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Sample records for advanced brine chemistry

  1. UCSD Geothermal Chemical Modeling Project: DOE Advanced Brine Chemistry Program. [University of California at San Diego (UCSD)

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, N.; Weare, J.H.

    1992-04-01

    DOE funding to the UCSD Chemical Modeling Group supports research to provide computer models which will reliably characterize the equilibrium chemistry of geothermal brines (solution, solid and gas phases) under variable thermodynamic conditions. With this technology, it will be possible to rapidly and inexpensively predict the chemical behavior of geothermal brines during various resource recovery stages; exploration, production, plant energy extraction and rejection as well as in ancillary programs such as mineral recovery. Our modeling technology is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions. The behavior of these fluids has not been predicted from first principle theories. However, because of the importance of concentrated brines to many industrial and natural processes, there have been numerous efforts to develop accurate phenomenological expressions for predicting the chemical behavior of these brines. One of the most successful of these efforts is that of Pitzer and coworkers. Incorporating the semiempirical equations of Pitzer, we have shown at UCSD that we can create highly accurate models of brine-solid-gas chemistry.

  2. ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard III; Lawrence Cathles III; Mario Blanco; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2004-05-01

    The advanced Chemistry Basin Model project has been operative for 48 months. During this period, about half the project tasks are on projected schedule. On average the project is somewhat behind schedule (90%). Unanticipated issues are causing model integration to take longer then scheduled, delaying final debugging and manual development. It is anticipated that a short extension will be required to fulfill all contract obligations.

  3. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  4. An Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John H.

    The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Program is a project designed to devise experiments to coordinate the use of instruments in the laboratory programs of physical chemistry, instrumental analysis, and inorganic chemistry at the advanced undergraduate level. It is intended that such experiments would incorporate an introduction to the instrument…

  5. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  6. Advances in analytical chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  7. Studies of brine chemistry and scaling at the Salton Sea geothermal field, 1977-1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Summarized are the results of investigations of brine chemistry, the effects of brine acidification and organic additives on the rate of scale formation and scale composition, and the use of other additives for scale control. A bibliography of reports describing these studies is included. Recommendations are given for techniques and approaches for further testing of additives for silica scale control.

  8. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  9. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  10. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.

    1997-03-10

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the R&D effort allowed to identify a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became a basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource and therefore differs, the emerging technology has to be also flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  11. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Bajsarowicz, V.; McCloud, M.

    1997-07-07

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  12. Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, R.J.; Angino, E.E.

    1969-01-01

    Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

  13. Recent Advances in Azaborine Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Marwitz, Adam J. V.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry of organoboron compounds has been primarily dominated by their use as powerful reagents in synthetic organic chemistry. Recently, the incorporation of boron as part of a functional target structure has emerged as a useful way to generate diversity in organic compounds. A commonly applied strategy is the replacement of a CC unit with its isoelectronic BN unit. In particular, the BN/CC isosterism of the ubiquitous arene motif has undergone a renaissance in the past decade. The parent molecule of the 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine family has now been isolated. New mono- and polycyclic BN heterocycles have been synthesized for potential use in biomedical and materials science applications. This review is a tribute to Dewar's first synthesis of a monocyclic 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine 50 years ago and discusses recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of carbon(C)-boron(B)-nitrogen(N)-containing heterocycles. PMID:22644658

  14. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  15. Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions

  16. Sulfur and Trace Metal Chemistry of a Methane Charged Brine Pool and Adjacent Porewaters in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilhooly, W. P.; Cable, J. E.; Carney, R. S.; Macko, S. A.; Lyons, T. W.

    2007-12-01

    A systematic study of a methane brine pool on the Louisiana continental slope reveals the extent to which steep chemical gradients associated with an anoxic hypersaline basin control the establishment and distribution of chemosynthetic organisms. The seep site, located in the Green Canyon lease block (GC233), provides habitat for a bivalve-dominated community of chemosynthetic mussels ( Bathymodiolus childressi). The pool is a brine-filled pockmark centered over a salt diapir buried within 500 m of the seafloor along which methane and vent fluids migrate to the surface. The depression slopes along its southern margin where brine overflows onto the seafloor. This study sought to establish the chemistry of the brine in an effort to better understand fluid transport to the seafloor and the extent to which brine influences chemosynthetic activity at a methane seep site. Ten sediment push cores were collected during submersible operations within the brine spillway and in upslope background sediments distal to the pool. Initial chemical analyses indicate the brine (128 ppt) is anoxic, chloride-rich (1994.8 mM) and sulfur-poor ([SO42-] = 0.4 mM, [HS-] = 8.2 uM). Steep porewater Cl- and Sr2+ concentration gradients observed in sediments downslope of the brine pool clearly indicate mixing between brine and seawater end members. Porewater sulfur profiles from sediments within the brine outflow indicate complete sulfate consumption within 30 cm below seafloor and sulfide production as great as 5 mM. The paired isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate and sulfide (Δ34SSO4-HS = 40‰) is consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction, potentially driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. The brine was nearly devoid of dissolved Mo (22 nM) and enriched in Mn (6.3 uM), relative to measured seawater casts ([Mo] = 112 nM; [Mn] below detection). Dissolved Mo enrichments, up to 392.8 nM, in surficial sediments decrease with depth may indicate brine

  17. Advanced diagnostics for plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, C.H.

    1994-03-01

    Since July 15, 1992, the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University has been engaged in a four-year research program on Advanced Diagnostics for Plasma Chemistry. The goal of this program is to develop state-of-the-art laser-based diagnostics of molecular species in harsh chemical environments, particularly those encountered in plasma synthesis of new materials. Emphasis has been placed on exploiting a new nonlinear spectroscopy, degenerate four wave mixing, as well as linear laser induced fluorescence to accomplish these goals. The present submittal is a proposal for the continuation funding for the third year of this program, from July 15, 1994, until July 14, 1995. Section 2 summarizes the research accomplished during the first eighteen months of the program. Section 3 discusses the plans for continuing research activities. Publications and presentations to date resulting from this program are listed in Section 4. The proposed budget for the third year is given in Section 5.

  18. Advanced Placement Chemistry: Project Advance and the Advanced Placement Program: A Comparison of Students' Performance on the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared performance of Syracuse University Project Advance (PA) chemistry students (N=35) with advanced placement (AP) candidates on the AP chemistry examination. PA students scored slightly above the national average on the examination, and students who performed well (B or better) in AP chemistry also did well on the examination. (JN)

  19. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  20. Advancing manufacturing through computational chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Noid, D.W.; Sumpter, B.G.; Tuzun, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The capabilities of nanotechnology and computational chemistry are reaching a point of convergence. New computer hardware and novel computational methods have created opportunities to test proposed nanometer-scale devices, investigate molecular manufacturing and model and predict properties of new materials. Experimental methods are also beginning to provide new capabilities that make the possibility of manufacturing various devices with atomic precision tangible. In this paper, we will discuss some of the novel computational methods we have used in molecular dynamics simulations of polymer processes, neural network predictions of new materials, and simulations of proposed nano-bearings and fluid dynamics in nano- sized devices.

  1. Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Advanced Placement Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigna, James

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a new addition to the Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry curriculum. This article explains the rationale for its inclusion, an overview of how the PES instrument records data, how the data can be analyzed, and how to include PES data in the course. Sample assessment items and analysis are included, as well as…

  2. Inland Treatment of the Brine Generated from Reverse Osmosis Advanced Membrane Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Epuvalisation System

    PubMed Central

    Qurie, Mohannad; Abbadi, Jehad; Scrano, Laura; Mecca, Gennaro; Bufo, Sabino A.; Khamis, Mustafa; Karaman, Rafik

    2013-01-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) brine generated from the Al-Quds University wastewater treatment plant was treated using an epuvalisation system. The advanced integrated wastewater treatment plant included an activated sludge unit, two consecutive ultrafiltration (UF) membrane filters (20 kD and 100 kD cutoffs) followed by an activated carbon filter and a reverse osmosis membrane. The epuvalisation system consisted of salt tolerant plants grown in hydroponic channels under continuous water flowing in a closed loop system, and placed in a greenhouse at Al-Quds University. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants were selected, and underwent two consecutive hydroponic flowing stages using different brine-concentrations: an adaptation stage, in which a 1:1 mixture of brine and fresh water was used; followed by a functioning stage, with 100% brine. A control treatment using fresh water was included as well. The experiment started in April and ended in June (2012). At the end of the experiment, analysis of the effluent brine showed a remarkable decrease of electroconductivity (EC), PO43−, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and K+ with a reduction of 60%, 74%, 70%, and 60%, respectively, as compared to the influent. The effluent of the control treatment showed 50%, 63%, 46%, and 90% reduction for the same parameters as compared to the influent. Plant growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry weight) showed no significant difference between fresh water and brine treatments. Obtained results suggest that the epuvalisation system is a promising technique for inland brine treatment with added benefits. The increasing of channel number or closed loop time is estimated for enhancing the treatment process and increasing the nutrient uptake. Nevertheless, the epuvalisation technique is considered to be simple, efficient and low cost for inland RO brine treatment. PMID:23823802

  3. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  4. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  5. Advanced oxidation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in reverse osmosis brines: the influence of quenching.

    PubMed

    Azerrad, Sara P; Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2014-10-01

    Among the main restrictions for the implementation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for removal of micropollutants present in reverse osmosis (RO) brines of secondary effluents account the quenching performed by background organic and inorganic constituents. Natural organic matter (NOM) and soluble microbial products (SMP) are the main effluent organic matter constituents. The inorganic fraction is largely constituted by chlorides and bicarbonate alkalinity with sodium and calcium as main counterions. The quenching influence of these components, separately and their mixture, in the transformation of model compounds by UVA/TiO2 was studied applying synthetic brines solutions mimicking 2-fold concentrated RO secondary effluents brines. The results were validated using fresh RO brines. Diatrizoate (DTZ) and iopromide (IOPr) were used as model compound. They have been found to exhibit relative high resistance to oxidation process and therefore represent good markers for AOPs techniques. Under the conditions applied, oxidization of DTZ in the background of RO brines was strongly affected by quenching effects. The major contribution to quenching resulted from organic matter (≈70%) followed by bicarbonate alkalinity (≈30%). NOM displayed higher quenching than SMP in spite of its relative lower concentration. Multivalent cations, i.e., Ca(+2), were found to decrease effectiveness of the technique due to agglomeration of the catalyst. However this influence was lowered in presence of NOM. Different patterns of transformation were found for each model compound in which a delayed deiodination was observed for iopromide whereas diatrizoate oxidation paralleled deiodination. PMID:24945978

  6. Advanced Chemistry Collection, 2nd Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Software requirements are given in Table 3. Some programs have additional special requirements. Please see the individual program abstracts at JCE Online or the documentation included on the CD-ROM for more specific information. Table 3. General software requirements for the Advanced Chemistry Collection.

    ComputerSystemOther Software(Required by one or more programs)
    Mac OS compatibleSystem 7.6.1 or higherAcrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;MacMolecule2; QuickTime 4; HyperCard Player
    Windows CompatibleWindows 2000, 98, 95, NT 4Acrobat Reader (included)Mathcad; Mathematica;PCMolecule2; QuickTime 4;HyperChem; Excel

    Literature Cited

    1. General Chemistry Collection, 5th ed.; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP16.
    2. Advanced Chemistry Collection; J. Chem. Educ. Software, 2001, SP28.

  7. Recent advances in computational actinoid chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqi; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-09-01

    We briefly review advances in computational actinoid (An) chemistry during the past ten years in regard to two issues: the geometrical and electronic structures, and reactions. The former addresses the An-O, An-C, and M-An (M is a metal atom including An) bonds in the actinoid molecular systems, including actinoid oxo and oxide species, actinoid-carbenoid, dinuclear and diatomic systems, and the latter the hydration and ligand exchange, the disproportionation, the oxidation, the reduction of uranyl, hydroamination, and the photolysis of uranium azide. Concerning their relevance to the electronic structures and reactions of actinoids and their importance in the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, we also mentioned the work on actinoid carbides and nitrides, which have been proposed to be candidates of the next generation of nuclear fuel, and the oxidation of PuO(x), which is important to understand the speciation of actinoids in the environment, followed by a brief discussion on the urgent need for a heavier involvement of computational actinoid chemistry in developing advanced reprocessing protocols of spent nuclear fuel. The paper is concluded with an outlook. PMID:22777520

  8. Integrating Advanced High School Chemistry Research with Organic Chemistry and Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the unique chemistry course opportunities beyond the advanced placement-level available at a science and technology magnet high school. Students may select entry-level courses such as honors and advanced placement chemistry; they may also take electives in organic chemistry with instrumental methods of analysis;…

  9. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  10. Interpreting detailed brine chemistry changes during early periods of in-zone CO2 storage at Cranfield site, Mississippi, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, A. Y.; Islam, A.; Lu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical reactions can play important role on the long-term geological storage of CO2 in sites where the target formations have reactive minerals. Although the use of batch models (experimental or theoretical) is expedient, it leaves questions about how to interpret the results from the context of field scale injection. The goal of this study is to investigate changes in fluid compositions using a detailed reactive transport model. Most published CO2 geochemical studies tend to consider only a small number of components because of expensive calculations and therefore simultaneous mobility of large number of heavy metals is not clearly known. In this study we present results of coupled multiphase, multicomponent reactive transport simulations of Cranfield site, Mississipi, USA at relatively fine scale, which are obtained using the parallel PFLOTRAN code. The geochemical system consists of 22 primary or basis species, in-situ CO2 and O2 gaseous components, and 5 minerals. The number of secondary elements is 37, representing very simple to complex mineralizations occurred simultaneously in saline formation (1.81 molality). The fluid chemical compositions were measured from production fluids and mineral composition of the formation was obtained from XRD analysis of core samples. The results show brine chemistry changes in the reservoir and shed insights on the need to monitor the mobility of heavy metals such as Mg, Ca, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, and Cd. The study provides simultaneous potential mobile inventory of these metals in the storage formations and warns possible risk through leakage into overlying zone. From storage point of view we also aim to observe the sensitivity of aforementioned constituents. Our results show pH drop from 6.91 to 3.5 and relatively small changes in HCO3- and Fe concentrations. However aqueous Ca and Al increase by orders of magnitude. The detailed geochemical effect shows trapping efficiency increased by few percent. The brine

  11. Chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite-enriched sediments at a passive margin sulfide brine seep: abyssal Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Paull, C.K.; Commeau, J.A.; Poppe, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Pyrite is rapidly accumulating at the contact between the Cretaceous limestones of the Florida Platform and the hemipelagic sediments of the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. Sediments sampled with the submersible "Alvin" in 3266 m of water are associated with a dense community of organisms that depend on chemosynthetic primary production as a food source. Analysis of the chemistry, mineralogy, and textural composition of these sediments indicate that iron sulfide mineralization is occurring at the seafloor within an anoxic micro-habitat sustained by the advection of hydrogen sulfide-charged saline brines from the adjacent platform. The chemosynthetic bacteria that directly overlie the sediments oxidize hydrogen sulfide for energy and provide elemental sulfur that reacts with iron monosulfide to form some of the pyrite. The sediments are mixtures of pyrite (??? 30 wt.%), BaSr sulfates (??? 4 wt.%), clays, and locally derived biogenic carbonates and are progressively being cemented by iron sulfides. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide produces locally acidic conditions that corrode the adjacent limestones. Potential sources of S, H2S, Fe, Ba, and Sr are discussed. ?? 1987.

  12. Advancements in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickerin, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closedloop water recovery systems, enabling long duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC), are under development which aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy induced effects. In this work, a microgravity compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a 1-g like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions, e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling and analysis of the system.

  13. Advances in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closed-loop water recovery systems, enabling long-duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment, are under development. These brine water recovery concepts aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy-induced effects. In this work, a microgravity-compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly, thereby creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a terrestrial-like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions; e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling, and analysis of the system.

  14. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

  15. Research on geothermal chemistry and advanced instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertus, R. J.; Shannon, D. W.; Sullivan, R. G.; Kindle, C. H.; Pool, K. H.

    1985-09-01

    Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) focuses on long-term geothermal power plant reliability. Past work concentrated on development of continuous high-temperature probes for monitoring process variables. PNL also completed a comprehensive handbook of brine treatment processes as they relate to injection well longevity. A recently completed study analyzed corrosion in the hydrocarbon system of a binary cycle plant. Over the two-year monitoring period, corrosion rates were less than 1 MPY in any part of the hydrocarbon system. The system was kept completely dry so the rates seem reasonable. Present projects include: (1) determination of gas breakout conditions at the Herber Binary Demonstration Plant operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company; (2) generation of water mixing solubility data; (3) installation of prototype leak detectors at the Herber Plant; and (4) evaluation of state-of-the-art particle counters.

  16. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally

  17. Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation of the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe current water quality and the chemistry of oil, natural gas, and brine in the Mosquito Creek Lake area. Additionally, these data are used to characterize water quality in the Mosquito Creek Lake area in relation to past oil and natural gas well drilling and production. To meet the overall objective, several goals for this investigation were established. These include (1) collect water-quality and subsurface-gas data from shallow sediments and rock that can be used for future evaluation of possible effects of oil and natural gas well drilling and production on water supplies, (2) characterize current surface-water and ground-water quality as it relates to the natural occurrence and (or) release of oil, gas, and brine (3) sample and chemically characterize the oil in the shallow Mecca Oil Pool, gas from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers, and the oil, gas, and brine from the Clinton sandstone, and (4) identify areas where aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from surface spills at oil and natural gas drilling and production sites.

  18. Computing Advances in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, W. P.; Matthews, G. P.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three trends in computer-oriented chemistry instruction: (1) availability of interfaces to integrate computers with experiments; (2) impact of the development of higher resolution graphics and greater memory capacity; and (3) role of videodisc technology on computer assisted instruction. Includes program listings for auto-titration and…

  19. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  20. Brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Doty, H.W.; Wong, M.M.; Wong, C.F.; Featherstone, J.L.; Messer, P.H.

    1993-08-31

    A method is described for treating a corrosive feed geothermal brine containing suspended and dissolved scale forming constituents at least some of which comprise silicon-containing components and some of which comprise at least one recoverable metal selected from the group consisting of copper and metals below copper in the electromotive series said method comprising passing the brine through a conduit packed with at least one metal as high or higher in the electromotive series than copper for a time sufficient for a substantial portion of the recoverable metal to precipitate onto the packing in said conduit, to reduce the corrosivity of the brine, and to stabilize the scale forming constituents of the brine; and discharging from said conduit a treated brine less corrosive than the feed brine and having a substantially reduced scale forming potential.

  1. Recent advances in technetium halide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Poineau, Frederic; Johnstone, Erik V; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Sattelberger, Alfred P

    2014-02-18

    Transition metal binary halides are fundamental compounds, and the study of their structure, bonding, and other properties gives chemists a better understanding of physicochemical trends across the periodic table. One transition metal whose halide chemistry is underdeveloped is technetium, the lightest radioelement. For half a century, the halide chemistry of technetium has been defined by three compounds: TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. The absence of Tc binary bromides and iodides in the literature was surprising considering the existence of such compounds for all of the elements surrounding technetium. The common synthetic routes that scientists use to obtain binary halides of the neighboring elements, such as sealed tube reactions between elements and flowing gas reactions between a molecular complex and HX gas (X = Cl, Br, or I), had not been reported for technetium. In this Account, we discuss how we used these routes to revisit the halide chemistry of technetium. We report seven new phases: TcBr4, TcBr3, α/β-TcCl3, α/β-TcCl2, and TcI3. Technetium tetrachloride and tetrabromide are isostructural to PtX4 (X = Cl or Br) and consist of infinite chains of edge-sharing TcX6 octahedra. Trivalent technetium halides are isostructural to ruthenium and molybdenum (β-TcCl3, TcBr3, and TcI3) and to rhenium (α-TcCl3). Technetium tribromide and triiodide exhibit the TiI3 structure-type and consist of infinite chains of face-sharing TcX6 (X = Br or I) octahedra. Concerning the trichlorides, β-TcCl3 crystallizes with the AlCl3 structure-type and consists of infinite layers of edge-sharing TcCl6 octahedra, while α-TcCl3 consists of infinite layers of Tc3Cl9 units. Both phases of technetium dichloride exhibit new structure-types that consist of infinite chains of [Tc2Cl8] units. For the technetium binary halides, we studied the metal-metal interaction by theoretical methods and magnetic measurements. The change of the electronic configuration of the metal atom from d(3) (Tc

  2. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Annual operating plan, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1995-02-01

    An R and D program to identify methods for the utilization and/or low cost of environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues has been established at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Laboratory work has shown that a biochemical process developed at BNL, would meet regulatory costs and environmental requirements. In this work, microorganisms which can convert insoluble species of toxic metals, including radionuclides, into soluble species, have been identified. These organisms serve as models in the development of a biochemical process in which toxic metals present in geothermal residual sludges are converted into water soluble species. The produced solution can be reinjected or processed further to concentrate and recover commercially valuable metals. After the biochemical detoxification of geothermal residual sludges, the end-products are non-toxic and meet regulatory requirements. The overall process is a technically and environmentally acceptable cost-efficient process. It is anticipated that the new biotechnology will reduce the cost of surface disposal of sludges derived from geothermal brines by 25% or better.

  3. Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation to the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental samples collected in the Mosquito Creek Lake area were used to characterize water quality in relation to the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine and to establish baseline water quality. Mosquito Creek Lake (a manmade reservoir) and the shallow bedrock aquifers near the lake are major sources of potable water in central Trumbull County. The city of Warren relies on the lake as a sole source of potable water. Some of the lake bottom may be in direct hydraulic connection with the underlying aquifers. The city of Cortland, along the southeastern shore of the lake, relies on the Cussewago Sandstone aquifer as a sole source of potable water. This aquifer subcrops beneath the glacio-fluvial sediments that underlie the lake. Nearly all residential homes around the lake, with the exception of homes in the city of Cortland, rely on domestic supply wells as a source of potable water. Oil and natural gas exploration and production have been ongoing in the Mosquito Creek Lakearea since the discovery of the historic Mecca Oil Pool in the Mississippian Berea and Cussewago Sandstones in 1860. Since the late 1970' s, the major drilling objective and zone of production is the Lower Silurian Clinton sandstone. The oil and natural gas resources of the Mosquito Creek Lake area, including reservoir pressure, production history, and engineering and abandonment practices are described in this report. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the historic Mecca oil and natural gas are very different than those of the Clinton sandstone oil and natural gas. Gas chromatograms show that Mecca oil samples are extensively altered by biodegradation, whereas Clinton sandstone oils are not. Extensive alteration of Mecca oil is consistent with their occurrence at very shallow depths (less than 100 ft below land surface) where microbial activity can affect their composition. Also, the carbon-isotope composition of dissolved methane gas from Berea and Cussewago

  4. Recent advances in click chemistry applied to dendrimer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Mathieu; Wafer, Caroline; Morin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the "click chemistry" concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field. PMID:26007183

  5. Research for the advancement of green chemistry practice: Studies in atmospheric and educational chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullipher, Steven Gene

    Green chemistry is a philosophy of chemistry that emphasizes a decreasing dependence on limited non-renewable resources and an increasing focus on preventing pollution byproducts of the chemical industry. In short, it is the discipline of chemistry practiced through the lens of environmental stewardship. In an effort to advance the practice of green chemistry, three studies will be described that have ramifications for the practice. The first study examines the atmospheric oxidation of a hydrofluorinated ether, a third-generation CFC replacement compound with primarily unknown atmospheric degradation products. Determination of these products has the potential to impact decisions on refrigerant usage in the future. The second study examines chemistry students' development of understanding benefits-costs-risks analysis when presented with two real-world scenarios: refrigerant choice and fuel choice. By studying how benefits-costs-risks thinking develops, curricular materials and instructional approaches can be designed to better foster the development of an ability that is both necessary for green chemists and important in daily decision-making for non-chemists. The final study uses eye tracking technology to examine students' abilities to interpret molecular properties from structural information in the context of global warming. Such abilities are fundamental if chemists are to appropriately assess risks and hazards of chemistry practice.

  6. The chemistry of brines from an Alpine thrust system in the central Pyrenees: An application of fluid inclusion analysis to the study of fluid behaviour in orogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, D.A.; Davies, G.R.; Yardley, B.W.D.; McCaig, A.M.; Grant, N.T. )

    1991-04-01

    Quartz filled veins and fractures which formed late in the Alpine thrusting of the Central Pyrenees contain inclusions of hypersaline Na-Ca-Cl brines with total dissolved salts of up to 25 wt{percent}. The total salinity is similar in all samples, irrespective of the vein or the wall rocks, but there are large variations in the chemistry of the fluids between samples. With one exception, each sample contains only a single dominant fluid population. Crush-leach extraction and chemical analysis of the inclusion electrolytes for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, B, Li, Sr, Rb, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, F, Cl, Br, and Sr and Pb isotopes reveals that the fluid chemistry is strongly influenced by the local rocks. Of the four different lithologies in the thrust stack sampled, the Triassic mudstones and Cretaceous limestones or Silurian phyllites acted as sources for the vein fluids during the late thrusting. The composition of the fluid in the veins was dependent on the proximity to these lithologies. The similarity of the Br/Cl ratio (approximately twice seawater) and the consistent high salinity of all the inclusion fluids in the thrust stack indicate that they were all originally derived from a single source but progressively changed their cation and isotope chemistry through interaction with different host rocks. This ultimate source is likely to have been Triassic connate waters. The authors conclude that a local increase in permeability occurred when the veins formed and that fluid movement was over short distances. No evidence was found for a significant input of either surface or metamorphic fluids during thrusting.

  7. Chemistry of Frozen Sodium-Magnesium-Sulfate-Chloride Brines: Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu; Johnson, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of Europa’s subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability. However, our current understanding of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the surface. This work investigates experimentally the composition of mixed sodium-magnesium-sulfate-chloride solutions when frozen to 100 K, simulating conditions that likely occur as ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa’s surface. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize phase composition of the frozen brines at 100 K. Our results show that solutions containing Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, and {{{SO}}4}2- preferentially crystallize into Na2SO4 and MgCl2 hydrated minerals upon freezing, even at elevated [Mg2+]/[Na+] ratios. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) on Europa’s surface, if confirmed, may thus imply a relatively sodium-poor ocean composition or a radiolytic process that converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Brown & Hand. The formation of NaCl on the surface, while dependent upon a number of factors such as freezing rate, may indicate an ocean significantly more concentrated in sodium than in magnesium.

  8. Advances in actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Peter C; Ikeda, Y.; Czerwinski, K.

    2011-01-31

    Actinide solid-state and coordination chemistry has advanced through unexpected results that have further revealed the complex nature of the 5f elements. Nanoscale control of actinide materials is emerging, as shown by the creation of a considerable range of cluster and tubular topologies. Departures from established structural trends for actinyl ions are provided by cation-cation interactions in which an O atom of one actinyl ion is an equatorial ligand of a bipyramid of another actinyl ion. The solid-state structural complexity of actinide materials has been further demonstrated by open framework materials with interesting properties. The U(VI) tetraoxide core has been added to this cation's repertoire of coordination possibilities. The emergence of pentavalent uranium solid-state and coordination chemistry has resulted from the prudent selection of ligands. Finally, analogues of the uranyl ion have challenged our understanding of this normally unreactive functional group.

  9. Effects of brine chemistry and polymorphism on clumped isotopes revealed by laboratory precipitation of mono- and multiphase calcium carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; John, Cédric M.

    2015-07-01

    close to results from statistical thermodynamics. We conclude for calcium carbonate and hydromagnesite that the combined effect of salt ion concentration, acid fractionation and polymorphism is negligible for Cl- and Na+ with respect to clumped isotope geochemistry, but that offsets are possible in brines containing high concentrations of CaCl2.

