PMID:22865285

  3. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 38 peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2012 for yield, seed grade and size, and resistance to Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotium rolfsii. Among the 14 Spanish entries, the cultivar Tamnut 06 (3258 lbs/acre) and breeding line 140-1O...

  4. Genomic estimated breeding values using genomic relationship matrices in a cloned population of loblolly pine.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Valenzuela, Jaime; Whetten, Ross W; Neale, David; McKeand, Steve; Isik, Fikret

    2013-05-01

    Replacement of the average numerator relationship matrix derived from the pedigree with the realized genomic relationship matrix based on DNA markers might be an attractive strategy in forest tree breeding for predictions of genetic merit. We used genotypes from 3461 single-nucleotide polymorphism loci to estimate genomic relationships for a population of 165 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) individuals. Phenotypes of the 165 individuals were obtained from clonally replicated field trials and were used to estimate breeding values for growth (stem volume). Two alternative methods, based on allele frequencies or regression, were used to generate the genomic relationship matrices. The accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values based on the genomic relationship matrices and breeding values estimated based on the average numerator relationship matrix were compared. On average, the accuracy of predictions based on genomic relationships ranged between 0.37 and 0.74 depending on the validation method. We did not detect differences in the accuracy of predictions based on genomic relationship matrices estimated by two different methods. Using genomic relationship matrices allowed modeling of Mendelian segregation within full-sib families, an important advantage over a traditional genetic evaluation system based on pedigree. We conclude that estimation of genomic relationships could be a powerful tool in forest tree breeding because it accurately accounts both for genetic relationships among individuals and for nuisance effects such as location and replicate effects, and makes more accurate selection possible within full-sib crosses. PMID:23585458

  5. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA Reproductive cloning, which creates copies of whole animals Therapeutic cloning, which creates embryonic stem cells. Researchers hope to use these cells to grow healthy tissue to replace injured or diseased tissues in the human body. NIH: National Human Genome Research Institute

  6. Breeding and quantitative genetics advances in sunflower Sclerotinia research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, we continued the process of backcrossing the head rot QTL from the HA 441 x RHA 439 population into confectionery and elite oilseed backgrounds. Progress is slow due to complexities in scoring of alleles in breeding progenies (dominant markers sometimes in repulsion phase, and many gel band...

  7. Animal breeding in the age of biotechnology: the investigative pathway behind the cloning of Dolly the sheep.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age. PMID:26205201

  8. Advanced phenotyping offers opportunities for improved breeding of forage and turf species

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Advanced phenotyping, i.e. the application of automated, high-throughput methods to characterize plant architecture and performance, has the potential to accelerate breeding progress but is far from being routinely used in current breeding approaches. In forage and turf improvement programmes, in particular, where breeding populations and cultivars are characterized by high genetic diversity and substantial genotype × environment interactions, precise and efficient phenotyping is essential to meet future challenges imposed by climate change, growing demand and declining resources. Scope This review highlights recent achievements in the establishment of phenotyping tools and platforms. Some of these tools have originally been established in remote sensing, some in precision agriculture, while others are laboratory-based imaging procedures. They quantify plant colour, spectral reflection, chlorophyll-fluorescence, temperature and other properties, from which traits such as biomass, architecture, photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal aperture or stress resistance can be derived. Applications of these methods in the context of forage and turf breeding are discussed. Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future and will thereby contribute to amended performance of managed grassland agroecosystems. PMID:22362662

  9. Advances in Dendrobium molecular research: Applications in genetic variation, identification and breeding.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Jin, Xiaohua; Dobránszki, Judit; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Huizhong; Zotz, Gerhard; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Zeng, Songjun

    2016-02-01

    Orchids of the genus Dendrobium are of great economic importance in global horticultural trade and in Asian traditional medicine. For both areas, research yielding solid information on taxonomy, phylogeny, and breeding of this genus are essential. Traditional morphological and cytological characterization are used in combination with molecular results in classification and identification. Markers may be useful when used alone but are not always reliable in identification. The number of species studied and identified by molecular markers is small at present. Conventional breeding methods are time-consuming and laborious. In the past two decades, promising advances have been made in taxonomy, phylogeny and breeding of Dendrobium species due to the intensive use of molecular markers. In this review, we focus on the main molecular techniques used in 121 published studies and discuss their importance and possibilities in speeding up the breeding of new cultivars and hybrids. PMID:26493228

  10. Advanced lymphoblastic clones detection in T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Minervina, A A; Komkov, A Y; Mamedov, I Z; Lebedev, Y B

    2016-03-01

    T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the lymphocyte precursors that suffered malignant transformation arresting the lymphoid cell differentiation. Clinical studies revealed monoor, more rarely, oligoclonal nature of the disease. A precise identification of malignant clone markers is both the crucial stage of early diagnostics and the essential prognostic factor for therapeutic treatment. Here we present an improved system for unbiased detection of lymphoblastic clones in bone marrow aspirates of T-ALL patients. The system based on multiplex PCR of rearranged T-cell receptor locus (TRB) and straightforward sequencing of the resulted PCR fragments. Testing of the system on genomic DNA from Jurkat cell line and four clinical bone marrow aspirates revealed a set of unique TRB rearrangements that precisely characterize each of tested samples. Therefore, the outcome of the system produces highly informative molecular genetic markers for further monitoring of minimal residual disease in T-ALL patients. PMID:27193704

  11. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 23 commercially available peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2014 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to soilborne diseases. Among the 16 runner entries evaluated, Tamrun OL11...

  12. Development of advanced tritium breeding material with added lithium for ITER-TBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kenichi; Natori, Yuri; Oikawa, Fumiaki; Nakano, Natsuko; Nakamura, Mutsumi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Lithium titanate (Li 2TiO 3) is one of the most promising candidates among tritium breeding materials because of its good tritium release characteristics. However, the mass of Li 2TiO 3 decreased with time in a hydrogen atmosphere by the reduction of Ti and Li evaporation. In order to prevent the mass decrease at high temperatures, advanced tritium breeding material with added Li (Li 2+xTiO 3+y) should be developed. For this purpose, an advanced Li 2TiO 3 with added Li was synthesized from proportionally mixed LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3 with a Li/Ti ratio of 2.2. The results of X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this advanced tritium breeding material existed as the non-stoichiometric compound Li 2+xTiO 3+y. The desired molar ratio of Li/Ti was achieved by appropriate mixing of LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3. Therefore, synthesis by mixing LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3 is a promising mass production method for the advanced tritium breeding material with added Li for the test blanket module of ITER.

  13. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 21 peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2013 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics) and resistance to diseases (Sclerotinia blight, southern blight, and Pythium and Rhizoctonia pod rot). Among th...

  14. Disease evaluations and agronomic traits of advanced peanut breeding lines in 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 20 commercially available peanut cultivars and high-oleic advanced breeding lines were evaluated in small field plots in 2015 for agronomic traits (crop value, yield, seed grade, and characteristics). Environmental conditions in 2015 were not favorable for Sclerotinia blight, southern bl...

  15. Improved cellular thermotolerance in cloned Holstein cattle derived with cytoplasts from a thermotolerant breed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Li, Hung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Shen, Perng-Chin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerance of ear fibroblasts derived from various SCNT cattle. Specimens were produced from cloned embryos that had been reconstructed using donor cells (d) from the same Holstein cow (Hd) and the ooplasm (o) from Holstein cattle (Ho) or Taiwan yellow cattle (Yo). Polymorphism in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the Y ooplasm and H donor cells (SCNT-Yo-Hd) indicates that the cytoplasm originated from Bos indicus. The rates of apoptosis in heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle (1.9%) and purebred Y cattle (1.5%) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed with the H ooplasm (SCNT-Ho-Hd: 3.4%), donor cells (4.0%), and purebred Holstein (4.1%) cattle. At the protein level, the relative abundances of apoptosis-inducing factor, B cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, endonuclease G, cytochrome c, cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases 3, 8 and 9 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of cells derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle after heat shock. In contrast, the relative abundances of heat shock proteins 27, 70 and B cell lymphoma 2 in ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle were higher (P < 0.05) than those of fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle. Moreover, heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Yo-Hd cattle have a significantly (P < 0.05) lower percentage of apoptosis-inducing factor-positive nuclei than do heat-shocked ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT-Ho-Hd cattle (11.1% vs. 18.5%). Taken together, these results report that ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the Y ooplasm are more thermotolerant than ear fibroblasts derived from SCNT cattle reconstructed using the H ooplasm. This is an indication that the cytoplasm may be a major determinant of thermal sensitivity in bovine

  16. Breeding research on sake yeasts in Japan: history, recent technological advances, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    ). However, technologies that enable the elimination of extraneous DNA sequences from the genome of sake yeast have been developed. Sake yeasts genetically modified with these technologies are called self-cloning yeasts and do not contain extraneous DNA sequences. These yeasts were exempted from the Japanese government's guidelines for genetically modified food. Protoplast fusion has also been utilized to breed favorable sake yeasts. Future directions for the breeding of sake yeasts are also proposed in this review. The reviewed research provides perspectives for the breeding of brewery yeasts in other fermentation industries. PMID:23464572

  17. Warmer springs advance the breeding phenology of golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria and their prey (Tipulidae).

    PubMed

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Whittingham, M J

    2005-04-01

    Most studies of climate-driven changes in avian breeding phenology have focused on temperate passerines, yet the consequences of such environmental change may be more deleterious for other avian taxa, such as arctic and sub-arctic waders (Charadrii). We therefore examine large-scale climatic correlates of the breeding phenology of one such species (golden plover Pluvialis apricaria), and the timing of emergence of their adult tipulid prey, to assess the potential for climate change to disrupt breeding performance. Golden plover first-laying dates were negatively correlated with both March and April temperature, the mean laying date of first clutches was additionally negatively correlated with March rainfall. The timing of final laying dates were negatively correlated with April temperature only. The timing of tipulid emergence was negatively correlated with May temperature. In combination with historical climatic data, these models suggest a 9-day advancement of golden plover first-laying dates occurred during the 1990s, although this remains within the range of natural variation for the twentieth century. The magnitudes of predicted changes in mean and final laying dates, and the timing of tipulid emergence, were smaller. Climate predictions for 2070-2099 suggest potential advances in first-laying dates by 25 days, whilst the timings of mean and final laying dates are predicted to change by 18 days and 13 days, and tipulid emergence by 12 days. Given the importance of adult tipulids to young golden plover chicks, these changes may result in a mismatch between the timing of first-laying dates and tipulid emergence, so reducing the success of early breeding attempts. Modelling suggests that these changes could reduce breeding success in a South Pennines population by about 11%. PMID:15685442

  18. Using microsatellite DNA markers to determine the genetic identity of parental clones used in the Louisiana sugarcane breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane propagates asexually through vegetative cuttings. To validate the genetic identity of sugarcane clones during shipping and handling, we produced molecular fingerprints based on 21 microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers for 116 Louisiana parental clones that were included in the crossing program...

  19. Total anthocyanins, total carotenoids, hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC levels in diverse clones and breeding lines over six field environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven specialty clones were grown in six field locations and tuber samples were analyzed for total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, hydrophilic_Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), and lipophilic (ORAC). Four of the genotypes had red or purple pigmented flesh. The highest total anthocyanins ...

  20. Characterization of potato breeding clones to determine mechanisms conferring observed resistance/tolerance to zebra chip disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A haploid tuberosum x Solanum berthaultii hybrid clone and its progeny from backcrossing to cultivated potato were screened for resistance to adult potato psyllid, the insect vector of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (syn. Ca. L. psyllaurous) which is associated with zebra chip (ZC) disease. Po...

  1. Using general and specific combining ability to further advance strawberry (Fragaria sp.) breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry is one of the five fruit crops included in the USDA-funded multi-institutionaland trans-disciplinary project, “RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae”. A Crop Reference Set (CRS) was developed of 900 genotypes and seedlings from 40 crosses representing the breadth of rele...

  2. Cloning and expression of a cell surface receptor for advanced glycosylation end products of proteins.

    PubMed

    Neeper, M; Schmidt, A M; Brett, J; Yan, S D; Wang, F; Pan, Y C; Elliston, K; Stern, D; Shaw, A

    1992-07-25

    Advanced glycosylation end products of proteins (AGEs) are nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins which accumulate in vascular tissue in aging and at an accelerated rate in diabetes. A approximately 35-kDa polypeptide with a unique NH2-terminal sequence has been isolated from bovine lung and found to be present on the surface of endothelial cells where it mediates the binding of AGEs (receptor for advanced glycosylation end product or RAGE). Using an oligonucleotide probe based on the amino-terminal sequence of RAGE, an apparently full-length cDNA of 1.5 kilobases was isolated from a bovine lung cDNA library. This cDNA encoded a 394 amino acid mature protein comprised of the following putative domains: an extracellular domain of 332 amino acids, a single hydrophobic membrane spanning domain of 19 amino acids, and a carboxyl-terminal domain of 43 amino acids. A partial clone encoding the human counterpart of RAGE, isolated from a human lung library, was found to be approximately 90% homologous to the bovine molecule. Based on computer analysis of the amino acid sequence of RAGE and comparison with databases, RAGE is a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules and shares significant homology with MUC 18, NCAM, and the cytoplasmic domain of CD20. Expression of the RAGE cDNA in 293 cells allowed them to bind 125I-AGE-albumin in a saturable and dose-dependent manner (Kd approximately 100 nM), blocked by antibody to RAGE. Western blots of 293 cells transfected with RAGE cDNA probed with anti-RAGE IgG demonstrated expression of immunoreactive protein compared to its absence in mock-transfected cells. These results suggest that RAGE functions as a cell surface receptor for AGEs, which could potentially mediate cellular effects of this class of glycosylated proteins. PMID:1378843

  3. Cloning and expression of interferon-alpha/gamma from a domestic porcine breed and its effect on classical swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chun; Dan, Wu; Wen-Xue, Wu; Jian-Qing, Wan; Li, Wang; Tian-Yao, Yang; Qin, Wang; Yi-Bao, Ning

    2005-03-10

    To further evaluate the clinical impact of recombinant PoIFN-alpha/gamma, PoIFN-alpha/gamma genes from a Chinese domestic big-white porcine breed were cloned using PCR, and expressed in a high-level prokaryotic system. The antiviral activities of rPoIFN-alpha/gamma on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) were investigated in different cell lines. The cloned PoIFN-alpha gene encodes a protein of 166 amino acids and has been named PoIFN-alphac. In a comparison of PoIFN-alphac with reported PoIFN-alphaI genes, eight amino acid substitutions at positions 43 (F to L), 78 (N to D), 86 (Y to C), 104 (A to V), 118 (R to L), 128 (T to P), 151 (S to V), and 156 (R to T) were observed, and resulted in no potential N-glycosylation site in the deduced PoIFN-alpha amino acid sequences. In contrast to PoIFN-alphac, one nucleotide substitution was found at position 462 (A to G), hence 0.1% synonymity is specific for the PoIFN-gamma gene. Both PoIFN-alphac and PoIFN-gamma genes were inserted into a prokaryotic vector pQE30, and expressed in E. coli M15 (pREP4) or SC11103 (pREP4) with the N-terminal six consecutive histidine residues, respectively. rPoIFN-alphac and rPoIFN-gamma proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis at 20.7 and 18.0 kDa, respectively. In addition, the rPoIFN-alphac and rPoIFN-gamma protein were purified using Ni-NTA metal-affinity chromatography, and their anti-VSV, anti-PRRSV, and anti-CSFV activities were surveyed in homologous and heterologous cell lines. The results suggested that rPoIFN-alpha and rPoIFN-gamma could inhibit classical swine fever virus and other important viral pathogens in different cell lines. PMID:15661333

  4. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  5. Artificial cloning of domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research. PMID:26195770

  6. Survival during the Breeding Season: Nest Stage, Parental Sex, and Season Advancement Affect Reed Warbler Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wierucka, Kaja; Halupka, Lucyna; Klimczuk, Ewelina; Sztwiertnia, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males) were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941–0.996) than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727–0.937). Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August), while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male) nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898–0.958), when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00–1.000), when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest) may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality. PMID:26934086

  7. [The breeding of strawberries suited for freezing : I. Breeding potential and ecovalence of two "freezing" characteristics].

    PubMed

    Hondelmann, W

    1968-01-01

    Heritability in the broad sense, the expected genetic advance with selection and the repeatabilities for two freezing characteristics were estimated in strawberry clones (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) over several years. The freezing characteristics were extravasation of juice and texture of berries after thawing. It could be shown that after 12-15 years of breeding and selection there was still much genetic variance. An estimation of ecovalence for these characteristics showed that ecovalence depends on genetic diversity. PMID:24442065

  8. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, Ehud

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  9. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  10. Recent advances in soybean transformation and their application to molecular breeding and genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Kyoko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant transgenic soybean plants hold a leading market share in the USA and other countries, but soybean has been regarded as recalcitrant to transformation for many years. The cumulative and, at times, exponential advances in genetic manipulation have made possible further choices for soybean transformation. The most widely and routinely used transformation systems are cotyledonary node–Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and somatic embryo–particle-bombardment-mediated transformation. These ready systems enable us to improve seed qualities and agronomic characteristics by transgenic approaches. In addition, with the accumulation of soybean genomic resources, convenient or promising approaches will be requisite for the determination and use of gene function in soybean. In this article, we describe recent advances in and problems of soybean transformation, and survey the current transgenic approaches for applied and basic research in Japan. PMID:23136488

  11. Characterization of broad spectrum Potato virus Y resistance in a Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena-derived population and select breeding clones using molecular markers, grafting, and field inoculations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y causes yield loss in potato and PVY necrotic strains can result in loss of quality due to tissue necrosis in infected tubers The Ryadg gene from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena has been shown to provide resistance PVYO and PVYN/NTN strains and is useful in breeding for resistance to...

  12. Breeding, Genetics, and Cultivar Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato breeding is a challenge due to the tetraploid nature of the potato, limited variability for economically important traits in adapted breeding clones, and a complex set of requirements necessary for the successful adoption of new cultivars. However, rich germplasm resources are readily availa...

  13. A Metagenomic Advance for the Cloning and Characterization of a Cellulase from Red Rice Crop Residues.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carlos; Silva, Bruna; Medeiros, Betsy; Serrato, Rodrigo; Johnston-Monje, David

    2016-01-01

    Many naturally-occurring cellulolytic microorganisms are not readily cultivable, demanding a culture-independent approach in order to study their cellulolytic genes. Metagenomics involves the isolation of DNA from environmental sources and can be used to identify enzymes with biotechnological potential from uncultured microbes. In this study, a gene encoding an endoglucanase was cloned from red rice crop residues using a metagenomic strategy. The amino acid identity between this gene and its closest published counterparts is lower than 70%. The endoglucanase was named EglaRR01 and was biochemically characterized. This recombinant protein showed activity on carboxymethylcellulose, indicating that EglaRR01 is an endoactive lytic enzyme. The enzymatic activity was optimal at a pH of 6.8 and at a temperature of 30 °C. Ethanol production from this recombinant enzyme was also analyzed on EglaRR01 crop residues, and resulted in conversion of cellulose from red rice into simple sugars which were further fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol after seven days. Ethanol yield in this study was approximately 8 g/L. The gene found herein shows strong potential for use in ethanol production from cellulosic biomass (second generation ethanol). PMID:27347917

  14. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Print Email Tweet The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) recognizes the intense debates within our society ...

  15. Aristotle and headless clones.

    PubMed

    Mosteller, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    Cloned organisms can be genetically altered so that they do not exhibit higher brain functioning. This form of therapeutic cloning allows for genetically identical organs and tissues to be harvested from the clone for the use of the organism that is cloned. "Spare parts" cloning promises many opportunities for future medical advances. What is the ontological and ethical status of spare parts, headless clones? This paper attempts to answer this question from the perspective of Aristotle's view of the soul. Aristotle's metaphysics as applied to his view of biological essences generates an ethic that can contribute to moral reasoning regarding the use of headless spare parts clones. The task of this paper is to show the implications that Aristotle's view of the soul, if it is true, would have on the ethics of headless, spare parts cloning. PMID:16180113

  16. Cloning-free genome engineering in Sinorhizobium meliloti advances applications of Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Döhlemann, Johannes; Brennecke, Meike; Becker, Anke

    2016-09-10

    The soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as model for studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a highly important process in sustainable agriculture. Here, we report advancements of the genetic toolbox accelerating genome editing in S. meliloti. The hsdMSR operon encodes a type-I restriction-modification (R-M) system. Transformation of S. meliloti is counteracted by the restriction endonuclease HsdR degrading DNA which lacks the appropriate methylation pattern. We provide a stable S. meliloti hsdR deletion mutant showing enhanced transformation with Escherichia coli-derived plasmid DNA and demonstrate that using an E. coli plasmid donor, expressing S. meliloti methyl transferase genes, is an alternative strategy of increasing the transformation efficiency of S. meliloti. Furthermore, we devise a novel cloning-free genome editing (CFGE) method for S. meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris, and demonstrate the applicability of this method for intricate applications of the Cre/lox recombination system in S. meliloti. An enhanced Cre/lox system, allowing for serial deletions of large genomic regions, was established. An assay of lox spacer mutants identified a set of lox sites mediating specific recombination. The availability of several non-promiscuous Cre recognition sites enables simultaneous specific Cre/lox recombination events. CFGE combined with Cre/lox recombination is put forward as powerful approach for targeted genome editing, involving serial steps of manipulation to expedite the genetic accessibility of S. meliloti as chassis. PMID:27393468

  17. Fractionate analysis of the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities in advanced breeding lines of high-lycopene tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Ilahy, Riadh; Piro, Gabriella; Tlili, Imen; Riahi, Anissa; Sihem, Rabaoui; Ouerghi, Imen; Hdider, Chafik; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the antioxidant components [lycopene, total phenolics, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA)] as well as antioxidant activities of the hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions (AAHF and AALF) of peel, pulp and seed fractions isolated from red-ripe berries of the ordinary tomato cultivar Rio Grande and the two high-lycopene tomato breeding lines HLT-F61 and HLT-F62 simultaneously grown in an open-field of Northern Tunisia. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found among cultivars for each trait studied. All fractions isolated from the red-ripe berries of HLT lines showed higher lycopene, total phenolics and total flavonoid contents, as well as higher AAHF and AALF, than those isolated from Rio Grande. Regardless of the fraction, HLT-F61 had the highest lycopene content (893.0 mg per kg fw, 280.0 mg per kg fw, and 47.5 mg per kg fw in peel, pulp and seed fractions, respectively) and total phenolics at least 2-fold and 3-fold higher than HLT-F62 and Rio Grande, respectively. Peel and seed fractions from HLT-F61 red-ripe tomato berries had the highest AsA content (345 mg per kg fw and 115 mg per kg fw, respectively), while no significant difference was found in the seed fraction between HLT-F62 and Rio Grande. The HLT-F62 pulp fraction showed the highest content of AsA (186 mg per kg fw) and DHA (151 mg per kg fw) among all the assayed cultivars. Except for the peel fraction, where HLT-F61 had similar AAHF values to HLT-F62, the high-lycopene line HLT-F61 showed higher AAHF values than HLT-F62 and Rio Grande. Regardless of the fraction, the highest AALF values were recorded in HLT-F61 berries. Thus, both HLT tomato lines are promising for the introduction, as advanced hybrids, in either fresh market or processing industry. PMID:26462607

  18. Apricot Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...

  19. Why Clone?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How might cloning be used in medicine? Cloning animal models of disease Much of what researchers learn about human disease comes from studying animal models such as mice. Often, animal models are ...

  20. Development of a high-throughput SNP resource to advance genomic, genetic and breeding research in carrot (Daucus carota L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rapid advancement in high-throughput SNP genotyping technologies along with next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms has decreased the cost, improved the quality of large-scale genome surveys, and allowed specialty crops with limited genomic resources such as carrot (Daucus carota) to access t...

  1. Recent advances in understanding the genetic resources of sheep breeds locally-adapted to the UK uplands: opportunities they offer for sustainable productivity

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Dianna

    2015-01-01

    Locally adapted breeds of livestock are of considerable interest since they represent potential reservoirs of adaptive fitness traits that may contribute to the future of sustainable productivity in a changing climate. Recent research, involving three hill sheep breeds geographically concentrated in the northern uplands of the UK has revealed the extent of their genetic diversity from one another and from other breeds. Results from the use of SNPs, microsatellites, and retrovirus insertions are reviewed in the context of related studies on sheep breeds world-wide to highlight opportunities offered by the genetic resources of locally adapted hill breeds. One opportunity concerns reduced susceptibility to Maedi Visna, a lentivirus with massive impacts on sheep health and productivity globally. In contrast to many mainstream breeds used in farming, each of the hill breeds analyzed are likely to be far less susceptible to the disease threat. A different opportunity, relating specifically to the Herdwick breed, is the extent to which the genome of the breed has retained primitive features, no longer present in other mainland breeds of sheep in the UK and offering a new route for discovering unique genetic traits of use to agriculture. PMID:25729388

  2. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  3. Academic Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally negative practice.…

  4. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Kudapa, Himabindu; Roorkiwal, Manish; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Saxena, Rachit K; Chamarthi, Siva K; Mohan, S Murali; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Upadhyaya, Hari; Gaur, Pooran M; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, K B; Nigam, Shyam N; Pande, Suresh

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided more than 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these traitassociated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance

  5. To clone or not to clone--a Jewish perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Lipschutz, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many new reproductive methods such as artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation, freezing of human embryos, and surrogate motherhood were at first widely condemned but are now seen in Western society as not just ethically and morally acceptable, but beneficial in that they allow otherwise infertile couples to have children. The idea of human cloning was also quickly condemned but debate is now emerging. This article examines cloning from a Jewish perspective and finds evidence to support the view that there is nothing inherently wrong with the idea of human cloning. A hypothesis is also advanced suggesting that even if a body was cloned, the brain, which is the essence of humanity, would remain unique. This author suggests that the debate should be changed from "Is cloning wrong?" to "When is cloning wrong?". PMID:10226913

  6. Production of cloned NIBS (Nippon Institute for Biological Science) and α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout MGH miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the NIBS breed as surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Horii, Wataru; Hirakata, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yuji; Waki, Shiori; Sano, Junichi; Saitoh, Toshiki; Sahara, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Yazawa, Hajime; Sachs, David H.; Nunoya, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear transfer (NT) technologies offer a means for producing the genetically modified pigs necessary to develop swine models for mechanistic studies of disease processes as well as to serve as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Most previous studies have used commercial pigs as surrogates. Method and Results In this study, we established a cloning technique for miniature pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using Nippon Institute for Biological Science (NIBS) miniature pigs as surrogates. Moreover, utilizing this technique, we have successfully produced an α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) miniature swine. Fibroblasts procured from a NIBS miniature pig fetus were injected into 1312 enucleated oocytes. The cloned embryos were transferred to 11 surrogates of which five successfully delivered 13 cloned offspring; the production efficiency was 1.0% (13/1312). In a second experiment, lung fibroblasts obtained from neonatal GalT-KO MGH miniature swine were used as donor cells and 1953 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 surrogates. Six cloned offspring were born from five surrogates, a production efficiency of 0.3% (6/1953). Conclusions These results demonstrate successful establishment of a miniature pig cloning technique by SCNT using NIBS miniature pigs as surrogates. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of successful production of GalT-KO miniature swine using miniature swine surrogates. This technique could help to ensure a stable supply of the cloned pigs through the use of miniature pig surrogates and could expand production in countries with limited space or in facilities with special regulations such as specific pathogen-free or good laboratory practice. PMID:23581451

  7. Therapeutic cloning: promises and issues

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Advances in biotechnology necessitate both an understanding of scientific principles and ethical implications to be clinically applicable in medicine. In this regard, therapeutic cloning offers significant potential in regenerative medicine by circumventing immunorejection, and in the cure of genetic disorders when used in conjunction with gene therapy. Therapeutic cloning in the context of cell replacement therapy holds a huge potential for de novo organogenesis and the permanent treatment of Parkinson’s disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and diabetes mellitus as shown by in vivo studies. Scientific roadblocks impeding advancement in therapeutic cloning are tumorigenicity, epigenetic reprogramming, mitochondrial heteroplasmy, interspecies pathogen transfer, low oocyte availability. Therapeutic cloning is also often tied to ethical considerations concerning the source, destruction and moral status of IVF embryos based on the argument of potential. Legislative and funding issues are also addressed. Future considerations would include a distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning in legislative formulations. PMID:18523539

  8. The development and application of the modern reproductive technologies to horse breeding.

    PubMed

    Allen, W R

    2005-08-01

    Although the horse was probably the first animal to experience and benefit from artificial insemination, it trailed the field somewhat with regard to the application of embryo transfer and other oocyte and embryo-related modern breeding technologies. But with a late run it is now back in mid-field and gaining fast on the other large domestic species in the application of the many technological advances of the past 20 years to sound breeding practice. Improvements in extenders and cryoprotectants have resulted in a veritable upsurge in the transport and insemination of cooled and frozen stallion semen, and parallel improvements in ovulation induction and synchrony, exogenous gonadotrophic stimulation of multiple fertile ovulations and simplified, more efficient methods for non-surgical transfer of embryos to recipient mares, coupled with relaxation of breed society registration restrictions, have together contributed to a similar upsurge in the application of embryo transfer to all breeds and athletic types of horses worldwide, with the continuing and notable exception of the Thoroughbred. Although conventional in vitro fertilization remains something of an unjumped fence in equids, other modern breeding technologies like hysteroscopic low-dose insemination, fluorescence-activated sex sorting of stallion spermatozoa, between-species embryo transfer, embryo freezing and bisection, transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte collection, intracytoplasmic sperm injection for fertilization (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and now nuclear transfer (cloning), have all been applied to equids with encouraging success. Cloning, especially, holds enormous promise for the Sporthorse industry to re-create champion geldings in stallion form for breeding purposes. PMID:16008761

  9. Breeding for Phytonutrient Enhancement in Potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tubers of 38 native potato cultivars of different taxonomic groups from South America were analyzed to determine The total anthocyanins, total carotenoids and antioxidant values of several groups of breeding clones and varieties were analyzed. Total anthocyanins and an Hydrophilic Oxygen Radical Ab...