  10. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  11. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  12. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  13. Modern advances in heterocyclic chemistry in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alexandria P; Robinson, Ralph P; Fobian, Yvette M; Blakemore, David C; Jones, Lyn H; Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi

    2016-07-12

    New advances in synthetic methodologies that allow rapid access to a wide variety of functionalized heterocyclic compounds are of critical importance to the medicinal chemist as it provides the ability to expand the available drug-like chemical space and drive more efficient delivery of drug discovery programs. Furthermore, the development of robust synthetic routes that can readily generate bulk quantities of a desired compound help to accelerate the drug development process. While established synthetic methodologies are commonly utilized during the course of a drug discovery program, the development of innovative heterocyclic syntheses that allow for different bond forming strategies are having a significant impact in the pharmaceutical industry. This review will focus on recent applications of new methodologies in C-H activation, photoredox chemistry, borrowing hydrogen catalysis, multicomponent reactions, regio- and stereoselective syntheses, as well as other new, innovative general syntheses for the formation and functionalization of heterocycles that have helped drive project delivery. Additionally, the importance and value of collaborations between industry and academia in shaping the development of innovative synthetic approaches to functionalized heterocycles that are of greatest interest to the pharmaceutical industry will be highlighted. PMID:27282396

  14. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  16. Nanomaterial surface chemistry design for advancements in capillary electrophoresis modes.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Michael R; Haes, Amanda J

    2011-01-01

    Tailored surface chemistry impacts nanomaterial function and stability in applications including in various capillary electrophoresis (CE) modes. Although colloidal nanoparticles were first integrated as colouring agents in artwork and pottery over 2000 years ago, recent developments in nanoparticle synthesis and surface modification increased their usefulness and incorporation in separation science. For instance, precise control of surface chemistry is critically important in modulating nanoparticle functionality and stability in dynamic environments. Herein, recent developments in nanomaterial pseudostationary and stationary phases will be summarized. First, nanomaterial core and surface chemistry compositions will be classified. Next, characterization methods will be described and related to nanomaterial function in various CE modes. Third, methods and implications of nanomaterial incorporation into CE will be discussed. Finally, nanoparticle-specific mechanisms likely involved in CE will be related to nanomaterial surface chemistry. Better understanding of surface chemistry will improve nanoparticle design for the integration into separation techniques. PMID:20967383

  17. Integration of a Communicating Science Module into an Advanced Chemistry Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Jessica; Squier, Christopher; Larsen, Sarah C.

    2006-01-01

    A communicating science module was introduced into an advanced undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. The module was integrated into the course such that students received formal instruction in communicating science interwoven with the chemistry laboratory curriculum. The content of the communicating science module included three…

  18. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Teachers' and Technicians' Notes for First Year Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    The Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC) has produced units of study for students in A-level chemistry. Students completing ILPAC units assume a greater responsibility for their own learning and can work, to some extent, at their own pace. By providing guidance, and detailed solutions to exercises in the units, supported by…

  19. What Does a Student Know Who Earns a Top Score on the Advanced Placement Chemistry Exam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claesgens, Jennifer; Daubenmire, Paul L.; Scalise, Kathleen M.; Balicki, Scott; Gochyyev, Perman; Stacy, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of students at a high-performing U.S. public school (n = 64) on the advanced placement (AP) chemistry exam to their performance on the ChemQuery assessment system. The AP chemistry exam was chosen because, as the National Research Council acknowledges, it is the "perceived standard of excellence and school…

  20. Development of an Advanced Training Course for Teachers and Researchers in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Black, Rebecca; Heaps, Charles W.; Kamm, Judith M.; Olechnowicz, Frank; Raybin, Jonathan; Rombola, Michael; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    Based on our long-standing Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry, we have developed an Advanced Training Course for Teachers and Researchers in Chemistry at The University of Chicago. The topics in this course are designed to train graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) to become effective teachers and well-rounded…

  1. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  2. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  3. Assessing Advanced High School and Undergraduate Students' Thinking Skills: The Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Dangur, Vered; Avargil, Shirly; Peskin, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry students in Israel have two options for studying chemistry: basic or honors (advanced placement). For instruction in high school honors chemistry courses, we developed a module focusing on abstract topics in quantum mechanics: Chemistry--From the Nanoscale to Microelectronics. The module adopts a visual-conceptual approach, which…

  4. Effect of matrix components on UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) advanced oxidation processes for trace organic degradation in reverse osmosis brines from municipal wastewater reuse facilities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Pignatello, Joseph J; Ma, Jun; Mitch, William A

    2016-02-01

    When reverse osmosis brines from potable wastewater reuse plants are discharged to poorly-flushed estuaries, the concentrated organic contaminants are a concern for receiving water ecosystems. UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) and UV/persulfate (UV/S2O8(2-)) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may reduce contaminant burdens prior to discharge, but the effects of the high levels of halide, carbonate and effluent organic matter (EfOM) normally present in these brines are unclear. On the one hand, these substances may reduce process efficiency by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydroxyl (OH) and sulfate (SO4(-) radicals. On the other, the daughter radicals generated by halide and carbonate scavenging may themselves degrade organics, offsetting the effect of ROS scavenging. UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) AOPs were compared for degradation of five pharmaceuticals spiked into brines obtained from two reuse facilities and the RO influent from one of them. For UV/H2O2, EfOM scavenged ∼75% of the OH, reducing the degradation efficiency of the target contaminants to a similar extent; halide and carbonate scavenging and the reactivities of associated daughter radicals were less important. For UV/S2O8(2-), anions (mostly Cl(-)) scavenged ∼93% of the SO4(-). Because daughter radicals of Cl(-) contributed to contaminant degradation, the reduction in contaminant degradation efficiency was only ∼75-80%, with the reduction driven by daughter radical scavenging by EfOM. Conversion of SO4(-) to more selective halogen and carbonate radicals resulted in a wider range of degradation efficiencies among the contaminants. For both AOPs, 250 mJ/cm(2) average fluence achieved significant removal of four pharmaceuticals, with significantly better performance by UV/S2O8(2-) treatment for some constituents. Accounting for the lower brine flowrates, the energy output to achieve this fluence in brines is comparable to that often applied to RO permeates. However, much higher fluence was

  5. Advances in atmospheric chemistry modeling: the LLNL impact tropospheric/stratospheric chemistry model

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D A; Atherton, C

    1999-10-07

    We present a unique modeling capability to understand the global distribution of trace gases and aerosols throughout both the troposphere and stratosphere. It includes the ability to simulate tropospheric chemistry that occurs both in the gas phase as well as on the surfaces of solid particles. We have used this capability to analyze observations from particular flight campaigns as well as averaged observed data. Results show the model to accurately simulate the complex chemistry occurring near the tropopause and throughout the troposphere and stratosphere.

  6. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  7. A Selection of Recent Advances in C1 Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Carl

    2016-06-01

    This review presents a selection of recent publications related to the chemistry and catalysis of C1 molecules, including methane, methanol, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. These molecules play an important role in the current supply of energy and chemicals and will likely become even more relevant because of the need to decarbonize fuels (shift from coal to natural gas) in line with CO2 capture and use to mitigate global warming, as well as a gradual shift on the supply side from crude oil to natural gas. This review includes both recent industrial developments, such as the huge increase in methanol-to-olefins-capacity build in China and the demonstration of oxidative coupling of methane, and scientific developments in these chemistries facilitated by improved capabilities in, for example, analytical tools and computational modeling. PMID:27276549

  8. Chemistry of fluid inclusions in halite from the Salina Group of the Michigan basin: Implications for Late Silurian seawater and the origin of sedimentary brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nachiketa; Horita, Juske; Holland, Heinrich D.

    1990-02-01

    Fluid was extracted from 18 fluid inclusions in halite of the Late Silurian Salina Group exposed in the Crystal Mine on the outskirts of Detroit, Michigan. Compared with modern seawater evaporated to the same degree, the inclusion fluids are severely depleted in SO 4-2, somewhat depleted in Na + and Mg +2, and greatly enriched in Ca +2. The composition of the inclusion fluids can be derived from Silurian seawater with a composition close to that of modern seawater, if it is assumed that the composition of the Silurian seawater was modified by dolomitizing CaCO 3-rich sediments and by albitizing silicate minerals during its evolution into evaporite brines. Since the evolution of the brines involved a number of chemical reactions, it is impossible to recover the initial concentration of all of the major ions in the parent Silurian seawater from the composition of the inclusion fluids alone. It is likely, however, that the m k +/m Br - ratio and the functions [m Ca +2 + m Mg +2/- m SO 4-2 - m HCO 3-/2m Br -and [if m cl - - m Na +/m Br -] in Late Silurian seawater had values close to those of modern seawater. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur and of Sr in anhydrite within and associated with the halite host of the fluid inclusions are consistent with previous measurements of δ34S in Silurian marine anhydrites and with the 87Sr /86Sr ratios of Late Silurian marine carbonates.

  9. Chemistry of fluid inclusions in halite from the Salina group of the Michigan basin: Implications for Late Silurian seawater and the origin of sedimentary brines

    SciTech Connect

    Das, N.; Horita, J.; Holland, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Fluid was extracted from 18 fluid inclusions in halite of the Late Silurian Salina Group exposed in the Crystal Mine on the outskirts of Detroit, Michigan. Compared with modern seawater evaporated to the same degree, the inclusion fluids are severely depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, somewhat depleted in Na{sup +} and Mg{sup +2}, and greatly enriched in Ca{sup +2}. The composition of the inclusion fluids can be derived from Silurian seawater with a composition close to that of modern seawater, if it is assumed that the composition of the Silurian seawater was modified by dolomitizing CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediments and by albitizing silicate minerals during its evolution into evaporite brines. Since the evolution of the brines involved a number of chemical reactions, it is impossible to recover the initial concentration of all of the major ions in the parent Silurian seawater from the composition of the inclusion fluids alone. It is likely, however, that the m{sub K+}/m{sub Br-} ratio and the functions in Late Silurian seawater had values close to those of modern seawater. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur and of Sr in anhydrite within and associated with the halite host of the fluid inclusions are consistent with previous measurements of {delta}{sup 34}S in Silurian marine anhydrites and with the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of Late Silurian marine carbonates.

  10. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA): A New Approach to Recovering Water from Wastewater Brines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Brine water recovery represents a current technology gap in water recycling for human spaceflight. The role of a brine processor is to take the concentrated discharge from a primary wastewater processor, called brine, and recover most of the remaining water from it. The current state-of-the-art primary processor is the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) that currently achieves 70% water recovery. Recent advancements in chemical pretreatments are expected to increase this to 85% in the near future. This is a welcome improvement, yet is still not high enough for deep space transit. Mission architecture studies indicate that at least 95% is necessary for a Mars mission, as an example. Brine water recovery is the technology that bridges the gap between 85% and 95%, and moves life support systems one step closer to full closure of the water loop. Several brine water recovery systems have been proposed for human spaceflight, most of them focused on solving two major problems: operation in a weightless environment, and management and containment of brine residual. Brine residual is the leftover byproduct of the brine recovery process, and is often a viscous, sticky paste, laden with crystallized solid particles. Due to the chemical pretreatments added to wastewater prior to distillation in a primary processor, these residuals are typically toxic, which further complicates matters. Isolation of crewmembers from these hazardous materials is paramount. The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) is a recently developed concept from the Johnson Space Center that offers solutions to these challenges. CoBRA is centered on a softgoods evaporator that enables a passive fill with brine, and regeneration by discharging liquid brine residual to a collection bag. This evaporator is meant to be lightweight, which allows it to be discarded along with the accumulated brine solids contained within it. This paper discusses design and development of a first CoBRA prototype, and reports

  11. Continuous Symmetry and Chemistry Teachers: Learning Advanced Chemistry Content through Novel Visualization Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Blonder, Ron

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the learning process of a group of experienced chemistry teachers in a specially designed workshop on molecular symmetry and continuous symmetry. The workshop was based on interactive visualization tools that allow molecules and their symmetry elements to be rotated in three dimensions. The topic of continuous symmetry is…

  12. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    PubMed

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. PMID:26970405

  13. Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Snavely, K.

    2000-01-01

    The development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for environmental chemistry has progressed significantly over the last decade to include a number of new sorbents and new approaches to SPE. One SPE approach in particular, the SPE disk, has greatly reduced or eliminated the use of chlorinated solvents for the analysis of trace organic compounds. This article discusses the use and applicability of various SPE disks, including micro-sized disks, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace organic compounds in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Visualizing Chemistry: The Progess and Promise of Advanced Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Revealing Chemistry Through Advanced Chemical Imaging

    2006-09-01

    The field of chemical imaging can provide detailed structural, functional, and applicable information about chemistry and chemical engineering phenomena that have enormous impacts on medicine, materials, and technology. In recognizing the potential for more research development in the field of chemical imaging, the National Academies was asked by the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, U.S. Army, and National Cancer Institute to complete a study that would review the current state of molecular imaging technology, point to promising future developments and their applications, and suggest a research and educational agenda to enable breakthrough improvements in the ability to image molecular processes simultaneously in multiple physical dimensions as well as time. The study resulted in a consensus report that provides guidance for a focused research and development program in chemical imaging and identifies research needs and possible applications of imaging technologies that can provide the breakthrough knowledge in chemistry, materials science, biology, and engineering for which we should strive. Public release of this report is expected in early October.

  15. Integrative Chemistry: Advanced functional cellular materials bearing multiscale porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depardieu, M.; Kinadjian, N.; Backov, R.

    2015-07-01

    With this mini review we show through the sol-gel and emulsion-based Integrative Chemistry how it is possible to trigger materials dimensionality and beyond their functionalities when reaching enhanced applications. In here we focus on 3D macrocellular monolithic foams bearing hierarchical porosities and applications thereof. We first depict the general background of emulsions focusing on concentrated ones, acting as soft templates for the design of PolyHIPE foams, HIPE being the acronym of High Internal Phase Emulsions while encompassing both sol-gel and polymer chemistry. Secondly we extend this approach toward the design of hybrid organic-inorganic foams, labeled Organo-Si(HIPE), where photonics and heterogeneous catalysis applications are addressed. In a third section we show how inorganic Si(HIPE) matrices can be employed as sacrificial hard templates for the generation carbonaceous foams, labeled Carbon(HIPE). These foams being conductive we show applications when employed as electrodes for Li-S battery and as hosts for Li(BH4)-based hydrogen storage.

  16. A Simultaneous Analysis Problem for Advanced General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leary, J. J.; Gallaher, T. N.

    1983-01-01

    Oxidation of magnesium metal in air has been used as an introductory experiment for determining the formula of a compound. The experiment described employs essentially the same laboratory procedure but is significantly more advanced in terms of information sought. Procedures and sample calculations/results are provided. (JN)

  17. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Dr. Qingmin; Hill, Dr. Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as, assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments on nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this pespective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological technique, this perspective attempts to mirro this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics.

  18. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-14

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments in nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this perspective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology and practical applications, latter of which are often accomplished by amphiphile-like polymers. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological techniques, this perspective attempts to mirror this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics. PMID:23639971

  19. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  20. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a completion of a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing techniques developed in our laboratory for this purpose. The appended report is a manuscript being submitted to the Journal of Magnetic Resonance on this subject.

  1. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing results obtained on the Argonne coals. We have extended our fitting procedure to include carbons of all types in the analysis.

  2. s-Block Elements. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two sections and an appendix, focuses on the elements and compounds of Groups I and II (the s-block) of the periodic table. The groups are treated concurrently to note comparisons between groups and to…

  3. Hydrocarbons. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit O1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on hydrocarbons is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit is divided into sections dealing with alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, and several aspects of the petroleum industry. Two experiments, exercises (with answers), and pre- and post-tests are included.…

  4. Equilibrium I: Principles. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…

  5. An Advanced Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Exploring NIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanke, Randall; Stauffer, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment to study the advantages and hazards of the coupling of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics is described. The combination is commonly used for analysis and process control of various ingredients used in agriculture, petroleum and food products.

  6. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-01-01

    An active service-learning research work is conducted in the field of advanced environmental chemistry. Multiple projects are assigned to students, which promote individual learning skills, self-confidence as scientists, and a deep understanding of the environmental chemist's profession.

  7. The Halogens. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit I2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the elements and compounds of Group IV (halogens) of the periodic table. Level one deals with the physical and chemical properties of the individual elements. Level two considers…

  8. Atomic Structure. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on atomic structure is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one focuses on the atomic nucleus. Level two focuses on the arrangement of extranuclear electrons, approaching atomic orbitals through both electron bombardment and spectra.…

  9. The Mole. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the mole is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, designed to help students consolidate some of the ideas about the mole learned in previous courses, consists of two levels. The first level focuses on: (1) relative mass; (2) the concept of the mole as the unit…

  10. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  11. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.

  12. Chemical Energetics. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on chemical energetics is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, provides a clear yet detailed and thorough introduction to the topic. Level one extends ideas from previous courses, introduces and emphasizes the importance of Hess'…

  13. The Gaseous State. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the gaseous state is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. Level one deals with the distinctive characteristics of gases, then considers the gas laws, in particular the ideal gas equation and its applications. Level two concentrates on…

  14. Bonding and Structure. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit S4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on chemical bonding is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, provides an introduction to the main types of chemical bonding and important aspects of structure. The main emphasis is placed on such topics as ionic and covalent bonding,…

  15. Equilibrium II: Acids and Bases. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit, which consists of two levels, focuses on the application of equilibrium principles to equilibria involving weak acids and bases, including buffer solutions and indicators. Level one uses Le Chatelier's…

  16. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  17. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  18. Selecting brines and clay stabilizers to prevent formation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.; Ali, S.

    1997-05-01

    Although many technical reports have been written about formation damage caused by brine/formation interactions, this article discusses the effects brines and chemical clay stabilizers have on pure samples of kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite clays. Analytical chemistry and geochemical models were not employed in this study; instead, capillary suction time tests were used to empirically compare clay migration and swelling characteristics when samples were exposed to certain brine/clay stabilizer combinations. Objective of the study was to determine which type of clay was most damaging in reservoir rocks, and whether one brine or chemical stabilizer could meet the needs of stabilizing all clay types. This information is provided with well completion operations in mind, especially when fluid cost/performance is a major concern. This article compares the unique brine/chemical stabilizer reaction characteristics of each clay type common to oil and gas reservoirs.

  19. Treatment of geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.; Featherstone, J.L.

    1992-03-24

    This patent describes a method of precipitating at least one metal from a brine containing the same. It comprises contacting a brine containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of iron, zinc, manganese, copper, silver and lead, and at least one scale forming species selected from the group consisting of silica and calcium compounds, with a condensate of steam, derived from the brine, in an amount to provide a mixture having a volume ratio of brine to condensate in the range of about 1:2 to 1:10 for a time sufficient to precipitate at least one of the metals and only a minor amount of the scale forming species.

  20. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  1. Advancing Chemistry with the Lanthanide and Actinide Elements Final Report, September 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William John

    2013-09-11

    The objective of this research is to use the unique chemistry available from complexes of the lanthanides and actinides, as well as related heavy metals such as scandium, yttrium, and bismuth to advance chemistry in energy-related areas. The lanthanides and actinides have a combination of properties in terms of size, charge, electropositive character, and f valence orbitals that provides special opportunities to probe reactivity and catalysis in ways not possible with the other metals in the periodic table. We seek to discover reaction pathways and structural types that reveal new options in reaction chemistry related to energy. Identification of new paradigms in structure and reactivity should stimulate efforts to develop new types of catalytic processes that at present are not under consideration because either the transformation or the necessary intermediates are unknown. This project is one half of my laboratory’s DOE research which was split 50:50 between Catalysis and Heavy Element Chemistry programs in 2010. Hence, this report is for a half-project.

  2. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  3. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  4. Advances in methods and algorithms in a modern quantum chemistry program package.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yihan; Molnar, Laszlo Fusti; Jung, Yousung; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Brown, Shawn T; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V; Levchenko, Sergey V; O'Neill, Darragh P; DiStasio, Robert A; Lochan, Rohini C; Wang, Tao; Beran, Gregory J O; Besley, Nicholas A; Herbert, John M; Lin, Ching Yeh; Van Voorhis, Troy; Chien, Siu Hung; Sodt, Alex; Steele, Ryan P; Rassolov, Vitaly A; Maslen, Paul E; Korambath, Prakashan P; Adamson, Ross D; Austin, Brian; Baker, Jon; Byrd, Edward F C; Dachsel, Holger; Doerksen, Robert J; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D; Dutoi, Anthony D; Furlani, Thomas R; Gwaltney, Steven R; Heyden, Andreas; Hirata, So; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Kedziora, Gary; Khalliulin, Rustam Z; Klunzinger, Phil; Lee, Aaron M; Lee, Michael S; Liang, Wanzhen; Lotan, Itay; Nair, Nikhil; Peters, Baron; Proynov, Emil I; Pieniazek, Piotr A; Rhee, Young Min; Ritchie, Jim; Rosta, Edina; Sherrill, C David; Simmonett, Andrew C; Subotnik, Joseph E; Woodcock, H Lee; Zhang, Weimin; Bell, Alexis T; Chakraborty, Arup K; Chipman, Daniel M; Keil, Frerich J; Warshel, Arieh; Hehre, Warren J; Schaefer, Henry F; Kong, Jing; Krylov, Anna I; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2006-07-21

    Advances in theory and algorithms for electronic structure calculations must be incorporated into program packages to enable them to become routinely used by the broader chemical community. This work reviews advances made over the past five years or so that constitute the major improvements contained in a new release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry package, together with illustrative timings and applications. Specific developments discussed include fast methods for density functional theory calculations, linear scaling evaluation of energies, NMR chemical shifts and electric properties, fast auxiliary basis function methods for correlated energies and gradients, equation-of-motion coupled cluster methods for ground and excited states, geminal wavefunctions, embedding methods and techniques for exploring potential energy surfaces. PMID:16902710

  5. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Bennett, William

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair lunar lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy as compared to today's state-of-the-art batteries. Based on customer requirements, the specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery level at 0 degrees Celsius (degrees Celcius) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation over 0 to 30 degrees C, and 200 cycles are targeted. The team, consisting of members from NASA Glenn Research Center, Johnson Space Center, and Jet Propulsion laboratory, surveyed the literature, compiled information on recent materials developments, and consulted with other battery experts in the community to identify advanced battery materials that might be capable of achieving the desired results with further development. A variety of electrode materials were considered, including layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. lithium-sulfur systems were also considered. Hypothetical cell constructs that combined compatible anode and cathode materials with suitable electrolytes, separators, current collectors, headers, and cell enclosures were modeled. While some of these advanced materials are projected to obtain the desired electrical performance, there are risks that also factored into the decision making process. The risks include uncertainties due to issues such as safety of a system containing some of these materials, ease of scaling-up of large batches of raw materials, adaptability of the materials to processing using established

  6. Brine stability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-04-15

    This is a study of the brine formulations that we were using in our testing were stable over time. The data includes charts, as well as, all of the original data from the ICP-MS runs to complete this study.

  7. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  8. The formation of natural cryogenic brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2003-04-01

    The source of salts in the Ca-chloridic, hypersaline brines (up to 190 g Cl L -1) occurring in crystalline basement rocks in the Canadian, Fennoscandian and Bohemian Shields and their evolution have been investigated and reported. The Cl-Br-Na relationship indicates that these waters have been concentrated from seawater, by freezing during glacial times. The Na/Cl ratio (0.25 to 0.35) in the more saline fluids is compatible with cooling down to -30°C, where the most saline waters have been concentrated by a factor of 25 to 30 relative to the parent seawater. The brines formed from seawater within cryogenic troughs, along the subarctic continental margins, around ice sheets. The depressions within which the brines formed are the cryogenic analogues of the classic, evaporitic lagoon. One million years suffice to saturate with brine a 2000km-radius by 1km-depth rock volume at an H 2O removal rate of only 2.8 mm/yr. Density-induced brine migration on a continental scale takes place via fissures below the ice. Our calculations, that were performed on a hypothetical ice sheet with dimensions compatible with the Laurentide ice sheet, demonstrate that during 1m.y., a 60m thick cryogenic sediment section could have formed. However, the precipitated minerals (mirabilite and hydrohalite) are repeatedly dispersed by the advance and retreat of the ice sheet, dissolved by melt water-seawater mixtures, and eroded during postglacial uplift, leaving almost no trace in the geological record. The cryogenic brines formed intermittently during and between glacial periods. The repeating advance and retreat of the ice sheets exerted a major control on the direction and intensity of brine flow. The cryogenic concentration of seawater and the migration of brine towards the center of the glaciostatic depression occurred mainly during the build up of the ice sheet, while reversal of the water flow from the center of the cryogenic basin outwards happened upon deglaciation. The flow of the

  9. Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

  10. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  11. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  12. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging for probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.

  13. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging formore » probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.« less

  14. Mars brine formation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of water-soluble cations and anions in the Martian regolith has been the subject of speculation for some time. Viking lander data provided evidence for salt-cemented crusts on the Martian surface. If the crusts observed at the two Viking landing sites are, in fact, cemented by salts, and these crusts are globally widespread, as IRTM-derived thermal inertia studies of the Martian surface seem to suggest, then evaporite deposits, probably at least in part derived from brines, are a major component of the Martian regolith. The composition of liquid brines in the subsurface, which not only may be major agents of physical weathering but may also presently constitute a major deep subsurface liquid reservoir, is currently unconstrained by experimental work. A knowledge of the chemical identity and rate of production of Martian brines is a critical first-order step toward understanding the nature of both these fluids and their precipitated evaporites. Laboratory experiments are being conducted to determine the identity and production rate of water-soluble ions that form in initially pure liquid water in contact with Mars-mixture gases and unaltered Mars-analog minerals.

  15. Semibullvalene and diazasemibullvalene: recent advances in the synthesis, reaction chemistry, and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2015-07-21

    applications of NSBV. Several novel reaction patterns have been explored, including thermolysis, C-N bond insertion, rearrangement-cycloaddition, oxidation, and nucleophilic ring-opening reactions. Diverse and interesting N-containing polycyclic skeletons can be constructed, such as nickelaazetidine, 1,5-diazatriquinacenes, and triazabrexadienes, which are not available by other means. Our results show that NSBV not only features a rapid aza-Cope rearrangement with a low activation barrier but also acts as unique synthetic reagent that is significantly different from aziridine. The strained rigid ring systems as a whole can be involved in the reactions. Our achievements highlight two significant advances: (i) the well-established efficient synthesis and isolation of NSBV has greatly accelerated the development of NSBV chemistry, and (ii) the previously unattainable molecules have become "normal" and routine starting materials for the synthesis of otherwise unavailable but interesting structures. We expect that our pursuits will inspire and help direct future chemical and physical research on NSBV. PMID:26061608

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental chemistry is applied to estimating the exposure of ecosystems and humans to various chemical environmental stressors. Among the stressors of concern are mercury, pesticides, and arsenic. Advanced analytical chemistry techniques are used to measure these stressors ...