  10. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  11. Databasing Molecular Identities of Louisiana, Florida, and Texas Sugarcane Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) clones (cultivars and superior breeding lines) are routinely exchanged across geographic locations for field-testing or crossing. It is crucial to maintain the genetic identity of these clones during field collection, shipping, and quarantine. Traditionally, suga...

  12. Advances in Linking Wintering Migrant Birds to Their Breeding-Ground Origins Using Combined Analyses of Genetic and Stable Isotope Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Amy A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; McQuat, Gregory J.; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    An enduring problem in avian ecology and conservation is linking breeding and wintering grounds of migratory species. As migratory species and populations vary in the degree to which individuals from distinct breeding locales mix on stop-over sites and wintering grounds, establishing migratory connectivity informs our understanding of population demography and species management. We present a new Bayesian approach for inferring breeding grounds of wintering birds of unknown origins in North America. We incorporate prior information from analysis of genetic markers into geographic origin assignment based upon stable-hydrogen isotope analysis of feathers (δ2Hf), using the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus). Likely geographic origins derived from analyses of DNA microsatellites were used as priors for Bayesian analyses in which birds were assigned to a breeding-ground origin using their δ2Hf values. As with most applications of Bayesian methods, our approach greatly improved the results (i.e. decreased the size of the potential area of origin). Area of origin decreased by 3 to 5-fold on average, but ranged up to a 10-fold improvement. We recommend this approach in future studies of migratory connectivity and suggest that our methodology could be applied more broadly to the study of dispersal, sources of productivity of migratory populations, and a range of evolutionary phenomena. PMID:22916285

  13. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  14. A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

  15. High-Throughput Genomics Enhances Tomato Breeding Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Barone, A; Di Matteo, A; Carputo, D; Frusciante, L

    2009-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is considered a model plant species for a group of economically important crops, such as potato, pepper, eggplant, since it exhibits a reduced genomic size (950 Mb), a short generation time, and routine transformation technologies. Moreover, it shares with the other Solanaceous plants the same haploid chromosome number and a high level of conserved genomic organization. Finally, many genomic and genetic resources are actually available for tomato, and the sequencing of its genome is in progress. These features make tomato an ideal species for theoretical studies and practical applications in the genomics field. The present review describes how structural genomics assist the selection of new varieties resistant to pathogens that cause damage to this crop. Many molecular markers highly linked to resistance genes and cloned resistance genes are available and could be used for a high-throughput screening of multiresistant varieties. Moreover, a new genomics-assisted breeding approach for improving fruit quality is presented and discussed. It relies on the identification of genetic mechanisms controlling the trait of interest through functional genomics tools. Following this approach, polymorphisms in major gene sequences responsible for variability in the expression of the trait under study are then exploited for tracking simultaneously favourable allele combinations in breeding programs using high-throughput genomic technologies. This aims at pyramiding in the genetic background of commercial cultivars alleles that increase their performances. In conclusion, tomato breeding strategies supported by advanced technologies are expected to target increased productivity and lower costs of improved genotypes even for complex traits. PMID:19721805

  16. Breeding Horticultural Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding involves selection of plants with combinations of improved traits that are inherited in a predictable manner. Collecting, understanding, and incorporating genetic variation into a horticultural breeding program are critical to success. Clearly defined goals help plant breeders choose ...

  17. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  18. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  19. Blackberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant Breeding Reviews has been published since the early 1980s and each edition presents a thorough review of the state of the are on breeding and genetics of specific crop plant. The extensive chapter on blackberry breeding and genetics is organized as follows: INTRODUCTION (Origin and Speciation...

  20. Chickpea Breeding and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book presents the current status of chickpea breeding and management by experts from around the world. It thoroughly covers a wide array of subject on chickpea genetics and breeding ranging from cytogenetics, wild relatives and biodiversity, conventional and modern breeding techniques and achi...

  1. Technological Literacy and Human Cloning. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how technology educators can deal with advances in human genetics, specifically, cloning. Includes a definition and history of cloning, discusses its benefits, and looks at social concerns and arguments for and against human cloning. Includes classroom activities and websites. (Contains 10 references.) (JOW)

  2. AQUA Cloning: A Versatile and Simple Enzyme-Free Cloning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Hannes M.; Gonschorek, Patrick; Samodelov, Sophia L.; Meier, Matthias; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly), a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected proof-of-principle applications including targeted insertion-, deletion- and site-directed point-mutagenesis, and combinatorial cloning. Furthermore, we show the one pot de novo assembly of multiple DNA fragments into a single circular plasmid encoding a complex light- and chemically-regulated Boolean A NIMPLY B logic operation. AQUA Cloning harnesses intrinsic in vivo processing of linear DNA fragments with short regions of homology of 16 to 32 bp mediated by Escherichia coli. It does not require any kits, enzymes or preparations of reagents and is the simplest assembly cloning protocol to date. PMID:26360249

  3. AQUA Cloning: A Versatile and Simple Enzyme-Free Cloning Approach.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Hannes M; Gonschorek, Patrick; Samodelov, Sophia L; Meier, Matthias; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D

    2015-01-01

    Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly), a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected proof-of-principle applications including targeted insertion-, deletion- and site-directed point-mutagenesis, and combinatorial cloning. Furthermore, we show the one pot de novo assembly of multiple DNA fragments into a single circular plasmid encoding a complex light- and chemically-regulated Boolean A NIMPLY B logic operation. AQUA Cloning harnesses intrinsic in vivo processing of linear DNA fragments with short regions of homology of 16 to 32 bp mediated by Escherichia coli. It does not require any kits, enzymes or preparations of reagents and is the simplest assembly cloning protocol to date. PMID:26360249

  4. Production and characterization of interspecific somatic hybrids between Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and B. nigra and their progenies for the selection of advanced pre-breeding materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-xiang; Tang, Yu; Yan, Hong; Sheng, Xiao-guang; Hao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Li; Lu, Kun; Liu, Fan

    2011-10-01

    Somatic hybridization is a potential method for gene transfer from wild relatives to cultivated crops that can overcome sexual incompatibilities of two distantly related species. In this study, interspecific asymmetric somatic hybrids of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower) and Brassica nigra (black mustard) were obtained by protoplast fusion and their backcrossed (BC(3)) and selfed (S(3)) offspring were analyzed. Cytological analysis showed that the B. nigra chromosomes were successively eliminated in the backcrosses with cauliflower. The fertility of the hybrid progenies was quite different due to the asynchronous and abnormal chromosome behavior of pollen mother cells (PMC) during meiosis. Analysis of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) showed that all of these hybrids mainly had the DNA banding pattern from the two parents with some alterations. Genetically, the selfed generations were closer to B. nigra, while the backcrossed generations were closer to the cauliflower parent. Analysis of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) showed that all somatic hybrids in this study contained chloroplast (cp) DNA of the donor parent black mustard, while mitochondrial (mt) DNA showed evidence of recombination and variations in the regions analyzed. Furthermore, three BC(3) plants (originated from somatic hybrids 3, 4, 10) with 2-8 B. nigra-derived chromosomes shown by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) displayed a more cauliflower-like morphology and high resistance to black-rot. These plants were obtained as bridge materials for further analysis and breeding. PMID:21603996

  5. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  6. Temporal changes on genetic diversity in a sugarcane breeding population using TRAP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential effect of a genetic bottleneck or founder event may explain the reduced level of genetic diversity observed in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding populations, which were founded on a very small group of interspecific clones. Understanding the impact of plant breeding in reducing this ...

  7. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  8. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  9. Verticillium Wilt Resistance Evaluation of Wisconsin Breeding Clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is one of the most widespread and persistent problems encountered by potato producers. In Wisconsin, it is caused in large part by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Soil fumigation is currently the only consistently effective control measure. However, host plant resistan...

  10. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M{sub A} clones with fidelity F{sup A} and another set of M{sub B} clones with fidelity F{sup B}, the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N{yields}M{sub A}+M{sub B} cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1{yields}1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized.

  11. Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danchin, E.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.

  12. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  13. Healthy ageing of cloned sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, K. D.; Corr, S. A.; Gutierrez, C. G.; Fisher, P. A.; Lee, J.-H.; Rathbone, A. J.; Choi, I.; Campbell, K. H. S.; Gardner, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The health of cloned animals generated by somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been of concern since its inception; however, there are no detailed assessments of late-onset, non-communicable diseases. Here we report that SCNT has no obvious detrimental long-term health effects in a cohort of 13 cloned sheep. We perform musculoskeletal assessments, metabolic tests and blood pressure measurements in 13 aged (7–9 years old) cloned sheep, including four derived from the cell line that gave rise to Dolly. We also perform radiological examinations of all main joints, including the knees, the joint most affected by osteoarthritis in Dolly, and compare all health parameters to groups of 5-and 6-year-old sheep, and published reference ranges. Despite their advanced age, these clones are euglycaemic, insulin sensitive and normotensive. Importantly, we observe no clinical signs of degenerative joint disease apart from mild, or in one case moderate, osteoarthritis in some animals. Our study is the first to assess the long-term health outcomes of SCNT in large animals. PMID:27459299

  14. Benefits and problems with cloning animals.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L C; Bordignon, V; Babkine, M; Fecteau, G; Keefer, C

    2000-01-01

    Animal cloning is becoming a useful technique for producing transgenic farm animals and is likely to be used to produce clones from valuable adults. Other applications will also undoubtedly be discovered in the near future, such as for preserving endangered breeds and species. Although cloning promises great advantages for commerce and research alike, its outcome is not always certain due to high pregnancy losses and high morbidity and mortality during the neonatal period. Research into the mechanisms involved in the reprogramming of the nucleus is being conducted throughout the world in an attempt to better understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in correcting these problems. Although the cause of these anomalies remains mostly unknown, similar phenotypes have been observed in calves derived through in vitro fertilization, suggesting that culture conditions are involved in these phenomena. In the meantime, veterinarians and theriogenologists have an important role to play in improving the efficiency of cloning by finding treatments to assure normal gestation to term and to develop preventative and curative care for cloned neonates. Images Figure 1. PMID:11143925

  15. [Temporal layers of the clone. Remarks on a conceptual history].

    PubMed

    Brandt, Christina

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims at a history of the clone concept in 20th-century life science and culture. The first part of the paper is concerned with conceptual history approaches. Here, the idea of 'Zeitschichten' by Reinhart Koselleck is discussed and its implications for the history of science are explored. In the following parts of the paper, I trace the historical dynamics of the clone concept in various fields of 20th-century life sciences. I argue that the clone concept, which originated in plant breeding around 1900, soon developed into a technical tool in a variety of research areas. With this, specific meanings became attached: the idea of standardization, genetic identity, and mass reproduction. A further connotation of the clone was the idea of stagnancy with respect to processes in time: The clone was seen as something that was exempt from evolutionary changes. In the last section of the paper, I trace the shifting meanings of the clone concept in the 1960s and 1970s, when the clone became a widespread metaphor that pointed to future biotechnologically driven possibilities to reshape the nature of human beings. In this regard, the debates of the 1970s are analyzed as a turning point: Whereas utopian and eugenic visions predominated the debates in the 1960s (when the human clone was seen as something which will occur in a distant future), the 1970s discussion focused on the advent of a biotechnological era and the human clone had became a reality. PMID:20695410

  16. Developments in European horse breeding and consequences for veterinarians in equine reproduction.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Aurich, C

    2006-08-01

    The liberalization of European animal breeding legislation and an increasing diversity of equestrian sports have led to a constant rise in the number of horse breeds and breed registries. In addition to the trend towards more and smaller breed registries, there is another trend towards an international expansion of the bigger established sport horse breeds. Regional breeds, at least in smaller countries, may no longer be able to run an independent breeding programme. The typical horse breeder, in the future, will be a female and qualified in equestrian sports. Artificial insemination (AI) mainly with fresh or cooled-transported semen has become a major breeding tool, allowing breeders all over Europe to benefit from the best stallions of most breeds. New AI techniques such as low-dose insemination may remain restricted to individual stallions and also the interest of breeding programmes in sex determination of foals via semen sorting is limited. Embryo transfer and associated techniques, although allowed by most breeds, have not contributed significantly to genetic progress in European sport horses so far. A potential use of cloning may be to produce gonad-intact copies from geldings that have performed to a superior level. With a more open and international structure of horse breeding and increased use of AI, equine reproduction and biotechnology should be emphasized by veterinary curricula and continuing professional education programmes. PMID:16869881

  17. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  18. Therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chester J; Atala, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    A severe shortage of donor organs available for transplantation in the United States leaves patients suffering from diseased and injured organs with few treatment options. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and engineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Therapeutic cloning, where the nucleus from a donor cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte in order to extract pluripotent embryonic stem cells, offers a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. The present chapter reviews recent advances that have occurred in therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering and describes applications of these new technologies that may offer novel therapies for patients with end-stage organ failure. PMID:15094294

  19. Assisted Breeding in Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others. The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable ...

  20. Who is the parent in cloning?

    PubMed

    Elster, N

    1999-01-01

    In July 1996, a sheep named Dolly was born in Scotland. What makes Dolly's birth noteworthy is that she is the result of the first successful cloning attempt using the nucleus of an adult cell. The technique that led to Dolly's birth involved transferring the nucleus of a mammary cell from an adult sheep to the enucleated egg cell of an unrelated sheep with gestation occurring in a third sheep. The possibility of applying this technique to human reproduction raised concerns worldwide with several countries moving for an immediate bans on human cloning. In the United States, President Clinton requested that the National Bioethics Advisory Commission ("NBAC"), a multidisciplinary group composed of scientists, lawyers, educators, theologians, and ethicists study the implications of cloning and issue recommendations. The Commission consulted other scientists, ethicists, theologians, lawyers, and citizens with interests in this advancing technology and concluded that, "at this time it is morally unacceptable for anyone in the public or private sector, whether in a research or clinical setting, to attempt to create a child using somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning." This Article was included in a larger work prepared at the request of, and submitted to the Commission by, law professor Lori B. Andrews. Cloning through nuclear transfer will change the way we create and define families. This Article explores how existing law relating to parentage, surrogacy, egg donation, and artificial insemination may apply in the cloning context to clarify the parent-child relationship established through cloning. PMID:12650149

  1. Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hei; Raghavan, Chitra; Zhou, Bo; Oliva, Ricardo; Choi, Il Ryong; Lacorte, Vanica; Jubay, Mona Liza; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Gregorio, Glenn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ulat, Victor Jun; Borja, Frances Nikki; Mauleon, Ramil; Alexandrov, Nickolai N; McNally, Kenneth L; Sackville Hamilton, Ruaraidh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional rice varieties harbour a large store of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate rice improvement. For a long time, this diversity maintained in the International Rice Genebank has not been fully used because of a lack of genome information. The publication of the first reference genome of Nipponbare by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) marked the beginning of a systematic exploration and use of rice diversity for genetic research and breeding. Since then, the Nipponbare genome has served as the reference for the assembly of many additional genomes. The recently completed 3000 Rice Genomes Project together with the public database (SNP-Seek) provides a new genomic and data resource that enables the identification of useful accessions for breeding. Using disease resistance traits as case studies, we demonstrated the power of allele mining in the 3,000 genomes for extracting accessions from the GeneBank for targeted phenotyping. Although potentially useful landraces can now be identified, their use in breeding is often hindered by unfavourable linkages. Efficient breeding designs are much needed to transfer the useful diversity to breeding. Multi-parent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) is a breeding design to produce highly recombined populations. The MAGIC approach can be used to generate pre-breeding populations with increased genotypic diversity and reduced linkage drag. Allele mining combined with a multi-parent breeding design can help convert useful diversity into breeding-ready genetic resources. PMID:26606925

  2. Increasing efficiency in production of cloned piglets.

    PubMed

    Callesen, Henrik; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne S; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette

    2014-12-01

    The low efficiency in obtaining piglets after production of cloned embryos was challenged in two steps-first by performing in vitro culture for 5-6 days after cloning to obtain later-stage embryos for more precise selection for transfer, and second by reducing the number of embryos transferred per recipient sow. The data set consisted of combined results from a 4-year period where cloning was performed to produce piglets that were transgenic for important human diseases. For this, different transgenes and cell types were used, and the cloning work was performed by several persons using oocytes from different pig breeds, but following a standardized and optimized protocol. Results showed that in vitro culture is possible with a relatively stable rate of transferable embryos around 41% and a pregnancy rate around 90%. Furthermore, a reduction from around 80 embryos to 40 embryos transferred per recipient was possible without changing the efficiency of around 14% (piglets born out of embryos transferred). It was concluded that this approach can increase the efficiency in obtaining piglets by means of in vitro culture and selection of high-quality embryos with subsequent transfer into more recipients. Such changes can also reduce the need for personnel, time, and material when working with this technology. PMID:25333333

  3. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  4. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  5. Breeding Cold Hardy Begonias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hardy begonia cultivars have potential as a new crop for Southern nurseries. Current begonia breeding efforts are focused on sections Begonia and Pritzelia. Diverse begonia germplasm has been collected to study fertility and hardiness.To date cold hardy germplasm which has produced viable seeds inc...

  6. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  7. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  8. Raspberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

  9. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling. PMID:27353838

  10. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling. PMID:27353838

  11. Photonic Programmable Tele-Cloning Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    The concept of quantum teleportation allows an unknown quantum states to be broadcasted and processed in a distributed quantum network. The quantum information injected into the network can be diluted to distant multi-copies by quantum cloning and processed by arbitrary quantum logic gates which were programed in advance in the network quantum state. A quantum network combines simultaneously these fundamental quantum functions could lead to new intriguing applications. Here we propose a photonic programmable telecloning network based on a four-photon interferometer. The photonic network serves as quantum gate, quantum cloning and quantum teleportation and features experimental advantage of high brightness by photon recycling.

  12. Use of BAC clones as standardized reagents for Marek’s disease virus research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cloning of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone have led to major advances through our ability to study individual gene function by making precise insertions and deletions in the viral genome. We believe that MDV BAC clones will repl...

  13. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valmor J; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  14. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  15. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  16. The Transcriptome of the Reference Potato Genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Clone DM1-3 516R44

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Alicia N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J.; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family. PMID:22046362

  17. Methods in molecular cardiology: in silico cloning

    PubMed Central

    Passier, R.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Advancements in sequencing technology have made it possible to obtain more information about the DNA sequence, structure and the transcript products of the genome from different species. This information is collected in DNA databases. These databases contain many genes of which the functions have not yet been discovered. By using online biotechnology tools novel genes and their transcripts can be identified. The identification of novel genes using DNA database analysis is referred to as in silico cloning. In silico cloning may not only provide new information on genes and their biological function, it may also lead to identification of molecular targets for drug discovery activities. In this review we describe the process of in silico cloning and its application in biomedical research. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3 PMID:25696371

  18. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, ‘breeding by design’, or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the ‘superdomestication’ of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits. PMID:23115520

  19. Rice Molecular Breeding Laboratories in the Genomics Era: Current Status and Future Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Bert C. Y.; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Virk, Parminder S.; Mackill, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Using DNA markers in plant breeding with marker-assisted selection (MAS) could greatly improve the precision and efficiency of selection, leading to the accelerated development of new crop varieties. The numerous examples of MAS in rice have prompted many breeding institutes to establish molecular breeding labs. The last decade has produced an enormous amount of genomics research in rice, including the identification of thousands of QTLs for agronomically important traits, the generation of large amounts of gene expression data, and cloning and characterization of new genes, including the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The pinnacle of genomics research has been the completion and annotation of genome sequences for indica and japonica rice. This information—coupled with the development of new genotyping methodologies and platforms, and the development of bioinformatics databases and software tools—provides even more exciting opportunities for rice molecular breeding in the 21st century. However, the great challenge for molecular breeders is to apply genomics data in actual breeding programs. Here, we review the current status of MAS in rice, current genomics projects and promising new genotyping methodologies, and evaluate the probable impact of genomics research. We also identify critical research areas to “bridge the application gap” between QTL identification and applied breeding that need to be addressed to realize the full potential of MAS, and propose ideas and guidelines for establishing rice molecular breeding labs in the postgenome sequence era to integrate molecular breeding within the context of overall rice breeding and research programs. PMID:18528527

  20. Ovulation Statuses of Surrogate Gilts Are Associated with the Efficiency of Excellent Pig Cloning.

    PubMed

    Huan, Yanjun; Hu, Kui; Xie, Bingteng; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Shichao; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Zhongfeng; He, Yilong; Li, Jingyu; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    transfer position change, improved cloning efficiency. This work would have important implications in preserving and breeding excellent livestock and improving the overall cloning efficiency. PMID:26565717

  1. Ovulation Statuses of Surrogate Gilts Are Associated with the Efficiency of Excellent Pig Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Yanjun; Hu, Kui; Xie, Bingteng; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Shichao; Huang, Bo; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Zhongfeng; He, Yilong; Li, Jingyu; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    , not transfer position change, improved cloning efficiency. This work would have important implications in preserving and breeding excellent livestock and improving the overall cloning efficiency. PMID:26565717

  2. Targeted Proteomics Approach for Precision Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Chawade, Aakash; Alexandersson, Erik; Bengtsson, Therese; Andreasson, Erik; Levander, Fredrik

    2016-02-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometry technique that enables precise quantitation of hundreds of peptides in a single run. This technique provides new opportunities for multiplexed protein biomarker measurements. For precision plant breeding, DNA-based markers have been used extensively, but the potential of protein biomarkers has not been exploited. In this work, we developed an SRM marker panel with assays for 104 potato (Solanum tuberosum) peptides selected using univariate and multivariate statistics. Thereafter, using random forest classification, the prediction markers were identified for Phytopthora infestans resistance in leaves, P. infestans resistance in tubers, and plant yield in potato leaf secretome samples. The results suggest that the marker panel has the predictive potential for three traits, two of which have no commercial DNA markers so far. Furthermore, the marker panel was also tested and found to be applicable to potato clones not used during the marker development. The proposed workflow is thus a proof-of-concept for targeted proteomics as an efficient readout in accelerated breeding for complex and agronomically important traits. PMID:26704985

  3. Brain size-related breeding strategies in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Kim; Öst, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The optimal compromise between decision speed and accuracy may depend on cognitive ability, associated with the degree of encephalization: larger brain size may select for accurate but slow decision-making, beneficial under challenging conditions but costly under benign ones. How this brain size-dependent selection pressure shapes avian breeding phenology and reproductive performance remains largely unexplored. We predicted that (1) large-brained individuals have a delayed breeding schedule due to thorough nest-site selection and/or prolonged resource acquisition, (2) good condition facilitates early breeding independent of relative brain size, and (3) large brain size accrues benefits mainly to individuals challenged by environmental or intrinsic constraints. To test these predictions, we examined how the relative head volume of female eiders (Somateria mollissima) of variable body condition correlated with their breeding schedule, hatching success and offspring quality. The results were consistent with our predictions. First, large head size was associated with a progressively later onset of breeding with increasing breeding dispersal distance. Second, increasing body condition advanced the timing of breeding, but this effect was significantly weaker in large-brained females. Third, larger head volume was associated with increased hatching success mainly among late breeders and those in poor body condition, and duckling body condition was positively related to maternal head volume, but only in poor-condition mothers. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate the presence of brain size-related differences in reproductive strategies within a single natural population. PMID:26456024

  4. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.

    2007-01-01

    The cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide and a well-studied crop species in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding. It is one of the earliest crop plants for which a genetic linkage map was constructed, and currently there are several molecular maps based on crosses between the cultivated and various wild species of tomato. The high-density molecular map, developed based on an L. esculentum × L. pennellii cross, includes more than 2200 markers with an average marker distance of less than 1 cM and an average of 750 kbp per cM. Different types of molecular markers such as RFLPs, AFLPs, SSRs, CAPS, RGAs, ESTs, and COSs have been developed and mapped onto the 12 tomato chromosomes. Markers have been used extensively for identification and mapping of genes and QTLs for many biologically and agriculturally important traits and occasionally for germplasm screening, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted breeding. The utility of MAS in tomato breeding has been restricted largely due to limited marker polymorphism within the cultivated species and economical reasons. Also, when used, MAS has been employed mainly for improving simply-inherited traits and not much for improving complex traits. The latter has been due to unavailability of reliable PCR-based markers and problems with linkage drag. Efforts are being made to develop high-throughput markers with greater resolution, including SNPs. The expanding tomato EST database, which currently includes ∼214 000 sequences, the new microarray DNA chips, and the ongoing sequencing project are expected to aid development of more practical markers. Several BAC libraries have been developed that facilitate map-based cloning of genes and QTLs. Sequencing of the euchromatic portions of the tomato genome is paving the way for comparative and functional analysis of important genes and QTLs. PMID:18364989

  5. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  6. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  7. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  8. Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  9. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  10. M6: A diploid potato inbred line for use in breeding and genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    M6 is a vigorous, homozygous breeding line derived by self-pollinating the diploid wild potato relative Solanum chacoense for seven generations. While most wild Solanum species are self-incompatible, this clone is homozygous for the dominant self-incompatibility inhibitor gene Sli. It is homozygous ...

  11. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; He, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating pest of rice. Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. To date, 29 major BPH resistance genes have been identified from indica cultivars and wild rice species, and more than ten genes have been fine mapped to chromosome regions of less than 200 kb. Four genes (Bph14, Bph26, Bph17 and bph29) have been cloned. The increasing number of fine-mapped and cloned genes provide a solid foundation for development of functional markers for use in breeding. Several BPH resistant introgression lines (ILs), near-isogenic lines (NILs) and pyramided lines (PLs) carrying single or multiple resistance genes were developed by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABC). Here we review recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of BPH resistance in rice. Prospect for developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum BPH resistance are discussed. PMID:27300326

  12. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  13. Secure the Clones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Thomas; Kirchner, Florent; Pichardie, David

    Exchanging mutable data objects with untrusted code is a delicate matter because of the risk of creating a data space that is accessible by an attacker. Consequently, secure programming guidelines for Java stress the importance of using defensive copying before accepting or handing out references to an internal mutable object. However, implementation of a copy method (like clone()) is entirely left to the programmer. It may not provide a sufficiently deep copy of an object and is subject to overriding by a malicious sub-class. Currently no language-based mechanism supports secure object cloning. This paper proposes a type-based annotation system for defining modular copy policies for class-based object-oriented programs. A copy policy specifies the maximally allowed sharing between an object and its clone. We present a static enforcement mechanism that will guarantee that all classes fulfill their copy policy, even in the presence of overriding of copy methods, and establish the semantic correctness of the overall approach in Coq. The mechanism has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on clone methods from several Java libraries.

  14. Applications of quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarico, E.; Sanguinetti, B.; Sekatski, P.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N.

    2011-10-01

    Quantum Cloning Machines (QCMs) allow for the copying of information, within the limits imposed by quantum mechanics. These devices are particularly interesting in the high-gain regime, i.e., when one input qubit generates a state of many output qubits. In this regime, they allow for the study of certain aspects of the quantum to classical transition. The understanding of these aspects is the root of the two recent applications that we will review in this paper: the first one is the Quantum Cloning Radiometer, a device which is able to produce an absolute measure of spectral radiance. This device exploits the fact that in the quantum regime information can be copied with only finite fidelity, whereas when a state becomes macroscopic, this fidelity gradually increases to 1. Measuring the fidelity of the cloning operation then allows to precisely determine the absolute spectral radiance of the input optical source. We will then discuss whether a Quantum Cloning Machine could be used to produce a state visible by the naked human eye, and the possibility of a Bell Experiment with humans playing the role of detectors.

  15. The Cloning of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Judith E.; Dobson, Russell L.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that the U.S. school system purports to prize human variability, but many educators are engaged in activities that seek to homogenize students. Describes these activities, including diagnosis, labeling, ability grouping, and positive reinforcement. Presents suggestions for counselors to combat sources of cloning and self-validation. (RC)

  16. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  17. Progress in strawberry breeding at the University of Florida: An historical variety trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strawberry breeding program of the University of Florida develops varieties that are highly adapted to west-central Florida, where approximately 8,500 acres of strawberries were grown during the 2009-10 season. In order to gain insight into breeding progress over time, three advanced selections ...

  18. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6,834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in t...

  19. Stripe rust resistance and genes in Chinese wheat cultivars and breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases on wheat in China. To assess resistance in wheat cultivars and breeding lines in China, 330 leading cultivars and 164 advanced breeding lines were evaluated with stripe rust. In the greenhouse tes...

  20. Almond breeding and evaluation activities in central California: past and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond breeding and evaluation efforts at the Agricultural Research Service resumed during the late 1980s after a lapse of nearly 20 years. Breeding efforts from the 1950s through the early 1970s led to a diverse collection of advanced selections, some being suitable as pollenizers for the importan...