  17. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  18. An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

  19. Support for chemistry symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, February 17-21 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Casey

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about the

  20. SUPPORT FOR CHEMISTRY SYMPOSIA AT THE 2011 AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE MEETING FEBRUARY 17-21, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Charles Casey, University of Wisconsin-Madison

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about the

  1. Ion association in natural brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Jones, B.F.

    1969-01-01

    Natural brines, both surface and subsurface, are highly associated aqueous solutions. Ion complexes in brines may be ion pairs in which the cation remains fully hydrated and the bond between the ions is essentially electrostatic, or coordination complexes in which one or more of the hydration water molecules are replaced by covalent bonds to the anion. Except for Cl-, the major simple ions in natural brines form ion pairs; trace and minor metals in brines form mainly coordination complexes. Limitations of the Debye-Hu??ckel relations for activity coefficients and lack of data on definition and stability of all associated species in concentrated solutions tend to produce underestimates of the degree of ion association, except where the brines contain a very high proportion of Cl-. Data and calculations on closed basin brines of highly varied composition have been coupled with electrode measurements of single-ion activities in an attempt to quantify the degree of ion association. Such data emphasize the role of magnesium complexes. Trace metal contents of closed basin brines are related to complexes formed with major anions. Alkaline sulfo- or chlorocarbonate brines (western Great Basin) carry significant trace metal contents apparently as hydroxides or hydroxy polyions. Neutral high chloride brines (Bonneville Basin) are generally deficient in trace metals. With a knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of a natural water, many possible reactions with other phases (solids, gases, other liquids) may be predicted. A knowledge of these reactions is particularly important in the study of natural brines which may be saturated with many solid phases (silicates, carbonates, sulfates, etc.), which may have a high pH and bring about dissolution of other phases (silica, amphoteric hydroxides, CO2, etc.), and which because of their high density may form relatively stable interfaces with dilute waters. ?? 1969.

  2. Development of new methods and polyphosphazene chemistries for advanced materials applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindenlang, Mark D.

    The work described within this thesis focuses on the design, synthesis, and characterization of new phosphazenes with potential in advanced materials applications. Additionally, these unique polymers required the development of novel reaction methods or the investigation of new phosphazene chemistry to achieve their synthesis. Chapter 1 lays out some of the basic principles and fundamentals of polymer chemistry. Chapter 2 investigates the use of iodinated polyphosphazenes as x-ray opaque materials. Single-substituent polymers with 4-iodophenoxy or 4-iodophenylanaline ethyl ester units as the only side groups were prepared. Although a single-substitutent polymer with 3,5-diiodotyrosine ethyl ester groups was difficult to synthesize, probably because of steric hindrance, mixed-substituent polymers that contained the non-iodinated ethyl esters of glycyine, alanine, or phenylalanine plus a corresponding iodinated substituent, could be synthesized. Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to follow the substitution of side groups onto the phosphazene back bone and judge the ratio of substituents. Chapter 3 details the initial investigation into 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester and dopamine substituted polyphosphazenes that could be applied to a number of applications. L-DOPAEE was acetonide protected to prevent crosslinking reactions by the catechole functionality. Cyclic small molecule studies and macromolecular substitution reactions on the linear high polymer were conducted with the protected L-DOPA. Continuing studies into protection of the dopamine catechol have elucidated a viable method for the synthesis of amino-linked dopamine polymers. Chapter 4 describes a method for the synthesis of phosphazenes with quaternary amine complexes as potential antibacterial agents. Replacement reactions of pyridine alkoxides and chlorophosphazenes were first attempted at the small molecule level to study the reactivities of pyridine alkoxides. The formation of an

  3. Use of Protecting Groups in Carbohydrate Chemistry: An Advanced Organic Synthesis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Anna C.; Pereira, Leticia O. R.; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive three-step reaction sequence for advanced experimental organic chemistry using D-glucosamine hydrochloride as starting material for the synthesis of 2-amino-2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranose hydrochloride is described. D-Glucosamine hydrochloride is a carbohydrate derivative isolated from crab shells. It is inexpensive and readily available from most chemical companies. This reaction sequence is appropriate for teaching undergraduate students the correct use of protecting groups. This is a major concept in organic synthesis and one of the determinant factors in the successful realization of multiple-step synthetic projects. The aim of the experiment is to protect the hydroxyl groups of D-glucosamine leaving its amino group as hydrochloride salt. The experiment deals only with protection and deprotection reactions. All products are crystalline substances. The amino group of d-glucosamine hydrochloride is protected by a condensation reaction with p-methoxybenzaldehyde to produce the Schiff's base as a mixture of a- and b-anomers. The second step involves the protection of all hydroxyl groups by esterification reaction using acetic anhydride, forming the imino-tetraacetate derivative as the b-anomer. The stereospecificity of this reaction at the anomeric center is due to the voluminous imino group at C-2. Removal of the amino protection group of this derivative is the final step, which can be accomplished by a selective acid hydrolysis affording the desired peracylated D-glucosamine hydrochloride.

  4. Integrating Project-Based Service-Learning into an Advanced Environmental Chemistry Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Alison J.

    2004-02-01

    In an advanced environmental chemistry course, the inclusion of semester-long scientific service projects successfully integrated the research process with course content. Each project involved a unique community-based environmental analysis in which students assessed an aspect of environmental health. The projects were due in small pieces at even intervals, and students worked independently or in pairs. Initially, students wrote a project proposal in which they chose and justified a project. Following a literature review of their topic, they drafted sampling and analysis plans using methods in the literature. Samples were collected and analyzed, and all students assembled scientific posters describing the results of their study. In the last week of the semester, the class traveled to a regional professional meeting to present the posters. In all, students found the experience valuable. They learned to be professional environmental chemists and learned the value of the discipline to community health. Students not only learned about their own project in depth, but they were inspired to learn textbook material, not for an exam, but because it helped them understand their own project. Finally, having a community to answer to at the end of the project motivated students to do careful work.

  5. Advances in molecular quantum chemistry contained in the Q-Chem 4 program package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yihan; Gan, Zhengting; Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Gilbert, Andrew T. B.; Wormit, Michael; Kussmann, Joerg; Lange, Adrian W.; Behn, Andrew; Deng, Jia; Feng, Xintian; Ghosh, Debashree; Goldey, Matthew; Horn, Paul R.; Jacobson, Leif D.; Kaliman, Ilya; Khaliullin, Rustam Z.; Kuś, Tomasz; Landau, Arie; Liu, Jie; Proynov, Emil I.; Rhee, Young Min; Richard, Ryan M.; Rohrdanz, Mary A.; Steele, Ryan P.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Woodcock, H. Lee, III; Zimmerman, Paul M.; Zuev, Dmitry; Albrecht, Ben; Alguire, Ethan; Austin, Brian; Beran, Gregory J. O.; Bernard, Yves A.; Berquist, Eric; Brandhorst, Kai; Bravaya, Ksenia B.; Brown, Shawn T.; Casanova, David; Chang, Chun-Min; Chen, Yunqing; Chien, Siu Hung; Closser, Kristina D.; Crittenden, Deborah L.; Diedenhofen, Michael; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Do, Hainam; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Edgar, Richard G.; Fatehi, Shervin; Fusti-Molnar, Laszlo; Ghysels, An; Golubeva-Zadorozhnaya, Anna; Gomes, Joseph; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; Harbach, Philipp H. P.; Hauser, Andreas W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Holden, Zachary C.; Jagau, Thomas-C.; Ji, Hyunjun; Kaduk, Benjamin; Khistyaev, Kirill; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jihan; King, Rollin A.; Klunzinger, Phil; Kosenkov, Dmytro; Kowalczyk, Tim; Krauter, Caroline M.; Lao, Ka Un; Laurent, Adèle D.; Lawler, Keith V.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Lin, Ching Yeh; Liu, Fenglai; Livshits, Ester; Lochan, Rohini C.; Luenser, Arne; Manohar, Prashant; Manzer, Samuel F.; Mao, Shan-Ping; Mardirossian, Narbe; Marenich, Aleksandr V.; Maurer, Simon A.; Mayhall, Nicholas J.; Neuscamman, Eric; Oana, C. Melania; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; O'Neill, Darragh P.; Parkhill, John A.; Perrine, Trilisa M.; Peverati, Roberto; Prociuk, Alexander; Rehn, Dirk R.; Rosta, Edina; Russ, Nicholas J.; Sharada, Shaama M.; Sharma, Sandeep; Small, David W.; Sodt, Alexander; Stein, Tamar; Stück, David; Su, Yu-Chuan; Thom, Alex J. W.; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Vanovschi, Vitalii; Vogt, Leslie; Vydrov, Oleg; Wang, Tao; Watson, Mark A.; Wenzel, Jan; White, Alec; Williams, Christopher F.; Yang, Jun; Yeganeh, Sina; Yost, Shane R.; You, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Igor Ying; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Yan; Brooks, Bernard R.; Chan, Garnet K. L.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Goddard, William A., III; Gordon, Mark S.; Hehre, Warren J.; Klamt, Andreas; Schaefer, Henry F., III; Schmidt, Michael W.; Sherrill, C. David; Truhlar, Donald G.; Warshel, Arieh; Xu, Xin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Baer, Roi; Bell, Alexis T.; Besley, Nicholas A.; Chai, Jeng-Da; Dreuw, Andreas; Dunietz, Barry D.; Furlani, Thomas R.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Jung, Yousung; Kong, Jing; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Liang, WanZhen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Rassolov, Vitaly A.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.; Subotnik, Joseph E.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Herbert, John M.; Krylov, Anna I.; Gill, Peter M. W.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A summary of the technical advances that are incorporated in the fourth major release of the Q-Chem quantum chemistry program is provided, covering approximately the last seven years. These include developments in density functional theory methods and algorithms, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) property evaluation, coupled cluster and perturbation theories, methods for electronically excited and open-shell species, tools for treating extended environments, algorithms for walking on potential surfaces, analysis tools, energy and electron transfer modelling, parallel computing capabilities, and graphical user interfaces. In addition, a selection of example case studies that illustrate these capabilities is given. These include extensive benchmarks of the comparative accuracy of modern density functionals for bonded and non-bonded interactions, tests of attenuated second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) methods for intermolecular interactions, a variety of parallel performance benchmarks, and tests of the accuracy of implicit solvation models. Some specific chemical examples include calculations on the strongly correlated Cr2 dimer, exploring zeolite-catalysed ethane dehydrogenation, energy decomposition analysis of a charged ter-molecular complex arising from glycerol photoionisation, and natural transition orbitals for a Frenkel exciton state in a nine-unit model of a self-assembling nanotube.

  6. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  7. Water Recovery from Brine in the Short and Long Term: A KSC Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Melendez, Orlando; Anthony, Steve

    2014-01-01

    KSC has spent many years researching Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors as well as research encompassing: Alternate ammonia removal, Advanced oxidation, Brine purification technologies. KSC-ISRU has built an electrolysis cell for the removal of acids in ISRU mining brines. Our goal is to combine all such technologies.

  8. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO< sub> 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  9. Stability of brines on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brass, G. W.

    1980-04-01

    The detection of high chlorine and sulfate abundances and duricrusts on Mars strongly suggests the occasional presence of brines on the Martian surface. Ternary phase diagrams for the likely chloride and sulfate brines indicate that the minimum temperature at which a brine can be stable is near 210 K with a water concentration of approximately 70 wt % and a high concentration of calcium chloride. The dominance of sulfate over chlorine in the Martian regolith suggests precipitation of salts at temperatures higher than the minimum.

  10. Surface chemistry improvement of 100mm GaSb for advanced space based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. P.; Flint, J. P.; Meshew, G.; Trevethan, J.; Furlong, M. J.; Martinez, B.; Mobray, A.

    2012-01-01

    As size requirements and pixel viabilities for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) continue to increase, resolution and sensitivity requirements for high performance advanced imaging systems must meet or surpass stringent demands. Strain layer superlattice (SLS) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on 100mm GaSb has necessitated changes in crystal processing and finishing parameters. Device layer growth typically requires a thin (2-5 nm) and highly desorbable surface oxide on very flat substrates for successful MBE. This study compares the ability for rapid pre-epi desoprtion of three different chemo-mechanical (CMP) finishes on 100mm n:GaSb: CMP-1 with sequential double side polished (DSP), CMP-2 with sequential DSP, and CMP-2 with simultaneous double side polished (S-DSP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the improvement from a CMP-1 (Ga-oxide rich) to CMP-2 (Sb-oxide rich) surface. No difference in surface chemistry was found between the CMP-2 of the sequential vs. simultaneous DSP. Tropel flatness measurements of the 100mm n:GaSb substrates show that both DSP and SDSP substrate batches yield excellent (<5μm) wafer warp. However, initial studies have shown a more consistent wafer flatness with use of the simultaneous-DSP process. MBE growth on the Sb-rich surface was examined by high resolution XRD and resulted in a 64.7A periodicity and excellent FWHM (~20 arcsec) which verified the GaSb surface finish effectiveness. The resultant surface finish and flatness may provide a benefit for larger diameter GaSb IRFPA applications.

  11. Recent advances in the application of electron tomography to materials chemistry.

    PubMed

    Leary, Rowan; Midgley, Paul A; Thomas, John Meurig

    2012-10-16

    Nowadays, tomography plays a central role in pureand applied science, in medicine, and in many branches of engineering and technology. It entails reconstructing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an object from a tilt series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its origin goes back to 1917, when Radon showed mathematically how a series of 2D projection images could be converted to the 3D structural one. Tomographic X-ray and positron scanning for 3D medical imaging, with a resolution of ∼1 mm, is now ubiquitous in major hospitals. Electron tomography, a relatively new chemical tool, with a resolution of ∼1 nm, has been recently adopted by materials chemists as an invaluable aid for the 3D study of the morphologies, spatially-discriminating chemical compositions, and defect properties of nanostructured materials. In this Account, we review the advances that have been made in facilitating the recording of the required series of 2D electron microscopic images and the subsequent process of 3D reconstruction of specimens that are vulnerable, to a greater or lesser degree, to electron beam damage. We describe how high-fidelity 3D tomograms may be obtained from relatively few 2D images by incorporating prior structural knowledge into the reconstruction process. In particular, we highlight the vital role of compressed sensing, a recently developed procedure well-known to information theorists that exploits ideas of image compression and "sparsity" (that the important image information can be captured in a reduced data set). We also touch upon another promising approach, "discrete" tomography, which builds into the reconstruction process a prior assumption that the object can be described in discrete terms, such as the number of constituent materials and their expected densities. Other advances made recently that we outline, such as the availability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes, electron wavelength monochromators, and sophisticated specimen goniometers

  12. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  13. SURFACE CONTAINMENT FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the probability of significant releases of geothermal brine to the surface environment through unplanned or accidental events. It then evaluates the containment measures that may be used to prevent environmental damage. The results indicate that major spills ...

  14. Bridging the Cognitive-Affective Gaps: Teaching Chemistry while Advancing Affective Objectives. The Singapore Curricular Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Siang; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry teachers face constraints when trying to integrate cognitive and affective objectives, and hence thoughtful lesson planning is required to achieve the goal. Chemistry teachers can educate students to be knowledgeable about chemical concepts, processes and the benefits of responsible practice by the chemical industry, while being aware,…

  15. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  16. Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.G.; Randolph, P.L.

    1987-05-29

    On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes in gas/brine ratio or solution gas chemistry that would accompany pressure dropping below the bubble point pressure. Changes of about the same magnitude as the scatter in

  17. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  18. Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Chipman, Daniel M.; Johnson, Mark A.; Jonah, Charles D.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Miller, John H.; Rescigno, Tom; Rossky, Peter J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Colson, Steve D.; Laufer, Allan H.; Ray, Douglas; Barbara, Paul F.; Bartels, David M.; Bowen, Kit H.; Becker, Kurt H.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Carmichael, Ian; Coe, James V.; Corrales, L. Rene; Cowin, James P.; Dupuis, Michel; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.; Franz, James A.; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Jordon, Kenneth D.; Kay, Bruce D.; La Verne, Jay A.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Madey, Theodore E.; Mccurdy, C. W.; Meisel, Dan; Mukamel, Shaul; Nilsson, Anders R.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Rustad, James R.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Singer, Sherwin J.; Tokmakoff, Andrei; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Wittig, Curt; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2005-01-12

    An understanding of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and the subsequent radical chemistry these processes induce is significant in such diverse fields as waste remediation and environmental cleanup, radiation processing, nuclear reactors, and medical diagnosis and therapy. We review the state of the art in the physical chemistry and chemical physics of electron-initiated processes in aqueous systems and raise critical research issues and fundamental questions that remain unanswered.

  19. Carbon isotopic evidence for microbial control of carbon supply to Orca Basin at the brine-seawater interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. R.; Joye, S. B.; Brandes, J. A.; McNichol, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Orca Basin, an intraslope basin on the Texas-Louisiana continental slope, hosts a hypersaline, anoxic brine in its lowermost 200 m. This brine contains a large reservoir of reduced and aged carbon, and appears to be stable at decadal time scales: concentrations and the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) are similar to previous reports. Both DIC and DOC are more "aged" within the brine pool than in overlying water, and the isotopic contrast between brine carbon and seawater carbon is much greater for DIC than DOC. While the stable carbon isotopic composition of brine DIC points towards a combination of methane and organic carbon re-mineralization as its source, radiocarbon and box model results point to the brine interface as the major source region for DIC with oxidation of methane diffusing upwards from sediments supplying only limited DIC to the brine. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies reporting microbial activity focused at the seawater-brine interface. Isotopic similarities between DIC and DOC suggest a different relationship between these two carbon reservoirs than is typically observed in deep ocean basins. Radiocarbon values implicate the seawater-brine interface region as the likely source region for DOC as well as DIC. Further investigations of the seawater-brine interface are needed to advance our understanding of the specific microbial processes contributing to dissolved carbon storage in the Orca Basin brine.

  20. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  1. Free Radical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Examples from Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater from the Chemistry in Airborne Water Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, N. Colin

    1997-07-01

    Inorganic chemistry involving free radicals in aqueous solutions can be important in environmental processes. A common free radical reaction in aqueous solution is electron transfer, especially to the hydroxyl radical and to ozone. Hydrogen peroxide and free radicals related to it act as weak acids, so both their neutral and deprotonated forms must be considered in reactions. In Advanced Oxidation Processes, the hydroxyl radical concentration in water is greatly increased by reactions involving ozone and/or ultraviolet light. Irradiation of solid titanium dioxide can also be used to generate the radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are used in the Processes to initiate the oxidation of dissolved organic pollutants. Free radical reactions also play an important role in the chemistry of water droplets suspended in air in clouds and fogs. The radicals arise indirectly from the photoionization of dissolved organic compounds such as aldehydes and from the iron-catalyzed decomposition of dissolved hydrogen peroxide. They oxidize dissolved sulfur dioxide and certain organic compounds.

  2. Monitoring the chemistry and materials of the Magma binary-cycle generating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, D.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Pierce, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    This monitoring program includes studies of the following areas: chemistry of the geothermal brine, chemistry of the cooling water, corrosion of materials in both water systems, scale formation, suspended solids in th brine, and methods and instruments to monitor corrosion and chemistry. (MHR)

  3. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  4. Advanced modelling of the multiphase DMS chemistry with the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Oceans are the general emitter of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the major natural sulphur source (Andreae, 1990), and cover approximately 70 % of earth's surface. The main DMS oxidation products are SO2, H2SO4 and methyl sulfonic acid (MSA). Hence, DMS is very important for formation of non-sea salt sulphate (nss SO42-) aerosols and secondary particulate matter and thus global climate. Despite many previous model studies, there are still important knowledge gaps, especially in aqueous phase DMS chemistry, of its atmospheric fate (Barnes et al., 2006). Therefore, a comprehensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0 (DM1.0), has been developed. The DM1.0 includes 103 gas phase reactions, 5 phase transfers and 54 aqueous phase reactions. It was coupled with the multiphase chemistry mechanism MCMv3.2/CAPRAM4.0α (Rickard et al., 2015; Bräuer et al., 2016) and the extended CAPRAM halogen module 2.1 (HM2.1, Bräuer et al., 2013) for investigation of multiphase DMS oxidation in the marine boundary layer. Then, a pristine ocean scenario was simulated using the air parcel model SPACCIM (Wolke et al., 2005) including 8 non-permanent cloud passages - 4 at noon and 4 at midnight. This allows the investigation of the influence of deliquesced particles and clouds on multiphase DMS chemistry during both daytime and nighttime conditions as well as under cloud formation and evaporation. To test the influence of various subsystems on multiphase DMS chemistry different sensitivity runs were performed. Investigations of multiphase chemistry of DMS and its important oxidation products were done using concentration-time profiles and detailed time-resolved reaction flux analyses. The model studies revealed the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its oxidation products. Overall about 7.0% of DMS is effectively oxidised by O3 in the aqueous phase of clouds. The simulations revealed the importance of halogen and aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its

  5. Magnesium isotopic fractionation between Mg salts and brine in the course of evaporation of marine derived brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Netta; Lazar, Boaz; Halicz, Ludwik; Ittai, Gavrieli

    2014-05-01

    The Mg isotopic compositions (δ26Mg) of seawater-derived-brines and Mg-salts that precipitate from such brines during the course of evaporation were measured in laboratory experiments, in Mg-salts from the geological record and in the Dead Sea brine system. Mg evaporites are one of the sink fluxes in the global Mg geochemical cycle and play an important role in the evolution of hypersaline water bodies during the Phanerozoic including the modern Dead Sea and its predecessors, from the Pliocene Sedom Lagoon to the Late Pleistocene brine lakes1,2. The advanced evaporative evolution of marine derived brines includes precipitation of a series of Mg minerals3: epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O), hexahydrite (MgSO4·6H2O), kieserite (MgSO4·H2O), kainite (MgSO4KCl·3H2O), carnallite (KMgCl3·6H2O), bischofite (MgCl2·6H2O) and in some cases polyhalite (K2MgCa2(SO4)4·2H2O). To the best of our knowledge, just two Mg isotopic fractionation factors between Mg salts and brines (Δ26Mgsalt-brine) were determined up to date: the equilibrium fractionation between epsomite and MgSO4 solution was found to be about 0.6o4 and the fractionation between carnallite and Dead Sea brine was found to be 0.6o,5. Here we provide Mg isotope fractionation factors based on δ26Mg measurement in brines and precipitating Mg-salts during the evaporation path of seawater. The sequence of Mg salts precipitated in our evaporation experiments was as follows: Mg-sulfate salts started to precipitate at Li scale degree of evaporation (DELi) of >50. The next salts to precipitate were Mg-K-sulfate salts at DELi ≡90, followed by Mg-K-chloride salts at DELi >150 and by Mg-chloride salt at DELi=195 (the end of the experiment). Our isotopic measurements show that Mg isotopes fractionate significantly and in different directions depending on the Mg mineral phase. The Δ26Mgsalt-brine for carnallite was greater than 0.6o and the Δ26Mgsalt-brine for kainite was about -1.2o. These results were corroborated by the δ26Mg

  6. On the physics, chemistry and toxicology of ultrafine anthropogenic, atmospheric aerosols (UAAA): new advances.

    PubMed

    Spurny, K R

    1998-08-01

    The existing data about the epidemiology, toxicology, physics and chemistry of atmospheric particulate pollutants were recently essentially completed and extended. They do support the hypothesis that the fine and very fine dispersed fraction of the atmospheric anthropogenic aerosols (UAAA) are responsible for the aggravation of the health risk potential of the polluted atmosphere during the last decade. The recently published data dealing primarily with the physics, chemistry, sampling and analysis of these highly dispersed particulate air pollutants are reviewed, summarized and critically evaluated. PMID:9820675

  7. Recent Advances in chemistry and pharmacology of 2-methoxyestradiol: An anticancer investigational drug.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Sathish; Raghuvanshi, Dushyant Singh; Hasanain, Mohammad; Alam, Sarfaraz; Sarkar, Jayanta; Mitra, Kalyan; Khan, Feroz; Negi, Arvind S

    2016-06-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2), an estrogen hormone metabolite is a potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Presently, it is an investigational drug under various phases of clinical trials alone or in combination therapy. Its anticancer activity has been attributed to its antitubulin, antiangiogenic, pro-apoptotic and ROS induction properties. This anticancer drug candidate has been explored extensively in last twenty years for its detailed chemistry and pharmacology. Present review is an update of its chemistry and biological activity. It also extends an assessment of potential of 2ME2 and its analogues as possible anticancer drug in future. PMID:27020471

  8. Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchini, Jean-francois; Khaing, Hnin; Reed, Donald T

    2010-01-01

    When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

  9. Solubility of Nd in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Khalili, F.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl{sub 2}, with an ionic strength of 7.8M (9.4m). The experimental solubility is much less than that estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. The predominant solid compound of Nd (III) at each pcH was determined from X-ray diffraction patterns.

  10. Green Oxidation of Menthol Enantiomers and Analysis by Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: An Advanced Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, H. Cristina; Donohoe, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry addresses environmental concerns associated with chemical processes and increases awareness of possible harmful effects of chemical reagents. Efficient reactions that eliminate or reduce the use of organic solvents or toxic reagents are increasingly available. A two-week experiment is reported that entails the calcium hypochlorite…

  11. Advanced Chemistry for Operators. Training Module 1.321.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with inorganic and general organic chemistry as applied to water and wastewater treatment. Included are objectives, instructor guides, and student handouts. The module contains material related to chemical reactions in water solutions,…

  12. Exploring Interactive and Dynamic Simulations Using a Computer Algebra System in an Advanced Placement Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumoto, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the use of Mathematica, a computer algebra system (CAS), in a high school chemistry course. Mathematica was used to generate a graph, where a slider controls the value of parameter(s) in the equation; thus, students can visualize the effect of the parameter(s) on the behavior of the system. Also, Mathematica can show the…

  13. Green, Enzymatic Syntheses of Divanillin and Diapocynin for the Organic, Biochemistry, or Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Rachel T.; Giammanco, Chiara H.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally benign chemistry is an increasingly important topic both in the classroom and the laboratory. In this experiment, students synthesize divanillin from vanillin or diapocynin from apocynin, using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide in water. The dimerized products form rapidly at ambient temperature and are isolated by…

  14. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J.; Belski, D.S.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  15. Geophysical imaging reveals brine system beneath an ice-sealed Antarctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, H.; Doran, P. T.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Mikucki, J.; Arcone, S. A.; Auken, E.; Schamper, C.; Virginia, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The habitability of polar desert environments on Earth, and other neighboring planets, is dependent on the availability of liquid water. In areas where the surface is frozen, lenses of water present in the subsurface may act as microbial refugia. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, the presence of highly saline brine in valley lakes raises the potential for the existence of a deep groundwater network. We report on a geophysical study that shows Lake Vida, in Victoria Valley, is nearly frozen, and the remaining brine is confined beneath thick ice. Near surface, bathymetric mapping of grounded lake ice was accomplished from a series of ground penetrating radar surveys. Radar penetration was limited to 20 m. An airborne transient electromagnetic survey (AEM) revealed a low resistivity zone at 30-100 m depth beneath the surface of the lake. Based on previous knowledge of brine chemistry and local geology, this zone is interpreted as brine saturated unconsolidated sediments with a porosity of 23-42%. Brine volume is calculated at 15 to 32 million cubic meters, which is of similar magnitude to the brine volume in nearby saline lakes. The AEM survey provided a means of quantifying the spatial extent of deep subsurface brine in this remote environment, and has provided a new perspective on the potential for subsurface habitats in areas often considered devoid of life.

  16. NICE3: Textile Brine Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate the significant energy and waste savings that can be realized by using nanofiltration technology to reuse textile dyebath brines. Read this new fact sheet to learn how this new membrane technology can benefit your business.

  17. Isotopic and geochemical characterization of fossil brines of the Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton-Galesville Formation from the Illinois Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.; Freiburg, Jared T.