  1. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  2. THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

  3. Gas exchange characteristics of Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides clones.

    PubMed

    Bassman, J H; Zwier, J C

    1991-03-01

    characteristics of eastern and western Washington clones of P. trichocarpa reflected adaptation to their native environment; (2) crossing the western Washington clone of P. trichocarpa with the more drought resistant P. deltoides clone produced plants better adapted to the interior Pacific Northwest climate, although the stomatal response to soil water deficits in the hybrid was conservative compared with that of the eastern Washington clone of P. trichocarpa; and (3) introducing eastern Washington clones of black cottonwood into breeding programs is likely to yield lines with favorable growth characteristics combined with enhanced WUE and adaptation to soil water deficits. PMID:14972886

  4. Probabilistic Cloning and Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ting; Yan, Feng-Li; Wang, Zhi-Xi

    2004-06-01

    We discuss the usefulness of quantum cloning and present examples of quantum computation tasks for which the cloning offers an advantage which cannot be matched by any approach that does not resort to quantum cloning. In these quantum computations, we need to distribute quantum information contained in the states about which we have some partial information. To perform quantum computations, we use a state-dependent probabilistic quantum cloning procedure to distribute quantum information in the middle of a quantum computation.

  5. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E.

    1995-12-31

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  6. New high density genetic marker technology for use in breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in genetic marker technology have enhanced our ability to evaluate rice breeding materials more quickly and with greater coverage. In 2005, as a result of an international collaboration, the japonica rice variety, Nipponbare, was the first crop plant to be completely sequenced. Subse...

  7. Breeding New Varieties to Reduce Pre-Harvest Mycotoxin Contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding has played a major role in the advancement of human civilization. The domestication and continued improvement of plant species allowed more people to be fed by a significantly smaller portion of the population thereby allowing other individuals to focus on improving other facets of c...

  8. Challenges and opportunities in variance component estimation for animal breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been many advances in variance component estimation (VCE), both in theory and in software, since Dr. Henderson introduced Henderson’s Methods 1, 2, and 3 in 1953. However, many challenges in modern animal breeding are not addressed adequately by current algorithms and software. Examples i...

  9. Cloning, Expression and Biological Analysis of Recombinant Chicken IFN-gamma Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interferon-gamma (CHIFN-') derived from the spleen cells of White Leghorns chicken, a local Chinese breeding species was amplified by RT-PCR. The gene encoding CHIFN-' with the deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET30a, resulting in a recombin...

  10. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  11. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  12. Cloning of murine ferrochelatase.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Frasier, F

    1991-01-01

    Ferrochelatase (protoheme ferro-lyase, EC 4.99.1.1) catalyzes the last step in the heme biosynthetic pathway, the chelation of ferrous iron and protoporphyrin to form heme. The activity of ferrochelatase is deficient in the inherited disease protoporphyria. In this study, murine ferrochelatase cDNAs were obtained by screening cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide probe. The derived amino acid sequence of murine ferrochelatase has 47% identity with the recently cloned Saccharomyces cerevisiae ferrochelatase, but it is not significantly similar to other published sequences. Results of Southern blotting are consistent with a single murine ferrochelatase gene, while Northern blotting demonstrates two ferrochelatase transcripts in all tissues examined. The ferrochelatase protein and mRNAs have different relative concentrations in different tissues. The cloning of murine ferrochelatase cDNAs provides the basis for future studies on ferrochelatase gene expression and on the identification of the molecular defect in protoporphyria. Images PMID:1704134

  13. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3. PMID:19882336

  14. Cloning-free CRISPR

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each target locus. We introduce a self-cleaving palindromic sgRNA plasmid and a short double-stranded DNA sequence encoding the desired locus-specific sgRNA into target cells, allowing them to produce a locus-specific sgRNA plasmid through homologous recombination. scCRISPR enables efficient generation of gene knockouts (∼88% mutation rate) at approximately one-sixth the cost of plasmid-based sgRNA construction with only 2 hr of preparation for each targeted site. Additionally, we demonstrate efficient site-specific knockin of GFP transgenes without any plasmid cloning or genome-integrated selection cassette in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (2%–4% knockin rate) through PCR-based addition of short homology arms. scCRISPR substantially lowers the bar on mouse and human transgenesis. PMID:26527385

  15. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  16. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  17. Ethical issues in livestock cloning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although cloning may eventually become an important technology for livestock production, four ethical issues must be addressed before the practice becomes widespread. First, researchers must establish that the procedure is not detrimental to the health or well-being of affected animals. Second, animal research institutions should evaluate the net social benefits to livestock producers by weighing the benefits to producers against the opportunity cost of research capacity lost to biomedical projects. Third, scientists should consider the indirect effects of cloning research on the larger ethical issues surrounding human cloning. Finally, the market structure for products of cloned animals should protect individual choice, and should recognize that many individuals find the prospect of cloning (or consuming cloned animals) repugnant. Analysis of these four issues is complicated by spurious arguments alleging that cloning will have a negative impact on environment and genetic diversity. PMID:15719505

  18. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-08-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  19. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  20. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  1. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  2. [Mapping and cloning of low phosphorus tolerance genes in soybeans].

    PubMed

    Dan, Zhang; Haina, Song; Hao, Cheng; Deyue, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Soybean is a major source of edible oil and phytoprotein. Low phosphorus available in soil is an important factor limiting the current soybean production. Effective ways to solve the problem include identification of germplasms and genes tolerant to low-phosphorus stress, and cultivation of soybean varieties with high phosphorus efficiency. Recently many researches have been carrying out investigations to map and clone genes related to phosphorus efficiency in soybeans. However, due to the complexity of the soybean genome and little knowledge of functional genes, it has been difficult to understand the mechanism of soybean tolerance to low phosphorus. Although quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping related to low phosphorus tolerance has made some progress, it remains elusive to obtain accurate candidate genes for molecular breeding applications, due to the limited accuracy of QTL. Even for the cloned soybean low phosphorus tolerance genes, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, further limiting the application to breeding. In this review, we summarize the progresses on mapping, cloning and functional characterization of soybean low phosphorus tolerance genes. PMID:25881699

  3. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  4. Best of Breed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

  5. Tissue engineering applications of therapeutic cloning.

    PubMed

    Atala, Anthony; Koh, Chester J

    2004-01-01

    Few treatment options are available for patients suffering from diseased and injured organs because of a severe shortage of donor organs available for transplantation. Therapeutic cloning, where the nucleus from a donor cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte in order to extract pluripotent embryonic stem cells, offers a potentially limitless source of cells for replacement therapy. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, material science, and engineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. The present chapter reviews recent advances that have occurred in therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering and describes applications of these new technologies that may offer novel therapies for patients with end-stage organ failure. PMID:15255761

  6. Verticillium Wilt Resistance in U.S. Potato Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW), caused mainly by the soil-borne fungus V. dahliae, is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host-plant resistance offers an attractive control strategy, but major cultivars are susceptible to VW. Resistance to VW was evaluated in 14 advanced clones from U.S...

  7. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  8. The inadequacies of absolute prohibition of reproductive cloning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Martin Lishexian

    2004-02-01

    This study reviews debates on human cloning and its benefits, considers international and domestic laws, and argues that the choice of reproductive means is a human right. In exercise of this right, a balanced approach should be adopted, in order to benefit human society while protecting human dignity adequately. The immaturity of cloning techniques indicates that at the present time human reproductive cloning is too risky. Thus a temporary ban on such cloning is appropriate, but the ban on relevant scientific research and animal experimentation is inappropriate as it denies the spirit of freedom of scientific inquiry, and hinders making the benefits of scientific advancement available to human society as a whole. PMID:15018212

  9. Therapeutic cloning and reproductive liberty.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2009-04-01

    Concern for "reproductive liberty" suggests that decisions about embryos should normally be made by the persons who would be the genetic parents of the child that would be brought into existence if the embryo were brought to term. Therapeutic cloning would involve creating and destroying an embryo, which, if brought to term, would be the offspring of the genetic parents of the person undergoing therapy. I argue that central arguments in debates about parenthood and genetics therefore suggest that therapeutic cloning would be prima facie unethical unless it occurred with the consent of the parents of the person being cloned. Alternatively, if therapeutic cloning is thought to be legitimate, this undermines the case for some uses of reproductive cloning by implying that the genetic relation it establishes between clones and DNA donors does not carry the same moral weight as it does in cases of normal reproduction. PMID:19240247

  10. Age of First Breeding Interacts with Pre- and Post-Recruitment Experience in Shaping Breeding Phenology in a Long-Lived Gull

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Davy S.; Vercruijsse, Harry J. P.; Stienen, Eric W. M.; Vincx, Magda; Lens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Individual variation in timing of breeding is a key factor affecting adaptation to environmental change, yet our basic understanding of the causes of such individual variation is incomplete. This study tests several hypotheses for age-related variation in the breeding timing of Lesser Black-backed Gulls, based on a 13 year longitudinal data set that allows to decouple effects of age, previous prospecting behavior, and years of breeding experience on arrival timing at the colony. At the population level, age of first breeding was significantly associated with timing of arrival and survival, i.e. individuals tended to arrive later if they postponed their recruitment, and individuals recruiting at the age of 4 years survived best. However, up to 81% of the temporal variation in arrival dates was explained by within-individual effects. When excluding the pre-recruitment period, the effect of increasing age on advanced arrival was estimated at 11 days, with prior breeding experience accounting for a 7 days advance and postponed breeding for a 4 days delay. Overall, results of this study show that delayed age of first breeding can serve to advance arrival date (days after December 1st) in successive breeding seasons throughout an individual’s lifetime, in large part due to the benefits of learning or experience gained during prospecting. However, prospecting and the associated delay in breeding also bear a survival cost, possibly because prospectors have been forced to delay through competition with breeders. More generally, results of this study set the stage for exploring integrated temporal shifts in phenology, resource allocation and reproductive strategies during individual lifecycles of long-lived migratory species. PMID:24324750

  11. Self-Cloning CRISPR.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Mandana; Sherwood, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9-gene editing has emerged as a revolutionary technology to easily modify specific genomic loci by designing complementary sgRNA sequences and introducing these into cells along with Cas9. Self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR) uses a self-cleaving palindromic sgRNA plasmid (sgPal) that recombines with short PCR-amplified site-specific sgRNA sequences within the target cell by homologous recombination to circumvent the process of sgRNA plasmid construction. Through this mechanism, scCRISPR enables gene editing within 2 hr once sgRNA oligos are available, with high efficiency equivalent to conventional sgRNA targeting: >90% gene knockout in both mouse and human embryonic stem cells and cancer cell lines. Furthermore, using PCR-based addition of short homology arms, we achieve efficient site-specific knock-in of transgenes such as GFP without traditional plasmid cloning or genome-integrated selection cassette (2% to 4% knock-in rate). The methods in this paper describe the most rapid and efficient means of CRISPR gene editing. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27532819

  12. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Peter A. . E-mail: p.whittaker@lancaster.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated.

  13. Human cloning and child welfare.

    PubMed Central

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  14. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  15. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  16. Aging in sexual and obligately asexual clones of Daphnia from temporary ponds.

    PubMed

    Dudycha, Jeffry L; Hassel, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia is an emerging model system in the biology of aging. Diversity in aging patterns is thought to be caused by ecological variation in selection on age-specific performance. Previous work in Daphnia has shown a strong correspondence between selective differences and genetic variation in aging in the Daphnia pulex species complex. However, recent evidence suggests obligate asexuality could account for the more rapid aging found in pond genotypes compared with lake genotypes without invoking differences in selection. Evolutionary biologists have to date assumed equivalent operation of neutral processes when comparing aging across populations, but a shift in the breeding system changes the basic dynamics of neutral evolution. To test the hypothesis that the breeding system could explain the short lifespans of pond-dwelling Daphnia, we compared aging of sexual and asexual Daphnia clones from temporary ponds. Our data contradict the breeding system hypothesis. Differences in aging between the breeding systems were slight, and trended in the opposite direction from that predicted: asexual clones had longer lifespans and appeared to age more slowly than sexual clones. We conclude that divergent selection between habitats remains the best explanation for differences in aging between Daphnia species. PMID:23467752

  17. Tumor clone dynamics in lethal prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Suzanne; Romanel, Alessandro; Goodall, Jane; Grist, Emily; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Miranda, Susana; Prandi, Davide; Lorente, David; Frenel, Jean-Sebastien; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Flohr, Penelope; Tunariu, Nina; de Bono, Johann S.; Demichelis, Francesca; Attard, Gerhardt

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether a single clone metastasizes and remains dominant over the course of lethal prostate cancer. We describe the clonal architectural heterogeneity at different stages of disease progression by sequencing serial plasma and tumor samples from 16 ERG-positive patients. By characterizing the clonality of commonly occurring deletions at 21q22, 8p21, and 10q23, we identified multiple independent clones in metastatic disease that are differentially represented in tissue and circulation. To exemplify the clinical utility of our studies, we then showed a temporal association between clinical progression and emergence of androgen receptor (AR) mutations activated by glucocorticoids in about 20% of patients progressing on abiraterone and prednisolone or dexamethasone. Resistant clones showed a complex dynamic with temporal and spatial heterogeneity, suggesting distinct mechanisms of resistance at different sites that emerged and regressed depending on treatment selection pressure. This introduces a management paradigm requiring sequential monitoring of advanced prostate cancer patients with plasma and tumor biopsies to ensure early discontinuation of agents when they become potential disease drivers. PMID:25232177

  18. Breeding potential of elite Pee Dee germplasm in Upland cotton breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful plant breeding programs begin with parental line selection. Effective parental line selection is facilitated when the breeding potential of candidate parental lines is known. Using topcross families involving germplasm representing eight US public cotton breeding programs, we evaluated th...

  19. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    PubMed

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it. PMID:19860340

  20. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from clones and their offspring out of the food chain until CVM could further evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM ... evaluate the safety of food from these animals. The resulting report, called a ...

  1. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool.

    PubMed

    Henstock, Peter V; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  2. CATO: The Clone Alignment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Henstock, Peter V.; LaPan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput cloning efforts produce large numbers of sequences that need to be aligned, edited, compared with reference sequences, and organized as files and selected clones. Different pieces of software are typically required to perform each of these tasks. We have designed a single piece of software, CATO, the Clone Alignment Tool, that allows a user to align, evaluate, edit, and select clone sequences based on comparisons to reference sequences. The input and output are designed to be compatible with standard data formats, and thus suitable for integration into a clone processing pipeline. CATO provides both sequence alignment and visualizations to facilitate the analysis of cloning experiments. The alignment algorithm matches each of the relevant candidate sequences against each reference sequence. The visualization portion displays three levels of matching: 1) a top-level summary of the top candidate sequences aligned to each reference sequence, 2) a focused alignment view with the nucleotides of matched sequences displayed against one reference sequence, and 3) a pair-wise alignment of a single reference and candidate sequence pair. Users can select the minimum matching criteria for valid clones, edit or swap reference sequences, and export the results to a summary file as part of the high-throughput cloning workflow. PMID:27459605

  3. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  4. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  5. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training

  6. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  7. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  8. Transcriptome analysis of a breeding program pedigree examines gene expression diversity and reveals target genes for malting quality improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced cycle breeding utilizes crosses among elite lines and is a successful method to develop new inbreds. However, it results in a reduction in genetic diversity within the breeding population. The development of malting barley varieties requires the adherence to a narrow malting quality profile...

  9. High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Tifeng; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Na; Zhao, Xiaobo; Gao, Suqin

    2012-03-01

    Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation. To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources, 20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U. pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok, Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao, China. One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification. At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8, 3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones, with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp. At other loci, 3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones, respectively. The average gene diversity for Russian, Chinese, and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci. In cluster analysis, Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance. Overall, high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries. These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

  10. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    PubMed

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe? PMID:14634633

  11. Pedigree-based analysis of derivation of genome segments of an elite rice reveals key regions during its breeding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Degui; Chen, Wei; Lin, Zechuan; Chen, Haodong; Wang, Chongrong; Li, Hong; Yu, Renbo; Zhang, Fengyun; Zhen, Gang; Yi, Junliang; Li, Kanghuo; Liu, Yaoguang; Terzaghi, William; Tang, Xiaoyan; He, Hang; Zhou, Shaochuan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of genome variations with high-throughput assays have improved our understanding of genetic basis of crop domestication and identified the selected genome regions, but little is known about that of modern breeding, which has limited the usefulness of massive elite cultivars in further breeding. Here we deploy pedigree-based analysis of an elite rice, Huanghuazhan, to exploit key genome regions during its breeding. The cultivars in the pedigree were resequenced with 7.6× depth on average, and 2.1 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. Tracing the derivation of genome blocks with pedigree and information on SNPs revealed the chromosomal recombination during breeding, which showed that 26.22% of Huanghuazhan genome are strictly conserved key regions. These major effect regions were further supported by a QTL mapping of 260 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross of Huanghuazhan and a very dissimilar cultivar, Shuanggui 36, and by the genome profile of eight cultivars and 36 elite lines derived from Huanghuazhan. Hitting these regions with the cloned genes revealed they include numbers of key genes, which were then applied to demonstrate how Huanghuazhan were bred after 30 years of effort and to dissect the deficiency of artificial selection. We concluded the regions are helpful to the further breeding based on this pedigree and performing breeding by design. Our study provides genetic dissection of modern rice breeding and sheds new light on how to perform genomewide breeding by design. PMID:26096084

  12. Forage Breeding and New Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

  13. Genomic selection in plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor ...

  14. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  15. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  16. Breeding and propagating oakleaf hydrangeas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An oakleaf hydrangea breeding program at the U.S. National Arboretum’s worksite in McMinnville, Tenn. was started in 1996 for the purpose of developing attractive, compact oakleaf hydrangea cultivars suitable for use in small residential gardens. ‘Ruby Slippers’ and ‘Munchkin’ oakleaf hydrangeas we...

  17. Forage breeding and new varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

  18. Expression of X-linked Genes in Deceased Neonates and Surviving Cloned Female Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Le; Jobst, Pete; Lai, Liangxue; Samuel, Melissa; Prather, Randall S.; Ayares, David; Yang, Xiangzhong; Tian, X. Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer is very inefficient, probably due to insufficient reprogramming of the donor nuclei, which in turn would cause the dysregulation of gene expression. X-Chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a multi-step epigenetic process utilized by mammals to achieve dosage compensation in females. Our aim was to determine if any dysregulation of X-linked genes, which would be indicative of unfaithful reprogramming of donor nuclei, was present in cloned pigs. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to quantify the transcript levels of five X-linked genes, XIST, TSIX, HPRT1, G6PD, ARAF1 and one autosomal gene, COL4A1 in major organs of neonatal deceased and surviving female cloned pigs and age-matched control pigs from conventional breeding. Aberrant expression level of these genes was prevalent in the neonatal deceased clones, while it was only moderate in cloned pigs that survived after birth. These results suggest a correlation between the viability of the clones and the normality of their gene expression and provide a possible explanation for the death of a large portion of cloned animals around birth. PMID:17474099

  19. Reduced birth weight, cleft palate and preputial abnormalities in a cloned dog

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report a novel developmental abnormality in a cloned dog. A fibroblast cell line was established from an 8-year-old male German shepherd dog. In vivo matured oocytes were retrieved from a large breed dog, and the nucleus was removed from each oocyte. A donor cell was injected into an enucleated oocyte, and the oocyte-cell couplet was fused electrically. After chemical activation, the resulting embryos were transferred into a naturally estrus-synchronized recipient dog, and two cloned pups were delivered by Cesarean section 60 days later. One cloned pup (Clone 1) was healthy, but the other (Clone 2) had a birth weight of only 320 g and cleft palate, failure of preputial closure at the ventral distal part, and persistent penile frenulum. Clone 2 was raised by stomach feeding until Day 40 after birth, where palatoplasty was performed. The abnormalities in external genitalia in Clone 2 resulted in persistent penile extrusion that was surgically corrected. This complex developmental abnormality has not been reported in dogs previously. PMID:24669802

  20. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies. PMID:24395368

  1. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  2. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  3. Breeding better cultivars, faster: applications of new technologies for the rapid deployment of superior horticultural tree crops

    PubMed Central

    van Nocker, Steve; Gardiner, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Woody perennial plants, including trees that produce fruits and nuts of horticultural value, typically have long breeding cycles, and development and introduction of improved cultivars by plant breeders may require many breeding cycles and dozens of years. However, recent advances in biotechnologies and genomics have the potential to accelerate cultivar development greatly in all crops. This mini-review summarizes approaches to reduce the number and the duration of breeding cycles for horticultural tree crops, and outlines the challenges that remain to implement these into efficient breeding pipelines. PMID:26504538

  4. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  5. Considerations related to breed or biological type.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the literature on breed, biological type, and breeding system and their impact on female fertility, especially as they relate to heifer development. The attributes of different breeding systems and their appropriate use is discussed. In addition, the extant and emerging selection tools that are available for replacement heifer selection are reviewed. PMID:24182431

  6. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal

    2011-10-15

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  7. A Clone of Your Own.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilodeau, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  8. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  9. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  10. Local cloning of entangled qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sujit K.; Kunkri, Samir; Rahaman, Ramij; Roy, Anirban

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the exact cloning of orthogonal but entangled qubits under local operations and classical communication. The amount of entanglement necessary in a blank copy is obtained for various cases. Surprisingly, this amount is more than 1 ebit for certain sets of two nonmaximal but equally entangled states of two qubits. To clone any three Bell states, at least log{sub 2} 3 ebit is necessary.

  11. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  12. Cloning goes to the movies.

    PubMed

    Cormick, Craig

    2006-10-01

    Public attitude research conducted by Biotechnology Australia shows that one of the major sources of information on human reproductive cloning is movies. Traditionally, understanding of new and emerging technologies has come through the mass media but human cloning, being so widely addressed through the popular culture of movies, is more effectively defined by Hollywood than the news media or science media. But how well are the science and social issues of cloning portrayed in box office hits such as The Island, Multiplicity, Star Wars: Attack of the Clones and Jurassic Park? These movies have enormous reach and undoubted influence, and are therefore worth analyzing in some detail. This study looks at 33 movies made between 1971 and 2005 that address human reproductive cloning, and it categorizes the films based on their genre and potential influence. Yet rather than simply rating the quality of the science portrayed, the study compares the key messages in these movies with public attitudes towards cloning, to examine the correlations. PMID:17214211

  13. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable. PMID:17966502

  14. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. PMID:26924175

  15. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  16. Breeding Experience Might Be a Major Determinant of Breeding Probability in Long-Lived Species: The Case of the Greater Flamingo

    PubMed Central

    Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Rémi; Béchet, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    The probability of breeding is known to increase with age early in life in many long-lived species. This increase may be due to experience accumulated through past breeding attempts. Recent methodological advances allowing accounting for unobserved breeding episodes, we analyzed the encounter histories of 14716 greater flamingos over 25 years to get a detailed picture of the interactions of age and experience. Survival did not improve with experience, seemingly ruling out the selection hypothesis. Breeding probability varied within three levels of experience : no breeding experience, 1 experience, 2+ experiences. We fitted models with and without among-individual differences in breeding probabilities by including or not an additive individual random effect. Including the individual random effect improved the model fit less than including experience but the best model retained both. However, because modeling individual heterogeneity by means of an additive static individual random effect is currently criticized and may not be appropriate, we discuss the results with and without random effect. Without random effect, breeding probability of inexperienced birds was always times lower than that of same age experienced birds, and breeding probability increased more with one additional experience than with one additional year of age. With random effects, the advantage of experience was unequivocal only after age 9 while in young having experience was penalizing. Another pattern, that breeding probability of birds with experiences dropped after some age (8 without random effect; up to 11 with it), may point to differences in the timing of reproductive senescence or to the existence of a sensitive period for acquiring behavioral skills. Overall, the role of experience appears strong in this long-lived species. We argue that overlooking the role of experience may hamper detection of trade-offs and assessment of individual heterogeneity. However, manipulative experiments are

  17. Imperfect Cloning Operations in Algebraic Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    No-cloning theorem says that there is no unitary operation that makes perfect clones of non-orthogonal quantum states. The objective of the present paper is to examine whether an imperfect cloning operation exists or not in a C*-algebraic framework. We define a universal -imperfect cloning operation which tolerates a finite loss of fidelity in the cloned state, and show that an individual system's algebra of observables is abelian if and only if there is a universal -imperfect cloning operation in the case where the loss of fidelity is less than . Therefore in this case no universal -imperfect cloning operation is possible in algebraic quantum theory.

  18. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

  19. Unconventional methods in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Melchers, G

    There are three wass whereby unconventional methods of plant genetics can be used for applied plant breeding. 1. The time necessary for breeding by recombination can be shortened, making use of the discovery that plants can be obtained directly from the products of meiosis, the "Gonen." Two new cultivars bred in tobacco by this method already exist. 2. Microbiological methods may be applied to mutation and selection in haploid or dihaploid cell cultures. New cultivars bred by this method have not yet been published, but it should be possible to make use of this technique in plant breeding. 3. Somatic hybridization of plants by fusions of protoplasts or by uptake of nuclei and other organelles (plastids, mitochondria) or pure nucleic acids is another useful method. There exist up to now somatic hybrid plants (a) between mutants of the liverwort Sphaerocarpos donnellii, (b) some varieties of tobacco, and (c) two species of Nicotiana. All these hybrids can also be produced by conventional sexual hybridization. It is impossible to predict how often incompatibility for cross-fertilization can be surmounted by somatic hybridization, as incompatibility between two genomes must be restricted to the fertilization process, but it can work on any stage of the development of the hybrid. PMID:1032113

  20. Short clones or long clones? A simulation study on the use of paired reads in metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Metagenomics is the study of environmental samples using sequencing. Rapid advances in sequencing technology are fueling a vast increase in the number and scope of metagenomics projects. Most metagenome sequencing projects so far have been based on Sanger or Roche-454 sequencing, as only these technologies provide long enough reads, while Illumina sequencing has not been considered suitable for metagenomic studies due to a short read length of only 35 bp. However, now that reads of length 75 bp can be sequenced in pairs, Illumina sequencing has become a viable option for metagenome studies. Results This paper addresses the problem of taxonomical analysis of paired reads. We describe a new feature of our metagenome analysis software MEGAN that allows one to process sequencing reads in pairs and makes assignments of such reads based on the combined bit scores of their matches to reference sequences. Using this new software in a simulation study, we investigate the use of Illumina paired-sequencing in taxonomical analysis and compare the performance of single reads, short clones and long clones. In addition, we also compare against simulated Roche-454 sequencing runs. Conclusion This work shows that paired reads perform better than single reads, as expected, but also, perhaps slightly less obviously, that long clones allow more specific assignments than short ones. A new version of the program MEGAN that explicitly takes paired reads into account is available from our website. PMID:20122183

  1. Local cloning of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  2. Local cloning of two product states

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-09-15

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states.

  3. Beyond promiscuity: mate-choice commitments in social breeding

    PubMed Central

    Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    Obligate eusociality with distinct caste phenotypes has evolved from strictly monogamous sub-social ancestors in ants, some bees, some wasps and some termites. This implies that no lineage reached the most advanced form of social breeding, unless helpers at the nest gained indirect fitness values via siblings that were identical to direct fitness via offspring. The complete lack of re-mating promiscuity equalizes sex-specific variances in reproductive success. Later, evolutionary developments towards multiple queen-mating retained lifetime commitment between sexual partners, but reduced male variance in reproductive success relative to female's, similar to the most advanced vertebrate cooperative breeders. Here, I (i) discuss some of the unique and highly peculiar mating system adaptations of eusocial insects; (ii) address ambiguities that remained after earlier reviews and extend the monogamy logic to the evolution of soldier castes; (iii) evaluate the evidence for indirect fitness benefits driving the dynamics of (in)vertebrate cooperative breeding, while emphasizing the fundamental differences between obligate eusociality and cooperative breeding; (iv) infer that lifetime commitment is a major driver towards higher levels of organization in bodies, colonies and mutualisms. I argue that evolutionary informative definitions of social systems that separate direct and indirect fitness benefits facilitate transparency when testing inclusive fitness theory. PMID:23339241

  4. Endocrine and testicular changes in a short-day seasonally breeding bird, the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), in southwestern Australia.

    PubMed

    Malecki, I A; Martin, G B; O'Malley, P J; Meyer, G T; Talbot, R T; Sharp, P J

    1998-10-01

    Seasonal changes in testicular morphology and blood plasma concentrations of LH, testosterone, and prolactin are described for captive male emus in southwestern Australia. Testicular mass and testicular testosterone did not differ between the non-breeding (spring-summer) and the breeding (autumn-winter) seasons. Nevertheless, the testes obtained in the breeding season (May and August) were nearly two fold greater in mass than those collected in the non-breeding season (October and February). The highest testicular concentrations of testosterone were observed in February and lowest in October, while the values during the breeding season were intermediate. The patterns of histological changes in the testes also indicate that emus breed over the autumn-winter months. Tubule diameter was larger in the breeding season than in the non-breeding season, whereas the relative volume of the interstitium was larger in the non-breeding and smaller in the breeding season. Moreover, during the autumn and winter months, plasma LH and testosterone concentrations were high. Outside this period, in spring and summer, the concentrations of these hormones were low. Prolactin concentrations rose around the winter solstice, after the initial increases in plasma LH and testosterone. The end of the breeding season, in early spring, was marked by a gradual decrease in plasma LH concentrations but a rapid fall in testosterone concentrations. Prolactin concentrations continued to increase and peaked near the spring equinox, several weeks after the breeding season ended, and then decreased to reach baseline values by mid-summer. These testicular and endocrine changes are consistent with observations that the emu is a short-day breeder in southwestern Australia. Reproductive activity in the male begins soon after the summer solstice, well in advance of the development of suitable breeding conditions, and is then terminated in spring before food resources become limited by the onset of the dry

  5. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research. PMID:25749537

  6. Implementation of Genomic Prediction in Lolium perenne (L.) Breeding Populations

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Nastasiya F.; Lovatt, Alan; Hegarty, Matt; Lovatt, Andi; Skøt, Kirsten P.; Kelly, Rhys; Blackmore, Tina; Thorogood, Danny; King, Ross D.; Armstead, Ian; Powell, Wayne; Skøt, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one of the most widely grown forage grasses in temperate agriculture. In order to maintain and increase its usage as forage in livestock agriculture, there is a continued need for improvement in biomass yield, quality, disease resistance, and seed yield. Genetic gain for traits such as biomass yield has been relatively modest. This has been attributed to its long breeding cycle, and the necessity to use population based breeding methods. Thanks to recent advances in genotyping techniques there is increasing interest in genomic selection from which genomically estimated breeding values are derived. In this paper we compare the classical RRBLUP model with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques that should yield themselves easily to use in GS and demonstrate their application to predicting quantitative traits in a breeding population of L. perenne. Prediction accuracies varied from 0 to 0.59 depending on trait, prediction model and composition of the training population. The BLUP model produced the highest prediction accuracies for most traits and training populations. Forage quality traits had the highest accuracies compared to yield related traits. There appeared to be no clear pattern to the effect of the training population composition on the prediction accuracies. The heritability of the forage quality traits was generally higher than for the yield related traits, and could partly explain the difference in accuracy. Some population structure was evident in the breeding populations, and probably contributed to the varying effects of training population on the predictions. The average linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers ranged from 0.121 to 0.215. Higher marker density and larger training population closely related with the test population are likely to improve the prediction accuracy. PMID:26904088

  7. Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-W

    2010-04-01

    Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency

  8. Differences during the first lactation between cows cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer and noncloned cows.

    PubMed

    Montazer-Torbati, F; Boutinaud, M; Brun, N; Richard, C; Neveu, A; Jaffrézic, F; Laloë, D; LeBourhis, D; Nguyen, M; Chadi, S; Jammes, H; Renard, J-P; Chat, S; Boukadiri, A; Devinoy, E

    2016-06-01

    Lactation performance is dependent on both the genetic characteristics and the environmental conditions surrounding lactating cows. However, individual variations can still be observed within a given breed under similar environmental conditions. The role of the environment between birth and lactation could be better appreciated in cloned cows, which are presumed to be genetically identical, but differences in lactation performance between cloned and noncloned cows first need to be clearly evaluated. Conflicting results have been described in the literature, so our aim was to clarify this situation. Nine cloned Prim' Holstein cows were produced by the transfer of nuclei from a single fibroblast cell line after cell fusion with enucleated oocytes. The cloned cows and 9 noncloned counterparts were raised under similar conditions. Milk production and composition were recorded monthly from calving until 200d in milk. At 67d in milk, biopsies were sampled from the rear quarter of the udder, their mammary epithelial cell content was evaluated, and mammary cell renewal, RNA, and DNA were then analyzed in relevant samples. The results showed that milk production did not differ significantly between cloned and noncloned cows, but milk protein and fat contents were less variable in cloned cows. Furthermore, milk fat yield and contents were lower in cloned cows during early lactation. At around 67 DIM, milk fat and protein yields, as well as milk fat, protein, and lactose contents, were also lower in cloned cows. These lower yields could be linked to the higher apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows. Apoptosis is triggered by insulin-like factor growth binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), which both interact with CSN1S2. During our experiments, CSN1S2 transcript levels were lower in the mammary gland of cloned cows. The mammary cell apoptotic rate observed in cloned cows may have been related to the higher levels of DNA (cytosine-5

  9. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients. PMID:25726138

  10. The past, present and future of breeding rust resistant wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Lagudah, Evans S.; Spielmeyer, Wolfgang; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of genes are used for breeding rust resistant wheat. The first class, called R (for resistance) genes, are pathogen race specific in their action, effective at all plant growth stages and probably mostly encode immune receptors of the nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) class. The second class is called adult plant resistance genes (APR) because resistance is usually functional only in adult plants, and, in contrast to most R genes, the levels of resistance conferred by single APR genes are only partial and allow considerable disease development. Some but not all APR genes provide resistance to all isolates of a rust pathogen species and a subclass of these provides resistance to several fungal pathogen species. Initial indications are that APR genes encode a more heterogeneous range of proteins than R proteins. Two APR genes, Lr34 and Yr36, have been cloned from wheat and their products are an ABC transporter and a protein kinase, respectively. Lr34 and Sr2 have provided long lasting and widely used (durable) partial resistance and are mainly used in conjunction with other R and APR genes to obtain adequate rust resistance. We caution that some APR genes indeed include race specific, weak R genes which may be of the NB-LRR class. A research priority to better inform rust resistance breeding is to characterize further APR genes in wheat and to understand how they function and how they interact when multiple APR and R genes are stacked in a single genotype by conventional and GM breeding. An important message is do not be complacent about the general durability of all APR genes. PMID:25505474

  11. Advances in Understanding the Biosynthesis of Fumonisins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are a group of economically important mycotoxins that are derived polyketides. Since the cloning of the fumonisin polyketide synthase (PKS) gene from Fusarium verticillioides in 1999, significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms for fumonisin biosynthesis...

  12. [The native domestic animal breeds of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H

    1989-01-01

    During the last decades some domestic animal breeds have spread to all parts of the world. In general, consideration is given to these breeds only; on the other hand, autochthonous breeds of various countries are hardly known. These, however, can be valuable gene-reserves, and moreover, they represent a significant cultural value. In Japan there are several domestic animal breeds which are almost unknown in Central Europe. They are presented verbally and by means of illustration, and their breeding history is dealt with as well. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of these breeds within the country and to make clear the extent of the danger of their extinction. PMID:2683212

  13. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

  14. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  15. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  16. Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

  17. Blast resistance in rice: a review of conventional breeding to molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Miah, G; Rafii, M Y; Ismail, M R; Puteh, A B; Rahim, H A; Asfaliza, R; Latif, M A

    2013-03-01

    Blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is the most severe diseases of rice. Using classical plant breeding techniques, breeders have developed a number of blast resistant cultivars adapted to different rice growing regions worldwide. However, the rice industry remains threatened by blast disease due to the instability of blast fungus. Recent advances in rice genomics provide additional tools for plant breeders to improve rice production systems that would be environmentally friendly. This article outlines the application of conventional breeding, tissue culture and DNA-based markers that are used for accelerating the development of blast resistant rice cultivars. The best way for controlling the disease is to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative genes in resistant variety. Through conventional and molecular breeding many blast-resistant varieties have been developed. Conventional breeding for disease resistance is tedious, time consuming and mostly dependent on environment as compare to molecular breeding particularly marker assisted selection, which is easier, highly efficient and precise. For effective management of blast disease, breeding work should be focused on utilizing the broad spectrum of resistance genes and pyramiding genes and quantitative trait loci. Marker assisted selection provides potential solution to some of the problems that conventional breeding cannot resolve. In recent years, blast resistant genes have introgressed into Luhui 17, G46B, Zhenshan 97B, Jin 23B, CO39, IR50, Pusa1602 and Pusa1603 lines through marker assisted selection. Introduction of exotic genes for resistance induced the occurrence of new races of blast fungus, therefore breeding work should be concentrated in local resistance genes. This review focuses on the conventional breeding to the latest molecular progress in blast disease resistance in rice. This update information will be helpful guidance for rice breeders to develop durable blast

  18. Cloning and expression pattern of akirin2 gene in broiler.

    PubMed

    Man, Chaolai; Chang, Yang; Mu, Weitao; Zhao, Dongxue

    2014-12-01

    Akirin2 is an important nuclear factor which plays functions in innate immune response, myogenesis, muscle development, and carcinogenesis. In this study, akirin2 genes were cloned from 4-day-old Sanhuang and AA(+) broiler, and its expression patterns were analyzed by RT-PCR. The results showed that there were four SNPs in the 5'-terminal region of akirin2 coding sequences. Expression profile analysis showed that the akirin2 transcripts were constitutively expressed in 15 tissues tested, and similar expression patterns were found between the two breeds of broilers. In addition, one of the interesting findings was that the akirin2 gene is highly expressed in blood and lowly expressed in heart, respectively. These data can serve as a foundation for further studying functions of akirin2 gene. PMID:25098451

  19. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  20. Prospects for advanced late blight resistance breeding in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is able to rapidly evolve to overcome resistance genes. The pathogen accomplishes this by secreting an arsenal of proteins, termed effectors, that function to modify host cells. Although hundreds of candidate effectors have been identified in ...

  1. Molecular Breeding of Advanced Microorganisms for Biofuel Production

    PubMed Central

    Sakuragi, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Large amounts of fossil fuels are consumed every day in spite of increasing environmental problems. To preserve the environment and construct a sustainable society, the use of biofuels derived from different kinds of biomass is being practiced worldwide. Although bioethanol has been largely produced, it commonly requires food crops such as corn and sugar cane as substrates. To develop a sustainable energy supply, cellulosic biomass should be used for bioethanol production instead of grain biomass. For this purpose, cell surface engineering technology is a very promising method. In biobutanol and biodiesel production, engineered host fermentation has attracted much attention; however, this method has many limitations such as low productivity and low solvent tolerance of microorganisms. Despite these problems, biofuels such as bioethanol, biobutanol, and biodiesel are potential energy sources that can help establish a sustainable society. PMID:21318120

  2. Advances in proteomics research for peanut genetics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop trait improvement aimed at increased yield and quality relies on an understanding of the biology of the plant, particular protein-protein interactions. In this regard, the application of “-omics” techniques combined with field-level agronomy is poised to deliver novel insight into previously u...

  3. Advances in metabolomic applications in plant genetics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolomics is a systems biology discipline wherein abundances of endogenous metabolites from biological samples are identified and quantitatively measured across a large range of metabolites and/or a large number of samples. Since all developmental, physiological and response to the environment ph...

  4. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-02-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation.

  5. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-12-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  6. Identification of potato breeding clones that confer high levels of late blight resistance to their progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1996, potato seedling minitubers derived from greenhouse crosses have been grown out under heavy late blight pressure in Toluca, Mexico. A total of 2500 individuals were planted each year along with cv. Alpha as a susceptible control. Percent defoliation readings were taken on a weekly basis u...

  7. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, F.; Marchetto, M.; Mjøs, A.; Morton, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary.

  8. Atlantic salmon brood stock management and breeding handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Stanley, Jon G.

    1989-01-01

    Anadromus runs of Atlantic salmon have been restored to the Connecticut, Merrimack, Pawcatuck, Penobscot, and St. Croix rivers in New England by the stocking of more than 8 million smolts since 1948. Fish-breeding methods have been developed that minimize inbreeding and domestication and enhance natural selection. Methods are available to advance the maturation of brood stock, control the sex of production lots and store gametes. Current hatchery practices emphasize the use of sea-run brood stock trapped upon return to the rivers and a limited number of captive brood stock and rejuvenated kelts. Fish are allowed to mature naturally, after which they are spawned and incubated artificially. Generally, 1-year smolts are produced, and excess fish are stocked as fry in headwater streams. Smolts are stocked during periods of rising water in spring. Self-release pools are planned that enable smolts to choose the emigration time. Culturists keep good records that permit evaluation of the performance of strains and the effects of breeding practices. As Atlantic salmon populations expand, culturists must use sound breeding methods that enhance biotic potential while maintaining genetic diversity and protecting unique gene pools.

  9. Economical phase-covariant cloning of qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Buscemi, Francesco; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2005-04-01

    We derive the optimal N{yields}M phase-covariant quantum cloning for equatorial states in dimension d with M=kd+N, k integer. The cloning maps are optimal for both global and single-qudit fidelity. The map is achieved by an 'economical' cloning machine, which works without ancilla.

  10. Local cloning of arbitrarily entangled multipartite states

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Alastair; Ericsson, Marie

    2006-01-15

    We examine the perfect cloning of nonlocal, orthogonal states using only local operations and classical communication. We provide a complete characterisation of the states that can be cloned under these restrictions, and their relation to distinguishability. We also consider the case of catalytic cloning, which we show provides no enhancement to the set of clonable states.

  11. M7 germplasm release: A tetraploid clone derived from Solanum infundibuliforme for use in expanding the germplasm base for french fry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new source of russet germplasm has been identified as a parent for processing and fresh market breeding programs. It was derived via bilateral sexual polyploidization following a cross between a diploid cultivated potato and the diploid wild species Solanum infundibuliforme. This clone, designated...

  12. USVL-220, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel watermelon breeding line was developed at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina. This breeding line contains the nuclear genome of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomic background of the desert spe...

  13. What breeds make up the national herd?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the procedures and database at the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory have resulted in the ability to know which breeds contribute to each cow and in what proportion. Previously each animal was considered to be the single breed reported through the dairy industry; therefore, statistic...

  14. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  15. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  16. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breed stock against their br...

  17. Mean EPDs Reported by Different Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their...

  18. Breeding Perspectives and Programs at East Lansing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS sugar beet breeding activities for both Aphanomyces resistance and CMS/O-type conversion at East Lansing reach back to the 1940’s, with variety testing activities at Michigan State University reaching back to circa 1911. Many of those contributions are well known in the sugar beet breeding ...

  19. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet. PMID:26859270

  20. Mean EPDs Reported by Different Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breed stock against their br...

  1. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  2. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their...

  3. Breeding potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most regions of the world, potato cultivars are tetraploid. However, complexities due to tetraploid genetics have slowed breeding progress and limited the implementation of breeding strategies commonly used in other major crops. We are developing diploid genetics resources, including partially in...

  4. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  5. Genetic Evaluations for Mixed-Breed Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An all-breed animal model was developed for routine genetic evaluations of US dairy cattle. Data sets from individual breeds were combined, and records from crossbred cows were included. About 1% of recent cows were first generation crossbreds. Numbers of cows with records since 1960 ranged from 10 ...

  6. Breeding broccoli adapted to high temperature environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A breeding program to select broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica Group) for adaptation to summer environments has been conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL) in Charleston, South Carolina, for almost two decades. This effort provides a case study of a concerted effort to breed polygen...

  7. [Stem cells and therapeutic cloning, medical perspectives under discussion].

    PubMed

    Manuel, Catherine; Lafon, Claude; Hairion, Dominique; Antoniotti, Stéphanie

    2004-03-13

    Innovative biotechnical progress over the past few years regards stem cells and therapeutic cloning, which open promising medical horizons for many presently incurable diseases. THE CURRENT DEBATE: The research work in France has been stalled because of the prohibitions listed in the so-called "bioethical" laws of 1994. The ongoing revision of these laws is based on a certain number of ethical questions and launches a disputable parlementary debate. Other than reproductive cloning and research on the embryo, the possibilities provided by stem cells and therapeutic cloning should be emphasized and the different positions advanced specified, showing an evolution in the laws in France. ABUSIVE LEGISLATIVE PROHIBITIONS: The proposed law, which maintains the prohibition for research on the embryo, with a 5-Year dispensation, and which explicitly prohibits therapeutic cloning, is not in keeping with the widening of in this field expected by research teams. Many scientists and physicians, supported by patients' associations, are aware of the importance of therapeutic progress attached to such research. They should not be stalled in their studies by the prohibitions maintained in the new law. PMID:15041874

  8. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  9. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  10. Automated Single-Kernel Sorting to Select for Quality Traits in Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated single kernel near-infrared system was used to select kernels to enhance the end-use quality of hard red wheat breeder samples. Twenty breeding populations and advanced lines were sorted for hardness index, protein content, and kernel color. To determine if the phenotypic sorting was b...

  11. Plant breeding with genomic selection: potential gain per unit time and cost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based ph...

  12. Breeding habitat associations and predicted distribution of an obligate tundra-breeding bird, Smith's Longspur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Teri C.; Kendall, Steven J.; Guldager, Nikki; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a species of conservation concern which breeds in Arctic habitats that are expected to be especially vulnerable to climate change. We used bird presence and habitat data from point-transect surveys conducted at 12 sites across the Brooks Range, Alaska, 2003–2009, to identify breeding areas, describe local habitat associations, and identify suitable habitat using a predictive model of Smith's Longspur distribution. Smith's Longspurs were observed at seven sites, where they were associated with a variety of sedge–shrub habitats composed primarily of mosses, sedges, tussocks, and dwarf shrubs; erect shrubs were common but sparse. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of ground cover revealed positive associations of Smith's Longspur presence with sedges and mosses and a negative association with high cover of shrubs. To model predicted distribution, we used boosted regression trees to relate landscape variables to occurrence. Our model predicted that Smith's Longspurs may occur in valleys and foothills of the northeastern and southeastern mountains and in upland plateaus of the western mountains, and farther west than currently documented, over a predicted area no larger than 15% of the Brooks Range. With climate change, shrubs are expected to grow larger and denser, while soil moisture and moss cover are predicted to decrease. These changes may reduce Smith's Longspur habitat quality and limit distribution in the Brooks Range to poorly drained lowlands and alpine plateaus where sedge–shrub tundra is likely to persist. Conversely, northward advance of shrubs into sedge tundra may create suitable habitat, thus supporting a northward longspur distribution shift.

  13. Genomic selection: Status in different species and challenges for breeding.

    PubMed

    Stock, K F; Reents, R

    2013-09-01

    Technical advances and development in the market for genomic tools have facilitated access to whole-genome data across species. Building-up on the acquired knowledge of the genome sequences, large-scale genotyping has been optimized for broad use, so genotype information can be routinely used to predict genetic merit. Genomic selection (GS) refers to the use of aggregates of estimated marker effects as predictors which allow improved individual differentiation at young age. Realizable benefits of GS are influenced by several factors and vary in quantity and quality between species. General characteristics and challenges of GS in implementation and routine application are described, followed by an overview over the current status of its use, prospects and challenges in important animal species. Genetic gain for a particular trait can be enhanced by shortening of the generation interval, increased selection accuracy and increased selection intensity, with species- and breed-specific relevance of the determinants. Reliable predictions based on genetic marker effects require assembly of a reference for linking of phenotype and genotype data to allow estimation and regular re-estimation. Experiences from dairy breeding have shown that international collaboration can set the course for fast and successful implementation of innovative selection tools, so genomics may significantly impact the structures of future breeding and breeding programmes. Traits of great and increasing importance, which were difficult to improve in the conventional systems, could be emphasized, if continuous availability of high-quality phenotype data can be assured. Equally elaborate strategies for genotyping and phenotyping will allow tailored approaches to balance efficient animal production, sustainability, animal health and welfare in future. PMID:23962210

  14. [The identification of mouse cloned SFA DNA].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ning; Wu, Weng Qing; Ni, Zu Mei; Shi, Lu Ji

    2002-12-01

    For some basic investigation and the construction of artificial chromosomes, cloned centromeric DNAs identified on a firm ground are required. Thus, in the present work a preliminary screened clone of 13.5 kb DNA, 6# clone, form a mouse centromeric library contructed previously in our library was futher investigated by FISH and PCR. It was found that mouse 6# cloned SFA DNA, as shown by FISH is a fragment of mouse centromeric DNA. Evidence was also observed that 6# cloned SFA DNA consists of mouse minor satellite DNA and other DNA sequences. PMID:15346991

  15. Optimal quantum cloning via spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Qing; Cheng Jianhua; Wang Kelin; Du Jiangfeng

    2006-09-15

    In this paper we demonstrate that optimal 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning quantum cloning is available via free dynamical evolution of spin networks. By properly designing the network and the couplings between spins, we show that optimal 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning can be achieved if the initial state is prepared as a specific symmetric state. Especially, when M is an odd number, the optimal phase-covariant cloning can be achieved without ancillas. Moreover, we demonstrate that the same framework is capable for optimal 1{yields}2 universal cloning.

  16. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-10-15

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  17. Probabilistic cloning of three nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Rui, Pinshu; Yang, Qun; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Ziyun

    2015-04-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three nonorthogonal states with equal success probabilities. For simplicity, we assume that the three states belong to a special set. Analytical form of the maximal success probability for probabilistic cloning is calculated. With the maximal success probability, we deduce the explicit form of probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the case of cloning, we get the unambiguous form of the unitary operation. It is demonstrated that the upper bound for probabilistic quantum cloning machine in (Qiu in J Phys A 35:6931, 2002) can be reached only if the three states are equidistant.

  18. Dielectrophoretic separation of mouse melanoma clones

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncu, Ahmet C.; Liu, Jie A.; Beebe, Stephen J.; Beskok, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is employed to differentiate clones of mouse melanoma B16F10 cells. Five clones were tested on microelectrodes. At a specific excitation frequency, clone 1 showed a different DEP response than the other four. Growth rate, melanin content, recovery from cryopreservation, and in vitro invasive studies were performed. Clone 1 is shown to have significantly different melanin content and recovery rate from cryopreservation. This paper reports the ability of DEP to differentiate between two malignant cells of the same origin. Different DEP responses of the two clones could be linked to their melanin content. PMID:20697600

  19. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-10-01

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of a barley breeding program examines gene expression diversity and reveals target genes for malting quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced cycle breeding utilizes crosses among elite lines and is a successful method to develop new inbreds. However, it results in a reduction in genetic diversity within the breeding population. The development of malting barley varieties requires the adherence to a narrow malting quality profile and thus the use of advanced cycle breeding strategies. Although attention has been focused on diversity in gene expression and its association with genetic diversity, there are no studies performed in a single breeding program examining the implications that consecutive cycles of breeding have on gene expression variation and identifying the variability still available for future improvement. Results Fifteen lines representing the historically important six-rowed malting barley breeding program of the University of Minnesota were genotyped with 1,524 SNPs, phenotypically examined for six malting quality traits, and analyzed for transcript accumulation during germination using the Barley1 GeneChip array. Significant correlation was detected between genetic and transcript-level variation. We observed a reduction in both genetic and gene expression diversity through the breeding process, although the expression of many genes have not been fixed. A high number of quality-related genes whose expression was fixed during the breeding process was identified, indicating that much of the diversity reduction was associated with the improvement of the complex phenotype "malting quality", the main goal of the University of Minnesota breeding program. We also identified 49 differentially expressed genes between the most recent lines of the program that were correlated with one or more of the six primary malting quality traits. These genes constitute potential targets for the improvement of malting quality within the breeding program. Conclusions The present study shows the repercussion of advanced cycle breeding on gene expression diversity within an important barley

  1. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Valerie A; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R; Church, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  2. Domestic Dogs and Cancer Research: A Breed-Based Genomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are unique from other animal models of cancer in that they generally experience spontaneous disease. In addition, most types of cancer observed in humans are found in dogs, suggesting that canines may be an informative system for the study of cancer genetics. Domestic dogs are divided into over 175 breeds, with members of each breed sharing significant phenotypes. The breed barrier enhances the utility of the model, especially for genetic studies where small numbers of genes are hypothesized to account for the breed cancer susceptibility. These facts, combined with recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for an unrivaled ability to use pet dog populations to find often subtle mutations that promote cancer susceptibility and progression in dogs as a whole. The meticulous record keeping associated with dog breeding makes the model still more powerful, as it facilitates both association analysis and family-based linkage studies. Key to the success of these studies is their cooperative nature, with owners, scientists, veterinarians and breed clubs working together to avoid the cost and unpopularity of developing captive populations. In this article we explore these principals and advocate for colony-free, genetic studies that will enhance our ability to diagnose and treat cancer in dogs and humans alike. PMID:24936030

  3. Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture.

    PubMed

    Steuernagel, Burkhard; Periyannan, Sambasivam K; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada; Witek, Kamil; Rouse, Matthew N; Yu, Guotai; Hatta, Asyraf; Ayliffe, Mick; Bariana, Harbans; Jones, Jonathan D G; Lagudah, Evans S; Wulff, Brande B H

    2016-06-01

    Wild relatives of domesticated crop species harbor multiple, diverse, disease resistance (R) genes that could be used to engineer sustainable disease control. However, breeding R genes into crop lines often requires long breeding timelines of 5-15 years to break linkage between R genes and deleterious alleles (linkage drag). Further, when R genes are bred one at a time into crop lines, the protection that they confer is often overcome within a few seasons by pathogen evolution. If several cloned R genes were available, it would be possible to pyramid R genes in a crop, which might provide more durable resistance. We describe a three-step method (MutRenSeq)-that combines chemical mutagenesis with exome capture and sequencing for rapid R gene cloning. We applied MutRenSeq to clone stem rust resistance genes Sr22 and Sr45 from hexaploid bread wheat. MutRenSeq can be applied to other commercially relevant crops and their relatives, including, for example, pea, bean, barley, oat, rye, rice and maize. PMID:27111722

  4. ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION IN CHINESE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) AFTER CONTINUOUS SEEDLING BREEDING.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Wang, X L; Guo, M H; Zhang, Y W

    2015-08-01

    Vernalization plays a key role in the bolting and flowering of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Plants can switch from vegetative to reproductive growth and then bolt and flower under low temperature induction. The economic benefits of Chinese cabbage will decline significantly when the bolting happens before the vegetative body fully grows due to a lack of the edible value. It was found that continuous seedling breeding reduced the heading of Chinese cabbage and led to bolt and flower more easily. In the present study, two inbred lines, termed A161 and A105, were used as experiment materials. These two lines were subjected to vernalization and formed four types: seeds-seedling breeding once, seedling breeding twice, seedling breeding thrice and normal type. Differences in plant phenotype were compared. DNA methylation analysis was performed based on MSAP method. The differential fragments were cloned and analyzed by qPCR. Results showed that plants after seedling breeding thrice had a loosen heading leaves, elongated center axis and were easier to bolt and flower. It is suggested that continuous seedling breeding had a weaker winterness. It was observed that genome methylation level decreased with increasing generation. Four differential genes were identified, short for BraAPC1, BraEMP3, BraUBC26, and BraAL5. Fluorescent qPCR analysis showed that expression of four genes varied at different reproduction modes and different vernalization time. It is indicated that these genes might be involve in the development and regulation of bolting and flowering of plants. Herein, the molecular mechanism that continuous seedling breeding caused weaker winterness was analyzed preliminarily. It plays an important guiding significance for Chinese cabbage breeding. PMID:26601490

  5. Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar

    2006-01-01

    Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143

  6. Molecular Breeding for Improved Second Generation Bioenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Allwright, Mike R; Taylor, Gail

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing urgency to develop and deploy sustainable sources of energy to reduce our global dependency on finite, high-carbon fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic feedstocks, used in power and liquid fuel generation, are valuable sources of non-food plant biomass. They are cultivated with minimal inputs on marginal or degraded lands to prevent competition with arable agriculture and offer significant potential for sustainable intensification (the improvement of yield without the necessity for additional inputs) through advanced molecular breeding. This article explores progress made in next generation sequencing, advanced genotyping, association genetics, and genetic modification in second generation bioenergy production. Using poplar as an exemplar where most progress has been made, a suite of target traits is also identified giving insight into possible routes for crop improvement and deployment in the immediate future. PMID:26541073

  7. Molecular structure in peripheral dog breeds: Portuguese native breeds as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pires, A E; Amorim, I R; Ginja, C; Gomes, M; Godinho, I; Simões, F; Oom, M; Petrucci-Fonseca, F; Matos, J; Bruford, M W

    2009-08-01

    Genetic variability in purebred dogs is known to be highly structured, with differences among breeds accounting for approximately 30% of the genetic variation. However, analysis of the genetic structure in non-cosmopolitan breeds and local populations is still limited. Nine Portuguese native dog breeds, and other peripheral dog populations (five) with regional affinities, were characterized using 16 microsatellites and 225 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and the pattern of genetic differentiation was investigated. Although the level of breed differentiation detected is below that of other dog breeds, there is in most cases a correlation between breed affiliation and molecular structure. AFLP markers and Bayesian clustering methods allowed an average of 73.1% of individuals to be correctly assigned to source populations, providing robust genotypic assessment of breed affiliation. A geographical genetic structure was also detected, which suggests a limited influence of African dogs on the Iberian breeds. The sampling effect on the estimation of population structure was evaluated and there was a 2.2% decrease in genetic differentiation among breeds when working animals were included. Genetic diversity of stray dogs was also assessed and there is no evidence that they pose a threat to the preservation of the gene pool of native dog breeds. PMID:19298456

  8. Breeding season survival and breeding incidence of female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula) studies suggested that high female breeding season survival may be caused by low nesting effort, but few breeding season estimates of survival associated with nesting effort exist on the western Gulf Coast. Here, breeding season survival (N = 40) and breeding incidence (N = 39) were estimated for female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas coast, 2006–2008. Females were fitted with backpack radio transmitters and visually relocated every 3–4 days. Weekly survival was estimated using the Known Fate procedure of program MARK with breeding incidence estimated as the annual proportion of females observed nesting or with broods. The top-ranked survival model included a body mass covariate and held weekly female survival constant across weeks and years (SW = 0.986, SE = 0.006). When compared to survival across the entire year estimated from previous band recovery and age ratio analysis, survival rate during the breeding season did not differ. Breeding incidence was well below 100% in all years and highly variable among years (15%–63%). Breeding season survival and breeding incidence were similar to estimates obtained with implant transmitters from the mid-coast of Texas. The greatest breeding incidence for both studies occurred when drought indices indicated average environmental moisture during the breeding season. The observed combination of low breeding incidence and high breeding season survival support the hypothesis of a trade-off between the ecological cost of nesting effort and survival for Mottled Duck females. Habitat cues that trigger nesting are unknown and should be investigated.