    2015-09-01

    Geochemical and isotopic characteristics of deep-seated saline groundwater provide valuable insight into the origin and evolving composition, water-rock interaction, and mixing potential of fossil brines. Such information may yield insight into intra- and interbasinal brine movement and relationships between brine evolution and regional groundwater flow systems. This investigation reports on the δ18O and δD composition and activity values, 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations, and major ion concentrations of the Cambrian-hosted brines of the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Ironton-Galesville Formation and discusses the evolution of these brines as they relate to other intracontinental brines. Brines in the Illinois Basin are dominated by Na-Ca-Cl-type chemistry. The Mt. Simon and overlying Ironton-Galesville brines exhibit total dissolved solids concentrations of ∼195,000 mg/L and ∼66,270 mg/L, respectively. The δD of brine composition of the Mt. Simon ranges from -34‰ to -22‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton-Galesville is ∼-53.2‰ (V-SMOW). The δ18O composition of the Mt. Simon brine ranges from -5.0‰ to -2.8‰ (V-SMOW), and the Ironton-Galesville brine is ∼-6.9‰ (V-SMOW). The 87Sr/86Sr values in the Mt. Simon brine range from 0.7110 to 0.7116. The less radiogenic Ironton-Galesville brine has an average 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.7107. Evaluation of δ18O and δD composition and activities and 87Sr/86Sr ratios suggests that the Mt. Simon brine is likely connate seawater and recirculating deep-seated brines that have been diluted with meteoric water and influenced by the dissolution of evaporites with a minimal halite contribution based on Cl/Br ratios. The Ironton-Galesville brine is also likely originally connate seawater that mixed with other brines and meteoric waters, including possibly Pleistocene glacial recharge. The Ca-excess vs. Na-deficiency comparison with the Basinal Fluid Line suggests the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville brines have been

  18. Supramolecular Chemistry and Mechanochemistry of Macromolecules: Recent Advances by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Cui, Shuxun

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was invented in the 1990s. Since then, SMFS has been developed into a powerful tool to study the inter- and intra-molecular interactions of macromolecules. Using SMFS, a number of problems in the field of supramolecular chemistry and mechanochemistry have been studied at the single-molecule level, which are not accessible by traditional ensemble characterization methods. In this review, the principles of SMFS are introduced, followed by the discussion of several problems of contemporary interest at the interface of supramolecular chemistry and mechanochemistry of macromolecules, including single-chain elasticity of macromolecules, interactions between water and macromolecules, interactions between macromolecules and solid surface, and the interactions in supramolecular polymers. PMID:25860255

  19. Recent advances in crosslinking chemistry of biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The design and application of biomimetic hydrogels have become an important and integral part of modern tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Many of these hydrogels are prepared from synthetic macromers (e.g., poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG) as they provide high degrees of tunability for matrix crosslinking, degradation, and modification. For a hydrogel to be considered biomimetic, it has to recapitulate key features that are found in the native extracellular matrix, such as the appropriate matrix mechanics and permeability, the ability to sequester and deliver drugs, proteins, and or nucleic acids, as well as the ability to provide receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions and protease-mediated matrix cleavage. A variety of chemistries have been employed to impart these biomimetic features into hydrogel crosslinking. These chemistries, such as radical-mediated polymerizations, enzyme-mediated crosslinking, bio-orthogonal click reactions, and supramolecular assembly, may be different in their crosslinking mechanisms but are required to be efficient for gel crosslinking and ligand bioconjugation under aqueous reaction conditions. The prepared biomimetic hydrogels should display a diverse array of functionalities and should also be cytocompatible for in vitro cell culture and/or in situ cell encapsulation. The focus of this article is to review recent progress in the crosslinking chemistries of biomimetic hydrogels with a special emphasis on hydrogels crosslinked from poly(ethylene glycol)-based macromers. PMID:26029357

  20. Recent advances in the chemistry of Rh carbenoids: multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, J. J.; Nikolaev, V. A.

    2015-07-01

    Multicomponent reactions of diazo compounds catalyzed by RhII complexes become a powerful tool for organic synthesis. They enable three- or four-step processes to be carried out as one-pot procedures (actually as one step) with high stereoselectivity to give complex organic molecules, including biologically active compounds. This review addresses recent results in the chemistry of Rh-catalyzed multicomponent reactions of diazocarbonyl compounds with the intermediate formation of N-, O- and C=O-ylides. The diastereo- and enantioselectivity of these reactions and the possibility of using various co-catalysts to increase the efficiency of the processes under consideration are discussed. The bibliography includes 120 references.

  1. Advances in nanoscale alloys and intermetallics: low temperature solution chemistry synthesis and application in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Jana, Subhra

    2015-11-21

    Based on the bottom-up chemistry techniques, the size, shape, and composition controlled synthesis of nanoparticles can now be achieved uniformly, which is of great importance to the nanoscience community as well as in modern catalysis research. The low-temperature solution-phase synthesis approach represents one of the most attractive strategies and has been utilized to synthesize nanoscale metals, alloys and intermetallics, including a number of new metastable phases. This perspective will highlight the solution-based nanoparticle synthesis techniques, a low-temperature platform, for the synthesis of size and shape-tunable nanoscale transition metals, alloys, and intermetallics from the literature, keeping a focus on the utility of these nanomaterials in understanding the catalysis. For each solution-based nanoparticle synthesis technique, a comprehensive overview has been given for the reported nanoscale metals, alloys, and intermetallics, followed by critical comments. Finally, their enhanced catalytic activity and durability as novel catalysts have been discussed towards several hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions and also for different inorganic to organic reactions. Hence, the captivating advantages of this controllable low-temperature solution chemistry approach have several important implications and together with them this approach provides a promising route to the development of next-generation nanostructured metals, alloys, and intermetallics since they possess fascinating properties as well as outstanding catalytic activity. PMID:26477400

  2. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  3. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to life support consumables. The project assessed the use of ion-exchange resins to selectively remove salts from wastewater treatment brines. The resins were then regenerated for additional use. The intention would be to generate a Na/K and CI rich or purified brine that would then be processed into high value chemicals, such as acids, bases, and/or bleach.

  4. Recovery of base materials from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Duyvesteyn, W.P.C.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for the recovery of substantially pure Zn from a reservoir of geothermal brine confined under pressure at elevated temperature at subterranean levels, the brine also containing recoverable and mounts of lead and silver which comprises: tapping and bringing to the earth's surface a portion of the geothermal brine; allowing the brine to flash at atmospheric pressure to produce steam for use in the generation of electrical power; cooling the flashed brine; extracting Pb and Ag from the brine by cementation by adding a metal selected from the group consisting of Zn, Fe and Al to the cooled brine, removing the cemented Pb and Ag from the brine by solid/liquid separation; mixing the brine impoverished in the Pb and Ag with a substantially immiscible anionic solvent selective to the extraction of Zn to produce a spent brine and a Zn loaded anionic extractant; the anionic solvent being dissolved in a diluent of water immiscible organic solvent, recycling the spent brine to the reservoir of geothermal brine; subjecting the Zn-loaded anionic extractant to mixing with an aqueous solution to produce a Zn-loaded aqueous Zn chloride solution, separating the Zn-loaded aqueous solution from the anionic extractant, adjusting the pH of the Zn-containing aqueous solution, if necessary, to a pH sufficient to promote the separation of the Zn by cationic extraction, subjecting the Zn-loaded aqueous solution to extraction with a cationic solvent selective to Zn; the cationic solvent being dissolved in a diluent of a water-immiscible organic solvent, stripping the Zn from the loaded cationic extractant using a sulfuric acid electrolyte solution, the volume ratio of the cationic solvent to the sulfuric acid solution being such as to provide a Zn electrolyte solution of Zn concentration sufficient for the recovery of Zn therefrom, and then electrowinning the Zn from the electrolyte solution to provide a product of substantially pure Zn.

  5. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, J.H.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  6. The accelerated testing of cements in brines

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Cementitious materials may be employed in settings where they face prolonged exposure to Mg-rich brines. This study evaluated the possibility of using high temperatures to accelerate brine-cement reaction rates. Class-H cement coupons were tested in Mg-K-Na-C1- SO{sub 4} brines to 100{degrees}C. MgC1{sub 2}-NaC1 solutions were also employed in a test sequence that extended to 200{degrees}C. It was found that accelerated testing could be used successfully to evaluate the compatability of cementitious materials with such brines.

  7. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  8. Advancing the Chemistry of CuWO4 for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, Charles R; Bartlett, Bart M

    2016-06-21

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells are an ongoing area of exploration that provide a means of converting solar energy into a storable chemical form (molecular bonds). In particular, using PEC cells to drive the water splitting reaction to obtain H2 could provide a clean and sustainable route to convert solar energy into chemical fuels. Since the discovery of catalytic water splitting on TiO2 photoelectrodes by Fujishima and Honda, significant efforts have been directed toward developing high efficiency metal oxides to use as photocatalysts for this reaction. Improving the efficiency of PEC cells requires developing chemically stable, and highly catalytic anodes for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER). This water oxidation half reaction requires four protons and four electrons coupling in two bond making steps to form O2, which limits the rate. Our group has accelerated efforts in CuWO4 as a candidate for PEC OER chemistry. Its small band gap of 2.3 eV allows for using visible light to drive OER, and the reaction proceeds with a high degree of chemoselectivity, even in the presence of more kinetically accessible anions such as chloride, which is common to seawater. Furthermore, CuWO4 is a chemically robust material when subjected to the highly oxidizing conditions of PEC OER. The next steps for accelerating research using this (and other), ternary phase oxides, is to move beyond reporting the basic PEC measurements to understanding fundamental chemical reaction mechanisms operative during OER on semiconductor surfaces. In this Account, we outline the process for PEC OER on CuWO4 thin films with emphasis on the chemistry of this reaction, the reaction rate and selectivity (determined by controlled-potential coulometry and oxygen-detection experiments). We discuss key challenges with CuWO4 such as slow kinetics and the presence of an OER-mediating mid-gap state, probed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We propose that this mid-gap state imparts the observed

  9. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent

  10. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation

  11. Exploring Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry with Advanced High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Particle Imaging Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizkorodov, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical complexity of atmospheric aerosols presents significant challenges both to experimentalists working on aerosol characterization and to modelers trying to parameterize critical aerosol properties. Multi-modal approaches that combine state-of-the-art experimental, theoretical, and modeling methods are becoming increasingly important in aerosol research. This presentation will discuss recent applications of unique high-resolution mass spectrometry and particle imaging tools developed at two Department of Energy's user facilities, the Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) and Advanced Light Source (ALS), to studies of molecular composition, photochemical aging, and properties of laboratory-generated and field aerosols. Specifically, this presentation will attempt to address the following questions: (a) how do NO2, SO2, and NH3 affect molecular level composition of anthropogenic aerosols?; (b) what factors determine viscosity/surface tension of organic aerosol particles?; (c) how does photolysis affect molecular composition and optical properties of organic aerosols?

  12. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  13. Stratospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, W.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Advances in stratospheric chemistry made by investigators in the United States from 1987 to 1990 are reviewed. Subject areas under consideration include photochemistry of the polar stratosphere, photochemistry of the global stratosphere, and assessments of inadvertent modification of the stratosphere by anthropogenic activity. Particular attention is given to early observations and theories, gas phase chemistry, Antarctic observations, Arctic observations, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen, odd-nitrogen, halogens, aerosols, modeling of stratospheric ozone, and reactive nitrogen effects.

  14. Review of old chemistry and new catalytic advances in the on-purpose synthesis of butadiene.

    PubMed

    Makshina, Ekaterina V; Dusselier, Michiel; Janssens, Wout; Degrève, Jan; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2014-11-21

    Increasing demand for renewable feedstock-based chemicals is driving the interest of both academic and industrial research to substitute petrochemicals with renewable chemicals from biomass-derived resources. The search towards novel platform chemicals is challenging and rewarding, but the main research activities are concentrated on finding efficient pathways to produce familiar drop-in chemicals and polymer building blocks. A diversity of industrially important monomers like alkenes, conjugated dienes, unsaturated carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds are thus targeted from renewable feedstock. In this context, on-purpose production of 1,3-butadiene from biomass-derived feedstock is an interesting example as its production is under pressure by uncertainty of the conventional fossil feedstock. Ethanol, obtained via fermentation or (biomass-generated) syngas, can be converted to butadiene, although there is no large commercial activity today. Though practised on a large scale in the beginning of the 20th century, there is a growing worldwide renewed interest in the butadiene-from-ethanol route. An alternative route to produce butadiene from biomass is through direct carbohydrate and gas fermentation or indirectly via the dehydration of butanediols. This review starts with a brief discussion on the different feedstock possibilities to produce butadiene, followed by a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge regarding advances and achievements in the field of the chemocatalytic conversion of ethanol and butanediols to butadiene, including thermodynamics and kinetic aspects of the reactions with discussions on the reaction pathways and the type of catalysts developed. PMID:24993100

  15. Development of Advanced In-Situ Techniques for Chemistry Monitoring and Corrosion Mitigation in SCWO Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, D. D.; Lvov, S. N.

    2000-03-31

    This project is developing sensing technologies and corrosion monitoring techniques for use in super critical water oxidation (SCWO) systems to reduce the volume of mixed low-level nuclear waste by oxidizing organic components in a closed cycle system where CO2 and other gaseous oxides are produced, leaving the radioactive elements concentrated in ash. The technique uses water at supercritical temperatures under highly oxidized conditions by maintaining a high fugacity of molecular oxygen in the system, which causes high corrosion rates of even the most corrosive resistant reactor materials. This project significantly addresses the high corrosion shortcoming through development of (a) advanced electrodes and sensors for in situ potentiometric monitoring of pH in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous solutions, (b) an approach for evaluating the association constants for 1-1 aqueous electrolytes using a flow-through electrochemical thermocell; (c) an electrochemical noise sensor for the in situ measurement of corrosion rate in subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems; (d) a model for estimating the effect of pressure on reaction rates, including corrosion reactions, in high subcritical and supercritical aqueous systems. The project achieved all objectives, except for installing some of the sensors into a fully operating SCWO system.

  16. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  17. Effects of the West Desert Pumping Project on Near-Surface Brine Resources in the Newfoundland Basin, Tooele and Box Elder Counties, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. W.; Jones, B. F.; Kohler, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Geological Survey have identified changes in Newfoundland Basin shallow-brine aquifer chemistry that resulted from pumping Great Salt Lake brine into the Newfoundland Evaporation Basin during the West Desert pumping project. The pumping project was operated by the State of Utah from April 1987, to June 1989 in an attempt to lower the historically high level of Great Salt Lake (pond elevation was 4,211.85 feet in 1986). Effects of the pumping on the Newfoundland Basin included altering the chemical character of the shallow brine aquifer by mixing two chemically different brines, and depositing a halite salt crust where none was previously reported on the lacustrine sediments of the Newfoundland Basin playa. The halite salt crust resulted from evaporation of the brine pond generated by the pumping project. Changes in the shallow-brine aquifer chemistry were determined by comparing pre-pumping brine chemistry with that of post pumping brine, and examining variation with borehole depth and location (i.e., playa periphery vs central basin topographic low) of specific analyte concentration profiles and solid-phase mineral assemblages obtained from analyses of core sample pore water and mineralogy. Brine sample analyses from 72 exploratory boreholes drilled in the Newfoundland Basin by Reynolds Metals Company during the mid 1960's provided pre-pumping brine chemistry. Post pumping chemistry was obtained from analyses of brine samples from 24 boreholes hand-augured between 1998 and 2001 in the central and peripheral portions of the Newfoundland Basin. TEQUIL, a brine equilibrium model, was used to better understand how the Great Salt Lake brines introduced into the Newfoundland Basin may have interacted with fluids contained within the Basin's shallow-brine aquifer. TEQUIL identified the sequence of mineral precipitation from evaporation of pre and post-pumping Newfoundland Basin shallow-aquifer fluids and Great Salt Lake brine. The

  18. A Low-order Coupled Chemistry Meteorology Model for Testing Online and Offline Advanced Data Assimilation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocquet, M.; Haussaire, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bocquet and Sakov have recently introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of thechaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with thetransport of a tracer species advected by this wind field. It has been used to testadvanced data assimilation methods with an online model that couples meteorology andtracer transport. In the present study, the tracer subsystem of the model is replacedwith a reduced photochemistry module meant to emulate reactive air pollution. Thiscoupled chemistry meteorology model, the L95-GRS model, mimics continental andtranscontinental transport and photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds andnitrogen dioxides.The L95-GRS is specially useful in testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as theiterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) that combines the best of ensemble andvariational methods. The model provides useful insights prior to any implementation ofthe data assimilation method on larger models. For instance, online and offline dataassimilation strategies based on the ensemble Kalman filter or the IEnKS can easily beevaluated with it. It allows to document the impact of species concentration observationson the wind estimation. The model also illustrates a long standing issue in atmosphericchemistry forecasting: the impact of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical speciesnon-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the selected data assimilation approach.

  19. A model for the evolution of brines in salt from the lower Salado Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L. )

    1988-05-01

    Fluid inclusions were collected from a bedded salt horizon in the lower Permian Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. The sampling horizon, at a depth of approximately 645 meters, consists primarily of recrystallized halite, with thin layers of anhydrite. Other trace minerals, dispersed throughout the salt, include quartz, polyhalite, gypsum, K-feldspar, magnesite, and clays. The chemistry of the inclusion fluids and the associated mineralogy suggest that these brines represent Permian seawater that has undergone evaporation and subsequent modification by diagenetic reactions, dominated by the alteration of calcium sulfate to polyhalite and magnesite formation. The range of fluid inclusion compositions suggests a significant departure from a simple seawater evaporation model. Other brines from the same horizon in the Salado Formation were sampled and analyzed for the same elements as the fluid inclusions, and differed significantly from them primarily by the depletion of Mg relative to K. The association of these brines with argillaceous and/or anhydritic halite containing a suite of authigenic minerals (quartz, magnesite, and Mg-rich clays) suggests that these are intergranular brines with compositions determined over a much longer time scale than that required by the fluid inclusions. The principal reactions affecting intergranular brine chemistry are dehydration of gypsum, dewatering of detrital clays, and uptake of Mg during clay diagenesis. Overall, the observed variation in brine compositions implies that, if large-scale hydrologic circulation is occurring in the Salado halite, the time scale is limited by the rate required for low-temperature silicate diagenesis.

  20. Water Recovery from Brines to Further Close the Water Recovery Loop in Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin E.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Shull, Sarah A.; Carter, D. Layne

    2014-01-01

    Further closure of water recovery systems will be necessary for future long duration human exploration missions. NASA's Space Technology Roadmap for Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems specified a milestone to advance water management technologies during the 2015 to 2019 timeframe to achieve 98% H2O recovery from a mixed wastewater stream containing condensate, urine, hygiene, laundry, and water derived from waste. This goal can only be achieved by either reducing the amount of brines produced by a water recovery system or by recovering water from wastewater brines. NASA convened a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) on the topic of Water Recovery from Brines (WRB) that was held on January14-15th, 2014 at Johnson Space Center. Objectives of the TIM were to review systems and architectures that are sources of brines and the composition of brines they produce, review the state of the art in NASA technology development and perspectives from other industries, capture the challenges and difficulties in developing brine processing hardware, identify key figures of merit and requirements to focus technology development and evaluate candidate technologies, and identify other critical issues including microgravity sensitivity, and concepts of operation, safety. This paper represents an initial summary of findings from the workshop.

  1. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  2. An Evaluation of Geopressured Brine Injectability

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-12-16

    We-have developed an apparatus with a capability for evaluating geopressured brine injectability at elevated pressures and temperatures. The apparatus utilizes membrane filters as injection zone reservoir analogs and permits injectability tests to be performed in accordance with Barkman and Davidson Methdology. A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22-25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-{micro}m and 10.0-{micro}m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130{degree}C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and raw (untreated) brine were evaluated. Test results indicated raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  3. Lithium brines: A global perspective: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munk, LeeAnn; Hynek, Scott; Bradley, Dwight C.; Boutt, David; Labay, Keith A.; Jochens, Hillary

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is a critical and technologically important element that has widespread use, particularly in batteries for hybrid cars and portable electronic devices. Global demand for lithium has been on the rise since the mid-1900s and is projected to continue to increase. Lithium is found in three main deposit types: (1) pegmatites, (2) continental brines, and (3) hydrothermally altered clays. Continental brines provide approximately three-fourths of the world’s Li production due to their relatively low production cost. The Li-rich brine systems addressed here share six common characteristics that provide clues to deposit genesis while also serving as exploration guidelines. These are as follows: (1) arid climate; (2) closed basin containing a salar (salt crust), a salt lake, or both; (3) associated igneous and/or geothermal activity; (4) tectonically driven subsidence; (5) suitable lithium sources; and (6) sufficient time to concentrate brine. Two detailed case studies of Li-rich brines are presented; one on the longest produced lithium brine at Clayton Valley, Nevada, and the other on the world’s largest producing lithium brine at the Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  4. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  5. Evaporative Evolution of Carbonate-Rich Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, M; Alai, M; Carroll, S A

    2004-04-14

    The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol%SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

  6. Feasibility study of using brine for carbon dioxide capture and storage from fixed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Dziedzic; Kenneth B. Gross; Robert A. Gorski; John T. Johnson

    2006-12-15

    A laboratory-scale reactor was developed to evaluate the capture of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from a gas into a liquid as an approach to control greenhouse gases emitted from fixed sources. CO{sub 2} at 5-50% concentrations was passed through a gas-exchange membrane and transferred into liquid media - tap water or simulated brine. When using water, capture efficiencies exceeded 50% and could be enhanced by adding base (e.g., sodium hydroxide) or the combination of base and carbonic anhydrase, a catalyst that speeds the conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonic acid. The transferred CO{sub 2} formed ions, such as bicarbonate or carbonate, depending on the amount of base present. Adding precipitating cations, like Ca{sup ++}, produced insoluble carbonate salts. Simulated brine proved nearly as efficient as water in absorbing CO{sub 2}, with less than a 6% reduction in CO{sub 2} transferred. The CO{sub 2} either dissolved into the brine or formed a mixture of gas and ions. If the chemistry was favorable, carbonate precipitate spontaneously formed. Energy expenditure of pumping brine up and down from subterranean depths was modeled. We concluded that using brine in a gas-exchange membrane system for capturing CO{sub 2} from a gas stream to liquid is technically feasible and can be accomplished at a reasonable expenditure of energy. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs., 1 app.

  7. Experimental and simulation studies of pore scale flow and reactive transport associated with supercritical CO2 injection into brine-filled reservoir rocks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Steefel, C. I.; Bourg, I. C.

    2013-12-01

    This talk will review recent research relating to pore scale reactive transport effects done in the context of the Department of Energy-sponsored Energy Frontier Research Center led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with several other laboratory and University partners. This Center, called the Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC) has focused effort on the behavior of supercritical CO2 being injected into and/or residing as capillary trapped-bubbles in sandstone and shale, with particular emphasis on the description of nanoscale to pore scale processes that could provide the basis for advanced simulations. In general, simulation of reservoir-scale behavior of CO2 sequestration assumes a number of mostly qualitative relationships that are defensible as nominal first-order descriptions of single-fluid systems, but neglect the many complications that are associated with a two-phase or three-phase reactive system. The contrasts in properties, and the mixing behavior of scCO2 and brine provide unusual conditions for water-rock interaction, and the NCGC has investigated the underlying issues by a combination of approaches including theoretical and experimental studies of mineral nucleation and growth, experimental studies of brine films, mineral wetting properties, dissolution-precipitation rates and infiltration patterns, molecular dynamic simulations and neutron scattering experiments of fluid properties for fluid confined in nanopores, and various approaches to numerical simulation of reactive transport processes. The work to date has placed new constraints on the thickness of brine films, and also on the wetting properties of CO2 versus brine, a property that varies between minerals and with salinity, and may also change with time as a result of the reactivity of CO2-saturated brine. Mineral dissolution is dependent on reactive surface area, which can be shown to vary by a large factor for various minerals, especially when correlated with

  8. Genetic algorithms and genetic programming for multiscale modeling: Applications in materials science and chemistry and advances in scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, Kumara Narasimha

    2007-03-01

    Effective and efficient rnultiscale modeling is essential to advance both the science and synthesis in a, wide array of fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science; biology, biotechnology and pharmacology. This study investigates the efficacy and potential of rising genetic algorithms for rnultiscale materials modeling and addresses some of the challenges involved in designing competent algorithms that solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. In particular, this thesis demonstrates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and genetic programming (GP) in multiscale modeling with the help of two non-trivial case studies in materials science and chemistry. The first case study explores the utility of genetic programming (GP) in multi-timescaling alloy kinetics simulations. In essence, GP is used to bridge molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods to span orders-of-magnitude in simulation time. Specifically, GP is used to regress symbolically an inline barrier function from a limited set of molecular dynamics simulations to enable kinetic Monte Carlo that simulate seconds of real time. Results on a non-trivial example of vacancy-assisted migration on a surface of a face-centered cubic (fcc) Copper-Cobalt (CuxCo 1-x) alloy show that GP predicts all barriers with 0.1% error from calculations for less than 3% of active configurations, independent of type of potentials used to obtain the learning set of barriers via molecular dynamics. The resulting method enables 2--9 orders-of-magnitude increase in real-time dynamics simulations taking 4--7 orders-of-magnitude less CPU time. The second case study presents the application of multiobjective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) in multiscaling quantum chemistry simulations. Specifically, MOGAs are used to bridge high-level quantum chemistry and semiempirical methods to provide accurate representation of complex molecular excited-state and ground-state behavior. Results on ethylene and benzene---two common

  9. Improved Rare Earth Element Sorption from Simulated Geothermal Brines: Effect of Gassed versus Degassed Brines

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dean Stull

    2016-05-24

    A study exploring sorption and stripping characteristics of sorption media when simulated geothermal brines are degassed or not degassed. Experiments were done at 70°C. The brines used in this study were formulated by Tusaar. The two brines used/simulated are labeled 1M and 1CF. The data consists of a Word file explaining the results and an Excel file of the data.

  10. Development and Implementation of a Series of Laboratory Field Trips for Advanced High School Students to Connect Chemistry to Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Katherine B.; Padwa, Linda; Shen, Xiaoqi; Bazargan, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the content and organization of a series of day-long field trips to a university for high school students that connect chemistry content to issues of sustainability. The seven laboratory activities are in the areas of environmental degradation, energy production, and green chemistry. The laboratory procedures have been modified from…

  11. When Is a Molecule Three Dimensional? A Task-Specific Role for Imagistic Reasoning in Advanced Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Imagistic reasoning appears to be a critical strategy for learning and problem solving in the sciences, particularly chemistry; however, little is known about how students use imagistic reasoning on genuine assessment tasks in chemistry. The present study employed a think-aloud protocol to explore when and how students use imagistic reasoning for…

  12. EPA Green Chemistry Advances

    EPA Science Inventory

    As an invited speaker, Dr. Leazer will deliver a plenary lecture and participate in a panel discussion at the 2013 AIChE National Meeting in San Francisco, CA. AIChE has embraced sustainability and is looking for guidance and leadership in building their sustainability program. ...

  13. Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Osif, T.L.

    1985-08-01

    Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

  14. Synthesis of a Partially Protected Azidodeoxy Sugar. A Project Suitable for the Advanced Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Peter; Freeze, Scott; Gabriel, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The synthetic chemistry of carbohydrates provides a wealth of possible experiments for the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. However, few appropriate examples have been developed to date. With this simple two-step synthesis of a partially protected azidodeoxy sugar, we demonstrate several important concepts introduced in undergraduate chemistry (alcohol activation, steric hindrance, nucleophilic substitution) while offering products that are readily amenable to analysis by high field NMR. Students are exposed to techniques such as monitoring reactions by TLC, workup of reaction mixtures, and isolation by flash chromatography. Suitable methods for analysis of products include NMR, IR, MS, and polarimetry.

  15. Chemical Characterization of Brines from Selected Oil Fields, Tabasco, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ortiz, B.; Carrillo-Chavez, A.; Tritlla, J.; Levresse, G.; Gonzalez-Partida, E.; Oviedo-Perez, A.; Martinez-Kepm, H.; Gonzalez-Posadas, F.; Clara-Valdes, L.