  9. Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that carry ... of the donor animal's somatic cell into an egg cell, or oocyte, that has had its own ...

  10. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  11. First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Sharamentov, S.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.

  12. First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S. Barcikowski, A. Dickerson, C. Ostroumov, P. N. Sharamentov, S. Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.

  13. Hybrid Sequencing Approach Applied to Human Fecal Metagenomic Clone Libraries Revealed Clones with Potential Biotechnological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Džunková, Mária; D’Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be “domesticated” for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7–15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts. PMID:23082187

  14. Breeding bald eagles in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestrelli, J.R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1975-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Bald Eagle from Alabama was paired with a 4-year-old Alaskan male in a large flight pen during December 1969. Both birds were free of physical defects when originally placed in the pen but the female was blind in one eye prior to the 1973 breeding season.....Nesting first occurred during 1971 when at least two eggs were laid; all but one, which showed no sign of embryonic development after being incubated for 56 days, were broken by the adult birds. Two of three eggs laid in 1972 hatched. Both young died a few days after hatching following a period of inclement weather. Three eggs were laid and hatched during 1973. Antagonism between the nestlings was observed soon after hatching and may have been responsible for the unobserved death of one nestling, two days after the third young hatched. The two remaining young were raised by the adult birds and eventually left the nest 85 days after the first egg hatched. Incubation periods for the 1972-73 clutches averaged 35 days. No renesting attempts were made by the eagles during the 3.year period.

  15. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control. PMID:24065979

  16. Detectability of Plasmodium falciparum clones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In areas of high transmission people often harbour multiple clones of Plasmodium falciparum, but even PCR-based diagnostic methods can only detect a fraction (the detectability, q) of all clones present in a host. Accurate measurements of detectability are desirable since it affects estimates of multiplicity of infection, prevalence, and frequency of breakthrough infections in clinical drug trials. Detectability can be estimated by typing repeated samples from the same host but it has been unclear what should be the time interval between the samples and how the data should be analysed. Methods A longitudinal molecular study was conducted in the Kassena-Nankana district in northern Ghana. From each of the 80 participants, four finger prick samples were collected over a period of 8 days, and tested for presence of different Merozoite Surface Protein (msp) 2 genotypes. Implications for estimating q were derived from these data by comparing the fit of statistical models of serial dependence and over-dispersion. Results The distribution of the frequencies of detection for msp2 genotypes was close to binomial if the time span between consecutive blood samples was at least 7 days. For shorter intervals the probabilities of detection were positively correlated, i.e. the shorter the interval between two blood collections, the more likely the diagnostic results matched for a particular genotype. Estimates of q were rather insensitive to the statistical model fitted. Conclusions A simple algorithm based on analysing blood samples collected 7 days apart is justified for generating robust estimates of detectability. The finding of positive correlation of detection probabilities for short time intervals argues against imperfect detection being directly linked to the 48-hour periodicity of P. falciparum. The results suggest that the detectability of a given parasite clone changes over time, at an unknown rate, but fast enough to regard blood samples taken one week

  17. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to ‘Beniazuma’, one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  18. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to 'Beniazuma', one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  19. Linear plasmid vector for cloning of repetitive or unstable sequences in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Godiska, Ronald; Mead, David; Dhodda, Vinay; Wu, Chengcang; Hochstein, Rebecca; Karsi, Attila; Usdin, Karen; Entezam, Ali; Ravin, Nikolai

    2010-04-01

    Despite recent advances in sequencing, complete finishing of large genomes and analysis of novel proteins they encode typically require cloning of specific regions. However, many of these fragments are extremely difficult to clone in current vectors. Superhelical stress in circular plasmids can generate secondary structures that are substrates for deletion, particularly in regions that contain numerous tandem or inverted repeats. Common vectors also induce transcription and translation of inserted fragments, which can select against recombinant clones containing open reading frames or repetitive DNA. Conversely, transcription from cloned promoters can interfere with plasmid stability. We have therefore developed a novel Escherichia coli cloning vector (termed 'pJAZZ' vector) that is maintained as a linear plasmid. Further, it contains transcriptional terminators on both sides of the cloning site to minimize transcriptional interference between vector and insert. We show that this vector stably maintains a variety of inserts that were unclonable in conventional plasmids. These targets include short nucleotide repeats, such as those of the expanded Fragile X locus, and large AT-rich inserts, such as 20-kb segments of genomic DNA from Pneumocystis, Plasmodium, Oxytricha or Tetrahymena. The pJAZZ vector shows decreased size bias in cloning, allowing more uniform representation of larger fragments in libraries. PMID:20040575

  20. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students

    PubMed Central

    Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The Vision and Change report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area of science. We developed a laboratory module called pClone that empowers students to use advances in molecular cloning methods to discover new promoters for use by synthetic biologists. Our educational goals are consistent with Vision and Change and emphasize core concepts and competencies. pClone is a family of three plasmids that students use to clone a new transcriptional promoter or mutate a canonical promoter and measure promoter activity in Escherichia coli. We also developed the Registry of Functional Promoters, an open-access database of student promoter research results. Using pre- and posttests, we measured significant learning gains among students using pClone in introductory biology and genetics classes. Student posttest scores were significantly better than scores of students who did not use pClone. pClone is an easy and affordable mechanism for large-enrollment labs to meet the high standards of Vision and Change. PMID:26086659

  1. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review.

    PubMed

    Maischberger, E; Irwin, Ja; Carrington, Sd; Duggan, Ve

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares. PMID:21851709

  2. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. PMID:26893165

  3. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  4. Breeding laboratory cats during artificially induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Cline, E M; Jennings, L L; Sojka, N J

    1980-12-01

    Mature female cats of known reproductive history were randomly divided into groups for natural breeding or mating following hormonal induction of estrus. Treatment with a single injection of 100 international units of pregnant mares' serum followed in 7 days by 50 international units of human chorionic gonadotropin produced results comparable to natural breeding. Daily injections of pregnant mares' serum (300-500 international units total) resulted in fewer successful pregnancies and adversely affected the ability of kittens to survive to weaning. PMID:7464025

  5. Skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles in two Italian beef breeds, Chianina and Maremmana, reveal breed specific variation.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Chillemi, G; Bueno, S; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Ferrè, F; Valentini, A

    2016-04-01

    Chianina and Maremmana breeds play an important role in the Italian cattle meat market. The Chianina breed is an ancient breed principally raised for draught. Now this breed is the worldwide recognized producer of top quality beef, tasteful and tender, specifically the famous "Florentine steak". The Maremmana characterized by a massive skeletal structure, is a rustic cattle breed selected for adaptability to the marshy land of the Maremma region. We used a high throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds, Maremmana (MM) and Chianina (CN) with different selection history. We aim to examine the specific genetic contribution of each breed to meat production and quality, comparing the skeletal muscle tissue from Maremmana and Chianina. Most of the differentially expressed genes were grouped in the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis pathways. The rate and the extent of post-mortem energy metabolism have a critical effect on the conversion of muscle to meat. Furthermore, we aim at discovering the differences in nucleotide variation between the two breeds which might be attributable to the different history of selection/divergence. In this work we could emphasize the involvement of pathways of post-mortem energy metabolism. Moreover, we detected a collection of coding SNPs which could offer new genomic resources to improve phenotypic selection in livestock breeding program. PMID:26896938

  6. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  7. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  8. Application of Genomics Tools to Animal Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Jack C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal in animal breeding is to select individuals that have high breeding values for traits of interest as parents to produce the next generation and to do so as quickly as possible. To date, most programs rely on statistical analysis of large data bases with phenotypes on breeding populations by linear mixed model methodology to estimate breeding values on selection candidates. However, there is a long history of research on the use of genetic markers to identify quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection but with limited implementation in practical breeding programs. The advent of high-density SNP genotyping, combined with novel statistical methods for the use of this data to estimate breeding values, has resulted in the recent extensive application of genomic or whole-genome selection in dairy cattle and research to implement genomic selection in other livestock species is underway. The high-density SNP data also provides opportunities to detect QTL and to encover the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, in terms of the distribution of the size of genetic effects that contribute to trait differences in a population. Results show that this genetic architecture differs between traits but that for most traits, over 50% of the genetic variation resides in genomic regions with small effects that are of the order of magnitude that is expected under a highly polygenic model of inheritance. PMID:23115522

  9. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  10. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  11. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  12. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be held... discuss their plant breeding and cultivar development programs and/or their perception of needs and potential improvements in publicly-funded plant breeding and cultivar development research. Following...

  13. Quantum cloning disturbed by thermal Davies environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajka, Jerzy; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    A network of quantum gates designed to implement universal quantum cloning machine is studied. We analyze how thermal environment coupled to auxiliary qubits, `blank paper' and `toner' required at the preparation stage of copying, modifies an output fidelity of the cloner. Thermal environment is described in terms of the Markovian Davies theory. We show that such a cloning machine is not universal any more but its output is independent of at least a part of parameters of the environment. As a case study, we consider cloning of states in a six-state cryptography's protocol. We also briefly discuss cloning of arbitrary input states.

  14. Quantum cloning disturbed by thermal Davies environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajka, Jerzy; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    A network of quantum gates designed to implement universal quantum cloning machine is studied. We analyze how thermal environment coupled to auxiliary qubits, `blank paper' and `toner' required at the preparation stage of copying, modifies an output fidelity of the cloner. Thermal environment is described in terms of the Markovian Davies theory. We show that such a cloning machine is not universal any more but its output is independent of at least a part of parameters of the environment. As a case study, we consider cloning of states in a six-state cryptography's protocol. We also briefly discuss cloning of arbitrary input states.

  15. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  16. Cloning crops in a CELSS via tissue culture: Prospects and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, John G.; Hess, J. Richard

    1990-01-01

    Micropropagation is currently used to clone fruits, nuts, and vegetables and involves controlling the outgrowth in vitro of basal, axillary, or adventitious buds. Following clonal multiplication, shoots are divided and rooted. This process has greatly reduced space and energy requirements in greenhouses and field nurseries and has increased multiplication rates by greater than 20 fold for some vegetatively propagated crops and breeding lines. Cereal and legume crops can also be cloned by tissue culture through somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos can be used to produce 'synthetic seed', which can tolerate desiccation and germinate upon rehydration. Synthetic seed of hybrid wheat, rice, soybean and other crops could be produced in a controlled ecological life support system. Thus, yield advantages of hybreds over inbreds (10 to 20 percent) could be exploited without having to provide additional facilities and energy for parental-line and hybrid seed nurseries.

  17. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  18. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  19. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2009 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 11 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  20. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2010 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  1. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  2. STRU-cloning: a fast, inexpensive and efficient cloning procedure applicable to both small scale and structural genomics size cloning.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Dom; Fordham-Skelton, Anthony P; Papiz, Miroslav Z

    2011-05-01

    We have developed a Single-Tube Restriction-based Ultrafiltration (STRU) cloning procedure that updates traditional ligation-dependent cloning to challenge the newer, faster and more efficient ligation-free techniques and could make it the method of choice. STRU-cloning employs centrifugal filter units with membrane of suitable cut off to remove small unwanted DNA fragments created during restriction of plasmids or PCR products. Heat inactivation, of restriction enzymes, followed by DNA ligation is then performed on the filtrate. By removing the agarose gel electrophoresis DNA purification step from the traditional protocol, which is time consuming and is known to be the cause of ligation problems, STRU-cloning becomes fast, very efficient, inexpensive and offers the highest degree of cloning flexibility by using restriction sites and can be performed in a single tube. This novel agarose gel-free cloning procedure provides benefits for both small and large scale cloning projects. Unlike traditional cloning it can be easily implemented as a fully automated process at very low costs. PMID:21052867

  3. Long-term climate impacts on breeding bird phenology in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Molly E; DeGroote, Lucas W

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is influencing bird phenology worldwide, but we still lack information on how many species are responding over long temporal periods. We assessed how climate affected passerine reproductive timing and productivity at a constant effort mist-netting station in western Pennsylvania using a model comparison approach. Several lines of evidence point to the sensitivity of 21 breeding passerines to climate change over five decades. The trends for temperature and precipitation over 53 years were slightly positive due to intraseasonal variation, with the greatest temperature increases and precipitation declines in early spring. Regardless of broodedness, migration distance, or breeding season, 13 species hatched young earlier over time with most advancing >3 days per decade. Warm springs were associated with earlier captures of juveniles for 14 species, ranging from 1- to 3-day advancement for every 1 °C increase. This timing was less likely to be influenced by spring precipitation; nevertheless, higher rainfall was usually associated with later appearance of juveniles and breeding condition in females. Temperature and precipitation were positively related to productivity for seven and eleven species, respectively, with negative relations evident for six and eight species. We found that birds fledged young earlier with increasing spring temperatures, potentially benefiting some multibrooded species. Indeed, some extended the duration of breeding in these warm years. Yet, a few species fledged fewer juveniles in warmer and wetter seasons, indicating that expected future increases could be detrimental to locally breeding populations. Although there were no clear relationships between life history traits and breeding phenology, species-specific responses to climate found in our study provide novel insights into phenological flexibility in songbirds. Our research underscores the value of long-term monitoring studies and the importance of continuing constant

  4. Positional Cloning by Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to

  5. Protection of genetic heritage in the era of cloning

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Júnior, Eudes Quintino; de Oliveira, Pedro Bellentani Quintino

    2012-01-01

    Research on human beings has expanded greatly due to progress and the evolution of society as well as customs. Not only the unceasing development of research on human beings, but also interference in the beginning and end of life with homologous and heterogonous human reproduction, surrogate motherhood, cloning, gene therapies, eugenics, euthanasia, dysthanasia, orthothanasia, assisted suicide, genetic engineering, reassignment surgery in cases of transsexuality, the use of recombinant DNA technology and embryonic stem cells, transplantation of human organs and tissues, biotechnology and many other scientific advances. Scientific progress goes faster than the real needs of human beings, who are the final recipient of the entire evolutionary progress. Hence, there is the need to scrutinize whether new technologies are necessary, suitable and timely so that humanity can achieve its postulate of bene vivere. Human cloning, as an abrupt scientific fact, has presented itself to the world community as a procedure that can be performed with relative success and with little difficulty, since it achieved its objectives with the cloning of Dolly the sheep. This issue became the topic of discussion not only in the scientific community but in the lay population, and it received from both, global disapproval. The conclusion is that the human being is unique, with a life cycle defined by the rules of nature. Reversal will cause a violation of the genetic heritage and, above all, will confront the constitutional principle of human dignity. PMID:23323071

  6. The Sub-Annual Breeding Cycle of a Tropical Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S. James; Martin, Graham R.; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P.; Hughes, B. John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts. PMID:24714514

  7. [Mendelism in animal breeding as developed by professor Leopold Frateur, Louvain (1877-1946)].

    PubMed

    Gobin, A

    2000-01-01

    the theoretical knowledge on heredity as the starting point for practical application in cattle breeding. During and right after W. W. I. he stated that the current scientific knowledge is enough advanced to consider the start of a large breeding programme for the improvement of cattle livestock. In order to realise this reinstatement Frateur received important support from the authorities (Royal Decree, August 1919). From then onwards he focussed his efforts on the realisation of a national framework for improvement of cattle livestock, in collaboration with regional centres and societies for animal selection, breeding and production. Later he also started programmes for the improvement of chicken and pig breeding, again in a joint effort with official consultants and members of breeding societies. He was not only the architect of these programmes, providing the necessary scientific and technical guidance, but he had also a chair in the governing bodies, supervising the execution and control of the breeding programmes. In order to draw a picture of the research community engaged in animal breeding during the first decennia of the 20th century Frateur's contacts through study tours, congresses and learned societies are investigated. The life and work of Frateur is described by the author in two volumes, published in 1999. The second volume consists of a reprint of 50 selected papers on animal breeding. PMID:12051273

  8. Cloning genes for non-syndromal hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, R J; Van Camp, G

    1999-10-01

    Over 45 genes that cause autosomal non-syndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) have been localized and many more are predicted to exist. To clone these genes, a number of different strategies can be used. This paper focuses on four general approaches: functional cloning, positional cloning, position-dependent candidate gene cloning, and position-independent candidate gene cloning. PMID:10890140

  9. Breeding drought-tolerant maize hybrids for the US corn-belt: discovery to product.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Mark; Gho, Carla; Leafgren, Roger; Tang, Tom; Messina, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Germplasm, genetics, phenotyping, and selection, combined with a clear definition of product targets, are the foundation of successful hybrid maize breeding. Breeding maize hybrids with superior yield for the drought-prone regions of the US corn-belt involves integration of multiple drought-specific technologies together with all of the other technology components that comprise a successful maize hybrid breeding programme. Managed-environment technologies are used to enable scaling of precision phenotyping in appropriate drought environmental conditions to breeding programme level. Genomics and other molecular technologies are used to study trait genetic architecture. Genetic prediction methodology was used to breed for improved yield performance for drought-prone environments. This was enabled by combining precision phenotyping for drought performance with genetic understanding of the traits contributing to successful hybrids in the target drought-prone environments and the availability of molecular markers distributed across the maize genome. Advances in crop growth modelling methodology are being used to evaluate the integrated effects of multiple traits for their combined effects and evaluate drought hybrid product concepts and guide their development and evaluation. Results to date, lessons learned, and future opportunities for further improving the drought tolerance of maize for the US corn-belt are discussed. PMID:24596174

  10. Walking or Waiting? Topologies of the Breeding Ground in Malaria Control

    PubMed Central

    Lezaun, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Few places bear as much historical and scientific significance as the breeding ground, the accumulation of stagnant water where disease-carrying insects lay their eggs. Since the turn of the twentieth century, when mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus were identified as the vector of malaria transmission, these aquatic habitats have been a key object of epidemiological research and public health intervention against the disease. Yet the breeding ground can be incorporated into a number of different topologies, each implying a different spatialization of malaria and a distinct imagination of what kind of mosquito control is ‘doable'. A contemporary example of malaria control in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, illuminates an essential tension between what we characterize as territorial and bionomic approaches to the breeding ground—that is, between control strategies premised on treating all mosquito habitats within a given region, and those that prioritize certain sites on the basis of their position within ecological networks. Each topology localizes the breeding ground by reference to a distinct set of relations, and thus advances an idiosyncratic understanding of what sort of research is worthwhile conducting and what kinds of intervention are sustainable. The multiple ways in which the breeding ground can become an object of research and action clarifies the role of topology as an infra-logic of public health, and makes explicit the politics implicit in efforts to bring different orders of the local to scale. PMID:25937707

  11. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Hallworth, Michael T.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50 ± 0.15 ha, mean ± SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233 km2, respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  12. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of polyphenol oxidase genes in common wheat and related species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes in common wheat and its relatives would greatly advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of grain PPO activity. In the present study, six wheat relative species, including T. urartu, T. boeoticum, T. monococcum, T. dicoccoi...

  13. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1{yields}2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1{yields}M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1{yields}M{sup '} cloning for M{sup '}cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack.

  14. Cloning of endangered mammalian species: any progress?

    PubMed

    Loi, Pasqualino; Galli, Cesare; Ptak, Grazyna

    2007-05-01

    Attempts through somatic cell nuclear transfer to expand wild populations that have shrunk to critical numbers is a logical extension of the successful cloning of mammals. However, although the first mammal was cloned 10 years ago, nuclear reprogramming remains phenomenological, with abnormal gene expression and epigenetic deregulation being associated with the cloning process. In addition, although cloning of wild animals using host oocytes from different species has been successful, little is known about the implication of partial or total mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in cloned embryos, fetuses and offspring. Finally, there is a need for suitable foster mothers for inter-intra specific cloned embryos. Considering these issues, the limited success achieved in cloning endangered animals is not surprising. However, optimism comes from the rapid gain in the understanding of the molecular clues underlying nuclear reprogramming. If it is possible to achieve a controlled reversal of the differentiated state of a cell then it is probable that other issues that impair the cloning of endangered animals, such as the inter-intra species oocyte or womb donor, will be overcome in the medium term. PMID:17379340

  15. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF RABBIT INTERLEUKIN-15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the inflammatory mechanisms related to rabbit interleukin-15 (RIL-15), we cloned and expressed RIL-15 cDNA gene. A cDNA encoding RIL-15 was cloned from heart mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification using hIL-15 primers. The RIL-15 cDNA co...

  16. Behavioral profiles of feline breeds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability". These behaviors were more common in males than females, whereas "nervousness" and "inappropriate elimination" were rated higher in females. When all breeds were categorized into four groups on the basis of a cluster analysis using the scores of two behavioral trait factors called "aggressiveness/sensitivity" and "vivaciousness", the group including Abyssinian, Russian Blue, Somali, Siamese, and Chinchilla breeds showed high aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. In contrast, the group including the American Shorthair and Japanese domestic cat displayed low aggressiveness/sensitivity and high vivaciousness, and the Himalayan and Persian group showed mild aggressiveness/sensitivity and very low vivaciousness. Finally, the group containing Maine Coon, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold breeds displayed very low aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. The present results demonstrate that some feline behavioral traits vary by breed and/or sex. PMID:19721357

  17. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  18. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi . E-mail: tkhoda.epgn@tmd.ac.jp; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-10-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones.

  19. SNP Markers and Their Impact on Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Mammadov, Jafar; Aggarwal, Rajat; Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kumpatla, Siva

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular markers has revolutionized the pace and precision of plant genetic analysis which in turn facilitated the implementation of molecular breeding of crops. The last three decades have seen tremendous advances in the evolution of marker systems and the respective detection platforms. Markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have rapidly gained the center stage of molecular genetics during the recent years due to their abundance in the genomes and their amenability for high-throughput detection formats and platforms. Computational approaches dominate SNP discovery methods due to the ever-increasing sequence information in public databases; however, complex genomes pose special challenges in the identification of informative SNPs warranting alternative strategies in those crops. Many genotyping platforms and chemistries have become available making the use of SNPs even more attractive and efficient. This paper provides a review of historical and current efforts in the development, validation, and application of SNP markers in QTL/gene discovery and plant breeding by discussing key experimental strategies and cases exemplifying their impact. PMID:23316221

  20. Cloning plants by seeds: Inheritance models and candidate genes to increase fundamental knowledge for engineering apomixis in sexual crops.

    PubMed

    Pupilli, Fulvio; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2012-06-30

    Apomixis is desirable in agriculture as a reproductive strategy for cloning plants by seeds. Because embryos derive from the parthenogenic development of apomeiotic egg cells, apomixis excludes fertilization in addition to meiotic segregation and recombination, resulting in offspring that are exact replicas of the parent. Introgression of apomixis from wild relatives to crop species and transformation of sexual genotypes into apomictically reproducing ones are long-held goals of plant breeding. In fact, it is generally accepted that the introduction of apomixis into agronomically important crops will have revolutionary implications for agriculture. This review deals with the current genetic and molecular findings that have been collected from model species to elucidate the mechanisms of apomeiosis, parthenogenesis and apomixis as a whole. Our goal is to critically determine whether biotechnology can combine key genes known to control the expression of the processes miming the main components of apomixis in plants. Two natural apomicts, as the eudicot Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) and the monocot Paspalum spp. (crowngrass), and the sexual model species Arabidopsis thaliana are ideally suited for such investigations at the genomic and biotechnological levels. Some novel views and original concepts have been faced on this review, including (i) the parallel between Y-chromosome and apomixis-bearing chromosome (e.g., comparative genomic analyses revealed common features as repression of recombination events, accumulation of transposable elements and degeneration of genes) from the most primitive (Hypericum-type) to the most advanced (Paspalum-type) in evolutionary terms, and (ii) the link between apomixis and gene-specific silencing mechanisms (i.e., likely based on chromatin remodelling factors), with merging lines of evidence regarding the role of auxin in cell fate specification of embryo sac and egg cell development in Arabidopsis. The production of

  1. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25010563

  2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 16S rRNA gene clones (Clone-FISH) for probe validation and screening of clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Andreas; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Tonolla, Mauro; Stahl, David A

    2002-11-01

    A method is presented for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of 16S rRNA gene clones targeting in vivo transcribed plasmid inserts (Clone-FISH). Several different cloning approaches and treatments to generate target-rRNA in the clones were compared. Highest signal intensities of Clone-FISH were obtained using plasmids with a T7 RNA polymerase promoter and host cells with an IPTG-inducible T7 RNA polymerase. Combined IPTG-induction and chloramphenicol treatment of those clones resulted in FISH signals up to 2.8-fold higher than signals of FISH with probe EUB338 to cells of Escherichia coli. Probe dissociation curves for three oligonucleotide probes were compared for reference cells containing native (FISH) or cloned (Clone-FISH) target sequences. Melting behaviour and calculated T(d) values were virtually identical for clones and cells, providing a format to use 16S rRNA gene clones instead of pure cultures for probe validation and optimization of hybridization conditions. The optimized Clone-FISH protocol was also used to screen an environmental clone library for insert sequences of interest. In this application format, 13 out of 82 clones examined were identified to contain sulphate-reducing bacterial rRNA genes. In summary, Clone-FISH is a simple and fast technique, compatible with a wide variety of cloning vectors and hosts, that should have general utility for probe validation and screening of clone libraries. PMID:12460279

  3. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  4. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  5. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  6. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities. PMID:20943677

  7. Economical quantum cloning in any dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Durt, Thomas; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2005-11-15

    The possibility of cloning a d-dimensional quantum system without an ancilla is explored, extending on the economical phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits found in Phys. Rev. A 60, 2764 (1999). We prove the impossibility of constructing an economical version of the optimal universal 1{yields}2 cloning machine in any dimension. We also show, using an ansatz on the generic form of cloning machines, that the d-dimensional 1{yields}2 phase-covariant cloner, which optimally clones all balanced superpositions with arbitrary phases, can be realized economically only in dimension d=2. The used ansatz is supported by numerical evidence up to d=7. An economical phase-covariant cloner can nevertheless be constructed for d>2, albeit with a slightly lower fidelity than that of the optimal cloner requiring an ancilla. Finally, using again an ansatz on cloning machines, we show that an economical version of the 1{yields}2 Fourier-covariant cloner, which optimally clones the computational basis and its Fourier transform, is also possible only in dimension d=2.

  8. Controlled secret sharing protocol using a quantum cloning circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Satyabrata; Roy, Sovik; Chakraborty, Shantanav; Jagadish, Vinayak; Haris, M. K.; Kumar, Atul

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the success probability of a secret sharing protocol using a quantum cloning circuit. The cloning circuit is used to clone the qubits containing the encoded information and en route to the intended recipients. The success probability of the protocol depends on the cloning parameters used to clone the qubits. We also establish a relation between the concurrence of initially prepared state, entanglement of the mixed state received by the receivers after cloning scheme and the cloning parameters of cloning machine.

  9. Evaluation of genetic divergence among clones of conilon coffee after scheduled cycle pruning.

    PubMed

    Dalcomo, J M; Vieira, H D; Ferreira, A; Lima, W L; Ferrão, R G; Fonseca, A F A; Ferrão, M A G; Partelli, F L

    2015-01-01

    Coffea canephora genotypes from the breeding program of Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa e Extensão Rural were evaluated, and genetic diversity was estimated with the aim of future improvement strategies. From an initial group of 55 genotypes, 18 from the region of Castelo, ES, were selected, and three clones of the cultivars "Vitória" and "robusta tropical." Upon completion of the scheduled cycle pruning, 17 morphoagronomic traits were measured in the 22 genotypes selected. The principal components method was used to evaluate the contributions relative to the traits. The genetic dissimilarity matrix was obtained through Mahalanobis generalized distance, and genotypes were grouped using the hierarchical method based on the mean of the distances. The most promising clones of Avaliação Castelo were AC02, AC03, AC12, AC13, AC22, AC24, AC26, AC27, AC28, AC29, AC30, AC35, AC36, AC37, AC39, AC40, AC43, and AC46. These methods detected high genetic variability, grouping, by similarity, the genotypes in five groups. The trait that contributed the least to genetic divergence was the number of leaves in plagiotropic branches; however, this was not eliminated, because discarding it altered the groups. There are superior genotypes with potential for use in the next stages of the breeding program, aimed at both the composition of clonal variety and hybridizations. PMID:26634507

  10. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of FGF5 in Cashmere goat (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Bao, W L; Yao, R Y; He, Q; Guo, Z X; Bao, C; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z G

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein that belongs to the FGF family, and was found to be associated with hair growth in humans and other animals. The Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) is a goat breed that provides superior cashmere; this breed was formed by spontaneous mutation in China. Here, we report the cloning, molecular characterization, and expression pattern of the Cashmere goat FGF5. The cloned FGF5 cDNA was 813 base pairs (KM596772), including an open reading frame encoding a 270-amino-acid polypeptide. The nucleotide sequence shared 99% homology with Ovis aries FGF5 (NM_001246263.1). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that FGF5 contained a signal peptide, an FGF domain, and a heparin-binding growth factor/FGF family signature. There was 1 cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, 11 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 4 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 1 amidation site, 1 N-glycosylation site, and 1 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site in FGF5. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that FGF5 mRNA levels were higher in testis than in the pancreas and liver. These data suggest that FGF5 may play a crucial role in Cashmere goat hair growth. PMID:26400346

  11. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  12. Criteria for selecting replacements at weaning, before breeding, and after breeding.

    PubMed

    Lamb, G Cliff

    2013-11-01

    At weaning, heifers should be considered for replacements based on their dam's previous performance; heifer calving date, age, and weight; and previous exposure to implants. Before breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements based on whether they have attained puberty (determined by a prebreeding examination), do not have abnormal pelvic areas, or fail to meet temperament standards. After breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements if they conceive early in the breeding season, are capable of achieving 85% of their mature weight by calving, and calve at a body condition of 5.5 to 6.0. PMID:24182435

  13. (New hosts and vectors for genome cloning)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main goal of our project remains the development of new bacterial hosts and vectors for the stable propagation of human DNA clones in E. coli. During the past six months of our current budget period, we have (1) continued to develop new hosts that permit the stable maintenance of unstable features of human DNA, and (2) developed a series of vectors for (a) cloning large DNA inserts, (b) assessing the frequency of human sequences that are lethal to the growth of E. coli, and (c) assessing the stability of human sequences cloned in M13 for large-scale sequencing projects.

  14. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment

  15. Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in F1 and F2 Progenies of Somatic Cell-Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    ADACHI, Noritaka; YAMAGUCHI, Daisuke; WATANABE, Akiyuki; MIURA, Narumi; SUNAGA, Seiji; OISHI, Hitoshi; HASHIMOTO, Michiko; OISHI, Takatsugu; IWAMOTO, Masaki; HANADA, Hirofumi; KUBO, Masanori; ONISHI, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the health and meat production of cloned sows and their progenies in order to demonstrate the application of somatic cell cloning to the pig industry. This study compared the growth, reproductive performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Landrace cloned sows, F1 progenies and F2 progenies. We measured their body weight, growth rate and feed conversion and performed a pathological analysis of their anatomy to detect abnormalities. Three of the five cloned pigs were used for a growth test. Cloned pigs grew normally and had characteristics similar to those of the control purebred Landrace pigs. Two cloned gilts were bred with a Landrace boar and used for a progeny test. F1 progenies had characteristics similar to those of the controls. Two of the F1 progeny gilts were bred with a Duroc or Large White boar and used for the progeny test. F2 progenies grew normally. There were no biological differences in growth, carcass characteristics and amino acid composition among cloned sows, F1 progenies, F2 progenies and conventional pigs. The cloned sows and F1 progenies showed normal reproductive performance. No specific abnormalities were observed by pathological analysis, with the exception of periarteritis in the F1 progenies. All pigs had a normal karyotype. These results demonstrate that cloned female pigs and their progenies have similar growth, reproductive performance and carcass quality characteristics and that somatic cell cloning could be a useful technique for conserving superior pig breeds in conventional meat production. PMID:24492641

  16. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology. PMID:25595050

  17. Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.

  18. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification. PMID:22122908

  19. Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.

  20. Linkage Drag: Implication for Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage drag is commonly observed in plant breeding, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling this is unclear. The Pi-ta gene, a single copy gene near the centromere region of chromosome 12, confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae that contain AVR-Pita. The Pi-ta gene in Tetep has been su...

  1. Genomics to feed a switchgrass breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of improved cultivars is one of three pillars, along with sustainable production and efficient conversion, required for dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crops to succeed. Breeding new cultivars is a long, slow process requiring patience, dedication, and motivation to realize gains and adva...

  2. Genetics, Breeding, and Ecology of Reed Canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass has been an important grass for hay production, soil conservation, and pastures in the USA since the late 1800s. It is tolerant of a wide range of environmental stresses, including drought, heat, and flooding. Breeding new varieties of reed canarygrass began in the 1950s by collec...

  3. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  4. Strawberry breeding selections for postharvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from the annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) breeding program at Beltsville, MD in 2010 were evaluated for postharvest decay development after storage at 5 °C. A statistically significant correlation between percentage decay o...

  5. Impacts of the USDA basic breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties can...

  6. Breeding for phytonutrient content; examples from watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for high phytonutrient fruits and vegetables can be a fairly straightforward endeavor when the compounds of interest produce a visible effect or the methods for quantifying the compounds simple and inexpensive. Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon is one such compound, since the amount of r...

  7. A New Breed of Environmental Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Randy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how today's environmental film festivals feature a new breed of documentary that offer nuanced narratives about intricate technologies. The author relates that the environmental films he grew up with sedately depicted the quiet sublimity of the wilderness. Today's films, the author observes, aim far beyond a…

  8. A brief genomic history of tomato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report a brief genomic history of tomato breeding by analyzing the genomes of 360 diverse accessions collected all over the world. These included 333 accessions from the red fruited clade (S. pimpinellifolium, S. l. var. cerasiforme, and S. lycopersicum) that represent various geographical o...

  9. Breeding System of Ruellia succulenta Small (Acanthaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the breeding system of Ruellia succulenta (Acanthaceae), an herbaceous perennial found in the pine rockland habitat of southern Florida. Hand pollination treatments were performed on 75 plants, 25 from each of three sites. Treatments applied to test plants included: 1) control ...

  10. Interspecific Sorghum Breeding Using S. macrospermum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been improved by public and private breeding programs utilizing germplasm mostly from within the species. Different cross-incompatibility mechanisms have prevented its hybridization with species in other sections of the genus. These incompatibilities...

  11. Traditional breeding and cultivar development (potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional breeding allows for the genetic ‘reshuffling’ of genes and their recombination into new genotypes that may carry the desired assemblage of resistance and agronomic traits necessary for release as a new cultivar. While molecular biology techniques can be useful for improving upon a weakne...

  12. Determining Ploidy Level in Guayule Breeding Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication and cultivation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) as a perennial natural rubber crop has been intermittent in the southwestern United States, thus its continued genetic improvement through modern plant breeding is vitally needed to realize yield potential and suitability for ...

  13. Validating selective breeding approaches for disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout at the USDA/ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) in Leetown, West Virginia is designed to accomplish four goals: 1) define commercially important traits such as disease resistance, growth rate, stress response, and feed efficiency; 2) d...

  14. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  15. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  16. Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house

    SciTech Connect

    Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.

  17. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  18. Impacts of the basic breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties ca...

  19. Progress toward breeding for Verticillium wilt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  20. Progress Toward Breeding for Verticillium Wilt Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  1. The USDA/ARS Raisin Breeding Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS breeding program is developing: 1) natural dry-on-the-vine raisin grape cultivars; 2) powdery mildew resistant raisin grape cultivars; 3) Pierce’s Disease resistant raisin grape cultivars; and 4) raisin grape cultivars with increased anthocyanins for health benefits. A natural dry-on-t...

  2. Genetics, Genomics and Breeding in Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is intended to bridge traditional research with modern molecular investigations on sunflower. It begins with basic information about the sunflower plant and germplasm diversity (Chapter 1), followed by classical genetics and traditional breeding (Chapter 2), history and achievement of gen...

  3. Breeding season of wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12 deg. and 80 deg. N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  4. Breeding season of Wolves, Canis lupus, in relation to latitude

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2002-01-01

    A significant relationship was found between Wolf (Canis lupus) breeding dates and latitudes between 12?? and 80??N, with Wolves breeding earlier at lower latitudes, probably because of differences in seasonality.

  5. Simulation of charge breeding of rubidium using Monte Carlo charge breeding code and generalized ECRIS model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B.; Kim, J. S.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2010-02-15

    A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed.

  6. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  7. Lectin-binding sites on ejaculated stallion sperm during breeding and non-breeding periods.

    PubMed

    Desantis, S; Ventriglia, G; Zizza, S; Nicassio, M; Valentini, L; Di Summa, A; Lacalandra, G M

    2010-05-01

    Stallion sperm from semen collected in Southern Italy during the breeding (June-July) and non-breeding (December-January) periods were analyzed by means of twelve lectins to evaluate the glycoconjugate pattern and to verify whether there are any seasonal differences in the glycosylation pattern of the sperm glycocalyx. The acrosomal cap showed reactivity for Maackia amurensis (MAL II), Sambucus nigra (SNA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Glycine max (SBA), Helix pomatia (HPA), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) Triticum vulgaris (WGA), and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin II (GSA II) in breeding and non-breeding ejaculated sperm, suggesting the presence of oligosaccharides terminating with Neu5Ac alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Ac alpha 2,6Gal/GalNAc, with Gal beta 1,3GalNAc, alpha/beta GalNAc and glycans with terminal/internal alpha Man and GlcNAc. During the non-breeding period, the acrosomal cap expressed oligosaccharides terminating with Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc (Ricinus communis(120) affinity) (RCA(120)) and L-Fuc alpha 1,2Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta (Ulex europaeus affinity) (UEA I). The equatorial segment placed between the acrosomal cap and post-acrosomal region did not display glycans terminating with GalNAc, GlcNAc, and alpha L-Fuc. The post-acrosomal region of sperm collected in the breeding and non-breeding periods bound Con A, MAL II, SNA, and SBA, thus showing the presence of N-linked oligosaccharides from high-Man content, terminating with Neu5Ac alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc, Neu5Ac alpha 2,6Gal/GalNAc and GalNAc. In winter, the post-acrosomal region also expressed oligosaccharides terminating with alpha GalNAc, GlcNAc, and L-Fuc alpha 1,2Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta (HPA, GSA II, and UEA I staining). The tail of sperm from semen collected during the breeding and non-breeding periods showed a lectin binding pattern similar to the post-acrosomal region, except for the absence of HPA staining in sperm collected during the winter season. These results indicate that the surface of

  8. Cloning and characterization of new bioluminescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Ballou, Byron T.; Dagnal, Erich; Bryan, Bruce

    1999-07-01

    Over the past two years Prolume has undertaken a comprehensive program to clone luciferases and associated 'green fluorescent proteins' (GFPs) from marine animals that use coelenterazine as the luciferin. To data we have cloned several bioluminescent proteins, including two novel copepod luciferases and two anthozoan GFPs. These four proteins have sequences that differ greatly form previously cloned analogous proteins; the sequence diversity apparently is due to independent evolutionary origins and unusual evolutionary constraints. Thus coelenterazine-based bioluminescent systems may also manifest a variety of useful properties. We discuss form this taxonomic perspective the initial biochemical and spectral characterization of our cloned proteins. Emphasis is placed on the anthozoan luciferase-GFP systems, whose efficient resonance energy transfer has elicited much current interest.

  9. Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2006-09-15

    We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states.

  10. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-11-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs.

  11. Economical phase-covariant cloning with multiclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Hai; Ye, Liu

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a very simple method to derive the explicit transformations of the optimal economical 1 to M phase-covariant cloning. The fidelity of clones reaches the theoretic bound [D'Ariano G M and Macchiavello C 2003 Phys. Rev. A 67 042306]. The derived transformations cover the previous contributions [Delgado Y, Lamata L et al., 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 150502] in which M must be odd.

  12. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  13. TEMPORAL CHANGES OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SUGARCANE BREEDING POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about decline of genetic diversity in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs need be addressed to define better breeding strategies aimed at achieving greater genetic gains. The objectives of this study were to reconstruct the divergence in the Canal Point breeding populations as temp...

  14. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. PMID:26059109

  15. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  16. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  17. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  18. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  19. Production of Cloned Korean Native Pig by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Oh, Keun Bong; Ock, Sun-A; Chung, Hak-Jae; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2015-06-01

    The Korean native pig (KNP) have been considered as animal models for animal biotechnology research because of their relatively small body size and their presumably highly inbred status due to the closed breeding program. However, little is reported about the use of KNP for animal biotechnology researches. This study was performed to establish the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocol for the production of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) homotype-defined SCNT KNP. The ear fibroblast cells originated from KNP were cultured and used as donor cell. After thawing, the donor cells were cultured for 1 hour with 15 μM roscovitine prior to the nuclear transfer. The numbers of reconstructed and parthenogenetic embryos transferred were 98 ± 35.2 and 145 ± 11.2, respectively. The pregnancy and delivery rate were 3/5 (60%) and 2/5 (40%). One healthy SLA homotype-defined SCNT KNP was successfully generated. The recipient-based individual cloning efficiency ranged from 0.65 to 1.08%. Taken together, it can be postulated that the methodological establishment of the production of SLA homotype-defined cloned KNP can be applied to the generation of transgenic cloned KNP as model animals for human disease and xenotransplantation researches. PMID:27004264

  20. Genetic basis for using Tradescantia clone 4430 as an environmental monitor of mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Emmerling-Thompson, M.; Nawrocky, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Tradescantia stamen hair system developed by the late Dr. Arnold H. Sparrow has been used in a wide variety of radiobiological studies, and more recently as an environmental monitor for assessing the potential genetic hazards of various gaseous chemicals of both industrial and natural origin. The use of this system as a genetic monitor necessitates a thorough genetic analysis of the marker employed to measure mutagenicity. The phenotypic change in color from blue to pink in either petal or stamen hair cells has been used as a genetic marker under the assumption that the petal and stamen hair cells are heterozygous for blue, and if the dominant allele for blue color mutates or is lost, the recessive allele determines that the daughter cells will be pink. It is the purpose of this communication to present the results of genetic tests by conventional breeding methods involving the pink locus in Tradescantia clone 4430, the diploid clone used exclusively in the Mobile Monitoring Vehicle at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Confirmation of a genetic, as opposed to a physiological, origin of the pink color in the petal and stamen hair cells of Tradescantia clone 4430 is essential to evaluating the validity of this test system.

  1. Production of Cloned Korean Native Pig by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In-Sul; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Oh, Keun Bong; Ock, Sun-A; Chung, Hak-Jae; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2015-01-01

    The Korean native pig (KNP) have been considered as animal models for animal biotechnology research because of their relatively small body size and their presumably highly inbred status due to the closed breeding program. However, little is reported about the use of KNP for animal biotechnology researches. This study was performed to establish the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) protocol for the production of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) homotype-defined SCNT KNP. The ear fibroblast cells originated from KNP were cultured and used as donor cell. After thawing, the donor cells were cultured for 1 hour with 15 μM roscovitine prior to the nuclear transfer. The numbers of reconstructed and parthenogenetic embryos transferred were 98 ± 35.2 and 145 ± 11.2, respectively. The pregnancy and delivery rate were 3/5 (60%) and 2/5 (40%). One healthy SLA homotype-defined SCNT KNP was successfully generated. The recipient-based individual cloning efficiency ranged from 0.65 to 1.08%. Taken together, it can be postulated that the methodological establishment of the production of SLA homotype-defined cloned KNP can be applied to the generation of transgenic cloned KNP as model animals for human disease and xenotransplantation researches. PMID:27004264

  2. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-04-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone.

  3. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    PubMed

    Vafidis, James O; Vaughan, Ian P; Jones, T Hefin; Facey, Richard J; Parry, Rob; Thomas, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012-2014). Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites). The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net reproductive

  4. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Ian P.; Jones, T. Hefin; Facey, Richard J.; Parry, Rob; Thomas, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012–2014). Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites). The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net reproductive

  5. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2008 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 16 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight and among 8 of the 16 breeds for carcass marbling, ribeye area, and f...

  6. HomeRun Vector Assembly System: A Flexible and Standardized Cloning System for Assembly of Multi-Modular DNA Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming V.; Shukla, Dip; Rhodes, Brian H.; Lall, Anjali; Shu, Jingmin; Moriarity, Branden S.; Largaespada, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in molecular and synthetic biology call for efficient assembly of multi-modular DNA constructs. We hereby present a novel modular cloning method that obviates the need for restriction endonucleases and significantly improves the efficiency in the design and construction of complex DNA molecules by standardizing all DNA elements and cloning reactions. Our system, named HomeRun Vector Assembly System (HVAS), employs a three-tiered vector series that utilizes both multisite gateway cloning and homing endonucleases, with the former building individual functional modules and the latter linking modules into the final construct. As a proof-of-principle, we first built a two-module construct that supported doxycycline-induced expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Further, with a three-module construct we showed quantitatively that there was minimal promoter leakage between neighbouring modules. Finally, we developed a method, in vitro Cre recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) cloning, to regenerate a gateway destination vector from a previous multisite gateway cloning reaction, allowing access to existing DNA element libraries in conventional gateway entry clones, and simple creation of constructs ready for in vivo RMCE. We believe these methods constitute a useful addition to the standard molecular cloning techniques that could potentially support industrial scale synthesis of DNA constructs. PMID:24959875

  7. Breeding population inventories and measures of recruitment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Blohm, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter we review the techniques used to measure two important parameters of waterfowl populations, size of breeding population and recruitment. If waterfowl are to be managed toward goals defined in terms of population sizes such as those in the recently signed North American Waterfowl Management Plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS] and Canadian Wildlife Service [CWS] 1986), there must be some measure of population size for the various species. Waterfowl managers usually measure population size during the breeding season, although for some species and in some areas winter inventories may be used. Population size is a function of natality and mortality. Other chapters in this volume deal in detail with the biology of those processes. This chapter discusses procedural aspects of measurement and reviews some of the operational systems that have been used to estimate population size and recruitment, especially in North America.

  8. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997a??1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  9. [Review of transgenic crop breeding in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dafang

    2015-06-01

    The development history and fundamental experience of transgenic crops (Genetically modified crops) breeding in China for near 30 years were reviewed. It was illustrated that a scientific research, development and industrialization system of transgenic crops including gene discovery, transformation, variety breeding, commercialization, application and biosafety assessment has been initially established which was few in number in the world. The research innovative capacity of transgenic cotton, rice and corn has been lifted. The research features as well as relative advantages have been initially formed. The problems and challenges of transgenic crop development were discussed. In addition, three suggestions of promoting commercialization, speeding up implementation of the Major National Project of GM Crops, and enhancing science communication were made. PMID:26672365

  10. Reduction of foraging work and cooperative breeding.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Hiroshi; Field, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Using simple stochastic models, we discuss how cooperative breeders, especially wasps and bees, can improve their productivity by reducing foraging work. In a harsh environment, where foraging is the main cause of mortality, such breeders achieve greater productivity by reducing their foraging effort below full capacity, and they may thrive by adopting cooperative breeding. This could prevent the population extinction of cooperative breeders under conditions where a population of lone breeders cannot be maintained. PMID:24619571

  11. The biodiversity and genetic structure of Balearic sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Pons, A L; Landi, V; Martinez, A; Delgado, J V

    2015-06-01

    The Balearic sheep breeds, Mallorquina, Menorquina, Roja Mallorquina, Ibicenca and one possible new genetic group, Formentera, constitute a unique genetic resource in the Mediterranean farming landscape, displaying high genetic diversity levels and being well differentiated among themselves and with respect to the continental sheep breeds. We used a microsatellite panel of markers to study genetic diversity and relationships with other Spanish breeds. The results reported in this study have important implications for the use, conservation and breeding of Balearic sheep stocks. A mean number of 7.59 alleles was found among the Balearic sheep breeds for the microsatellites scored. The whole mean value of observed heterozygosity amounted to 0.62, whereas the expected heterozygosity value was 0.69, suggesting the presence of a great degree of genetic variability, although a significant deficit of heterozygotes was detected for some markers. Genetic distance estimates showed that Balearic sheep are differentiated from the other Spanish breeds and in particular, from the Merino type. The Ibicenca breed showed the highest distance value from other breeds. The neighbour-net method of analysis clustered the Roja Mallorquina, Menorquina and Mallorquina breeds. The Structure results clearly demonstrated the genetic differentiation among the four Balearic sheep breeds, with the Ibicenca and Formentera races joined, with slight migration among them. Few external genetic influences from the Spanish mainland breeds were detected. PMID:25823943

  12. The effects of dog breed development on genetic diversity and the relative influences of performance and conformation breeding.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N; Liu, H; Theilen, G; Sacks, B

    2013-06-01

    Genetic diversity was compared among eight dog breeds selected primarily for conformation (Standard Poodle, Italian Greyhound and show English Setter), conformation and performance (Brittany), predominantly performance (German Shorthaired and Wirehaired Pointers) or solely performance (field English Setter and Red Setter). Modern village dogs, which better reflect ancestral genetic diversity, were used as the standard. Four to seven maternal and one to two Y haplotypes were found per breed, with one usually dominant. Diversity of maternal haplotypes was greatest in village dogs, intermediate in performance breeds and lowest in conformation breeds. Maternal haplotype sharing occurred across all breeds, while Y haplotypes were more breed specific. Almost all paternal haplotypes were identified among village dogs, with the exception of the dominant Y haplotype in Brittanys, which has not been identified heretofore. The highest heterozygosity based on 24 autosomal microsatellites was found in village dogs and the lowest in conformation (show) breeds. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that conformation-type breeds were distinct from breeds heavily used for performance, the latter clustering more closely with village dogs. The Brittany, a well-established dual show and field breed, was also genetically intermediate between the conformation and performance breeds. The number of DLA-DRB1 alleles varied from 3 to 10 per breed with extensive sharing. SNPs across the wider DLA region were more frequently homozygous in all pure breeds than in village dogs. Compared with their village dog relatives, all modern breed dogs exhibit reduced genetic diversity. Genetic diversity was even more reduced among breeds under selection for show/conformation. PMID:23679949

  13. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  14. Beef cattle breeding à la Jefferson.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1982-03-01

    ?Even more than most disciplines in the Animal Sciences, quantitative genetics is dependent upon models. Models, by definition, are abstractions of reality. Invariably they require simplifying assumptions, which should be but sometimes are not clearly specified. One thesis of this article, illustrated by examples, is that many of the assumptions upon which animal breeding theory and practice are based are not valid. Some proportion of research resources should be devoted to challenging or verifying those assumptions and following up those areas of enquiry suggested by the outcome of such research. A further thesis is that the selection of topics and priorities for animal breeding research should be a matter of choice by individual scientists and should not be determined by steering committees or directed by administrative fiat. Hopefully, the resultant mutation, cross-fertilization, assortment, recombination and selection of ideas that would result would bestow upon our discipline higher fitness from multiple-peak epistasis, and minimal danger of extinction (or petrification) from over-specialization. A final thesis is that true creativity by research scientists should be nurtured and rewarded and that work in traditional areas of breeding and quantitative genetics should be continued-but done better. PMID:7085523

  15. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. PMID:26827122

  16. Breeding quantum error-correcting codes

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ying; Hu Dan; Yu Sixia

    2010-02-15

    The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.

  17. Diet and breeding performance in cats.

    PubMed

    Olovson, S G

    1986-07-01

    A conventional cat breeding colony with 70 queens (female cats) was studied during a 4 year period 1979-1982. During that time the fat content in the diet was increased from 15% to 27% of dry matter. An increase in the number of kittens per litter (from 4.5 to 5.5) and in the annual number of litters per queen (from 1.4 to 2.3) was found. In addition, the mortality decreased from over 20% to 9%. Bodyweight gain under the new diet was such that the males reached 2500 g in 4 months while the females showed this same weight at 5 months of age. Litter size and sex distribution as a function of queen age, litter interval and time of year are presented. It is concluded that husbandry and diet are factors which are of great importance in a cat breeding unit. It is shown that under our conditions it is possible to breed conventional cats with good results. PMID:3795859

  18. Reproductive senescence in a cooperatively breeding mammal.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Stuart P; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2010-01-01

    1. Senescence (or 'ageing') is a widespread and important process in wild animal populations, but variation in ageing patterns within and between species is poorly understood. 2. In cooperatively breeding species, the costs of reproduction are shared between breeders and one or more helpers. The effects of ageing in breeders may therefore be moderated by the presence of helpers, but there have been very few studies of senescence patterns in natural populations of cooperative breeders. 3. Here, we use 13 years of data from a long-term study population of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta) to investigate age-related changes in several traits known to be key components of reproductive success in females of this species. 4. Four of the six traits studied exhibited significant declines with age, indicating senescence. Litter size, the number of litters produced per year and the number of pups that survived to emergence from the natal burrow per year all increased with female age up to a peak at c. 4 years, and declined steeply thereafter; the mean pup weight at emergence in a given litter declined steadily from age zero. 5. These results provide the first evidence of reproductive senescence in a wild population of a cooperatively breeding vertebrate. Breeding success declined with age despite the sharing of reproductive costs in this species, but further study is needed to investigate whether helping affects other aspects of senescence, including survival. PMID:19758306

  19. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-08-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  20. Prospective clinical trial of a human tumor cloning system.

    PubMed

    Von Hoff, D D; Clark, G M; Stogdill, B J; Sarosdy, M F; O'Brien, M T; Casper, J T; Mattox, D E; Page, C P; Cruz, A B; Sandbach, J F

    1983-04-01

    A prospective clinical trial was performed to evaluate the usefulness of a human tumor cloning system for selecting single-agent chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancers. Six hundred four single-agent trials were performed in the 470 patients whose tumors were submitted for drug sensitivity testing. Only 246 of these 604 trials (41%) could be directed by the cloning system results because of inadequate tumor growth and other difficulties. In these 246 prospective trials, there was a 60% true positive and an 85% true negative rate for predicting for response or lack of response of an individual patient's tumor to the single agent. There was also a relationship between the percentage of decrease in survival of tumor colony-forming units and the probability of a clinical response of the patient's tumor to the same drug used in vivo. Despite these encouraging findings, work to improve tumor growth and additional prospective clinical trials of the system are needed before the system can be recommended for routine clinical use. PMID:6339044

  1. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats. PMID:16509256

  2. Developing a sugarcane molecular identity database for use in breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane geneticists routinely exchange and move a large number of clones by vegetative propagation across locations. They rely on morphological keys developed by the originating location to distinguish these clones. Since environments can influence these traits, genetically distinct clones, in p...

  3. Natural breeding places of phlebotomine sandflies.

    PubMed

    Feliciangeli, M D

    2004-03-01

    Methods of finding larvae and pupae of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are described and the known types of breeding sites used by sandflies are listed. Three ways of detecting sandfly breeding places are the use of emergence traps placed over potential sources to catch newly emerged adult sandflies; flotation of larvae and pupae from soil, etc., and desiccation of media to drive out the larvae. Even so, remarkably little information is available on the ecology of the developmental stages of sandflies, despite their importance as vectors of Leishmania, Bartonella and phleboviruses affecting humans and other vertebrates in warmers parts of the world. Regarding the proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniases, information on breeding sites is available for only 15 out of 29 species of sandflies involved in the Old World and 12 out of 44 species of sandflies involved in the Americas, representing approximately 3% of the known species of Phlebotominae. Ecotopes occupied by immature phlebotomines are usually organically rich moist soils, such as the rain forest floor (Lutzomyia intermedia, Lu. umbratilis, Lu. whitmani in the Amazon; Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trapidoi in Panama), or contaminated soil of animal shelters (Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America, Phlebotomus argentipes in India; P. chinensis in China; P. ariasi, P. perfiliewi, P. perniciosus in Europe). Developmental stages of some species (P. langeroni and P. martini in Africa; P. papatasi in Eurasia; Lu. longipalpis s.l. in South America), have been found in a wide range of ecotopes, and many species of sandflies employ rodent burrows as breeding sites, although the importance of this niche is unclear. Larvae of some phlebotomines have been found in what appear to be specialized niches such as Lu. ovallesi on buttress roots of trees in Panama; P. celiae in termite hills in Kenya; P. longipes and P. pedifer in caves and among rocks in East Africa. Old World species found as immatures in

  4. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant–insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties. PMID:26136269

  5. Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mohan, S Murali; Gaur, Pooran M; Gangarao, N V P R; Pandey, Manish K; Bohra, Abhishek; Sawargaonkar, Shrikant L; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kimurto, Paul K; Janila, Pasupuleti; Saxena, K B; Fikre, Asnake; Sharma, Mamta; Rathore, Abhishek; Pratap, Aditya; Tripathi, Shailesh; Datta, Subhojit; Chaturvedi, S K; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Anuradha, G; Babbar, Anita; Choudhary, Arbind K; Mhase, M B; Bharadwaj, Ch; Mannur, D M; Harer, P N; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Nadarajan, N; Gowda, C L L

    2013-12-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled generation of large-scale genomic resources such as molecular markers, transcript reads and BAC-end sequences (BESs) in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, three major legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Comprehensive transcriptome assemblies and genome sequences have either been developed or underway in these crops. Based on these resources, dense genetic maps, QTL maps as well as physical maps for these legume species have also been developed. As a result, these crops have graduated from 'orphan' or 'less-studied' crops to 'genomic resources rich' crops. This article summarizes the above-mentioned advances in genomics and genomics-assisted breeding applications in the form of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for hybrid purity assessment in pigeonpea; marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) for introgressing QTL region for drought-tolerance related traits, Fusarium wilt (FW) resistance and Ascochyta blight (AB) resistance in chickpea; late leaf spot (LLS), leaf rust and nematode resistance in groundnut. We critically present the case of use of other modern breeding approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) to utilize the full potential of genomics-assisted breeding for developing superior cultivars with enhanced tolerance to various environmental stresses. In addition, this article recommends the use of advanced-backcross (AB-backcross) breeding and development of specialized populations such as multi-parents advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) for creating new variations that will help in developing superior lines with broadened genetic base. In summary, we propose the use of integrated genomics and breeding approach in these legume crops to enhance crop productivity in marginal environments ensuring food security in developing countries. PMID:23313999

  6. Cloning of quantitative trait genes from rice reveals conservation and divergence of photoperiod flowering pathways in Arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Hori, Kiyosumi; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Yano, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is determined primarily by daylength (photoperiod), and natural variation in flowering time is due to quantitative trait loci involved in photoperiodic flowering. To date, genetic analysis of natural variants in rice flowering time has resulted in the positional cloning of at least 12 quantitative trait genes (QTGs), including our recently cloned QTGs, Hd17, and Hd16. The QTGs have been assigned to specific photoperiodic flowering pathways. Among them, 9 have homologs in the Arabidopsis genome, whereas it was evident that there are differences in the pathways between rice and Arabidopsis, such that the rice Ghd7–Ehd1–Hd3a/RFT1 pathway modulated by Hd16 is not present in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe QTGs underlying natural variation in rice flowering time. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the variation in adaptive divergence and its importance in rice breeding. PMID:24860584

  7. Cloning in companion animal, non-domestic and endangered species: can the technology become a practical reality?

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; King, W Allan

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can provide a unique alternative for the preservation of valuable individuals, breeds and species. However, with the exception of a handful of domestic animal species, successful production of healthy cloned offspring has been challenging. Progress in species that have little commercial or research interest, including many companion animal, non-domestic and endangered species (CANDES), has lagged behind. In this review, we discuss the current and future status of SCNT in CANDES and the problems that must be overcome to improve pre- and post-implantation embryo survival in order for this technology to be considered a viable tool for assisted reproduction in these species. PMID:17714629

  8. Effect of breed and body weight on echocardiographic values in four breeds of dogs of differing somatotype.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S A; Moise, N S; Scarlett, J; Mohammed, H; Yeager, A E

    1992-01-01

    Eighty normal dogs of four morphologically disparate breeds (Pembroke Welsh Corgi, Miniature Poodle, Afghan Hound, Golden Retriever) (twenty of each breed), were studied by echocardiography to determine the importance of breed and weight in establishing normal echocardiographic reference ranges. Echocardiographic measurements included left-ventricular chamber dimension at systole and end-diastole, right-ventricular chamber dimension at end-diastole, interventricular septal thickness at systole and end-diastole, left-ventricular free wall thickness at systole and end-diastole, E-point septal separation, aortic root dimension at end-diastole, left atrial dimension, and fractional shortening. Analyses of covariance indicated that for all measurements except right-ventricular chamber dimension, the means were significantly different among breeds, after the differences in weight were taken into account. Echocardiographic measurements are variable even within the same breed. Breed must be considered in establishing echocardiographic measurement reference ranges. Echocardiographic values for each breed are presented. PMID:1522552

  9. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  10. Bounds for state-dependent quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongjian; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2002-11-01

    Due to the no-cloning theorem, the unknown quantum state can only be cloned approximately or exactly with some probability. There are two types of cloners: universal and state-dependent cloner. The optimal universal cloner has been found and can be viewed as a special state-dependent quantum cloner that has no information about the states. In this paper, we investigate the state-dependent cloning when the state set contains more than two states. We get some bounds of the global fidelity for these processes. This method is not dependent on the number of the states contained in the state set. It is also independent of the numbers of copying.