    2004-12-01

    Thirteen brine samples were recovered from nine oil-producing wells in the Agave (Cretaceous) and Saramako (Cretaceous and Tertiary) oil fields. These samples were analyzed for major and trace elements as well as O and D isotopic compositions. The goal of this study was to compare the possible links between oil-related brines enclosed within Cretaceous and Tertiary productive horizons that were thought to have similar origin oils. The salinity of the Saramako Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons is very constant, around 30000 ppm, one to six times lower than the salinities found in the Agave Cretaceous Field (from 45000 to 170000 ppm). Major ion chemistry suggests that brines are in equilibrium with the host rock. One of the main difference, besides Mg, resides in the S concentrations, were Agave samples present lower concentrations, probably related to the presence of abundant sulfides in the aquifer's rock. Halogen (Br, Cl) systematics indicates a different origin for the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako samples halogen composition plot near normal seawater both in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios) and the Cl vs Br (ppm) plots. The Agave halogen data scatter near and underneath the seawater evaporation line in the Na/Cl vs Cl/Br (molar ratios), suggesting that these fluids could represent seawater evolved past the point of halite precipitation. The Cl vs Br (ppm) plot indicates that these fluids undergone some degree of mixing with low-salinity fluids, probably seawater. The presence of two different groups of data suggests the compartment of the aquifer. The \\deltaD and \\delta18O data show strong differences between the Saramako and Agave brines. The Saramako brine \\delta18O and \\deltaD isotopic compositions are +2.1% (VSMOW) and -13.8% respectively. The Agave samples have a \\delta18O composition from +4.3% to +6.0% and \\deltaD isotopic composition from -20.0% to -12.6%. Differences in \\delta18O compositions between Saramako and Agave brines indicate

  16. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  17. Comparison of brines relevant to nuclear waste experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.

    1983-05-01

    The ionic compositions of 18 brines used in nuclear waste-related laboratory tests or obtained from field tests are described and compared. Also described are the origin of each brine, its predominant use for laboratory testing, and its relavancy for future testing. The brines include Brines A and B (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)/generic), Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) Composite Permian Brine P and Equilibrated Permian P No. 2, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-Sandia High-Level Waste (HLW) package interactions test brines (flow and downhole), ERDA-6 brines (flow and downhole), WIPP Inclusions No. 1 and No. 2, Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brine, German quinare Brine Q, US Geological Survey bittern NBT-6a, saturated NaCl (20/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C), and standard seawater.

  18. Stability of plutonium(VI) in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.

    1993-12-01

    The redox stability of plutonium (VI) in WIPP brine was investigated by monitoring the oxidation state as a function of time using a combination of absorption spectrometry, radiochemical counting and filtration. Studies were performed with Pu-239 and Pu-238 in four WIPP brines at concentrations between 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}8} M for durations as long as two years. Two synthetic brines, Brine A and ERDA-6, and two underground collected brines, DH-36 and G-Seep, were used. The stability of Pu(VI) depended on the brine composition and the speciation of the plutonium in that brine. When carbonate was present, a Pu(VI)-carbonate complex was observed that was stable. In the absence of carbonate, Pu(VI) hydrolytic species predominated which had a wide range of stability in the brines investigated. The results reported will help define the speciation of plutonium in WIPP brine and hence its potential for migration.

  19. Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

  20. Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

    2007-11-17

    LBNL's GEOSEQ project is a key participant in the Frio IIbrine pilot studying geologic sequestration of CO2. During During theinjection phase of the Frio-II brine pilot, LBNL collected multiple datasets including seismic monitoring, hydrologic monitoring and geochemicalsampling. These data sets are summarized in this report including allCASSM (continuous active source seismic monitoring) travel time data,injection pressure and flow rate data and gaseous sampling and tracerdata. Additional results from aqueous chemistry analysis performed by theU. S. Geological Survey (USGS) are summarized. Post injectionmodification of the flow model for Frio II is shown. Thesemodificationsare intended to facilitate integration with the monitoring data andincorporation of model heterogeneity. Current activities of LBNL's GEOSEQproject related to the Frio II test are shown, including development of anew petrophysical model for improved interpretation of seismic monitoringdata and integration of this data with flow modeling.

  1. Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Capizzi, J.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    1995-05-01

    Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Exhumation of Messinian evaporites in the deep-sea and creation of deep anoxic brine-filled collapsed basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cita, Maria Bianca

    2006-06-01

    The first part of the paper summarizes some basic concepts concerning (a) the distribution of Messinian evaporites in the deepest parts of the Mediterranean Sea and (b) the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary wedge and its peculiar characteristics deriving from the presence of a substantial evaporitic body in the deforming sedimentary prism. Then five brine-filled anoxic collapsed basins (Tyro, Bannock, Urania, Atalante and Discovery), discovered from 1983 to 1994, are presented and discussed in their physiographic, geologic, hydrologic and geochemical characters. High density brines deriving from submarine dissolution of outcropping or subcropping evaporites accumulate at the bottom of collapsed basins, if they are not swept away by submarine currents. The interface separating normal sea-water from high density brines is sharp with a density contrast of about 20% and lies at 3200-3500 m below sea level. Strong bacterial activity is developing at the interface and living bacteria have been recovered from the anoxic salty brines. Thickness of the brines may be up to 500 m. Thermal stratification has been observed in three brine lakes. Exhumation and dissolution of Messinian evaporites in the Mediterranean Ridge occur in different tectonic settings: pull-apart basin (Tyro), subducting seamount close to the outer deformation front (Bannock Basin), top of a backstop (Urania, Atalante and Discovery Basins). Chemistry of the brines is strongly variable and suggests dissolution of different layers or levels of the Messinian suite. Discovery brines are the saltiest ever recorded in natural environment. Their saturation in Mg chloride (bischofite), the end product of sea-water evaporation, suggests that the deepest parts of the eastern Mediterranean were close to dryness at the end of the salinity crisis, strongly supporting the deep basin desiccation model.

  3. Brine rejection and cascades in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, C.; Luneva, M.

    2012-04-01

    The formation of sea ice is accompanied by brine rejection, where the ice releases much of its salt into the underlying water. This causes densification of the seawater which consequently sinks. On the continental shelf the dense plume may reach all the way to the sea bed. If the horizontal density gradient is sufficient, a dense water cascade can occur, transporting the brine down the continental slope and ultimately into the deep ocean. The fate of this brine is poorly represented in ocean models because (1) the coarse horizontal resolution does not capture the small scale over which brine release occurs and (2) the coarse vertical resolution cannot resolve the dense water cascades that transport the dense brine from the continental shelf into the deep ocean. This work focuses on exploring ways of altering the vertical grid of an ocean model in order to allow the transport of brine from the Arctic Shelf to Arctic Basin via dense cascades. We present results from a 7 km and 18km resolution pan-Arctic ocean/sea ice model (NEMO SHELF - LIM2). Idealised model experiments indicate that using a hybrid vertical grid enables the model to resolve dense water flows down and along the Arctic continental slope. The hybrid coordinates include stretching the vertical grid to align with the seabed topography in shallow shelf waters (sigma coordinates) and allowing it to be horizontal when the water depth is greater (z coordinates). It also involves limiting how steep the grid cells can slope when there is steep topography. A passive tracer that tracks the salt introduced to the ocean when ice forms and brine is rejected was included in the model. Initial pan-Arctic experiments using realistic forcing and initial conditions suggest that with the improved vertical grid the brine tracer crosses the shelf break but the locations where the tracer enters the deep Arctic Basin are limited. As the Arctic moves towards being seasonally ice covered, brine transport pathways are likely to

  4. High intensity ultrasound effects on meat brining.

    PubMed

    Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2007-08-01

    Pork loin (longissimus dorsi) samples of two different geometries, cylinders and slabs, were immersed in saturated NaCl brine for 45min under different conditions: without brine agitation (STAT), with brine agitation (AG) and with ultrasound application (US) at eight levels of ultrasonic intensity. Moisture content change and NaCl gain were considered in order to evaluate the difference in the brining treatments. No significant differences were found in moisture and NaCl content of samples treated under STAT conditions and AG conditions, while the influence of ultrasound on the mass transfer process during meat brining depended on the intensity applied. There was an ultrasonic intensity threshold above which the influence of ultrasound appeared. At the highest level of intensity studied, the water content of samples was significantly higher than the initial water content of meat. As regards NaCl transfer, once above the intensity threshold, the increase in the NaCl content was proportional to the applied ultrasonic intensity. Not statistically significant differences were found for sample geometry. PMID:22061236

  5. Effect of brine composition and brining temperature on cheese physical properties in Ragusano cheese.

    PubMed

    Fucà, N; McMahon, D J; Caccamo, M; Tuminello, L; La Terra, S; Manenti, M; Licitra, G

    2012-01-01

    Composition and physical properties of cheeses are influenced by temperature, salt, and calcium concentration of brine. This work aimed to examine conditions of brine under which the cheese matrix contracts or expands in absence of restrictions imposed by surface rind development during overnight block formation. Three experimental 4-kg blocks of Ragusano cheese were produced at 3 different stretching temperatures (70, 80, and 90°C) and cut into pieces weighing approximately 40 to 50 g. One piece from each was chemically analyzed at time 0. All other pieces were measured for weight and volume and placed in plastic bags containing 300 mL of different brine solutions (2% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; 10% NaCl with 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% Ca; 18% NaCl with 0.1% Ca; and 26% NaCl with 0.1% Ca) at 3 different temperatures (4, 12, and 20°C). After 24h of brining, the cheeses were analyzed for weight, volume, chemical, and microstructural changes. Salt concentration in brine significantly influenced composition, weight, and volume of the cheeses after brining. Salt concentration was inversely related to cheese volume and weight. Changes in weight caused by altering the brining temperature were sufficient to reach statistical significance, and statistically significant volume changes were induced by brining temperature and its interaction with salt content. The highest volume increase (30%) occurred in the cheese stored in the 2% NaCl brine at the coldest temperature, whereas the greatest volume decrease was recorded in cheeses brined in the 26% NaCl brine. Composition was not affected by brining temperature. Calcium concentration did influence weight, volume, and composition, except on a fat-on-dry-basis. When cheeses were brined without added calcium, cheese volume and weight increased at all temperatures. At high calcium levels (0.4%), syneresis occurred and volume decreased, especially at 20°C (-16.5%). Microstructural investigation with porosity measurement confirmed weight and

  6. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  7. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model…

  8. Teaching Thermodynamics and Kinetics to Advanced General Chemistry Students and to Upper-Level Undergraduate Students Using PV Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, Srinivasan S.; deSouza, Romualdo T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how complex concepts in macroscopic chemistry, namely, thermodynamics and kinetics, can be taught at considerable depth both at the first-year undergraduate as well as upper levels. We begin with a careful treatment of PV diagrams, and by pictorially integrating the appropriate area in a PV diagram, we introduce work. This starting…

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) Complexes: An Advanced Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swavey, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories rarely involve lanthanide coordination chemistry. This is unfortunate in light of the ease with which many of these complexes are made and the interesting and instructive photophysical properties they entail. The forbidden nature of the 4f transitions associated with the lanthanides is overcome by incorporation of…

  10. Silica scaling in simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    A 6.3 1/sec (100 GPM) titanium corrosion test loop was modified to provide a dynamic facility for studying the formation of silica deposits, their properties and fates, as a function of brine composition, temperature, and flow conditions. Scale formation was studied in a segmented heat exchanger operating under realistic conditions; the segmented design permitted examination of scale formations in five temperature regimes. The program was terminated after minimal exploratory operation because of reduced sponsor perceptions of the need for concern with scaling problems. The runs which were completed dealt cursorily with brine concentration and pH effects. Results are presented.

  11. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  12. 6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Older, redwood model. Paddles agitated the skins while they soaked in brine. The skins were then hung to dry. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  13. Evolution of high-temperature geothermal brine production pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II )

    1989-01-01

    Geothermal resources with temperatures between 250{degrees} and 360{degrees}F (121{degrees} and 182{degrees}C) are prime candidates for binary-cycle power generation in the United States and abroad, and constitute about 80% of the known power-capable resources in the United States. Initially there were many technological obstacles to exploitation of these resources, with one of the greatest being the absence of reliable high-capacity downwell brine production pumps to supply the required amounts of brine from an economically small group of wells. Early experience revealed many problems with downwell pumps, resulting in a mean-time-to-failure (MTTF) in 1981 of less than 1000 hours for the best available technology. This paper reports how evolutionary advances in pump design and materials selection have resolved most of the early problems, producing third- generation pumps which have run as long as 20,000 hours. Pump life extension practices - greatly enhanced component and assembly quality control, increased care in pump installation, and continuous monitoring of pump performance with swift intervention at the first signs of distress - have essentially eliminated premature failure where implemented, leading to estimated near-term MTTFs of 8000 hours.

  14. Toward a New U.S. Chemicals Policy: Rebuilding the Foundation to Advance New Science, Green Chemistry, and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael P.; Schwarzman, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We describe fundamental weaknesses in U.S. chemicals policy, present principles of chemicals policy reform, and articulate interdisciplinary research questions that should be addressed. With global chemical production projected to double over the next 24 years, federal policies that shape the priorities of the U.S. chemical enterprise will be a cornerstone of sustainability. To date, these policies have largely failed to adequately protect public health or the environment or motivate investment in or scientific exploration of cleaner chemical technologies, known collectively as green chemistry. On this trajectory, the United States will face growing health, environmental, and economic problems related to chemical exposures and pollution. Conclusions Existing policies have produced a U.S. chemicals market in which the safety of chemicals for human health and the environment is undervalued relative to chemical function, price, and performance. This market barrier to green chemistry is primarily a consequence of weaknesses in the Toxic Substances Control Act. These weaknesses have produced a chemical data gap, because producers are not required to investigate and disclose sufficient information on chemicals’ hazard traits to government, businesses that use chemicals, or the public; a safety gap, because government lacks the legal tools it needs to efficiently identify, prioritize, and take action to mitigate the potential health and environmental effects of hazardous chemicals; and a technology gap, because industry and government have invested only marginally in green chemistry research, development, and education. Policy reforms that close the three gaps—creating transparency and accountability in the market—are crucial for improving public and environmental health and reducing the barriers to green chemistry. The European Union’s REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulation has opened an opportunity for

  15. Unconventional gas sources. Volume IV. Geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: study objectives, regional geology and prospect evaluation, reservoir engineering, drilling and well costs, production and water disposal facilities, pressure maintenance, geothermal and hydraulic energy assessment, operating expense, economic evaluation, environmental considerations, legal considerations, and risks analysis. The study addresses only sandstone brine reservoirs in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore areas. (MHR)

  16. Laboratory flow experiments for visualizing carbon dioxide-induced, density-driven brine convection

    SciTech Connect

    Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-09-01

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers confined by low-permeability cap rock will result in a layer of CO{sub 2} overlying the brine. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} into the brine increases the brine density, resulting in an unstable situation in which more-dense brine overlies less-dense brine. This gravitational instability could give rise to density-driven convection of the fluid, which is a favorable process of practical interest for CO{sub 2} storage security because it accelerates the transfer of buoyant CO{sub 2} into the aqueous phase, where it is no longer subject to an upward buoyant drive. Laboratory flow visualization tests in transparent Hele-Shaw cells have been performed to elucidate the processes and rates of this CO{sub 2} solute-driven convection (CSC). Upon introduction of CO{sub 2} into the system, a layer of CO{sub 2}-laden brine forms at the CO{sub 2}-water interface. Subsequently, small convective fingers form, which coalesce, broaden, and penetrate into the test cell. Images and time-series data of finger lengths and wavelengths are presented. Observed CO{sub 2} uptake of the convection system indicates that the CO{sub 2} dissolution rate is approximately constant for each test and is far greater than expected for a diffusion-only scenario. Numerical simulations of our system show good agreement with the experiments for onset time of convection and advancement of convective fingers. There are differences as well, the most prominent being the absence of cell-scale convection in the numerical simulations. This cell-scale convection observed in the experiments is probably initiated by a small temperature gradient induced by the cell illumination.

  17. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  18. Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, Ashley; Kinsey, Erin; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Rheological Properties of Silica Nanoparticles in Brine and Brine-Surfactant Systems Ashley R. Pales, Erin Kinsey, Chunyan Li, Linlin Mu, Lingyun Bai, Heather Clifford, and Christophe J. G. Darnault Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Laboratory of Hydrogeoscience and Biological Engineering, L.G. Rich Environmental Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA Nanofluids are suspensions of nanometer sized particles in any fluid base, where the nanoparticles effect the properties of the fluid base. Commonly, nanofluids are water based, however, other bases such as ethylene-glycol, glycerol, and propylene-glycol, have been researched to understand the rheological properties of the nanofluids. This work aims to understand the fundamental rheological properties of silica nanoparticles in brine based and brine-surfactant based nanofluids with temperature variations. This was done by using variable weight percent of silica nanoparticles from 0.001% to 0.1%. Five percent brine was used to create the brine based nanofluids; and 5% brine with 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant (Sigma-Aldrich) was used to create the brine-surfactant nanofluid. Rheological behaviors, such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity, were compared between these nanofluids at 20C and at 60C across the varied nanoparticle wt%. The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental basis for future applied testing for enhanced oil recovery. It is hypothesized that the addition of surfactant will have a positive impact on nanofluid properties that will be useful for enhance oil recovery. Differences have been observed in preliminary data analysis of the rheological properties between these two nanofluids indicating that the surfactant is having the hypothesized effect.

  19. Brines and evaporites: analogs for Martian life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Fahlen, T. F.; Landheim, R.; Klovstad, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Data from recent Mars missions suggest that Mars almost certainly had abundant liquid water on its surface at some time in the past. As a result, Mars has emerged as a key solar system target that could have harbored some form of life in the past, and which could perhaps still possess remnants of life in brine-containing permafrost. As Mars lost its atmosphere it became cold and dry. Any remaining water on the surface may have formed saline brine pockets within the permafrost. These brine pockets may either be an "oasis" for an extant Martian biota, or the last refuge of an extinct Martian biota. Eventually, these brine pockets would have dried to form evaporites. Evaporites are deposits that result from the evaporation of saline water, which on earth represent primarily halite (NaCl), gypsum, (CaSO 42H 2O), and anhydrite (CaSO 4). Evaporites that contain bacterial and algal assemblages exist on earth today and are well known in the fossil record. The most likely organism type to survive in a brine or evaporite on earth is a halophile. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of microbes to survive in frozen evaporites. Washed mid-log phase and stationary phase cultures of Haloarcula-G (a species isolated by us during a previous study) and Halobacterium salinarum were either suspended in brine (25% NaCl solution), dried, and then exposed to -20 or -80 °C. For comparison, cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were treated similarly, except they were resuspended in 0.5% NaCl solution. Also, to mimic a brine pocket samples of washed mid-log phase cells of each organism were placed in an aqueous solution of 25% NaCl, or in their respective nutrient medium containing 25% NaCl. Periodically, samples of the cells were removed and tested for survival. Data from these experiments suggest that halophiles survive better than non-halophiles under low temperature conditions. These observations would suggest that

  20. Mirabilite solubility in equilibrium sea ice brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Benjamin Miles; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Santoro, Anna; Kennedy, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    The sea ice microstructure is permeated by brine channels and pockets that contain concentrated seawater-derived brine. Cooling the sea ice results in further formation of pure ice within these pockets as thermal equilibrium is attained, resulting in a smaller volume of increasingly concentrated residual brine. The coupled changes in temperature and ionic composition result in supersaturation of the brine with respect to mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) at temperatures below -6.38 °C, which consequently precipitates within the sea ice microstructure. Here, mirabilite solubility in natural and synthetic seawater derived brines, representative of sea ice at thermal equilibrium, has been measured in laboratory experiments between 0.2 and -20.6 °C, and hence we present a detailed examination of mirabilite dynamics within the sea ice system. Below -6.38 °C mirabilite displays particularly large changes in solubility as the temperature decreases, and by -20.6 °C its precipitation results in 12.90% and 91.97% reductions in the total dissolved Na+ and SO42- concentrations respectively, compared to that of conservative seawater concentration. Such large non-conservative changes in brine composition could potentially impact upon the measurement of sea ice brine salinity and pH, whilst the altered osmotic conditions may create additional challenges for the sympagic organisms that inhabit the sea ice system. At temperatures above -6.38 °C, mirabilite again displays large changes in solubility that likely aid in impeding its identification in field samples of sea ice. Our solubility measurements display excellent agreement with that of the FREZCHEM model, which was therefore used to supplement our measurements to colder temperatures. Measured and modelled solubility data were incorporated into a 1D model for the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice. Model results ultimately suggest that mirabilite has a near ubiquitous presence in much of the sea ice on Earth, and illustrate the

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Reactive-transport modeling of fly ash-wate-brines interactions from laboratory-scale column studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbugua, John M.; Catherine Ngila, J.; Kindness, Andrew; Demlie, Molla

    Dynamic leaching tests are important studies that provide more insights into time-dependent leaching mechanisms of any given solid waste. Hydrogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC was applied for column modeling of two ash recipes and brines generated from South African coal utility plants, Sasol and Eskom. The modeling results were part of a larger ash-brine study aimed at acquiring knowledge on (i) quantification and characterization of the products formed when ash is in contact with wate-brines in different scenarios, (ii) the mineralogical changes associated with wate-brine-ash interactions over time, (iii) species concentration, and (iv) leaching and transport controlling factors. The column modeling was successfully identified and quantified as important reactive mineralogical phases controlling major, minor and trace elements' release. The pH of the solution was found to be a very important controlling factor in leaching chemistry. The highest mineralogical transformation took place in the first 10 days of ash contact with either water or brines, and within 0.1 m from the column inflow. Many of the major and trace elements Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sr, S(VI), Fe, are leached easily into water systems and their concentration fronts were high at the beginning (within 0.1 m from the column inflow and within the first 10 days) upon contact with the liquid phase. However, their concentration decreased with time until a steady state was reached. Modeling results also revealed that geochemical reactions taking place during ash-wate-brine interactions does affect the porosity of the ash, whereas the leaching processes lead to increased porosity. Besides supporting experimental data, modeling results gave predictive insights on leaching of elements which may directly impact on the environment, particularly ground water. These predictions will help develop scenarios and offer potential guide for future sustainable waste management practices as a way of addressing the co

  3. The effects of using screencasting as a multimedia pre-training tool to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musallam, Ramsey

    Chemistry is a complex knowledge domain. Specifically, research notes that Chemical Equilibrium presents greater cognitive challenges than other topics in chemistry. Cognitive Load Theory describes the impact a subject, and the learning environment, have on working memory. Intrinsic load is the facet of Cognitive Load Theory that explains the complexity innate to complex subjects. The purpose of this study was to build on the limited research into intrinsic cognitive load, by examining the effects of using multimedia screencasts as a pre-training technique to manage the intrinsic cognitive load of chemical equilibrium instruction for advanced high school chemistry students. A convenience sample of 62 fourth-year high school students enrolled in an advanced chemistry course from a co-ed high school in urban San Francisco were given a chemical equilibrium concept pre-test. Upon conclusion of the pre-test, students were randomly assigned to two groups: pre-training and no pre-training. The pre-training group received a 10 minute and 52 second pre-training screencast that provided definitions, concepts and an overview of chemical equilibrium. After pre-training both group received the same 50-minute instructional lecture. After instruction, all students were given a chemical equilibrium concept post-test. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to examine differences in performance and intrinsic load. No significant differences in performance or intrinsic load, as measured by ratings of mental effort, were observed on the pre-test. Significant differences in performance, t(60)=3.70, p=.0005, and intrinsic load, t(60)=5.34, p=.0001, were observed on the post-test. A significant correlation between total performance scores and total mental effort ratings was also observed, r(60)=-0.44, p=.0003. Because no significant differences in prior knowledge were observed, it can be concluded that pre-training was successful at reducing intrinsic load. Moreover, a significant

  4. An overview of the fundamentals of the chemistry of silica with relevance to biosilicification and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Belton, David J; Deschaume, Olivier; Perry, Carole C

    2012-05-01

    Biomineral formation is widespread in nature, and occurs in bacteria, single-celled protists, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. Minerals formed in the biological environment often show unusual physical properties (e.g. strength, degree of hydration) and often have structures that exhibit order on many length scales. Biosilica, found in single-celled organisms through to higher plants and primitive animals (sponges), is formed from an environment that is undersaturated with respect to silicon, and under conditions of approximately neutral pH and relatively low temperatures of 4-40 °C compared to those used industrially. Formation of the mineral may occur intracellularly or extracellularly, and specific biochemical locations for mineral deposition that include lipids, proteins and carbohydrates are known. In most cases, the formation of the mineral phase is linked to cellular processes, an understanding of which could lead to the design of new materials for biomedical, optical and other applications. In this contribution, we describe the aqueous chemistry of silica, from uncondensed monomers through to colloidal particles and 3D structures, that is relevant to the environment from which the biomineral forms. We then describe the chemistry of silica formation from alkoxides such as tetraethoxysilane, as this and other silanes have been used to study the chemistry of silica formation using silicatein, and such precursors are often used in the preparation of silicas for technological applications. The focus of this article is on the methods, experimental and computational, by which the process of silica formation can be studied, with an emphasis on speciation. PMID:22333209

  5. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  6. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  7. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  8. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.; Members Of The Crius Project

    2011-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines is a prime mechanism for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they likely depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. The injected CO2 was spiked with isotopically enriched noble gases at the start of injection. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. The noble gas spikes were detected at producing wells within days of injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretation of the water chemistry is complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution with either dissolution or precipitation of calcite. The precipitation of calcite driven by the rise in pH consequent on dissolution of silicates is as predicted by previous modelling (Knaus et al., 2005, Chemical Geology) and as observed in natural analogue systems (Kampman et al., 2009, Earth Planetary Science Letters). A key question is the extent to which the rates of dissolution are controlled by the surface reaction rates of the minerals versus the rate at which CO2 can dissolve in formation brines. Simple flow

  9. Brine heterogeneity and dispersed interstitial advective flow underneath the sea of galilee, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Y.; Katz, A.; Kastner, M.; Nishri, A.; Jannasch, H.

    2003-04-01

    Saline groundwater from submerged sources is today the main source of salts to the Sea of Galilee, supplying annually 72,000 tons chloride to the lake. MOSQUITO flux-meters were deployed during April to September 2001 at seven shallow Kinneret sites in order to study the dispersed interstitial flow. Each instrument carried 3-5 Osmo-Samplers that continuously sampled pore fluids at various depths in the sediment (0-45 cm). Samples were analyzed for their chemistry and for concentration of Na-fluorescein that was previously injected into the sediment. In general, oncentrations of conservative elements (e.g. Cl, Na, B) increase with depth into the sediment at all sites. However, concentrations vary significantly from one site to another. For instance, in sub-lacustrine brines next to the Tiberias Hot Springs Cl concentration reaches more than 14,500 mg/l at 35 cm below lake floor (not much less than the 18,000 mg/l in the nearby on-shore springs), while at other stations, brines are diluted by meteoric water to less than 1,500 mg/l Cl. Ion ratios in pore water indicate that the shallow parts of Lake Kinneret are underlain by several, separate, brine pockets, that are sometimes located very close to each other and discharge to the same area. Pore water at the east and northwest of the lake have Na/Cl ionic ratios between 0.7 and 0.8, similar to that of the overlying lake water, while at the west and south, ratios are significantly lower (<0.6 and <0.5, respectively), indicating larger degree of evaporation of the original brine end-member. Brines next to Tiberias Hot Springs have significantly higher Br/Cl and lower Mg/Cl ratios than pore water from other sites. Eastern shore sub-lacusrine brines (next to Gofra) are distinguished by their very high Sr/Cl and B/Cl ratios. Advective flow rates were derived from temporal patterns of Na-fluorescein concentration in pore water. Flow rates were between 0 and 80 cm/yr. Annual fluxes through the shallow part of the lake are

  10. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  11. Antioxidative low molecular weight compounds in marinated herring (Clupea harengus) salt brine.