  11. Cloning quantum entanglement in arbitrary dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, E.; Navez, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We have found a quantum cloning machine that optimally duplicates the entanglement of a pair of d-dimensional quantum systems prepared in an arbitrary isotropic state. It maximizes the entanglement of formation contained in the two copies of any maximally entangled input state, while preserving the separability of unentangled input states. Moreover, it cannot increase the entanglement of formation of isotropic states. For large d, the entanglement of formation of each clone tends to one-half the entanglement of the input state, which corresponds to a classical behavior. Finally, we investigate a local entanglement cloner, which yields entangled clones with one-fourth the input entanglement in the large-d limit.

  12. Bac clones generated from sheared dna

    SciTech Connect

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Vessere, Gery M.; Shu, Chung Li; Hoskins,Roger A.; Abad, Jose P.; de Pablos, Beatriz; Villasante, Alfredo; deJong, Pieter J.

    2006-08-09

    BAC libraries generated from restriction-digested genomic DNA display representational bias and lack some sequences. To facilitate completion of genome projects, procedures have been developed to create BACs from DNA physically sheared to create fragments extending up to 200kb. The DNA fragments were repaired to create blunt ends and ligated to a new BAC vector. This approach has been tested by generating BAC libraries from Drosophila DNA, with insert lengths of 50 kb to 150 kb. The libraries lack chimeric clone problems as determined by mapping paired BAC-end sequences of one library to the D. melanogaster genome sequence. The utility of ''sheared'' libraries was demonstrated by closure of a previous clone gap and by isolation of clones from telomeric regions, which were notably absent from previous Drosophila BAC libraries.

  13. Molecular Genetics of Sex Identification, Breed Ancestry and Polydactyly in the Norwegian Lundehund Breed.

    PubMed

    Kropatsch, Regina; Melis, Claudia; Stronen, Astrid V; Jensen, Henrik; Epplen, Joerg T

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Lundehund breed of dog has undergone a severe loss of genetic diversity as a result of inbreeding and epizootics of canine distemper. As a consequence, the breed is extremely homogeneous and accurate sex identification is not always possible by standard screening of X-chromosomal loci. To improve our genetic understanding of the breed we genotyped 17 individuals using a genome-wide array of 170 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Standard analyses based on expected homozygosity of X-chromosomal loci failed in assigning individuals to the correct sex, as determined initially by physical examination and confirmed with the Y-chromosomal marker, amelogenin. This demonstrates that identification of sex using standard SNP assays can be erroneous in highly inbred individuals. PMID:25994807

  14. Recent Shift in Climate Relationship Enables Prediction of the Timing of Bird Breeding.

    PubMed

    Hinsley, Shelley A; Bellamy, Paul E; Hill, Ross A; Ferns, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate processes influence many aspects of ecology including breeding phenology, reproductive success and survival across a wide range of taxa. Some effects are direct, for example, in temperate-zone birds, ambient temperature is an important cue enabling breeding effort to coincide with maximum food availability, and earlier breeding in response to warmer springs has been documented in many species. In other cases, time-lags of up to several years in ecological responses have been reported, with effects mediated through biotic mechanisms such as growth rates or abundance of food supplies. Here we use 23 years of data for a temperate woodland bird species, the great tit (Parus major), breeding in deciduous woodland in eastern England to demonstrate a time-lagged linear relationship between the on-set of egg laying and the winter index of the North Atlantic Oscillation such that timing can be predicted from the winter index for the previous year. Thus the timing of bird breeding (and, by inference, the timing of spring events in general) can be predicted one year in advance. We also show that the relationship with the winter index appears to arise through an abiotic time-lag with local spring warmth in our study area. Examining this link between local conditions and larger-scale processes in the longer-term showed that, in the past, significant relationships with the immediately preceding winter index were more common than those with the time-lagged index, and especially so from the late 1930s to the early 1970s. However, from the mid 1970s onwards, the time-lagged relationship has become the most significant, suggesting a recent change in climate patterns. The strength of the current time-lagged relationship suggests that it might have relevance for other temperature-dependent ecological relationships. PMID:27182711

  15. Recent Shift in Climate Relationship Enables Prediction of the Timing of Bird Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, Paul E.; Hill, Ross A.; Ferns, Peter N.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate processes influence many aspects of ecology including breeding phenology, reproductive success and survival across a wide range of taxa. Some effects are direct, for example, in temperate-zone birds, ambient temperature is an important cue enabling breeding effort to coincide with maximum food availability, and earlier breeding in response to warmer springs has been documented in many species. In other cases, time-lags of up to several years in ecological responses have been reported, with effects mediated through biotic mechanisms such as growth rates or abundance of food supplies. Here we use 23 years of data for a temperate woodland bird species, the great tit (Parus major), breeding in deciduous woodland in eastern England to demonstrate a time-lagged linear relationship between the on-set of egg laying and the winter index of the North Atlantic Oscillation such that timing can be predicted from the winter index for the previous year. Thus the timing of bird breeding (and, by inference, the timing of spring events in general) can be predicted one year in advance. We also show that the relationship with the winter index appears to arise through an abiotic time-lag with local spring warmth in our study area. Examining this link between local conditions and larger-scale processes in the longer-term showed that, in the past, significant relationships with the immediately preceding winter index were more common than those with the time-lagged index, and especially so from the late 1930s to the early 1970s. However, from the mid 1970s onwards, the time-lagged relationship has become the most significant, suggesting a recent change in climate patterns. The strength of the current time-lagged relationship suggests that it might have relevance for other temperature-dependent ecological relationships. PMID:27182711

  16. [MRSA clones identified in outpatient dermatology clinics].

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Shino; Ito, Teruyo; Misawa, Shigeki; Yoshiike, Takashi; Oguri, Toyoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To know the characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains disseminating through the Japanese community, we have determined types of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), and carriages of four exotoxin genes (toxic-shock syndrome toxin, Panton-Valentine Leukocidine, and exfoliative toxins a and b) using 54 MRSA strains isolated from outpatients attending dermatology clinics at the four university hospitals of Juntendo University. Ten clonal complexes and 12 SCCmec types have been identified. As a result, more than 15 MRSA clones that were defined by the combination of genotype and SCCmec type, were identified. Among them, Clonal Complex (CC) 5-type IIa SCCmec strains were the most major (16 strains). In contrast to the fact that CC5- type IIa SCCmec strains known as a hospital-associated MRSA clone in Japan carried toxic-shock syndrome toxin gene (tst), only 2 of 16 strains have been shown to carry tst. Thirty-eight (70.4%) of isolates belonged to the clones distinct from the CC5-type IIa SCCmec strains. Among them, CC8 strains were major (12 strains), which contained 9 tst-positive CC8-type IVl SCCmec clones and a CC8-type IVa SCCmec strain carrying the Panton Valentine Leukocidin gene (lukS, F-PV). Clones related to impetigo were also identified: 7 exfoliative toxin b (etb) -positive clones, CC89-type IIa SCCmec and CC89-type V SCCmec strains; and 2 exfoliative toxin a (eta) -positive CC121-type V SCCmec strains. Other clones were as follows: CC1-type IVa SCCmec, CC8-type I SCCmec, CC81-type IVg SCCmec, CC97-type IVc SCCmec, CC91-type IVa SCCmec, CC59-type IVg SCCmec, CC45-type IIn SCCmec, CC89-SCCmec nontypeable, and CC8-type IVm, novel subtype of type IV SCCmec were identified in this study. Our data showed that many novel MRSA clones have emerged in the community. PMID:25764806

  17. Cloning of Gaussian states by linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2006-06-15

    We analyze in details a scheme for cloning of Gaussian states based on linear optical components and homodyne detection recently demonstrated by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)]. The input-output fidelity is evaluated for a generic (pure or mixed) Gaussian state taking into account the effect of nonunit quantum efficiency and unbalanced mode mixing. In addition, since in most quantum information protocols the covariance matrix of the set of input states is not perfectly known, we evaluate the average cloning fidelity for classes of Gaussian states with the degree of squeezing and the number of thermal photons being only partially known.

  18. Admixture and Local Breed Marginalization Threaten Algerian Sheep Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D’man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832

  19. Admixture and local breed marginalization threaten Algerian sheep diversity.

    PubMed

    Gaouar, Samir Bachir Souheil; Da Silva, Anne; Ciani, Elena; Kdidi, Samia; Aouissat, Miloud; Dhimi, Laziz; Lafri, Mohamed; Maftah, Abderrahman; Mehtar, Nadhira

    2015-01-01

    Due to its geo-climatic conditions, Algeria represents a biodiversity hotspot, with sheep breeds well adapted to a patchwork of extremely heterogeneous harsh habitats. The importance of this peculiar genetic reservoir increases as climate change drives the demand for new adaptations. However, the expansion of a single breed (Ouled-Djellal) which occurred in the last decades has generated a critical situation for the other breeds; some of them are being subjected to uncontrolled cross-breeding with the favored breed and/or to marginalization (effective size contraction). This study investigated genetic diversity within and among six of the nine Algerian breeds, by use of 30 microsatellite markers. Our results showed that, in spite of the census contraction experienced by most of the considered breeds, genetic diversity is still substantial (average gene diversity ranging 0.68 to 0.76) and inbreeding was not identified as a problem. However, two breeds (Rembi and Taâdmit) appeared to have lost most of their genetic originality because of intensive cross-breeding with Ouled-Djellal. Based on the above evidence, we suggest Hamra, Sidaoun, and D'man as breeds deserving the highest priority for conservation in Algeria. PMID:25875832

  20. Challenges and opportunities in genetic improvement of local livestock breeds

    PubMed Central

    Biscarini, Filippo; Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L.; Stella, Alessandra; Boettcher, Paul J.; Gandini, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient genetic variation in livestock populations is necessary both for adaptation to future changes in climate and consumer demand, and for continual genetic improvement of economically important traits. Unfortunately, the current trend is for reduced genetic variation, both within and across breeds. The latter occurs primarily through the loss of small, local breeds. Inferior production is a key driver for loss of small breeds, as they are replaced by high-output international transboundary breeds. Selection to improve productivity of small local breeds is therefore critical for their long term survival. The objective of this paper is to review the technology options available for the genetic improvement of small local breeds and discuss their feasibility. Most technologies have been developed for the high-input breeds and consequently are more favorably applied in that context. Nevertheless, their application in local breeds is not precluded and can yield significant benefits, especially when multiple technologies are applied in close collaboration with farmers and breeders. Breeding strategies that require cooperation and centralized decision-making, such as optimal contribution selection, may in fact be more easily implemented in small breeds. PMID:25763010

  1. Technical Considerations for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews concerns involving advanced propulsion systems. The problems involved with the use of Am-242m, is that it has a high "eta" plus an order of magnitude larger fission cross section than other fissionable materials, and that it is extremely rare. However other americium isotopes are much more common, but extremely effective isotopic separation is required. Deuterium-Tritium fusion is also not attractive for space propulsion applications. Because the pulsed systems cannot breed adequate amounts of tritium and it is difficult and expensive to bring tritium from Earth. The systems that do breed tritium have severely limited performance. However, other fusion processes should still be evaluated. Another problem with advanced propellants is that inefficiencies in converting the total energy generated into propellant energy can lead to tremendous heat rejection requirements. Therefore Many. advanced propulsion concepts benefit greatly from low-mass radiators.

  2. Relationships among and variation within rare breeds of swine.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K S; Lamberson, W R

    2015-08-01

    Extinction of rare breeds of livestock threatens to reduce the total genetic variation available for selection in the face of the changing environment and new diseases. Swine breeds facing extinction typically share characteristics such as small size, slow growth rate, and high fat percentage, which limit them from contributing to commercial production. Compounding the risk of loss of variation is the lack of pedigree information for many rare breeds due to inadequate herd books, which increases the chance that producers are breeding closely related individuals. By making genetic data available, producers can make more educated breeding decisions to preserve genetic diversity in future generations, and conservation organizations can prioritize investments in breed preservation. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic variation within and among breeds of swine and prioritize heritage breeds for preservation. Genotypes from the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE) were obtained for Guinea, Ossabaw Island, Red Wattle, American Saddleback, Mulefoot, British Saddleback, Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain, and Tamworth pigs. A whole-genome analysis toolset was used to construct a genomic relationship matrix and to calculate inbreeding coefficients for the animals within each breed. Relatedness and average inbreeding coefficient differed among breeds, and pigs from rare breeds were generally more closely related and more inbred ( < 0.05). A multidimensional scaling diagram was constructed based on the SNP genotypes. Animals within breeds clustered tightly together except for 2 Guinea pigs. Tamworth, Duroc, and Mulefoot tended to not cluster with the other 7 breeds. PMID:26440160

  3. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of Aegilops chromosomes, potentially usable in triticale (X Triticosecale Witt.) breeding.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, M; Wiśniewska, H; Apolinarska, B

    2013-05-01

    Chromosome identification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is widely used in cytogenetic research. It is a diagnostic tool helpful in chromosome identification. It can also be used to characterize alien introgressions, when exercised in a combination with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). This work aims to find chromosome identification of Aegilops species and Aegilops × Secale amphiploids, which can be used in cereal breeding as a source of favourable agronomic traits. Four diploid and two tetraploid Aegilops species and three Aegilops × Secale hybrids were analysed using FISH with pSc119.2, pAs1, 5S rDNA and 25S rDNA clones to differentiate the U-, M-, S(sh)- and D-subgenome chromosomes of Aegilops genus. Additionally, GISH for chromosome categorization was carried out. Differences in the hybridization patterns allowed to identify all U-, M-, S(sh)- and D-subgenome chromosomes. Some differences in localization of the rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1 sequences between analogue subgenomes in diploid and tetraploid species and Aegilops × Secale hybrids were detected. The hybridization pattern of the M and S genome was more variable than that of the U and D genome. An importance of the cytogenetic markers in plant breeding and their possible role in chromosome structure, function and evolution is discussed. PMID:23378244

  5. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schiermiester, L N; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Kachman, S D; Spangler, M L

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in these data included: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Composite MARC III. Heterosis was further estimated by proportions of British × British (B × B), British × Continental (B × C) and Continental × Continental (C × C) crosses and by breed-specific combinations. Model 1 fitted fixed covariates for heterosis within biological types while Model 2 fitted random breed-specific combinations nested within the fixed biological type covariates. Direct heritability estimates (SE) for birth, weaning ,and yearling weight for Model 1 were 0.42 (0.04), 0.22 (0.03), and 0.39 (0.05), respectively. The direct heritability estimates (SE) of birth, weaning, and yearling weight for Model 2 were the same as Model 1, except yearling weight heritability was 0.38 (0.05). The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for birth weight were 0.47 (0.37), 0.75 (0.32), and 0.73 (0.54) kg, respectively. The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for weaning weight were 6.43 (1.80), 8.65 (1.54), and 5.86 (2.57) kg, respectively. Yearling weight estimates for B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis were 17.59(3.06), 13.88 (2.63), and 9.12 (4.34) kg, respectively. Differences did exist among estimates of breed-specific heterosis for weaning and yearling weight, although the variance component associated with breed-specific heterosis was not significant. These results illustrate that there are differences in breed-specific heterosis and exploiting these differences can lead to varying levels of heterosis among mating plans. PMID:25568356

  6. Genetic potential of common bean progenies selected for crude fiber content obtained through different breeding methods.

    PubMed

    Júnior, V A P; Melo, P G S; Pereira, H S; Bassinello, P Z; Melo, L C

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal health is of great importance due to the increasing consumption of functional foods, especially those concern-ing diets rich in fiber content. The common bean has been valorized as a nutritious food due to its appreciable fiber content and the fact that it is consumed in many countries. The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the genetic potential of common bean progenies of the carioca group, developed through different breeding methods, for crude fiber content. The progenies originated through hybridization of two advanced strains, CNFC 7812 and CNFC 7829, up to the F7 generation using three breeding methods: bulk-population, bulk within F2 families, and single seed descent. Fifteen F8 progenies were evaluated in each method, as well as two check cultivars and both parents, us-ing a 7 x 7 simple lattice design, with experimental plots comprised of two 4-m long rows. Field trials were conducted in eleven environments encompassing four Brazilian states and three different sowing times during 2009 and 2010. Estimates of genetic parameters indicate differences among the breeding methods, which seem to be related to the different processes for sampling the advanced progenies inherent to each method, given that the trait in question is not subject to natural selection. Variability amongst progenies occurred within the three breeding methods and there was also a significant effect of environment on the progeny for all methods. Progenies developed by bulk-population attained the highest estimates of genetic parameters, had less interaction with the environment, and greater variability. PMID:26125775

  7. The roles of quantum correlations in quantum cloning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; xiong Wu, Shao-; Yu, Chang-shui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we study the entanglement and quantum discord of the output modes in the unified 1 → 2 state-dependent cloning and probabilistic quantum cloning. The tripartite entanglement among the output modes and the quantum cloning machine is also considered. We find that the roles of the quantum correlations including the bipartite and tripartite entanglement and quantum discord strongly depend on the quantum cloning machines as well as the cloned state. In particular, it is found that this quantum cloning scheme can be realizable even without any quantum correlation.

  8. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  9. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm—Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell’s mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female (“provoked or induced dispersal”). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased

  10. Non-Breeding Eusocial Mole-Rats Produce Viable Sperm--Spermiogram and Functional Testicular Morphology of Fukomys anselli.

    PubMed

    Garcia Montero, Angelica; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Saragusty, Joseph; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Begall, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean rodents living in families composed of about 20 members with a single breeding pair and their non-breeding offspring. Most of them remain with their parents for their lifetime and help to maintain and defend the natal burrow system, forage, and care for younger siblings. Since incest avoidance is based on individual recognition (and not on social suppression) we expect that non-breeders produce viable sperm spontaneously. We compared the sperm of breeding and non-breeding males, obtained by electroejaculation and found no significant differences in sperm parameters between both groups. Here, we used electroejaculation to obtain semen for the first time in a subterranean mammal. Spermiogram analysis revealed no significant differences in sperm parameters between breeders and non-breeders. We found significantly larger testes (measured on autopsies and on living animals per ultrasonography) of breeders compared to non-breeders (with body mass having a significant effect). There were no marked histological differences between breeding and non-breeding males, and the relative area occupied by Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules on histological sections, respectively, was not significantly different between both groups. The seminiferous epithelium and to a lesser degree the interstitial testicular tissue are characterized by lesions (vacuolar degenerations), however, this feature does not hinder fertilization even in advanced stages of life. The continuous production of viable sperm also in sexually abstinent non-breeders might be best understood in light of the mating and social system of Fukomys anselli, and the potential to found a new family following an unpredictable and rare encounter with an unfamiliar female ("provoked or induced dispersal"). Apparently, the non-breeders do not reproduce because they do not copulate but not because they would be physiologically infertile. The significantly increased testes

  11. Changes in the gut microbiota of cloned and non-cloned control pigs during development of obesity: gut microbiota during development of obesity in cloned pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity induced by a high-caloric diet has previously been associated with changes in the gut microbiota in mice and in humans. In this study, pigs were cloned to minimize genetic and biological variation among the animals with the aim of developing a controlled metabolomic model suitable for a diet-intervention study. Cloning of pigs may be an attractive way to reduce genetic influences when investigating the effect of diet and obesity on different physiological sites. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the changes in the composition of the gut microbiota of cloned vs. non-cloned pigs during development of obesity by a high-fat/high-caloric diet. Furthermore, we investigated the association between diet-induced obesity and the relative abundance of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the fecal-microbiota. The fecal microbiota from obese cloned (n = 5) and non-cloned control pigs (n= 6) was investigated biweekly over a period of 136 days, by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Results A positive correlation was observed between body-weight at endpoint and percent body-fat in cloned (r=0.9, P<0.0001) and in non-cloned control pigs (r=0.9, P<0.0001). Shannon Weaver and principal component analysis (PCA) of the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) revealed no differences in the bacterial composition or variability of the fecal microbiota between the cloned pigs or between cloned and non-cloned control pigs. Body-weight correlated positively with the relative abundance of Firmicutes in both cloned (r=0.37; P<0.02) and non cloned-control pigs (r=0.45; P<0.006), and negatively with the abundance of Bacteroidetes in cloned pigs (r=−0.33, P<0.04), but not in the non-cloned control pigs. Conclusion The cloned pigs did not have reduced inter-individual variation as compared to non-cloned pigs in regard to their gut microbiota in neither the obese nor the lean state. Diet

  12. [Population genetic parameters of aboriginal Yakut horses as related to modern breeds of the domestic horse Equus caballus L].

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, V N; Cothran, E G; Kniazev, S P

    1998-06-01

    This study was the first to analyze the polymorphic characteristics of a wide range of biochemical markers in aboriginal Yakut horses. A total of 124 alleles, including 48 alleles of seven blood-group loci and 76 alleles of ten loci for enzymes and other proteins, were studied. For these polymorphic systems, a computer analysis of the genetic distances between 85 horse breeds of different origin from all parts of the world was performed. The low level of hereditary variation in the Yakut horses confirmed that this breed is old and has long been an isolated population. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Yakut horses exhibited the most genetic similarity to the breeds from the Central Asian cluster, such as Akhal Teke, Arabian, Yabou, and Caspan Pony (Iran). The dispersal route of ancient horses was revealed. It led from America through Siberia and Central Asia to Africa and Eastern Europe, where evidence of the earliest domestication of horses was found. Genetic and ecological explanations of the formation of racing and draft breeds with similar immunogenetic characteristics are advanced. These explanations agree with craniological data on fossils and with the relative rates of growth of the axial and peripheral skeletons in modern breeds. These data shed light on the initial stages of domestication of the horse, an event that was extremely important for development of the human civilization. PMID:9719925

  13. Modulation of heart rate response to acute stressors throughout the breeding season in the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Viblanc, Vincent A; Smith, Andrew D; Gineste, Benoit; Kauffmann, Marion; Groscolas, René

    2015-06-01

    'Fight-or-flight' stress responses allow animals to cope adaptively to sudden threats by mobilizing energy resources and priming the body for action. Because such responses can be costly and redirect behavior and energy from reproduction to survival, they are likely to be shaped by specific life-history stages, depending on the available energy resources and the commitment to reproduction. Here, we consider how heart rate (HR) responses to acute stressors are affected by the advancing breeding season in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We subjected 77 birds (44 males, 33 females) at various stages of incubation and chick-rearing to three experimental stressors (metal sound, distant approach and capture) known to vary both in their intensity and associated risk, and monitored their HR responses. Our results show that HR increase in response to acute stressors was progressively attenuated with the stage of breeding from incubation to chick-rearing. Stress responses did not vary according to nutritional status or seasonal timing (whether breeding was initiated early or late in the season), but were markedly lower during chick-rearing than during incubation. This pattern was obvious for all three stressors. We discuss how 'fight-or-flight' responses may be modulated by considering the energy commitment to breeding, nutritional status and reproductive value of the brood in breeding seabirds. PMID:25883375

  14. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-07-01

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology. PMID:22660547

  15. Cloning of the canine glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kishnani, P.; Bao, Y.; Brix, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Two Maltese puppies with massive hepatomegaly and failure to thrive were found to have a markedly reduced Glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity in the liver and kidney. Deficiency of G-6-Pase activity causes type 1a glycogen storage disease in humans. To further study the mutation responsible for the disease in dog, we cloned G-6-Pase canine cDNA from normal mixed breed dog liver RNA using reverse transcriptase and PCR amplification using primers derived from the published murine G-6-Pase gene sequence. Sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 1071 nucleotides that encodes a predicted 357 amino acid polypeptide in the canine G-6-Pase gene, same as mouse and human. We found more than 90% sequence homology between dog and human G-6-Pase sequence. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced canine G-6-Pase polypeptide shows six transmembrane-spanning segments similar to those seen in human and mouse. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization is similarly predicted by the presence of the ER protein retention signal KK positioned 3 and 4 amino acids from the carboxy terminal. Potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites are identified at positions 96, 203, and 276. Northern blot analysis revealed increased G-6-Pase mRNA in the deficient dog liver compared to control. This could possibly reflect upregulation of transcription due to the persistent hypoglycemic state. Further studies are directed at the identification of the mutation involved in this deficient dog strain. Characterization of the G-6-Pase gene and protein in the deficient dog model can pave the way for new understanding in the pathophysiology of this disease and for the trials of novel therapeutic approaches including gene therapy.

  16. Handmade Cloned Transgenic Sheep Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Hongwei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Longxin; Lin, Lin; Tan, Pingping; Vajta, Gabor; Gao, Jianfeng; Du, Yutao; Ma, Runlin Z.

    2013-01-01

    Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC) established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n−3) fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n−6) into n−3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  = 925) of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n−3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n−6/n−3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01) and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation. PMID:23437077

  17. Comparing quantum cloning: A Fisher-information perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hongting; Luo, Shunlong; Li, Nan; Chang, Lina

    2013-10-01

    Perfect cloning of an unknown quantum state is impossible. Approximate cloning, which is optimal in various senses, has been found in many cases. Paradigmatic examples are Wootters-Zurek cloning and universal cloning. These cloning machines aim at optimal cloning of the full quantum states. However, in practice, what is important and relevant may only involve partial information in quantum states, rather than quantum states themselves. For example, signals are often encoded as parameters in quantum states, whose information content is well synthesized by quantum Fisher information. This raises the basic issue of evaluating the information transferring capability (e.g., distributing quantum Fisher information) of quantum cloning. We assess and compare Wootters-Zurek cloning and universal cloning from this perspective and show that, on average, Wootters-Zurek cloning performs better than universal cloning for the phase (as well as amplitude) parameter, although they are incomparable individually, and universal cloning has many advantages over Wootters-Zurek cloning in other contexts. Physical insights and related issues are further discussed.

  18. Genetic Crossing vs Cloning by Computer Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Subinay

    We perform Monte Carlo simulation using Penna's bit string model, and compare the process of asexual reproduction by cloning with that by genetic crossover. We find them to be comparable as regards survival of a species, and also if a natural disaster is simulated.

  19. Genetic crossing vs cloning by computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, S.

    1997-06-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulation using Penna`s bit string model, and compare the process of asexual reproduction by cloning with that by genetic crossover. We find them to be comparable as regards survival of a species, and also if a natural disaster is simulated.

  20. [Placental developmental defects in cloned mammalian animals].