    PubMed

    Gringer, Nina; Safafar, Hamed; du Mesnildot, Axelle; Nielsen, Henrik H; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Undeland, Ingrid; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed at unravelling the antioxidative capacity of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) (peptides, amino acids and phenolic acids) present in salt brines from the marinated herring production. Brines were fractionated into <10kDa fractions using dialysis and further into 94 fractions using size exclusion chromatography. All samples were analysed for protein, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities. Protein-enriched samples were pooled (P1, P2 and P3) and analysed for phenolic acids, total amino acids and peptide/protein sequence using advanced mass spectrometry. All salt brines contain LMWC holding ABTS-radical scavenging activity, reducing power and iron chelating activity. Generally, a strong correlation between TPC and ABTS-radical scavenging was found. In contrast, reducing power and iron chelating activity seemed to be caused by peptides. Protein/peptide sequencing revealed 1kDa peptides with the presence of HDF-motif which could be responsible for some of the antioxidant capacity observed in marinated herring salt brine. PMID:26471668

  12. Complementary Spectroscopic Assays for Investigating Protein-Ligand Binding Activity: A Project for the Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascotti, David P.; Waner, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    A protein-ligand binding, guided-inquiry laboratory project with potential application across the advanced undergraduate curriculum is described. At the heart of the project are fluorescence and spectrophotometric assays utilizing biotin-4-fluorescein and streptavidin. The use of the same stock solutions for an assay that may be examined by two…

  13. A preliminary deposit model for lithium brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Munk, LeeAnn; Jochens, Hillary; Hynek, Scott; Labay, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to update existing mineral deposit models and to develop new ones. The global transition away from hydrocarbons toward energy alternatives increases demand for many scarce metals. Among these is lithium, a key component of lithium-ion batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium brine deposits account for about three-fourths of the world’s lithium production. Updating an earlier deposit model, we emphasize geologic information that might directly or indirectly help in exploration for lithium brine deposits, or for assessing regions for mineral resource potential. Special attention is given to the best-known deposit in the world—Clayton Valley, Nevada, and to the giant Salar de Atacama, Chile.

  14. Evaporation of brine from Searles Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, W.B.

    1917-01-01

    The bed of crystalline salts known as Searles Lake, in southeastern California, contains the most valuable potash-bearing brine known in the United States. This salt body has an exposed surface area estimated at 11 or 12 square miles and an average depth of about 70 feet. For the most part it is firm and compact enough to support a wagon and team even during wet seasons, when it is' sometimes flooded with a thin sheet of water that dissolves the surface salts to a slight extent. The deposit contains in the interstices between the salt crystals a saturated brine the volume of which is estimated to be more than 25 per cent of that of the entire saline mass.

  15. Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

    1975-11-01

    The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

  17. Gamma and alpha radiolysis of salt brines

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Simonson, S.A.

    1984-11-01

    Gamma radiolysis of Permian Basin brine leads to equilibrium gas pressure of about 100 atm. at 75/sup 0/C and about 40 atm. at 150/sup 0/C, providing the gas space is very small and/or the total dose is very high. Dose rate dependence is being investigated but is not yet established. Alpha radiolysis of Permian Bsin brine is still being pursued, but it is clear that equilibrium gas pressures will be much higher than with gamma radiolysis. Gas compositions in all cases have been about two parts H/sub 2/ to one part O/sub 2/. Efforts to simulate these results with computer models have been quite successful. 8 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  18. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. PMID:11933129

  19. Extreme alteration by hyperacidic brines at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia: II: Metasomatic imprint and element fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsberg, Vincent; Berlo, Kim; Sumarti, Sri; van Bergen, Manfred; Williams-Jones, Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The hyperacidic brines of the Kawah Ijen crater lake and Banyu Pahit river, East Java, Indonesia, induce an intense alteration on their magmatic host rock. This alteration is a proxy for water-rock interaction in magmatic-hydrothermal systems and associated high-sulphidation mineralizing environments, as well as for how these systems translate changes in the magmatic system to surface emissions, which are used in volcanic hazard monitoring. Detailed bulk chemical study of altered and unaltered samples shows that alteration is characterised by near-complete leaching of all major and trace elements, except for Pb, Sn and Sb, which are progressively enriched (Pb up to 15-fold absolute enrichment). The resulting element release is complementary to the observed changes in composition of the Banyu Pahit water downstream, when corrected for dilution, indicating that alteration progressively increases the element load. The signature of the change in water chemistry is best explained by complete alteration of fresh rock, rather than mature alteration, which might be expected given the advanced altered state of the riverbed. Together with mass balance considerations, this indicates that the dominant element source is material falling into the river from the valley flanks. The chemical signature of the crater lake is inconsistent with the observed alteration in samples from the hydrothermal system, and likewise is best explained by surface input of cations from rocks falling in from the crater walls. This indicates that the lake water cation chemistry is not a direct reflection of the underlying magmatic-hydrothermal system and that its cation content is therefore not an appropriate monitor of changes in volcanic activity.

  20. An Experimental Study of CO2-Brine Relative Permeability in Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    by Change in Pressure, Temperature, and Phase in Saline Aquifer, 2010 Energy Sources, Part A, 32: 83-99 Zuo, L., Krevor, S. and Falta, R. W. et al. An experimental study of CO2 exsolution and relative permeability measurements during CO2 saturated water depressurization. Transport in Porous Media, 2012, 91: 459-478 Akbarabadi, M. and Piri, M. Relative permeability hysteresis and capillary trapping characteristics of supercritical CO2/brine systems: an experimental study at reservoir conditions. Advances in Water Resources, 2013 52: 190-206

  1. Computational chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  2. Advanced modeling of nitrogen oxide emissions in circulating fluidized bed combustors: Parametric study of coal combustion and nitrogen compound chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpinen, P.; Kallio, S.; Hupa, M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes work-in-progress aimed at developing an emission model for circulating fluidized bed combustors using detailed homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical kinetics. The main emphasis is on nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O) but also unburned gases (CO, C{sub x}H{sub y}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) will be investigated in the long run. The hydrodynamics is described by a 1.5-dimensional model where the riser is divided into three regions: a dense bubbling bed at the bottom, a vigorously mixed splash zone, and a transport zone. The two latter zones are horizontally split into a core region and an annular region. The solids circulation rate is calculated from the known solids inventory and the pressure and mass balances over the entire circulation loop. The solids are divided into classes according to size and type or particle. The model assumes instantaneous fuel devolatilization at the bottom and an even distribution of volatiles in the suspension phase of the dense bed. For addition of secondary air, a complete penetration and an instantaneous mixing with the combustor gases in the core region is assumed. The temperature distribution is assumed to be known, and no energy balance is solved. A comprehensive kinetic scheme of about 300 elementary gas-phase reactions is used to describe the homogeneous oxidation of the volatiles including both hydrocarbon and volatile-nitrogen components (NH{sub 3}, HCN). Heterogeneous char combustion to CO and CO{sub 2}, and char-nitrogen conversion to NO, N{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2} are described by a single particle model that includes 15 reaction steps given in the form of 6 net reaction paths. In the paper, the model is briefly described. A special emphasis is put on the evaluation of chemistry submodels. Modeling results on nitrogen oxides' formation are compared with measured concentration profiles in a 12 MW CFBC riser from literature. The importance of accurate chemistry description on predictions is

  3. Chemistry of soil solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Elprince, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers, this book serves as an introduction to the field of soil chemistry and associated fields such as aquatic chemistry, geochemistry, environmental chemistry, oceanography, and public health. The volume includes discussions on the structure of adsorbed water, adsorption of inorganics, solubility, redox, solute transport, chemical modeling, and sampling and monitoring the soil solution. Important papers on these topics together with editor's comments place each of the carefully chosen papers in the proper context. Because the chemistry of soil solutions requires the knowledge of many aspects of science, introductory information is provided for each topic to cover its history of development, present knowledge, and future prospects.

  4. Examining the role of sea ice and meteorology in Arctic boundary layer halogen chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Peter Kevin

    Given the ubiquitous nature of ice, chemistry taking place on ice surfaces has a substantial effect on the environment, particularly in the polar regions. The return of sunlight to the polar regions releases halogen radicals (e.g. Br, Cl and their oxides, e.g. BrO) generated from salts on ice surfaces. These radicals fundamentally alter the chemistry of the Arctic boundary layer through processes such as boundary-layer ozone depletion events and mercury deposition events. Current understanding of the chemical processes involved in Arctic halogen chemistry is inhibited by a lack of knowledge about the ice surfaces on which this chemistry is thought to take place, as well as the sparsity of long-term field observations of this chemistry and its effects. This dissertation addresses both needs through a combination of laboratory experiments and long-term field studies. First, we use X-ray absorption computed micro-tomography at the Advanced Photon Source to image brine distributions within laboratory grown mimics of sea-ice features. These experiments showed that when brine is introduced to ice via wicking of brine from a saline surface, the resulting brine distribution is heterogeneous, with brine existing in distinct regions within the sample, rather than evenly spreading over the sample surface. To examine the horizontal and vertical extent of halogen chemistry in the Arctic boundary layer, we conducted long-term measurements of BrO at Barrow, Alaska using Multiple-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). We developed a method to reduce these measurements to timeseries of near-surface and total column amounts of BrO. These measurements showed that the vertical distribution is highly variable, ranging from shallow layer events confined to the lowest 200 m, to distributed column events, which have lower mixing ratios of BrO, but are more distributed throughout approximately the lowest kilometer of the atmosphere. We find that the observed vertical

  5. Polyacrylamide polymer viscosity as a function of brine composition

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Stacy, N.; Collins, A.G.

    1981-05-01

    A computer model has been developed which predicts the viscosity of polymer and oil field brine mixtures. The polymers used were Amoco- Sweepaid 103 and Dow- Pusher 500 polyacrylamide polymers. All of the experiments were conducted at 1200 ppM polymer concentration. The computer input consists of the ionic strength of the brine in the mixture and the fraction of that ionic strength due to sodium ions. The computer program makes predictions of viscosity by referencing a family of viscosity curves for various mixtures of sodium chloride and calcium chloride in 1200 ppM polymer solutions. The model has been tested using 59 mixtures of brines and polymers. The ionic strength of the brine in the mixtures varied from 0.0018 to 0.025. The fraction of the brines' total ionic strength due to sodium ions varied from 0.22 to 0.49. The brines consisted predominantly of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate ions.

  6. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at a proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ

  7. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir

  8. Laboratory experiments and numerical modelling of CO2-rich brine injection through sandstone samples: Role of flow rate, brine composition, mixing and spreading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.; soler Sagarra, J.; Saaltink, M.; Martinez-Perez, L.; Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Heletz structure has been selected as a test site for a prospective CO2 reservoir and for the MUSTANG European project injection experiment based on the analysis of the available geological, geophysical and borehole data from various areas of Israel. The Heletz area is located in the Southern part of the Mediterranean Coastal Plain, about 7 km from the sea shore. The target layer is composed of sandstone, has a thickness of around 20 meters and is located at a depth of 1500 m. Flow-through laboratory experiments of CO2-rich brine were realized to evaluate the chemical processes occurring in the Heletz site.
The Heletz sandstone rock is poorly consolidated and has a high porosity (around 23%) and connectivity. We performed four flow-through experiments at in situ storage conditions (T = 60ºC, P = 15 MPa, PCO2 =1.8 MPa). The flow rates injection were 0.05 and 0.30 mL.min-1. Two different brine solutions were used, both representative of the Heletz reservoir native water. The first one was a synthetic brine of the Heletz reservoir (closed to seawater). The second one was the first one equilibrated with gypsum. The results show an increase in permeability for all the percolation experiment whatever the flow rate and the brine solution. This is explained by the dissolution of ankerite, dolomite and feldspar. We observed that the permeability increase is higher and faster for high flow rate injection than for low flow rate. Precipitation of secondary phases is characterized such as gypsum during equilibrated-gypsum brine injection. Secondary clay minerals precipitation is also observed near feldspar dissolution. Modeling these experiments is a non-trivial task, as some chemical processes are local in space. Reactive transport models have been performed in order to understand and reproduce the observed processes. We have used a water mixing approach which uses the mass mixing fraction between mobile and/or immobile zones. The approach relies in the fact of not

  9. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; Howard, Kevin; Harris, Linden; Parodi, Jurek; Kawashima, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  10. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Pickering, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept was developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying for these solutions. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management in spacecraft brine dewatering system designs. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other observations from testing are reported.

  11. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine

    SciTech Connect

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Geochemical Evidence for Possible Natural Migration of Marcellus Formation Brine to Shallow Aquifers in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. R.; Darrah, T. H.; Jackson, R. B.; Osborn, S.; Down, A.; Vengosh, A.

    2012-12-01

    allowed cross formational migration of brine from deeper formations (1-2 kilometers below ground surface) and subsequent dilution. The occurrence of the saline water does not appear to be correlated with the location of shale-gas wells. Also, salinized groundwater with similar major element chemistry was reported prior to the most recent shale-gas development in the region. The source of the salinized water is likely not the recent drilling and hydraulic fracturing; instead brine migrated into the shallow aquifers and was recently diluted through natural pathways and processes. However, the presence of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations suggests specific structural and hydrodynamic regimes in northeastern Pennsylvania where shallow drinking water resources are at greater risk of contamination, particularly with fugitive gases, during drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas. The severity of the risk could depend upon the presence of pathways that allow the migration of fluids into the shallow aquifers on human time scales.

  13. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

  14. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L., Jr.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  15. Corrosion of austenitic alloys in aerated brines

    SciTech Connect

    Heidersbach, R.; Shi, A.; Sharp, S.

    1999-11-01

    This report discusses the results of corrosion exposures of three austenitic alloys--3l6L stainless steel, UNS N10276, and UNS N08367. Coupons of these alloys were suspended in a series of brines used for processing in the pharmaceutical industry. The effects of surface finish and welding processes on the corrosion behavior of these alloys were determined. The 316L coupons experienced corrosion in several environments, but the other alloys were unaffected during the one-month exposures of this investigation. Electropolishing the surfaces improved corrosion resistance.

  16. Constraining Effects of Brine Leakage from Carbon Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunsch, A.; Navarre-Sitchler, A. K.; McCray, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Research has shown that pressure build up associated with injection of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer has the potential to promote brine leakage into overlying formations. In order to understand and quantify chemical changes in an underground source of drinking water (USDW) invaded by deep saline brines, we analyzed over 90,000 brine geochemical data entries from the NETL NATCARB brine database to identify potential brine constituents of concern. Using a variety of statistical methods and EPA regulatory levels or standards (RLS) we narrowed the list of brine constituents of potential concern to USDWs to TDS, thallium, chloride, sulfate and arsenic. Somewhat surprisingly, the distribution of reported pH had a fairly narrow distribution around a median value of 7.4, with over 78% of values complying with EPA recommended secondary standard for drinking water acidity. The pH distribution implies that unlike pure CO2 leakage, far-field brine leakage (i.e., brine not in contact with CO2) is not expected to bear a low-pH signature, thus suggesting use of other means of geochemical monitoring for brine leakage, such as electrical conductivity. Geochemical mixing models of brine and dilute water were used to constrain mixing ratios where RLS values are exceeded for the TDS, thallium and chloride. TDS and chloride exceed the EPA secondary standards at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.012 and 0.459, respectively. The thallium maximum contaminant level (MCL) is exceeded at a brine/USDW mixing ratio of 0.3753, smaller than the chloride mixing ratio. However, sorption and/or desorption processes may alter thallium concentrations along a leakage pathway resulting in lower concentrations in the aquifer than predicted by simple mixing models. While leakage into USDWs has received considerable attention, brine contamination of groundwater used for irrigation of agricultural crops is also an important area of research. Our calculations suggest that almost all crops grown in the United

  17. Lithium isotope geochemistry and origin of Canadian shield brines.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, D J; Chan, L H; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Clark, I D

    2003-01-01

    Hypersaline calcium/chloride shield brines are ubiquitous in Canada and areas of northern Europe. The major questions relating to these fluids are the origin of the solutes and the concentration mechanism that led to their extreme salinity. Many chemical and isotopic tracers are used to solve these questions. For example, lithium isotope systematics have been used recently to support a marine origin for the Yellowknife shield brine (Northwest Territories). While having important chemical similarities to the Yellowknife brine, shield brines from the Sudbury/Elliot Lake (Ontario) and Thompson/Snow Lake (Manitoba) regions, which are the focus of this study, exhibit contrasting lithium behavior. Brine from the Sudbury Victor mine has lithium concentrations that closely follow the sea water lithium-bromine concentration trajectory, as well as delta6Li values of approximately -28/1000. This indicates that the lithium in this brine is predominantly marine in origin with a relatively minor component of crustal lithium leached from the host rocks. In contrast, the Thompson/Snow Lake brine has anomalously low lithium concentrations, indicating that it has largely been removed from solution by alteration minerals. Furthermore, brine and nonbrine mine waters at the Thompson mine have large delta6Li variations of approximately 30/1000, which primarily reflects mixing between deep brine with delta6Li of -35 +/- 2/1000 and near surface mine water that has derived higher delta6Li values through interactions with their host rocks. The contrary behavior of lithium in these two brines shows that, in systems where it has behaved conservatively, lithium isotopes can distinguish brines derived from marine sources. PMID:14649868

  18. Reflux Brines and Saline Groundwater, Murray Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, I.; Weaver, T. R.; Swane, I.

    2001-12-01

    Groundwater in the Murray Basin typically becomes more saline along its flowpaths; however, geochemical data, particularly Br/Cl ratios, indicate limited dissolution of salt from the aquifer is occurring. In the southern Murray Basin, recharge of groundwater to the deeper aquifers (Renmark Formation) is generally considered to occur at the highlands at the south basin margin while recharge to the shallow unconfined Parilla Sands aquifer occurs across much of the region. Regionally, discharge of groundwater occurs within the centre of the basin in zones of salt lakes. Groundwater in the regional recharge area of the southern Murray Basin shows dramatic variations in salinity (TDS contents ranging from 650 to >100,000 mg/L) over distances of a few kilometres in both shallow and deep aquifers. While the variation in topography is low (<70 m over 15,000 km2), local recharge and discharge processes control groundwater composition. Fresher groundwater underlies sand ridges that contain freshwater lakes located above the water table. The high salinity areas underlie a major palaeochannel, the Douglas Depression, which forms a topographic low. This depression contains abundant salt lakes and playas that represent local discharge sites for shallow groundwater. Stable isotope data show that the water in the high salinity zones underwent evaporation. Major element data (particularly Mg/Ca/SO4 ratios) indicate that the saline groundwaters have precipitated gypsum. Together the data indicate that brines produced in these saline lakes reflux into the underlying aquifers to depths of up to 180 m. In the semi-arid environment of SE Australia, reflux brines in both local and regional discharge areas are important in controlling the distribution of salinity in the Murray Basin as a whole. The observation that both shallow and deep aquifers show similar chemical trends implies that there is significant vertical interconnection throughout the basin. The confining layers are thin

  19. Hydrological and Chemical Assessment of Groundwater Flow and Quality in Costal Brine Aquifers of Laizhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Hu, Bill X.; Miao, Jinjie

    2016-04-01

    In geological time, seawater had been intruded groundwater several times since Late Pleistocene in the coastal area of Laizhou Bay, china. This unique phenomenon caused freshwater and brine water interbedded each other in the aquifers and forged Laizhou Bay became a multiple sources dynamic coastal area. In the last two decades, massive exploitation of fresh groundwater and brine water has significantly increased seawater intrusion and strengthened mixture of brine water and freshwater in the coastal area, which threatens local groundwater resources and severely impacts local ecological geo-environment. In this study, the hydrological and chemical (HC) process was studied according to the monitoring wells and chemical ionic constituents. The groundwater level continuously decreasing rather than showing a typical seasonal variation in areas close to the depression cone. A groundwater divide was formed along Yingli-Houzhen-Yangzi accounted for the exploitation of fresh water in the south and brine extraction in the north. This divide prevented the saltwater intrusion to fresh groundwater further south in study area. The results also showed that during concentration process, a series of complex reactions including water chemistry metamorphic role and evolution took place, such as mineral precipitation, cation ion exchange, dedolomitization and silicate alteration, etc. This work highlighted hydrological-chemical coupling process and provided a better insight into hydrogeological system.

  20. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, September 1, 1995--February 28, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  1. Possible Martian brines: Radar observations and models

    SciTech Connect

    Zent, A.P.; Fanale, F.P. ); Roth, L.E. )

    1990-08-30

    The 1971 and 1973 Goldstone 12.6-cm radar observations of Mars are separate data sets which include reflectivity as a function of latitude, longitude, and season. It has been argued that secular reflectivity variations of Mars' surface are indicated by the data and that shallow subsurface melting is the causal mechanism most compatible with the observations; however, the melting hypothesis conflicts with accepted notions of the state and distribution of water on Mars. The authors examine the data to identify temporal and spatial domains within which statistically significant changes in measured reflectivity are clustered. A few reflectivity changes may be genuine; others may be due to ephemeris errors or binning during data reduction. Brines which might satisfy the best supported reflectivity variations are out of equilibrium with the chemical megaenvironment. It is unclear whether such a brine, if emplaced in the Martian regolith at a depth shallow enough to affect the radar reflectivity, could survive even a single freeze-thaw cycle. They suggest that some combination of unique scattering properties or some as yet unidentified process other than melting is responsible for any genuine reflectivity variations.

  2. Possible Martian brines - Radar observations and models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Fanale, Fraser P.; Roth, Ladislav E.

    1990-01-01

    The 1971 and 1973 Goldstone 12.6-cm radar observations of Mars are separate data sets which include reflectivity as a function of latitude, longitude, and season. It has been argued that secular reflectivity variations of Mars' surface are indicated by the data and that shallow subsurface melting is the causal mechanism most compatible with the observations; however, the melting hypothesis conflicts with accepted notions of the state and distribution of water on Mars. The data are examined to identify temporal and spatial domains within which statistically significant changes in measured reflectivity are clustered. Brines which might satisfy the best supported reflectivity variations are out of equilibrium with the chemical megaenvironment. It is unclear whether such a brine, if emplaced in the Martian regolith at a depth shallow enough to affect the radar reflectivity, could survive even a single freeze-thaw cycle. Some combination of unique scattering properties or some as yet unidentified process other than melting is responsible for any genuine reflectivity variations.

  3. Preliminary Feasibility Testing of the BRIC Brine Water Recovery Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2012-01-01

    The Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC) concept is being developed as a new technology to recover water from spacecraft wastewater brines. Such capability is considered critical to closing the water loop and achieving a sustained human presence in space. The intention of the BRIC concept is to increase the robustness and efficiency of the dewatering process by performing drying inside the container used for the final disposal of the residual brine solid. Recent efforts in the development of BRIC have focused on preliminary feasibility testing using a laboratory- assembled pre-prototype unit. Observations of the drying behavior of actual brine solutions processed under BRIC-like conditions has been of particular interest. To date, experiments conducted with three types of analogue spacecraft wastewater brines have confirmed the basic premise behind the proposed application of in-place drying. Specifically, the dried residual mass from these solutions have tended to exhibit characteristics of adhesion and flow that are expected to continue to challenge process stream management designs typically used in spacecraft systems. Yet, these same characteristics may favor the development of capillary- and surface-tension-based approaches currently envisioned as part of an ultimate microgravity-compatible BRIC design. In addition, preliminary feasibility testing of the BRIC pre-prototype confirmed that high rates of water recovery, up to 98% of the available brine water, may be possible while still removing the majority of the brine contaminants from the influent brine stream. These and other early observations from testing are reported.

  4. OIL CONTENT IN PRODUCED BRINE ON TEN LOUISIANA PRODUCTION PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of the oil content of brine effluents from offshore crude oil production platforms was conducted for the Oil and Hazardous Spills Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency. The objectives were to determine the amount of oil in the brine, and to determine the factors ...

  5. Moisture variations in brine-salted pasta filata cheese.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of the moisture distribution in brine-salted pasta filata cheese. Brine-salted cheeses usually develop reasonably smooth and predictable gradients of decreasing moisture from center to surface, resulting from outward diffusion of moisture in response to inward diffusion of salt. However, patterns of moisture variation within brine-salted pasta filata cheeses, notably pizza cheese, are more variable and less predictable because of the peculiar conditions that occur when warm cheese is immersed in cold brine. In this study, cold brining resulted in less moisture loss from the cheese surface to the brine. Also it created substantial temperature gradients within the cheese, which persisted after brining and influenced the movement of moisture within the cheese independently of that caused by the inward diffusion of salt. Depending on brining conditions and age, pizza cheese may contain decreasing, increasing, or irregular gradients of moisture from center to surface, which may vary considerably at different locations within a single block. This complicates efforts to obtain representative samples for moisture and composition testing. Dicing the entire block into small (e.g., 1.5 cm) cubes and collecting a composite sample after thorough mixing may serve as a practical sampling approach for manufacturers and users of pizza cheese that have ready access to dicing equipment. PMID:11324629

  6. Radiocesium activity reduction in boar meat by brining.

    PubMed

    Dvorák, P; Kunová, V; Kunová, J; Benová, K

    2008-02-01

    Meat of wild boar with an intial (137)Cs activity concentration of 103 Bq kg(-1) of fresh mass was treated by brining. Dry-salting reduced the (137)Cs activity only by about 12-18%. Subsequent brining was done by using both pure sodium chloride and a mixture of sodium chloride and potassium nitrate. After double-brine exchange, the (137)Cs activity concentration was reduced by at least 72%. The double-brine exchanges were done for two time intervals (the first each 24 h and the second each 7 days). There were no differences in the (137)Cs activity reduction for these two time intervals. From the technological point of view, the repeated exchange of the brine solution represents a relative easy method of (137)Cs activity reduction in contaminated pork meat. PMID:17882446

  7. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  8. Brines as Possible Cation Sources for Biomimetic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, G. M.; Abel, A.; McPherson, B. J.; Stringer, J.

    2002-12-01

    permeability changes in the porous medium induced by accelerated diagenetic reactions are of specific interest. Brine chemistry is critical both to the catalysis and precipitation steps in our biomimetic approach, and also as we design flow experiments and parameterize computer model simulations. We have accomplished brine cataloging and mapping by utilizing ArcGIS and produced water records that originate from a water analysis database at the Petroleum Recovery Research Center at New Mexico Tech and a GIS database compiled by the Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin. The GIS database allows us to map spatially the chemical constituents of saline aquifers throughout the United States.

  9. Distinguishing seawater from geologic brine in saline coastal groundwater using radium-226; an example from the Sabkha of the UAE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, Thomas F.; Wood, Warren W.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2014-01-01

    Sabkhat (Salt flats) are common geographic features of low-lying marine coastal areas that develop under hyper-arid climatic conditions. They are characterized by the presence of highly concentrated saline solutions and evaporitic minerals, and have been cited in the geologic literature as present-day representations of hyper-arid regional paleohydrogeology, paleoclimatology, coastal processes, and sedimentation in the geologic record. It is therefore important that a correct understanding of the origin and development of these features be achieved. Knowledge of the source of solutes is an important first step in understanding these features. Historically, two theories have been advanced as to the main source of solutes in sabkha brines: an early concept entailing seawater as the obvious source, and a more recent and dynamic theory involving ascending geologic brine forced upward into the base of the sabkha by a regional hydraulic gradient in the underlying formations. Ra-226 could uniquely distinguish between these sources under certain circumstances, as it is typically present at elevated activity of hundreds to thousands of Bq/m3 (Becquerels per cubic meter) in subsurface formation brines; at exceedingly low activities in open ocean and coastal water; and not significantly supplied to water from recently formed marine sedimentary framework material. The coastal marine sabkha of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi was used to test this hypothesis. The distribution of Ra-226 in 70 samples of sabkha brine (mean: 700 Bq/m3), 7 samples of underlying deeper formation brine (mean: 3416 Bq/m3), the estimated value of seawater (< 16 Bq/m3) and an estimate of supply from sabkha sedimentary framework grains (<~6 Bq/m3) provide the first direct evidence that ascending geologic brine contributes significantly to the solutes of this sabkha system.

  10. CO2/brine migrations in a laterally closed reservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Han, W.; Lee, P.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic CO2 storage is considered as a promising solution for the mitigation of global CO2 emission levels. In assessing pressure and/or CO2 saturation distribution in a reservoir scale system, many studies have assumed that geologic formations consist of impermeable upper and lower boundaries to both supercritical CO2 and brine, and laterally open system. Under these conditions, the primary direction of brine flow is horizontal, as CO2 displaces the brine. However, in certain geologic situations, storage formation may laterally be compartmented due to presence of low-permeability zones creating a closed system. In this study we intended to assess the CO2/brine fluxes between the targeted storage formation and the upper and lower seals in a laterally closed reservoir system. The simulations were conducted using TOUGH2 with ECO2N module. A hypothetical two-dimensional radial model was designed to assess the spatial distribution of pressure build-up and the supercritical CO2 plume over time in a laterally closed system. The storage formation of 100 m thickness is radially extended to 10,000m and is located at 1,000 m below from the ground surface bounded by overlying and underlying seals of 100 m thickness. The CO2 injection rate was set to be 30 kg/s and the life-time of this hypothetical project was 30 years (10 years of injection followed by 20 years of monitoring period). The simulation results showed distinct CO2/brine flow regimes at three different zones; the dry-out zone, the two-phase zone, and the brine zone. At the dry-out zone, the direction of CO2 flux was from the storage formation toward the overlying and underlying seals while the brine flux was from the over- and underlying seals toward the storage formation. The CO2 and brine fluxes per unit area showed respectively up to 6×10-5 kg/s/m2 and 1×10-4 kg/s/m2 during the injection period, and decreased after injection ceased. At the two-phase zone, the CO2/brine migration was similar to that at dry

  11. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  12. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

  13. Evaporite diagenesis driven by synsedimentary evolution of brines

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Back-reaction of brines has modified cyclic shallow water carbonate-sulfate-halite sequences (Permian) in the Palo Duro basin, Texas Panhandle. Successive parts of regressive evaporite cycles were deposited from progressively more highly evaporated seawater. The reaction of the brine with sediments deposited during earlier parts of each cycle was the major force criving diagenetic reactions and determining the final mineralogy. Normal marine limestones at the base of cycles were dolomitized in the shallow subsurface environments by brines that precipitated brine-pool evaporites in the upper parts of cycles. Gypsum dehydrated to anhydrite at burial depths of 1-2m beneath the brine-pool floor as brine salinity increased toward halite saturation. Diagenetic limpid dolomite and anhydrite replacing halite were probably derived from mixed meteoric and evaporated-marine brines squeezed from mudstone beds during compaction in the shallow subsurface. Anhydrite and halite pervasively cemented and partly replaced carbonates and gypsum. The resulting low permeability limited later diagenetic alteration, so that the early diagenetic textures and mineralogy were preserved in the burial environment. Reduction in permeability occurred before the transgression initiating the next cycle; the only major result of the introduction of seawater into the evaporite environment was dissolution of the last-deposited few meters of halite.

  14. Copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Jafar; Alamdari, Abdolmohammad

    2009-07-30

    The present study aims at investigation of copper removal from oil-field brine by coprecipitation process. The produced brine containing heavy metals is usually returned to the reservoir for water flooding or is discarded to the surroundings. Therefore, surface waters or underground waters may be polluted due to probable contact to these discarded waters. Removal experiments were carried out at room temperature in a bench-scale crystallizer equipped with a draft tube. In order to gain an insight into the influence of soluble compounds in the industrial natural brine on the precipitation process, some comparative experiments were performed both on a sample of natural brine and on a synthetic simulated brine in the absence of natural impurities. A metal removal practice by coprecipitation of copper through CaCO(3) precipitates induced by reaction of Na(2)CO(3) and CaCl(2) reduced the copper concentration (Cu(2+)) from 0.27 ppm in the synthetic brine to 0.06 ppm. This removal of 78% required only 1g of precipitate per 0.15 mg copper metal. Analysis of the experimental results suggested that about 5% of the copper removal from the synthetic brine was through the mechanism of incorporation into the crystal lattice, and around 95% was through the adsorption on the crystal faces. PMID:19157701

  15. Brine migration in salt in a thermal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Lerche, M.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Salt deposits have long been considered viable repositories for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. However, brine trapped in salt tends to migrate up thermal gradients, such as can develop around radioactive waste storage containers, potentially promoting corrosion of containment structures. Brine inclusions move up the temperature gradient through the three main steps: 1) the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion caused by increased salt solubility, 2) ordinary and thermal diffusion of dissolved salt ions within the inclusion, and 3) precipitation of salt at the cold side of the inclusion due to local supersaturation. This process of brine transport through salt under a thermal gradient is generally referred to as thermal migration. Here we investigated thermal migration of brine inclusion in salts for a wide range of mean temperatures (~ 50 °C to ~200 °C) and temperature gradients (~ 10 °C/cm to ~57 °C/cm). With time brine inclusions moving towards the heat source become elongated parallel to the thermal gradient. We quantified the rate of brine migration as a function of mean temperature and thermal gradient using time-lapse optical microscope. X -ray and neutron tomography were used to visualize and quantify 3D spatial distribution of brine inclusion in a salt crystal at different stages of thermal migration. Migration velocities are shown to increase with temperature, temperature gradient and size of inclusion. We find an abrupt increase in migration velocity at certain time steps of thermal migration. Migration velocities of brine inclusions ranged from 0.1 m/year to 30.7 m/year. Empirical equations at different velocity regions for brine inclusions were obtained by fitting exponential equations to the experimental data with high coefficient of determination values (R2> 0.94).The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical migration rates obtained using a previous analytical model.

  16. Hydrocarbon generation and brine migration in the central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in mineralized natural fractures from six Devonian shale cores were used to document hydrocarbon generation and brine migration in the central Appalachian basin. The sequence of formation of four regional fracture sets containing the inclusions was used to constrain the relative timing of fluid evolution. The earliest formed fluid inclusions are single-phase liquid inclusions containing a complex mixture of methane, ethane, higher hydrocarbons, and nitrogen. These inclusions formed during burial of the Devonian shales and early hydrocarbon generation in the oil window. As burial proceeded to a maximum and hydrocarbon generation entered the gas phase, later formed fluid inclusions record the presence of a more methane-rich fluid with minor ethane and nitrogen. Either during maximum burial or early uplift of the Devonian shale section, regional stress relaxation was accompanied by regional brine migration. Fluid inclusions record the influx of a methane-saturated, sodium chloride-rich brine and subsequent mixing with a presumably in situ-calcium-rich brine and subsequent mixing with a presumably in-situ calcium-rich brine. The migration pathway is presumed to be the Devonian shale detachment zone and underlying Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. This migration may be related to the fluids forming Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Present-day brine compositions reflect this ancient mixing. Brines from deep Cambrian through Silurian rocks are more calcium-chloride rich than brines from shallower Devonian and younger rocks. The sodium chloride-rich brines from Upper Devonian through Pennsylvanian rocks become more dilute as a result of mixing with meteoric water.

  17. A phenomenological analysis of the essence of the science education experience as perceived by female high school physics and advanced chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential elements of the current science education experience as constructed by twelve female high school physics and advanced chemistry students. The expressed desired outcome was a description of the phenomenon from a participant point of view. Student recollections and interpretations of experiences were assessed for a twelve-week period. Data sources were student journals, autobiographies, interviews, focus group interviews and researcher observations. In addition, each participant completed the Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981) in order to create attitude profiles for triangulation with other data. While a wide range of aspects of the science education experience emerged, results showed that female students describe and interpret their science education experiences on the basis of actual interest in science, early science experiences, perception of ability, self-confidence, teacher attributes, parental and peer interaction, societal expectations, the nature of science, and gender. Of these factors, specifically, interest and curiosity, societal influence, the nature of science, lack of in-school experiences, the desire to help others, and general parent support were most impacting upon experience and the desire to continue science study. Moreover, the interaction of these factors is relevant. Very simply, early experiences are crucial to interest development. In general, parents can enhance this interest by providing science-related experiences. In the absence of early in-school experiences (i.e., which the participants reported), these out-of-school experiences become crucial. More importantly, quality instruction and parent and peer support are needed to foster science interest and to overcome the powerfully negative influence of society, the discriminatory nature of science, and the lack of experiences.

  18. Desalination of geothermal brines by means of combustion residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pernklau, E.; Althaus, E.

    1986-01-01

    Geothermal brines with high salinity are frequently encountered. Their commercial utilization, e.g. for heat recovery, is handicapped by scaling and disposal problems. A simple method for attaining a significant reduction of salinity would solve this problem. This paper examines the possibility of desalinating by entrapment of sodium chloride in sodalite. Sodalite is formed by the reaction of a hot brine with materials containing aluminum and silicon, e.g. combustion residues. The authors have reduced the sodium chloride content of a model brine in this manner.

  19. Recent advances in isoxazole chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenko, A. V.; Khlebnikov, A. F.; Novikov, M. S.; Pakalnis, V. V.; Rostovskii, N. V.

    2015-04-01

    The preparation methods and reactions of isoxazoles are described and systematized on the basis of analysis of the literature published from 2005 to present. In the discussion of synthesis, major attention is focused on the most efficient approaches: condensation of hydroxylamine with 1,3-dielectrophiles and reactions of nitrile oxides with alkenes and alkynes. Five-membered ring opening reactions leading to acyclic functionalized or other heterocyclic compounds are considered. The transformations of isoxazole derivatives that occur without ring cleavage to form fused heterocyclic systems, as well as reactions that lead to the introduction of C-substituents into isoxazoles, are considered. Data on the biological activity of some isoxazole derivatives are reported. The bibliography includes 439 references.

  20. PNNL's 'PEGASUS' Advances Atmospheric Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Eades, Robert A.

    2001-04-16

    Presented an overview of software design to maximize computational efficiency on a massively parallel computing system. Also gave highlights of scientific results from this code, focusing primarily on how we can distinguish between stratospheric ozone in remote atmospheres and ozone generated from NOx/VOC chemical mechanisms.

  1. Spreadsheets in Advanced Physical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari, Roy

    1990-01-01

    Described are several spreadsheet templates which use the functions of iteration and logical look-up which allow students to calculate and graph quantum mechanical functions and to simulate rotational and vibrational energy level and spectra. The templates are listed in the appendix. (KR)

  2. 7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF BRINING TANK Newer, concrete model. After drying, skins were rolled in borax and packed into barrels, such as those seen in background. - Sealing Plant, St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Saint George, Aleutians West Census Area, AK

  3. Occurrence of aspartyl proteases in brine after herring marinating.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz; Lepczyński, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herrings are marinated in a brine consisting of salt and acetic acid. During marinating, various nitrogen fractions diffuse from fish flesh to the brine, causing significant nutritional quality losses of the raw material. In this study, it has been demonstrated for the first time that proteases diffuse from the fish to the marinating brine. Using ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on pepstatin-A agarose bed the aspartyl proteases were purified and concentrated over 2600-fold from a marinating brine. Pepstatin-A completely inhibited the activity of the purified preparation. The preparation was active against fluorogenic substrates specific for cathepsin D and E and inactive against substrates specific for cysteine cathepsins. Depending on incubation time, the preparation showed pH-optimum at 2.0 or 4.5. The 2D SDS-PAGE separation demonstrated the presence of a few proteins with molecular weights and pI values typical of cathepsin D, E and pepsin. PMID:26471581

  4. 53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  6. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  7. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Thirteen ideas are presented that may be of use to chemistry teachers. Topics covered include vitamin C, industrial chemistry, electrical conductivity, electrolysis, alkali metals, vibration modes infra-red, dynamic equilibrium, and some new demonstrations in gaseous combinations. (PS)

  8. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  9. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and chemistry experiments. Topics include sublimation, electronegativity, electrolysis, experimental aspects of strontianite, halide test, evaluation of present and future computer programs in chemistry, formula building, care of glass/saturated calomel…

  10. A phase field model for brine channels in sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Valeria; Fabrizio, Mauro; Grandi, Diego

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present a phenomenological mathematical model for describing the features of the brine channels in sea ice. The differential system is composed of the Ginzburg-Landau and Cahn-Hilliard equations, in addition to the heat equation, that controls the ice-liquid phase transition by the temperature and hence the establishment of brine channels. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  11. Dense, Viscous Brine Behavior in Heterogeneous Porous Medium Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D. Johnson; Pedit, J.A.; Gasda, S.E.; Farthing, M.W.; Murphy, L.L.; Knight, S.R.; Brubaker, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of dense, viscous calcium bromide brine solutions used to remediate systems contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is considered in laboratory and field porous medium systems. The density and viscosity of brine solutions are experimentally investigated and functional forms fit over a wide range of mass fractions. A density of 1.7 times, and a corresponding viscosity of 6.3 times, that of water is obtained at a calcium bromide mass fraction of 0.53. A three-dimensional laboratory cell is used to investigate the establishment, persistence, and rate of removal of a stratified dense brine layer in a controlled system. Results from a field-scale experiment performed at the Dover National Test Site are used to investigate the ability to establish and maintain a dense brine layer as a component of a DNAPL recovery strategy, and to recover the brine at sufficiently high mass fractions to support the economical reuse of the brine. The results of both laboratory and field experiments show that a dense brine layer can be established, maintained, and recovered to a significant extent. Regions of unstable density profiles are shown to develop and persist in the field-scale experiment, which we attribute to regions of low hydraulic conductivity. The saturated-unsaturated, variable-density ground-water flow simulation code SUTRA is modified to describe the system of interest, and used to compare simulations to experimental observations and to investigate certain unobserved aspects of these complex systems. The model results show that the standard model formulation is not appropriate for capturing the behavior of sharp density gradients observed during the dense brine experiments. PMID:20444520

  12. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information, laboratory procedures, classroom materials/activities, and experiments for chemistry. Topics include superheavy elements, polarizing power and chemistry of alkali metals, particulate carbon from combustion, tips for the chemistry laboratory, interesting/colorful experiments, behavior of bismuth (III) iodine, and…

  13. Characterization of brines and evaporites of Lake Katwe, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John Baptist; Bäbler, Matthäus U.; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Lake Katwe brines and evaporites were investigated to determine their chemical, mineralogical and morphological composition. 30 brine samples and 3 solid salt samples (evaporites) were collected from different locations of the lake deposit. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of the samples including Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), ion chromatography, and potentiometric titration. The mineralogical composition and morphology of the evaporites was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Physical parameters of the lake brines such as density, electrical conductivity, pH, and salinity were also studied. The results show that the lake brines are highly alkaline and rich in Na+, Cl-, CO32-, SO42-, and HCO3- with lesser amounts of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Br-, and F- ions. The brines show an intermediate transition between Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types. Among the trace metals, the lake brines were found to be enriched in B, I, Sr, Fe, Mo, Ba, and Mn. The solid salts are composed of halite mixed with other salts such as hanksite, burkeite and trona. It was also observed that the composition of the salts varies considerably even within the same grades.

  14. The Chemistry of Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, describes how basic chemistry and biochemistry research can spur a better understanding of human health. It reveals how networks of chemical reactions keep our bodies running smoothly. Some of the tools and technologies used to explore these reactions are…

  15. Brine: a computer program to compute brine migration adjacent to a nuclear waste canister in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, G.D.; Fuller, M.E.

    1980-06-10

    This report presents a mathematical model used to predict brine migration toward a nuclear waste canister in a bedded salt repository. The mathematical model is implemented in a computer program called BRINE. The program is written in FORTRAN and executes in the batch mode on a CDC 7600. A description of the program input requirements and output available is included. Samples of input and output are given.

  16. CLUSTER CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, Earl L.

    1980-05-01

    Metal cluster chemistry is one of the most rapidly developing areas of inorganic and organometallic chemistry. Prior to 1960 only a few metal clusters were well characterized. However, shortly after the early development of boron cluster chemistry, the field of metal cluster chemistry began to grow at a very rapid rate and a structural and a qualitative theoretical understanding of clusters came quickly. Analyzed here is the chemistry and the general significance of clusters with particular emphasis on the cluster research within my group. The importance of coordinately unsaturated, very reactive metal clusters is the major subject of discussion.

  17. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  18. A microfluidic flow focusing platform to screen the evolution of crude oil-brine interfacial elasticity.

    PubMed

    Morin, Brendon; Liu, Yafei; Alvarado, Vladimir; Oakey, John

    2016-08-01

    Multiphase fluid flow dynamics dominate processes used to recover the majority of hydrocarbon resources produced by global energy industries. Micromodels have long been used to recapitulate geometric features of these processes, allowing for the phenomenological validation of multiphase porous media transport models. Notably, these platform surrogates typically preserve the complexity of reservoir conditions, preventing the elucidation of underlying physical mechanisms that govern bulk phenomena. Here, we introduce a microfluidic flow focusing platform that allows crude oil to be aged against brines of distinct composition in order to evaluate the pore-level effects of chemically-mediated interfacial properties upon snap-off. Snap-off is a fundamental multiphase flow process that has been shown to be a function of aqueous phase chemistry, which in turn establishes the limits of crude oil recovery during enhanced oil recovery operations. Specifically, this platform was used to evaluate the hypothesis that low salinity brines suppress crude oil snap-off, thus enhancing recovery. This hypothesis was validated and conditions that promote the effect were shown to, unexpectedly, develop over a matter of minutes on the pore scale. Microfluidic snap-off experiments were complemented by finite element fluid dynamics modeling, and further validated against a classical instability framework. PMID:27241440

  19. ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  20. Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D. R.; Wright, R.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

  1. Advective, Diffusive and Eruptive Leakage of CO2 and Brine within Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, N. H.; Han, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated a natural analogue for CO2 leakage near the Green River, Utah, aiming to understand the influence of various factors on CO2 leakage and to reliably predict underground CO2 behavior after injection for geologic CO2 sequestration. Advective, diffusive, and eruptive characteristics of CO2 leakage were assessed via a soil CO2 flux survey and numerical modeling. The field results show anomalous CO2 fluxes (> 10 g m-2 d-1) along the faults, particularly adjacent to CO2-driven cold springs and geysers (e.g., 36,259 g m-2 d-1 at Crystal Geyser), ancient travertines (e.g., 5,917 g m-2 d-1), joint zones in sandstone (e.g., 120 g m-2 d-1), and brine discharge zones (e.g., 5,515 g m-2 d-1). Combined to similar isotopic ratios of gas and progressive evolution of brine chemistry at springs and geysers, a gradual decrease of soil CO2 flux from the Little Grand Wash (LGW; ~36,259 g m-2 d-1) to Salt Wash (SW; ~1,428 g m-2 d-1) fault zones reveals the same CO2 origin and potential southward transport of CO2 over 10-20 km. The numerical simulations overtly exhibit lateral transport of free CO2 and CO2-rich brine from the LGW to SW fault zones through the regional aquifers (e.g., Entrada, Navajo, Kayenta, Wingate, White Rim). CO2 travels predominantly as an aqueous phase (Xco2=~0.045) as previously suggested, giving rise to the convective instability that further accelerates CO2 dissolution. While the buoyant free CO2 always tends to ascend, a fraction of dense CO2-rich brine flows laterally into the aquifer and mixes with the formation fluids during upward migration along the fault. The fault always enhances advective CO2 transport regardless of its permeability (k). However, only the low-k fault scenario engenders development of CO2 anticlinal trap within the shallow aquifers (Entrada and Navajo), concentrating high CO­­­2 fluxes (~1,273 g m-2 d-1) within the northern footwall of the LGW fault similar to the field. Moreover, eruptive CO2 leakage at a well

  2. Sr-isotopic constraints on brine-mineral reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, H.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Bickle, M. J.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.; Crius Team

    2011-12-01

    Reactions between CO2-charged brines and minerals in reservoirs used for geological carbon storage may either enhance the storage of CO2 by precipitating carbonate minerals and increasing dissolution of CO2 in brines or allow migration of CO2 by corroding cap rocks. However the nature and rates of such reactions are too poorly constrained for reliable modelling of the impact of the reactions. This study attempts to infer the nature and rates of such reactions by sampling brines during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. The interpretation of the fluid-mineral reactions from changes in the water chemistry is complicated by the previous history of the field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. Anion (Cl, F, Br, I) and stable isotope ratios (δ18O, D/H) primarily track fluid sources and fluid mixing. Cation concentrations and Sr-isotopic compositions reflect both mixing of injected waters and fluid mineral reactions (Fig. 1). The variations in Sr-isotopic ratios are interpreted to reflect the relative inputs from dissolution of unradiogenic carbonate minerals and radiogenic silicate minerals. It is notable that Sr-isotopic ratios decrease after CO2 breakthrough as Sr concentrations continue to rise implying, increased carbonate dissolution although increases in Na, K and Si also require dissolution of silicate minerals.

  3. A perchlorate brine lubricated deformable bed facilitating flow of the north polar cap of Mars: Possible mechanism for water table recharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, David A.; Hecht, Michael H.; Kounaves, Samuel P.; Catling, David C.

    2010-02-01

    The Phoenix Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) discovered substantial amounts of magnesium, calcium, and sodium perchlorate in the soil of polar Mars. Magnesium perchlorate is likely the dominant salt in the polar region's soils. But it could be that the cations are contributed by a mixture of Mg, Ca, and Na. Mg, Ca, and Na perchlorate brines can stay liquid as low as ˜-69, -74, -32°C, respectively. WCL reports 0.7 % (wt) of the soil is pure perchlorate, and if 5% of the northern permanent ice cap is soil, then the perchlorate could make about 1/2800 of the ice cap. This suggests there could be enough perchlorate in the ice cap to generate about 1-3 m of brine at the bed. Large areas under the north polar cap have basal temperatures above -69°C so the Mg and Ca perchlorate brines would be liquid. Because of its high density, the perchlorate brine would pool over impervious layers and make the bed into a perchlorate sludge, which could be mobilized and deformed by the weight of the overburden of ice and soil. The sludge would be deformed and moved outward and stop where the basal temperature dropped below -69°C. During the warmest climates, any frozen cold dam at the edge could be breached and the brine reintroduced to the polar surface. Some of the brine could have penetrated downward under the ice cap. This mobile sludge-bed ice cap has been modeled with a 2-D time-varying model. Results of such model runs have similarities to measured layers found by shallow subsurface radar.

  4. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  5. Mineral Process Chemistry: A Special Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudeney, A. W. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mineral Process Chemistry is one of the special study options of the Nuffield Advanced Science course in chemistry. Following general comments on mineral process chemistry, the subject matter of the option is described, focusing on copper and china clay. (Author/JN)

  6. Groundwater Quality Impacts Related to Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into a Shallow, Unconfined Limestone Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, D. H.; Hou, Z.; Dai, Z.; Zheng, L.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the impact of leaks related to geologic carbon sequestration on groundwater quality is limited by the complexity of subsurface aquifers and the geochemical reactions that control drinking water compositions. As a result, there is a high uncertainty associated with predictions, hampering monitoring plans, interpretation of the monitoring results, and mitigation plans for a given site. As a part of the National Risk Assessment Program (NRAP), funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a model of the Edwards Aquifer in Texas has been developed to examine the geochemical impacts of leakage of CO2 and brine containing trace metals into an oxidizing unconfined, carbonate aquifer. We use STOMP-CO2-R, which is a multiphase flow simulator, coupled with the reactive transport module ECKEChem, both developed at PNNL, to simulate CO2 sequestration in deep saline formations and the associated reactions with formation minerals. The limestone almost entirely consists of calcite, with lesser amounts of dolomite and trace metals adsorbed on minor amounts of clay and iron oxides. A reduced order model of this more complex chemistry and physics based model has been developed to be included in a framework for quantifying the overall risks associated with CO2 injection, leaks and groundwater impacts. The aquifer model uses reduced-order models, provided by other NRAP groups, of CO2 and brine leakage from wellbores and faults as inputs. Geochemical input parameters were varied to determine parameter sensitivity and to generate a response surface of output variables. The output variables were pH < 6.5 or TDS > 500 ppm plume size and CO2 flux to atmosphere, as well the volume of aquifer with trace metal concentrations greater than their U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels. The uncertain input parameters were CO2/brine leak rate, brine composition, mineral surface area and volumetric percent, equilibrium coefficients, and kinetic rates

  7. Redox states of underground brine system along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xueyan; Yu, Zhigang; Ning, Jinsong; Chen, Hongtao; Mi, Tiezhu

    2008-05-01

    Underground brine samples were collected along the southern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Shangdong, China in two field investigations in 2003. The brines are confined in the Quaternary sediment and underwent a series of geochemical changes. The redox states of these brines were assessed qualitatively based on the measurements of Eh and redox-sensitive species such as DO, NO NO{3/-}, Mn2+, Fe2+, SO{4/2-} in the brines. The redox condition of the underground brine is anoxic, and the redox reactions that controlled the redox potential of brines should be Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction.