    PubMed

    Ao, Zheng; Liu, Dewu; Cai, Gengyuan; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2016-05-01

    The cloning technique, also called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), has been successfully established and gradually applied to various mammalian species. However, the developmental rate of SCNT mammalian embryos is very low, usually at 1% to 5%, which limits the application of SCNT. Placental developmental defects are considered as the main cause of SCNT embryo development inhibition. Almost all of SCNT-derived mammalian placentas exhibit various abnormalities, such as placental hyperplasia, vascular defects and umbilical cord malformation. Mechanistically, these abnormalities result from failure of establishment of correct epigenetic modification in the trophectoderm genome, which leads to erroneous expression of important genes for placenta development-related, particularly imprinted genes. Consequently, aberrant imprinted gene expression gives rise to placental morphologic abnormalities and functional defects, therefore decreases developmental competence of cloned embryos. Currently, although numerous methods that can improve the developmental ability of SCNT-derived embryos have been reported, most of them are unable to substantially enhance the success rate of SCNT due to failure to eliminate the placental development defects. In this review, we summarize placental abnormalities and imprinted gene expression in mammalian cloning, and propose directions for the future research aiming to improve the cloning efficiency. PMID:27232488

  1. Cloning: Learning to Replay the Genetic Tape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, David J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how plants can be produced by cloning by using tissue culture methods to mass-produce rare native prairie plants and trying to transfer some of the genetic characteristics of native grasses into cultivated cereals. The experiment was conducted at South Dakota State University. (HM)

  2. Computerized Adaptive Testing with Item Cloning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Cees A. W.; van der Linden, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Developed a multilevel item response (IRT) model that allows for differences between the distributions of item parameters of families of item clones. Results from simulation studies based on an item pool from the Law School Admission Test illustrate the accuracy of the item pool calibration and adaptive testing procedures based on the model. (SLD)

  3. Introduction to cloning by nuclear transplantation.

    PubMed

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2003-01-01

    Despite its long history, the cloning of animals by nuclear transplantation is going through a "renaissance" after the birth of Dolly. The amount of work and achievements obtained in the last seven years are probably greater than those obtained in half a century of research. However, the principal obstacles outlined years ago with the work on somatic cell cloning in amphybia, are all still there in mammals. The importance of somatic cell nuclear transfer is, without any doubt, beyond the scope of replicating superior animal genotypes. It is an invaluable experimental tool to address fundamental scientific issues such as nuclear potency, cell de-differentiation, chromatin structure and function, epigenetics, and genome manipulation. For these reasons the importance of cloning is not for what it can achieve but for the technical support it can provide to biomedical research and in particular to the study of epigenetics, cancer and stem cell biology, cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In this introductory paper we will summarize the intellectual and technical framework of cloning animals by nuclear transfer that still remains the only absolute way of judging the success of the procedure. Together with the achievements of the recent past we will mention the very last developments and the many questions that still remain open. Current research efforts are expected to provide some answers and certainly new questions. PMID:14733742

  4. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily. PMID:27318470

  5. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, A.; Aris-Brosou, S.; Culina, A.; Fayet, A.; Kirk, H.; Padget, O.; Juarez-Martinez, I.; Boyle, D.; Nakata, T.; Perrins, C. M.; Guilford, T.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. PMID:26510674

  6. Breeding practices, growth, and carcass potential of fat-tailed Washera sheep breed in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Tesfaye; Gizaw, Solomon; Lemma, Sisay; Taye, Mengistie

    2011-10-01

    On-farm survey of farmers' breeding practices, breeding objectives, and selection criteria and on-station feedlot performance evaluation of Washera sheep were undertaken in Ethiopia. The survey revealed that most (79.8%) of the farmers had no breeding ram. The mating system was predominantly uncontrolled. A majority (75.5%) of the sheep owners reported that they herded their sheep flock by mixing with other livestock species mainly with cattle. During grazing, 44.6% of the farmers mix their sheep flock with neighboring sheep flocks. The major sheep production objective was to generate income from the sale of live sheep. Fast growth, appearance, coat color, and pedigree performance were important ram selection criteria, respectively. Ability to breed at early age, pedigree information, mothering ability, and lambing interval were important selection criteria for ewe, respectively. The on-station performance study involved evaluation of feedlot gains and carcass production under five levels of feeding regimes (300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 g day(-1) of concentrate feed) for a period of 93 days. The results indicated that the feedlot growth and carcass performance of Washera sheep were very high, with average daily weight gains of up to 126 g and carcass weight of 16 kg, with the optimal level of supplementation for Washera sheep being at 500 g of concentrate per day for a period of 93 days. PMID:21523493

  7. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  8. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and distance sampling to estimate density of migrant and breeding birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Twedt, D.J.; Reid, B.

    2006-01-01

    We combined Breeding Bird Survey point count protocol and distance sampling to survey spring migrant and breeding birds in Vicksburg National Military Park on 33 days between March and June of 2003 and 2004. For 26 of 106 detected species, we used program DISTANCE to estimate detection probabilities and densities from 660 3-min point counts in which detections were recorded within four distance annuli. For most species, estimates of detection probability, and thereby density estimates, were improved through incorporation of the proportion of forest cover at point count locations as a covariate. Our results suggest Breeding Bird Surveys would benefit from the use of distance sampling and a quantitative characterization of habitat at point count locations. During spring migration, we estimated that the most common migrant species accounted for a population of 5000-9000 birds in Vicksburg National Military Park (636 ha). Species with average populations of 300 individuals during migration were: Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum), White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). Of 56 species that bred in Vicksburg National Military Park, we estimated that the most common 18 species accounted for 8150 individuals. The six most abundant breeding species, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, White-eyed Vireo, Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), accounted for 5800 individuals.

  9. Breeding phenology and winter activity predict subsequent breeding success in a trans-global migratory seabird.

    PubMed

    Shoji, A; Aris-Brosou, S; Culina, A; Fayet, A; Kirk, H; Padget, O; Juarez-Martinez, I; Boyle, D; Nakata, T; Perrins, C M; Guilford, T

    2015-10-01

    Inter-seasonal events are believed to connect and affect reproductive performance (RP) in animals. However, much remains unknown about such carry-over effects (COEs), in particular how behaviour patterns during highly mobile life-history stages, such as migration, affect RP. To address this question, we measured at-sea behaviour in a long-lived migratory seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) and obtained data for individual migration cycles over 5 years, by tracking with geolocator/immersion loggers, along with 6 years of RP data. We found that individual breeding and non-breeding phenology correlated with subsequent RP, with birds hyperactive during winter more likely to fail to reproduce. Furthermore, parental investment during one year influenced breeding success during the next, a COE reflecting the trade-off between current and future RP. Our results suggest that different life-history stages interact to influence RP in the next breeding season, so that behaviour patterns during winter may be important determinants of variation in subsequent fitness among individuals. PMID:26510674

  10. Geotemporal Analysis of Neisseria meningitidis Clones in the United States: 2000–2005

    PubMed Central

    Wiringa, Ann E.; Shutt, Kathleen A.; Marsh, Jane W.; Cohn, Amanda C.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Zansky, Shelley M.; Petit, Susan; Farley, Monica M.; Gershman, Ken; Lynfield, Ruth; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thompson, Jamie; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Harrison, Lee H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The detection of meningococcal outbreaks relies on serogrouping and epidemiologic definitions. Advances in molecular epidemiology have improved the ability to distinguish unique Neisseria meningitidis strains, enabling the classification of isolates into clones. Around 98% of meningococcal cases in the United States are believed to be sporadic. Methods Meningococcal isolates from 9 Active Bacterial Core surveillance sites throughout the United States from 2000 through 2005 were classified according to serogroup, multilocus sequence typing, and outer membrane protein (porA, porB, and fetA) genotyping. Clones were defined as isolates that were indistinguishable according to this characterization. Case data were aggregated to the census tract level and all non-singleton clones were assessed for non-random spatial and temporal clustering using retrospective space-time analyses with a discrete Poisson probability model. Results Among 1,062 geocoded cases with available isolates, 438 unique clones were identified, 78 of which had ≥2 isolates. 702 cases were attributable to non-singleton clones, accounting for 66.0% of all geocoded cases. 32 statistically significant clusters comprised of 107 cases (10.1% of all geocoded cases) were identified. Clusters had the following attributes: included 2 to 11 cases; 1 day to 33 months duration; radius of 0 to 61.7 km; and attack rate of 0.7 to 57.8 cases per 100,000 population. Serogroups represented among the clusters were: B (n = 12 clusters, 45 cases), C (n = 11 clusters, 27 cases), and Y (n = 9 clusters, 35 cases); 20 clusters (62.5%) were caused by serogroups represented in meningococcal vaccines that are commercially available in the United States. Conclusions Around 10% of meningococcal disease cases in the U.S. could be assigned to a geotemporal cluster. Molecular characterization of isolates, combined with geotemporal analysis, is a useful tool for understanding the spread of virulent meningococcal

  11. Cloning of the short-tailed Gyeongju Donggyeong dog via SCNT: conserving phenotypic inheritance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoo Bin; Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Setyawan, Erif Maha Nugraha; Lee, Seok Hee; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-02-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a useful tool to maintain genetic information of animals. The Gyeongju Donggyeong dog is a breed registered as natural monument in Korea. The unique feature of the Donggyeong dog is its tail, as the Donggyeong dog can be classified as either short tailed or tailless. The aim of this study was to preserve the Donggyeong dog's unique feature by cloning. Fibroblasts were obtained from a short-tailed Donggyeong dog. In vivo matured oocytes were enucleated, microinjected with a donor cell and fused electrically. Reconstructed embryos were transferred to six recipient dogs. One surrogate became pregnant, and one short-tailed Donggyeong dog was delivered. This study demonstrated that the phenotype of the Donggyeong dog could be conserved by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:26477541

  12. Cloning of the short-tailed Gyeongju Donggyeong dog via SCNT: conserving phenotypic inheritance

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Yoo Bin; KIM, Geon A; OH, Hyun Ju; KIM, Min Jung; JO, Young Kwang; SETYAWAN, Erif Maha Nugraha; LEE, Seok Hee; LEE, Byeong Chun

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a useful tool to maintain genetic information of animals. The Gyeongju Donggyeong dog is a breed registered as natural monument in Korea. The unique feature of the Donggyeong dog is its tail, as the Donggyeong dog can be classified as either short tailed or tailless. The aim of this study was to preserve the Donggyeong dog’s unique feature by cloning. Fibroblasts were obtained from a short-tailed Donggyeong dog. In vivo matured oocytes were enucleated, microinjected with a donor cell and fused electrically. Reconstructed embryos were transferred to six recipient dogs. One surrogate became pregnant, and one short-tailed Donggyeong dog was delivered. This study demonstrated that the phenotype of the Donggyeong dog could be conserved by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:26477541

  13. Use of wild genotypes in breeding program increases strawberry fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Jacopo; Mazzoni, Luca; Balducci, Francesca; Cappelletti, Roberto; Capocasa, Franco; Battino, Maurizio; Dobson, Gary; Stewart, Derek; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated 20 advanced selections, derived from a strawberry interspecific backcross program, and their parents for fruit weight, commercial yield, acidity, sugar content, antioxidant capacity, and phenol and anthocyanin contents. Phytochemical profiling analysis was performed to determine the compositional characteristics of the improved selections in comparison with their parents and an important commercial variety ('Elsanta'). Advanced selections showed substantial improvement for agronomic and nutritional quality parameters. From the profiling analysis there was evidence for specific improvements in fruit phytochemical contents; new advanced selections had substantially increased fruit flavonol, anthocyanin, and ellagitannin contents compared to their parent cultivar 'Romina' and, for flavonols and ellagitannins, compared to a standard cultivar 'Elsanta'. Such results confirm that an appropriate breeding program that includes wild strawberry germplasm can produce new strawberry cultivars with a well-defined improvement in fruit nutritional and nutraceutical values. PMID:24730477

  14. Babesia bovis clones: biochemical and enzymatic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Camarillo, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to generate additional knowledge of the biochemistry of Babesia bovis. A modified in vitro culture technique used for cloning B. bovis. This technique included a low oxygen concentration atmosphere (2%, O/sub 2/, 5% CO/sub 2/, 93% N/sub 2/) and 4 mm fluid level. Cultures initiated with one infected erythrocyte were maintained until parasitemias of positive wells reached 2% parasitemia. Primary clones were obtained and from these, nine clones were recloned twice and used for subsequent studies. A procedure was developed to concentrate and separate B. bovis merozoites and infected erythrocytes by Percoll density gradients. Merozoites separated at 1.087 g/ml specific density, whereas infected erythrocytes separated at 1.121 g/ml. Viability of purified parasites was not affected. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify metabolic enzyme in B. bovis and B. bigemina. The enzymes LDH, GDH, GPI and HK were detected in both species. Molecular analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins metabolically labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine indicated that two clones, derived from the same field strain, were similar but not identical to the parent. Fewer proteins were observed in the parental strain. Growth of two 60-Co irradiated B. bovis clones indicated a dose-effect relationship. Growth of parasites exposed for the longest period was initially retarded but returned to normal growth after two or three subcultures. Cultures exposed for shorter periods were unaffected with respect to the rate of growth. Analysis of electrophoretic mobility of metabolic enzyme showed a change in migration pattern.

  15. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  16. Breeding productivity and adult survival in nongame birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; DeSante, David F.; Paine, Charles R.; Donovan, Therese M.; Dettmers, Randy; Manolis, J.C.; Burton, K.

    1995-01-01

    Demographic data (breeding productivity and adult survival) provide the kind of early warning signal that allows detection of unhealthy populations in terms of productivity or survival problems (Martin and Guepel 1993). In addition, demographic data can help determine whether population declines are the result of low breeding productivity or low survival in migration or winter. Breeding productivity data also can help identify habitat conditions associated with successful and failed breeding attempts. Such information is critical for developing habitat- and land-management practices (Martin 1992). Here, we provide examples of the kinds of information that can be obtained by broad-scale demographic studies.

  17. Subadult and pale steppe eagles breeding in Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Clark, W.S.

    2003-01-01

    One pale morph and two rufous-tawny morph Steppe Eagles (Aquila rapax) were observed among about 20 breeding pairs found in Mongolia. All three were attending live young. Plumage features of the rufous-tawny birds suggest that they were not adults. Subadult breeding is thereby documented for the Steppe Eagle. Breeding is also documented for a pale morph bird, but the age of this bird is uncertain; either it was the first pale morph adult known for the species or, more likely, it represents breeding of a two-, three-, or four-year old bird.

  18. Circannual Testis Changes in Seasonally Breeding Mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Rafael; Burgos, Miguel; Barrionuevo, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    In the non-equatorial zones of the Earth, species concentrate their reproductive effort in the more favorable season. A consequence of seasonal breeding is seasonal testis regression, which implies the depletion of the germinative epithelium, permeation of the blood-testis barrier, and reduced androgenic function. This process has been studied in a number of vertebrates, but the mechanisms controlling it are not yet well understood. Apoptosis was assumed for years to be an important effector of seasonal germ cell depletion in all vertebrates, including mammals, but an alternative mechanism has recently been reported in the Iberian mole as well as in the large hairy armadillo. It is based on the desquamation of meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells as a consequence of altered Sertoli-germ cell adhesion molecule expression and distribution. Desquamated cells are either discarded alive through the epididymis, as in the mole, or subsequently die by apoptosis, as in the armadillo. Also, recent findings on the reproductive cycle of the greater white-toothed shrew at the meridional limits of its distribution area have revealed that the mechanisms controlling seasonal breeding are in fact far more plastic and versatile than initially suspected. Perhaps these higher adaptive capacities place mammals in a better position to face the ongoing climate change. PMID:26375035

  19. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds.

    PubMed

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Lehman, Justin A; Buehler, David A; Andersen, David E

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research. PMID:25532897

  20. Influence of spatial distribution and size of clones on the realized outcrossing rate of the marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre)

    PubMed Central

    Somme, L.; Mayer, C.; Raspé, O.; Jacquemart, A.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Clonal growth is a common feature in flowering plants. As clone size increases, the selfing rate in self-compatible species is likely to increase due to more frequent geitono-pollination events (i.e. pollination among flowers within the same genet). This study investigated the breeding system of the marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre) and assessed spatial distribution of clones, clone size and architecture, and their effects on realized outcrossing rates. In addition, pollen dispersal was investigated in two patchy populations. Methods The species' breeding system was investigated under controlled conditions through hand pollinations (self- vs. cross-pollination). Using microsatellite markers, an assessment was made of the realized outcrossing rates and the genetic diversity in four natural populations, the clonal structure in two populations within five 15 × 15 m sampling plots following 0·5 × 0·5 m grids, and the pollen dispersal through paternity assignment tests in those two populations. Key Results Comarum palustre is a self-compatible species but only presents a low rate of spontaneous self-pollination. The occurrence of inbreeding depression was not detected at the seed set stage (δSS = 0·04). Clones were spatially clumped (AC = 0·60–0·80), with intermediate to no intermingling of the ramets (DC = 0·40–1·00). Genet size ranged from one to 171 ramets. Patchy populations had low outcrossing rates (tm = 0·33–0·46). Large clones showed lower outcrossing rates than small clones. Pollen dispersal mainly occurred within patches as only 1–7 % of the pollination events occurred between patches of >25 m separation. Seedling recruitment events were detected. Conclusions Genet size together with distances between patches, through increasing geitono-pollination events, appeared to be important factors influencing realized outcrossing rates. The study also revealed seed flow allowing seedling recruitment, which may contribute to

  1. Strategies for rapidly mapping proviral integration sites and assessing cardiogenic potential of nascent human induced pluripotent stem cell clones.

    PubMed

    Dambrot, Cheryl; Buermans, Henk P J; Varga, Eszter; Kosmidis, Georgios; Langenberg, Karin; Casini, Simona; Elliott, David A; Dinnyes, Andras; Atsma, Douwe E; Mummery, Christine L; Braam, Stefan R; Davis, Richard P

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological advances have improved the ease and efficiency of generating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), but this now typically results in a greater number of hiPSC clones being derived than can be wholly characterized. It is therefore imperative that methods are developed which facilitate rapid selection of hiPSC clones most suited for the downstream research aims. Here we describe a combination of procedures enabling the simultaneous screening of multiple clones to determine their genomic integrity as well as their cardiac differentiation potential within two weeks of the putative reprogrammed colonies initially appearing. By coupling splinkerette-PCR with Ion Torrent sequencing, we could ascertain the number and map the proviral integration sites in lentiviral-reprogrammed hiPSCs. In parallel, we developed an effective cardiac differentiation protocol that generated functional cardiomyocytes within 10 days without requiring line-specific optimization for any of the six independent human pluripotent stem cell lines tested. Finally, to demonstrate the scalable potential of these procedures, we picked 20 nascent iPSC clones and performed these independent assays concurrently. Before the clones required passaging, we were able to identify clones with a single integrated copy of the reprogramming vector and robust cardiac differentiation potential for further analysis. PMID:24836851

  2. IVA cloning: A single-tube universal cloning system exploiting bacterial In Vivo Assembly

    PubMed Central

    García-Nafría, Javier; Watson, Jake F.; Greger, Ingo H.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo homologous recombination holds the potential for optimal molecular cloning, however, current strategies require specialised bacterial strains or laborious protocols. Here, we exploit a recA-independent recombination pathway, present in widespread laboratory E.coli strains, to develop IVA (In Vivo Assembly) cloning. This system eliminates the need for enzymatic assembly and reduces all molecular cloning procedures to a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in <2 hours from setup to transformation. Unlike other methods, IVA is a complete system, and offers significant advantages over alternative methods for all cloning procedures (insertions, deletions, site-directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning). Significantly, IVA allows unprecedented simplification of complex cloning procedures: five simultaneous modifications of any kind, multi-fragment assembly and library construction are performed in approximately half the time of current protocols, still in a single-step fashion. This system is efficient, seamless and sequence-independent, and requires no special kits, enzymes or proprietary bacteria, which will allow its immediate adoption by the academic and industrial molecular biology community. PMID:27264908

  3. IVA cloning: A single-tube universal cloning system exploiting bacterial In Vivo Assembly.

    PubMed

    García-Nafría, Javier; Watson, Jake F; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-01-01

    In vivo homologous recombination holds the potential for optimal molecular cloning, however, current strategies require specialised bacterial strains or laborious protocols. Here, we exploit a recA-independent recombination pathway, present in widespread laboratory E.coli strains, to develop IVA (In Vivo Assembly) cloning. This system eliminates the need for enzymatic assembly and reduces all molecular cloning procedures to a single-tube, single-step PCR, performed in <2 hours from setup to transformation. Unlike other methods, IVA is a complete system, and offers significant advantages over alternative methods for all cloning procedures (insertions, deletions, site-directed mutagenesis and sub-cloning). Significantly, IVA allows unprecedented simplification of complex cloning procedures: five simultaneous modifications of any kind, multi-fragment assembly and library construction are performed in approximately half the time of current protocols, still in a single-step fashion. This system is efficient, seamless and sequence-independent, and requires no special kits, enzymes or proprietary bacteria, which will allow its immediate adoption by the academic and industrial molecular biology community. PMID:27264908

  4. Generalization of continuous-variable quantum cloning with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Zehui; Guo, Juan; Gao, Jiangrui

    2006-05-01

    We propose an asymmetric quantum cloning scheme. Based on the proposal and experiment by Andersen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)], we generalize it to two asymmetric cases: quantum cloning with asymmetry between output clones and between quadrature variables. These optical implementations also employ linear elements and homodyne detection only. Finally, we also compare the utility of symmetric and asymmetric cloning in an analysis of a squeezed-state quantum key distribution protocol and find that the asymmetric one is more advantageous.

  5. Genetic structure of goat breeds from Brazil and the United States: Implications for conservation and breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, G M C; Paiva, S R; Araújo, A M; Mariante, A; Blackburn, H D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess genetic diversity among 5 Brazilian (155 animals) and 5 U.S. goat (120 animals) breeds using 23 microsatellite markers. Samples from the United States represented a broad geographic distribution whereas Brazilian samples were from the northeast region. Samples from Boer were common to each country's breed count. Expected and observed heterozygosity among breeds ranged from 0.55 to 0.72, suggesting ample genetic diversity in the breeds evaluated. United States Angora, U.S. Spanish, and Brazilian Nambi ranked highest for allelic richness, averaging 6.1, 7.1, and 6.5 alleles per locus, respectively. Angora and Spanish also ranked highest in private alleles (7 and 9, respectively). Using STRUCTURE, the U.S. Spanish were also found to share a common cluster assignment with Brazilian Nambi, suggesting that progenitor breeds may have been the same and passed through the Canary Islands or Cape Verde in route to the New World. When non-Boer breeds were pooled by country, the effect of the subpopulation compared with total population () = 0.05, suggesting minor genetic differences exist between countries. The lack of genetic structure among goat breeds when compared with other species (e.g., vs. ) suggests goat breeds may exhibit a plasticity that facilitates productivity across a wide range of countries and environments. Taken a step further, the concept of breed for meat goats may not be as relevant for goat production. PMID:26523555

  6. Distribution of quantum Fisher information in asymmetric cloning machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xing; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Lei-Ming; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2014-12-01

    An unknown quantum state cannot be copied and broadcast freely due to the no-cloning theorem. Approximate cloning schemes have been proposed to achieve the optimal cloning characterized by the maximal fidelity between the original and its copies. Here, from the perspective of quantum Fisher information (QFI), we investigate the distribution of QFI in asymmetric cloning machines which produce two nonidentical copies. As one might expect, improving the QFI of one copy results in decreasing the QFI of the other copy. It is perhaps also unsurprising that asymmetric phase-covariant cloning outperforms universal cloning in distributing QFI since a priori information of the input state has been utilized. However, interesting results appear when we compare the distributabilities of fidelity (which quantifies the full information of quantum states), and QFI (which only captures the information of relevant parameters) in asymmetric cloning machines. Unlike the results of fidelity, where the distributability of symmetric cloning is always optimal for any d-dimensional cloning, we find that any asymmetric cloning outperforms symmetric cloning on the distribution of QFI for d <= 18, whereas some but not all asymmetric cloning strategies could be worse than symmetric ones when d > 18.

  7. Optimal cloning for finite distributions of coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrane, P.T.; Ralph, T.C.; Dolinska, A.

    2004-04-01

    We derive optimal cloning limits for finite Gaussian distributions of coherent states and describe techniques for achieving them. We discuss the relation of these limits to state estimation and the no-cloning limit in teleportation. A qualitatively different cloning limit is derived for a single-quadrature Gaussian quantum cloner.

  8. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1988-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:3368330

  9. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1989-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2654889

  10. A comprehensive list of cloned human DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, Jörg; Cooper, David N.

    1990-01-01

    A list of DNA sequences cloned from the human genome is presented. Intended as a guide to clone availability, this list includes published reports of cDNA, genomic and synthetic clones comprising gene and pseudogene sequences, uncharacterised DNA segments and repetitive DNA elements. PMID:2333227

  11. PERFORMANCE OF HOLSTEIN CLONES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumers are interested in knowing whether cloning and other forms of biotechnology impact food safety, and especially cloning. Cloning by embryo splitting and nuclear transfer was introduced during the 1980s but the performance of clonal families that result from the biotechnology had not been exa...

  12. Identification and cloning of TSWV resistance gene(s) in cultivated peanuts and development of markers for breeding selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus, transmitted to plant via thrips, is a destructive pathogen with a worldwide distribution. TSWV has caused a very serious problem in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producing areas in US. In past decades, different tactics (resistant cultivars, chemical, crop rotation and othe...

  13. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  14. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  15. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  16. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  17. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  18. [Cloning and expression in follicle anagen of ILK gene in sheep].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Gan, Shang-Quan; Yang, Yong-Lin; Zhang, Hong-Lin; Song, Tian-Zeng; Feng, Jing; Yang, Jing-Quan; Gao, Lei; Shi, Guo-Qing; Shen, Min

    2012-06-01

    Integrin linked kinase (ILK) is a scaffold protein, which plays important roles in hair follicle development. The cDNA sequence of novel ILK gene in sheep was cloned by PCR method and analyzed by bioinformatics. Tissue expression profiling in eight tissues and temporal profiling at different wool follicle anagen stages in skin was analyzed. The results showed that the whole open reading frame (ORF) of ILK gene was 1 359 bp in length, which encoded 452 amino acids. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the secondary structure of ILK gene was mainly made up of three ankyrin repeats and a kinase domain, and there were multiple phosphorylation and Protein Kinase C sites in this gene. The RT-PCR result confirmed that ILK mRNA was expressed in heart, liver, spleen, lung, skeletal muscle, skin, and small intestine, and the expression level was much higher in skin, spleen, and liver than others. The q-PCR analysis demonstrated that the ex-pression level of ILK was significantly increased from March to May (early follicle anagen initiation) in both sheep breeds, Chinese Merino and Kazakh sheep, and there were certain differences from June to October between the two breeds. The above results indicated that ILK gene may play key roles in regulating secondary follicle growth. PMID:22698743

  19. Canine TCOF1; cloning, chromosome assignment and genetic analysis in dogs with different head types.

    PubMed

    Haworth, K E; Islam, I; Breen, M; Putt, W; Makrinou, E; Binns, M; Hopkinson, D; Edwards, Y

    2001-08-01

    We describe the construction of a dog embryonic head/neck cDNA library and the isolation of the dog homolog of the Treacher Collins Syndrome gene, TCOF1. The protein shows a similar three-domain structure to that described for human TCOF1, but the dog gene lacks exon 10 and contains two exons not present in the human sequence. In addition, exon 19 is differentially spliced in the dog. How these structural differences relate to TCOF1 phosphorylation is discussed. Isolation of a genomic clone allowed the exon/intron boundaries to be characterized and the dog TCOF1 gene to be mapped to CF Chr 4q31, a region syntenic to human Chr 5. Genetic analysis of DNA of dogs from 13 different breeds identified nine DNA sequence variants, three of which gave rise to amino acid substitutions. Grouping dogs according to head type showed that a C396T variant, leading to a Pro117Ser substitution, is associated with skull/face shape in our dog panel. The numbers are small, but the association between the T allele and brachycephaly, broad skull/short face, was highly significant (p = 0.000024). The short period of time during which the domestic dog breeds have been established suggests that this mutation has arisen only once in the history of dog domestication. PMID:11471057

  20. Application of genomics-assisted breeding for generation of climate resilient crops: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Kole, Chittaranjan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Henry, Robert; Edwards, David; Sharma, Rishu; Abberton, Michael; Batley, Jacqueline; Bentley, Alison; Blakeney, Michael; Bryant, John; Cai, Hongwei; Cakir, Mehmet; Cseke, Leland J; Cockram, James; de Oliveira, Antonio Costa; De Pace, Ciro; Dempewolf, Hannes; Ellison, Shelby; Gepts, Paul; Greenland, Andy; Hall, Anthony; Hori, Kiyosumi; Hughes, Stephen; Humphreys, Mike W; Iorizzo, Massimo; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Marshall, Athole; Mayes, Sean; Nguyen, Henry T; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Paterson, Andrew H; Simon, Philipp W; Tohme, Joe; Tuberosa, Roberto; Valliyodan, Babu; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wullschleger, Stan D; Yano, Masahiro; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Climate change affects agricultural productivity worldwide. Increased prices of food commodities are the initial indication of drastic edible yield loss, which is expected to increase further due to global warming. This situation has compelled plant scientists to develop climate change-resilient crops, which can withstand broad-spectrum stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, flood, submergence and pests, thus helping to deliver increased productivity. Genomics appears to be a promising tool for deciphering the stress responsiveness of crop species with adaptation traits or in wild relatives toward identifying underlying genes, alleles or quantitative trait loci. Molecular breeding approaches have proven helpful in enhancing the stress adaptation of crop plants, and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing and phenotyping platforms have transformed molecular breeding to genomics-assisted breeding (GAB). In view of this, the present review elaborates the progress and prospects of GAB for improving climate change resilience in crops, which is likely to play an ever increasing role in the effort to ensure global food security. PMID:26322050