  8. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new chemistry expermiments are described. Broad areas covered include atomic structure, solubility, gaseous diffusion, endothermic reactions, alcohols, equilibrium, atomic volumes, and some improvised apparatus. (PS)

  9. Technetium chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-04-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  10. Decadal simulation and comprehensive evaluation of CESM/CAM5.1 with advanced chemistry, aerosol microphysics, and aerosol-cloud interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jian; Zhang, Yang; Glotfelty, Tim; He, Ruoying; Bennartz, Ralf; Rausch, John; Sartelet, Karine

    2015-03-01

    Earth system models have been used for climate predictions in recent years due to their capabilities to include biogeochemical cycles, human impacts, as well as coupled and interactive representations of Earth system components (e.g., atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice). In this work, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with advanced chemistry and aerosol treatments, referred to as CESM-NCSU, is applied for decadal (2001-2010) global climate predictions. A comprehensive evaluation is performed focusing on the atmospheric component—the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) by comparing simulation results with observations/reanalysis data and CESM ensemble simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The improved model can predict most meteorological and radiative variables relatively well with normalized mean biases (NMBs) of -14.1 to -9.7% and 0.7-10.8%, respectively, although temperature at 2 m (T2) is slightly underpredicted. Cloud variables such as cloud fraction (CF) and precipitating water vapor (PWV) are well predicted, with NMBs of -10.5 to 0.4%, whereas cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), cloud liquid water path (LWP), and cloud optical thickness (COT) are moderately-to-largely underpredicted, with NMBs of -82.2 to -31.2%, and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is overpredictd by 26.7%. These biases indicate the limitations and uncertainties associated with cloud microphysics (e.g., resolved clouds and subgrid-scale cumulus clouds). Chemical concentrations over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (e.g., SO42-, Cl-, OC, and PM2.5) are reasonably well predicted with NMBs of -12.8 to -1.18%. Concentrations of SO2, SO42-, and PM10 are also reasonably well predicted over Europe with NMBs of -20.8 to -5.2%, so are predictions of SO2 concentrations over the East Asia with an NMB of -18.2%, and the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) over the globe with an NMB of -3.5%. Most meteorological and radiative variables

  11. Throwing the Book at Elementary Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    1983-01-01

    Several examples of misinformation and advanced topics included in current chemistry textbooks are provided. Suggests that since these books tend to be too long, too advanced, and too heavy, revisions should be shorter and less costly, with confusing aspects of chemistry (such as molecular-orbital theory) left out completely. (JN)

  12. A model for interpretation of brine-dependent spontaneous imbibition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evje, S.; Hiorth, A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous experimental results for spontaneous imbibition experiments in the context of chalk cores have revealed a rather puzzling behavior: the oil recovery curves, both the shape as well as the steady state level which is reached, depend strongly on the brine composition. In particular, it has been demonstrated that Mg,SO42-, and Ca 2+ play a central role in this physico-chemical system. A good theoretical understanding of these experimental results, in terms of mathematical models that can suggest possible explanations of the lab experiments as well as predict behavior not yet tested in the lab, seems to still be lacking. The purpose of this paper is to try to shed light on some important modeling aspects. The model we propose is an extended version of the classical Buckley-Leverett (BL) equation for two-phase spontaneous imbibition where the water saturation equation has been coupled to a system of reaction-diffusion (RD) equations describing water-rock chemistry relevant for chalk core plugs. As far as water-rock chemistry is concerned we focus in this work on the combined effect of transport and dissolution/precipitation of calcite, magnesite, and anhydrite. The line we pursue is to couple changes of the wetting state, expressed in terms of the relative permeability and capillary pressure functions, to the water-rock chemistry behavior. More precisely, we build into the model the mechanism that the rock surface will become more water-wet at the places where dissolution of calcite takes place. In particular, we illustrate and analyze how different compositions of the imbibing brine then lead to different water-rock interaction scenarios which in turn gives qualitative and quantitative differences in the solution of the saturation equation describing spontaneous imbibition. Comparison with relevant experimental behavior is included as well as illustration of some possible interesting and non-trivial characteristic features of the model reflecting the nonlinear

  13. Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1982-01-26

    The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

  14. Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

  15. Synthesis of a Self-Healing Polymer Based on Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at the Interface of Organic Chemistry and Materials Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weizman, Haim; Nielsen, Christian; Weizman, Or S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment exposes students to the chemistry of self-healing polymers based on a Diels-Alder reaction. Students accomplish a multistep synthesis of a monomer building block and then polymerize it to form a cross-linked polymer. The healing capability of the polymer is verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments.…

  16. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  17. Spectroscopy and detectability of liquid brines on mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massé, M.; Beck, P.; Schmitt, B.; Pommerol, A.; McEwen, A.; Chevrier, V.; Brissaud, O.; Séjourné, A.

    2014-03-01

    Recent geomorphological observations as well as chemical and thermodynamic studies demonstrate that liquid water should be stable today on the Martian surface at some times of the day. In Martian conditions, brines would be particularly more stable than pure water because salts can depress the freezing point and lower the evaporation rate of water. Despite this evidence, no clear spectral signature of liquid has been observed so far by the hyperspectral imaging spectrometers OMEGA and CRISM. However, past spectral analysis lacks a good characterization of brines' spectral signatures. This study thus aims to determine how liquid brines can be detected on Mars by spectroscopy. In this way, laboratory experiments were performed for reproducing hydration and dehydration cycles of various brines while measuring their spectral signatures. The resulting spectra first reveal a very similar spectral evolution for the various brine types and pure water, with the main difference observed at the end of the dehydration with the crystallization of various hydrated minerals from brines. The main characteristic of this spectral behavior is an important decoupling between the evolution of albedo and hydration bands depths. During most of the wetting/drying processes, spectra usually display a low albedo associated with shallow water absorption band depths. Strong water absorption band depth and high albedo are respectively only observed when the surface is very wet and when the surface is very dry. These experiments can thus explain why the currently active Martian features attributed to the action of a liquid are only associated with low albedo and very weak spectral signatures. Hydration experiments also reveal that deliquescence occurs easily even at low temperature and moderate soil water vapor pressure and could thus cause seasonal darkening on Mars. These experiments demonstrate that the absence of water absorptions in CRISM in the middle afternoon does not rule out water

  18. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and content information related to chemistry. Topics include polarizing power; calorimetry and momentum; microcomputers in school chemistry; a constant-volume dispenser for liquids, floating magnets, and crystal lattices; preparation of chromium; and solvent polarity and…

  19. System-Level Numerical Simulation of Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide Using a Brine and Carbon Dioxide Leakage Risk Analysis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    addition, in case of the second aquifer system, the total amounts of brine and carbon dioxide leakage through the fault is 100 times greater than those through all the 100 abandoned wells. On the other hand, in case of the third aquifer system, significant amounts of brine and carbon dioxide leakage through the abandoned wells occur even after the carbon dioxide injection period. The results of this study validate the applicability of the system-level brine and carbon dioxide leakage risk analysis model to geologic storage of carbon dioxide. This work was supported by the Geo-Advanced Innovative Action (GAIA) Project, Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI), Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea.

  20. EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

    2004-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal

  1. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry. PMID:24962279

  2. Brine evolution and mineral deposition in hydrologically open evaporite basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Wood, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A lumped-parameter, solute mass-balance model is developed to define the role of water outflow from a well-mixed basin. A mass-balance model is analyzed with a geochemical model designed for waters with high ionic strengths. Two typical waters, seawater and a Na-HCO3 ground water, are analyzed to illustrate the control that the leakage ratio (or hydrologic openness of the basin) has on brine evolution and the suite and thicknesses of evaporite minerals deposited. The analysis suggests that brines evolve differently under different leakage conditions. -from Authors

  3. Durability of high performance concrete in magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect

    Tumidajski, P.J.; Chan, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    The durability of six concretes exposed to magnesium brine was monitored for 24 months. These concretes incorporated ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, and fly ash. The Young`s moduli, chloride penetrations, and median pore diameters were measured. There was a cyclic nature to these properties due to the complicated interaction of hydration with magnesium, chloride and sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures, in combination with a long initial cure, provided the most durable concrete. Concrete with 65% slag had the best overall durability to the brines tested.

  4. Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems. I. Parametric calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.

    1984-02-01

    A series of parametric calculations was run with the S-CUBED geopressured-geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content, and shale recharge.

  5. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  6. The role of seawater freezing in the formation of subsurface brines

    SciTech Connect

    Herut, B.; Starinsky, A.; Katz, A. ); Bein, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Several mechanisms (evaporation, water-rock interaction, ultra-filtration) have been suggested to explain the evolution of ubiquitous Ca-chloride subsurface brines. In the present paper, the freezing of seawater in polar regions, and in even wider areas during glacial periods, is proposed as an additional possible path of brine formation. Although several of the processes which lead to the formation of Ca-chloride brines are common for both the evaporative and the freezing models, the Na-Br-Cl relationship in a given brine can be used to discriminate between the two modes of brine evolution. Several subsurface brines from the Canadian Shield and one brine from Finland are used as examples of the seawater freezing model, and an explanation is proposed for the necessary mass production of brines in glacial environments.

  7. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  8. Review of information on the radiation chemistry of materials around waste canisters in salt and assessment of the need for additional experimental information

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    The brines, vapors, and salts precipitated from the brines will be exposed to gamma rays and to elevated temperatures in the regions close to a waste package in the salt. Accordingly, they will be subject to changes in composition brought about by reactions induced by the radiations and heat. This report reviews the status of information on the radiation chemistry of brines, gases, and solids which might be present around a waste package in salt and to assess the need for additional laboratory investigations on the radiation chemistry of these materials. The basic aspects of the radiation chemistry of water and aqueous solutions, including concentrated salt solutions, were reviewed briefly and found to be substantially unchanged from those presented in Jenks's 1972 review of radiolysis and hydrolysis in salt-mine brines. Some additional information pertaining to the radiolytic yields and reactions in brine solutions has become available since the previous review, and this information will be useful in the eventual, complete elucidation of the radiation chemistry of the salt-mine brines. 53 references.

  9. Development and implementation of an empirical frequency map for use in MD simulations of isotope-edited proteins, and, Development, implementation, and evaluation of an online student portal as a textbook replacement in an advanced general chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorb, Justin Matthew

    The first portion of this thesis describes an extension of work done in the Skinner group to develop an empirical frequency map for N-methylacetamide (NMA) in water. NMA is a peptide bond capped on either side by a methyl group and is therefore a common prototypical molecule used when studying complicated polypeptides and proteins. This amide bond is present along the backbone of every protein as it connects individual component amino acids. This amide bond also has a strong observable frequency in the IR due to the Amide-I mode (predominantly carbon-oxygen stretching motion). This project describes the simplification of the prior model for mapping the frequency of the Amide-I mode from the electric field due to the environment and develops a parallel implementation of this algorithm for use in larger biological systems, such as the trans-membrane portion of the tetrameric polypeptide bundle protein CD3zeta. The second portion of this thesis describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an online textbook within the context of a cohesive theoretical framework. The project begins by describing what is meant when discussing a digital textbook, including a survey of various types of digital media being used to deliver textbook-like content. This leads into the development of a theoretical framework based on constructivist pedagogical theory, hypertext learning theory, and chemistry visualization and representation frameworks. The implementation and design of ChemPaths, the general chemistry online text developed within the Chemistry Education Digital Library (ChemEd DL) is then described. The effectiveness of ChemPaths being used as a textbook replacement in an advanced general chemistry course is evaluated within the developed theoretical framework both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  10. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING RISKS POSED BY BRINES CONTAINING DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geologic disposal of supercritical carbon dioxide in saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas fields will cause large volumes of brine to become saturated with dissolved CO2 at concentrations of 50 g/l or more.  As CO2 dissolves in brine, the brine de...

  12. 40 CFR 436.120 - Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salines from brine lakes subcategory. 436.120 Section 436.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Salines From Brine Lakes Subcategory § 436.120 Applicability; description of the salines from brine lakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the processing of salines...

  13. Circumstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Huggins, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    The study of the outer envelopes of cool evolved stars has become an active area of research. The physical properties of CS envelopes are presented. Observations of many wavelengths bands are relevant. A summary of observations and a discussion of theoretical considerations concerning the chemistry are summarized. Recent theoretical considerations show that the thermal equilibrium model is of limited use for understanding the chemistry of the outer CS envelopes. The theoretical modeling of the chemistry of CS envelopes provides a quantitive test of chemical concepts which have a broader interest than the envelopes themselves.

  14. Overview of actinide chemistry in the WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean - Francois; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Khaing, Hnin; Swanson, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 celebrates 10 years of safe operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the only nuclear waste repository designated to dispose defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States. Many elements contributed to the success of this one-of-the-kind facility. One of the most important of these is the chemistry of the actinides under WIPP repository conditions. A reliable understanding of the potential release of actinides from the site to the accessible environment is important to the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The environmental chemistry of the major actinides disposed at the WIPP continues to be investigated as part of the ongoing recertification efforts of the WIPP project. This presentation provides an overview of the actinide chemistry for the WIPP repository conditions. The WIPP is a salt-based repository; therefore, the inflow of brine into the repository is minimized, due to the natural tendency of excavated salt to re-seal. Reducing anoxic conditions are expected in WIPP because of microbial activity and metal corrosion processes that consume the oxygen initially present. Should brine be introduced through an intrusion scenario, these same processes will re-establish reducing conditions. In the case of an intrusion scenario involving brine, the solubilization of actinides in brine is considered as a potential source of release to the accessible environment. The following key factors establish the concentrations of dissolved actinides under subsurface conditions: (1) Redox chemistry - The solubility of reduced actinides (III and IV oxidation states) is known to be significantly lower than the oxidized forms (V and/or VI oxidation states). In this context, the reducing conditions in the WIPP and the strong coupling of the chemistry for reduced metals and microbiological processes with actinides are important. (2) Complexation - For the anoxic, reducing and mildly basic brine systems in the WIPP, the most important

  15. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (<10,000 ppm TDS) waters. These modified procedures have been successfully tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly

  16. The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment Managing CO2 Sequestration in a Brine Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, S.

    2005-12-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Frio Brine Pilot Experiment was begun in 2002. The increase in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), is thought to be a major cause of climate change. Sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers below and separate from fresh water is considered a promising method of reducing CO2 emissions. The objectives of the experiment are to (1) demonstrate CO2 can be injected into a brine formation safely; (2) measure subsurface distribution of injected CO2; (3) test the validity of conceptual, hydrologic, and geochemical models, and (4) develop experience necessary for larger scale CO2 injection experiments. The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) is the leading institution on the project and is collaborating with many national laboratories and private institutes. BEG reviewed many saline formations in the US to identify candidates for CO2 storage. The Frio Formation was selected as a target that could serve a large part of the Gulf Coast and site was selected for a brine storage pilot experiment in the South Liberty field, Dayton, Texas. Most wells were drilled in the 1950's, and the fluvial sandstone of the upper Frio Formation in the Oligocene is our target, at a depth of 5,000 ft. An existing well was used as the observation well. A new injection well was drilled 100 ft away, and 30 ft downdip from the observation well. Conventional cores were cut, and analysis indicated 32 to 35 percent porosity and 2,500 md permeability. Detailed core description was valuable as better characterization resulted in design improvements. A bed bisecting the interval originally thought to be a significant barrier to flow is a sandy siltstone having a permeability of about 100 md. As a result, the upper part of the sandstone was perforated. Because of changes in porosity, permeability, and the perforation zone, input for the simulation model was updated and the model was rerun to estimate timing of

  17. Prominent Chemists Team Up to Review Frontiers in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a symposium which focused on the influence of inorganic chemistry on organic synthesis, the impact of organic chemistry on biochemistry and vice versa, chemical reaction dynamics, and advances in inorganic chemistry. Explains the purpose of the symposium was to illustrate the intellectual dynamism of modern chemistry. (MVL)

  18. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation.

  19. Treatment of RO brine-towards sustainable water reclamation practice.

    PubMed

    Ng, H Y; Lee, L Y; Ong, S L; Tao, G; Viawanath, B; Kekre, K; Lay, W; Seah, H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment and disposal of RO brine is an important part in sustaining the water reclamation practice. RO brine generated from water reclamation contains high concentration of organic and inorganic compounds. Cost-effective technologies for treatment of RO brine are still relatively unexplored. Thus, this study aim to determine a feasible treatment process for removal of both organic and inorganic compounds in RO brine generated from NEWater production. The proposed treatment consists of biological activated carbon (BAC) column followed by capacitive deionization (CDI) process for organic and inorganic removals, respectively. Preliminary bench-scale study demonstrated about 20% TOC removal efficiency was achieved using BAC at 40 mins empty bed contact time (EBCT) while the CDI process was able to remove more than 90% conductivity reducing it from 2.19 mS/cm to only about 164 microS/cm. More than 90% cations and anions in the BAC effluent were removed using CDI process. In addition, TOC and TN removals of 78% and 91%, respectively were also attained through this process. About 90% water recovery was achieved. This process shows the potential of increased water recovery in the reclamation process while volume for disposal can be further minimized. Further studies on the sustainable operation and process optimization are ongoing. PMID:18776632

  20. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-07-01

    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery. PMID:23726709

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of Reservoir Rock Under Brine Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Richa; Ranjith, P. G.; Choi, S. K.; Haque, A.; Yellishetty, Mohan; Hong, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic emissions (AE) and stress-strain curve analysis are well accepted ways of analysing crack propagation and monitoring the various failure stages (such as crack closure, crack initiation level during rock failure under compression) of rocks and rock-like materials. This paper presents details and results of experimental investigations conducted for characterizing the brittle failure processes induced in a rock due to monocyclic uniaxial compression on loading of two types of sandstone core samples saturated in NaCl brines of varying concentration (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 % NaCl by weight). The two types of sandstone samples were saturated under vacuum for more than 45 days with the respective pore fluid to allow them to interact with the rocks. It was observed that the uniaxial compressive strength and stress-strain behaviour of the rock specimens changed with increasing NaCl concentration in the saturating fluid. The acoustic emission patterns also varied considerably for increasing ionic strength of the saturating brines. These observations can be attributed to the deposition of NaCl crystals in the rock's pore spaces as well some minor geo-chemical interactions between the rock minerals and the brine. The AE pattern variations could also be partly related to the higher conductivity of the ionic strength of the high-NaCl concentration brine as it is able to transfer more acoustic energy from the cracks to the AE sensors.

  2. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  3. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  4. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in chemistry instruction, including among others, a rapid method to determine available chlorine in bleach, simple flame testing apparatus, and a simple apparatus demonstrating the technique of flash photolysis. (SK)

  5. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Several ideas are proposed for chemistry teachers to try in their classrooms. Subjects included are polymerization of acrylate, polymerization of styrene, conductivity, pollution, preparation of chlorine, redox equations, chemiluminescence, and molecular sieves. (PS)

  6. Nuclear Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  7. Catalytic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borer, Londa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach for making chemistry relevant to everyday life. Involves the study of kinetics using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by vegetable juices. Allows students to design and carry out experiments and then draw conclusions from their results. (JRH)

  8. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes 13 activities, experiments and demonstrations, including the preparation of iron (III) chloride, simple alpha-helix model, investigating camping gas, redox reactions of some organic compounds, a liquid crystal thermometer, and the oxidation number concept in organic chemistry. (JN)

  9. Precolumbian Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janet Bond

    1995-01-01

    Describes the content and development of a curriculum that provides an approach to descriptive chemistry and the history of technology through consideration of the pottery, metallurgy, pigments, dyes, agriculture, and medicine of pre-Columbian people. (DDR)

  10. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  11. Brine migration in salt and its implications in the geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jenks, G.H.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1981-12-01

    This report respresents a comprehensive review and analysis of available information relating to brine migration in salt surrounding radioactive waste in a salt repository. The topics covered relate to (1) the characteristics of salt formations and waste packages pertinent to considerations of rates, amounts, and effects of brine migration, (2) experimental and theoretical information on brine migration, and (3) means of designing to minimize any adverse effects of brine migration. Flooding, brine pockets, and other topics were not considered, since these features will presumably be eliminated by appropriate site selection and repository design. 115 references.

  12. Saline groundwaters and brines in the Canadian Shield: Geochemical and isotopic evidence for a residual evaporite brine component

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, D.J. ); Gregoire, D.C. ); Raven, K.G. )

    1994-03-01

    Saline Ca-Na/Cl type groundwaters and brines sampled in deep mines over an extensive area of the Canadian Precambrian Shield have elevated Br/Cl ratios which may indicate that the chlorinity of these waters was derived from the infiltration of residual evaporitic brines, remnants of the great marine incursion of the Paleozoic era. Boron concentrations in these waters are generally low (i.e., < [approximately] 2 mg/L) relative to seawater or Alberta Basin Devonian formation waters. However, the [sup 11]B/[sup 10]B ratios of these waters are significantly greater than the average value for continental crustal rocks with the highest values ([approximately]4.19) approaching that of present-day seawater (4.20). Moreover, the boron isotopic ratios generally trend to higher values with increasing chlorinity which supports the conclusion from the Br-Cl relationship that most of the chloride in shield brines is of marine origin, rather than a product of water/rock interactions. If this is correct, crystalline rocks must then be sufficiently permeable on a regional scale to have allowed the brine to infiltrate to depths of several kilometers where it now resides. The presence of saline groundwaters in crystalline has important implications for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, which proposes disposal of waste fuel in a repository constructed at a depth of 500-1000 m in plutonic rock.

  13. [Determination of Iodine and Iodate in Brine and Seafood Simultaneously by Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Zhu, Xia-ping; Liu, Miao-miao; Wei, Zhi-cheng; Sang, Shi-hua

    2015-06-01

    The iodide in samples was oxidized to iodate by bromine water, which could be removed by formic acid, and iodate could be transformed to I3- with excess of I- in phosphoric acid, the iodate in samples could be transformed directly to I3- with excess of I- in phosphoric acid. The I3- solution had strong absorption at 350 and 288 nm, and the absorbance had a linear relationship to the concentration of I3- in a certain range. Total content of iodide and iodate had been detected after samples were oxidized by bromine water and the content of iodate had been detected directly, and the content of iodide was obtained by difference of the two results. Based on this, the method had been established to detect iodide and iodate in brine and seafood simultaneously by ultraviolet absorption spectrometry. The volumes of bromine water, formic acid, phosphoric acid and potassium iodide had been optimized. The effect of illumination, temperature and time also had been discussed. The optional reagents condition for iodide was: 2 drops of 3% bromine water, 0.5 mL of 10% formic acid, 4 mL of 20% phosphoric acid and 1 mL of 100 g x L(-1 KI. The optional reagents condition for iodate was: 0. 2 mL of 20% phosphoric acid and 1 mL of 100 g x L(-1) KI. The absorbance were determined after reacting for 30 min at room temperature and natural light conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of iodide and iodate in the range of 0 - 1.2 and 0 -1.5 mg x L(-1) were well agreed with Lambert Beer law. The sample blank was detected for twelve times and the detection limit of iodide and iodate were 1.54 and 14.8 μg x L(-1) respectively. The RSD of twelve times determination of 0.8 mg x L(-1) of iodide and iodate were 0.097% and 0.067%, respectively. The iodide and iodate in Zhabuye brine, Hong Feng underground brine, kelp, seaweed and sea cabbage had been detected, the recovery experiments also had been conducted at the same time, the recovery of iodide and iodate were between 80

  14. Dissolution of CO2 in Brines and Mineral Reactions during Geological Carbon Storage: AN Eor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in formation brines is likely to be a major process which stabilises stored CO2 on longer time scales and mitigates CO2 migrating through storage complexes. However very little is known about the likely rates of CO2 dissolution as CO2 flows through natural heterogeneous brine filled reservoirs. Here we report the results of sampling fluids over 6 months after a phase of CO2 injection commenced for enhanced oil recovery coupled with injection of isotopically enriched 3He and 129Xe. Modelling of the changes in fluid chemistry has previously been interpreted to indicate significant dissolution of silicate minerals where fluids remained close to saturation with calcite. These calculations, which are based on modal decomposition of changes in cation concentrations, are supported by changes in the isotopic compositions of Sr, Li and Mg. Analysis of Sr-isotopic compositions of samples from outcrops of the Frontier Formation, which forms the reservoir sampled by the EOR experiment, reveals substantial heterogeneity. Silicate mineral compositions have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.719 whereas carbonate cements have values around 0.7076. Calculation of CO2 dissolution based on simplified 2-D flow models shows that fluids likely sample reservoir heterogeneities present on a finer scale with CO2 fingers occupying the most permeable horizons and most water flow in the adjacent slightly less permeable zones. Smaller time scale variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios are interpreted to reflect variations in flow paths on small length scales driven by invading CO2.

  15. Natural Oxidation of Bromide to Bromine in Evaporated Dead Sea Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrieli, Ittai; Golan, Rotem; Lazar, Boaz; Baer, Gidi; Zakon, Yevgeni; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2016-04-01

    Highly evaporated Dead Sea brines are found in isolated sinkholes along the Dead Sea. Many of these brines reach densities of over 1.3 kg/L and pH<5 and are the product of evaporation of Dead Sea brine that drain into the sinkholes. The low pH and the reddish to brownish hue of these brines were an enigma until recently. Despite the rather high total alkalinity (TA) of the Dead Sea (3.826 mmol/kg) the pH of the Dead Sea brine is known to be slightly acidic with a value of ~6.3. In comparison, seawater with the same alkalinity would have a pH value well above 8.3, meaning that H+ activity is 100 fold lower than that of Dead Sea brine. In the present work we assess the apparent dissociation constant value of boric acid (K`B) for the Dead Sea brine and use it to explain the brine's low pH value. We then show that pH decreases further as the brine evaporates and salinity increases. Finally we explain the reddish hue of the hypersaline brines in the sinkholes as due to the presence of dissolved bromine. The latter is the product of oxidation of dissolved bromide, a process that is enabled by the low pH of the hypersaline brines and their high bromide concentration.

  16. Radiolytically-induced gas production in plutonium-spiked WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.; Brush, L.H.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Gas generation due to alpha particle deposition was investigated in four WIPP relevant brines; WIPP brine A, ERDA-6, DH-36 and G8-B. This was done by spiking each brine with plutonium-239 and periodically sampling the gas phase to determine the nature of the gaseous products and the rates of gas generation. The predominant gas generated radiolytically was hydrogen, with yields ranging from 0.6 to 1.5 molec/100 eV for the four brines tested. Plutonium (VI) was stable in two synthetic brines, WIPP brine A and ERDA-6 but was rapidly reduced in the underground collected brines DH-36 and G8-B, although most of the plutonium remained in solution.

  17. Brine Inclusions Migration in Intact Salt Crystals under Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporuscio, F.; Boukhalfa, H.

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of water contained in rock salt under the influence of thermal gradients is critical to the performance of salt as a medium for the disposal of nuclear waste. Water contained in salt can be present as discrete inclusions within intact salt crystals, at the interface between salt crystals and aggregates, and also as hydration water and structural water present in accessory minerals present in salt. Water content in pure halite salt usually rages from 0.1 to 0.5 wt. % but is significantly higher in clay rich salt, for which water content can be up to several wt. %. Under the influence of thermal gradients brine inclusions and water associated to the accessory mineral is mobilized. Previous investigations have shown brine inclusions tend to move towards the heat source through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot face of the brine inclusion and its precipitation at the colder side of the inclusion. Uncertainties remain on the exact parameters that define the rate of brine migration and whether it truly migrates to towards the heat source. We performed studies under controlled thermal gradients to examine the behavior of brine inclusions in single salt crystals obtained from the underground salt mine at the Waste Isolation Power Plant (WIPP). We found that the behavior of the brine inclusions under thermal gradients is dependent on the thermal gradient magnitude and the nature of the inclusion. Full inclusions (liquid only) migrate predominantly towards the heat source, but when the inclusions are large and close to the surface they fracture the salt and release water near the surface. Inclusions that migrate towards the heat source migrate through a mechanism that involves the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the inclusion and its deposition along the migration path. SEM analysis of the migration pathways shows that brine migrates through the creation of a network of square shaped hollow channels of about 10 micron diameter

  18. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  19. Digital biology and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-01

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and

  20. Chemistry Division: Annual progress report for period ending March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: coal chemistry; aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures; geochemistry of crustal processes to high temperatures and pressures; chemistry of advanced inorganic materials; structure and dynamics of advanced polymeric materials; chemistry of transuranium elements and compounds; separations chemistry; reactions and catalysis in molten salts; surface science related to heterogeneous catalysis; electron spectroscopy; chemistry related to nuclear waste disposal; computational modeling of security document printing; and special topics. (DLC)

  1. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  2. Chemistry Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Remsberg, Ellis; Purcell, Patrick; Bhatt, Praful; Sage, Karen H.; Brown, Donald E.; Scott, Courtney J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Tie, Xue-Xi; Huang, Theresa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the chemistry component of the model comparison is to assess to what extent differences in the formulation of chemical processes explain the variance between model results. Observed concentrations of chemical compounds are used to estimate to what degree the various models represent realistic situations. For readability, the materials for the chemistry experiment are reported in three separate sections. This section discussed the data used to evaluate the models in their simulation of the source gases and the Nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) and Chlorine compounds (Cl(y)) species.

  3. Tropospheric chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V. A.; Chameides, W.; Demerjian, K. L.; Lenschow, D. H.; Logan, J. A.; Mcneal, R. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Platt, U.; Schurath, U.; Dias, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the background troposphere, the source region, and the transition regions are discussed. The troposphere is governed by heterogeneous chemistry far more so than the stratosphere. Heterogeneous processes of interest involve scavenging of trace gases by aerosols, cloud and precipitation elements leading to aqueous phase chemical reactions and to temporary and permanent removal of material from the gas phase. Dry deposition is a major removal process for ozone, as well as for other gases of importance in tropospheric photochemistry. These processes are also discussed.

  4. Polymer Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Caraccio, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes new technologies in polymer and material chemistry that benefits NASA programs and missions. The topics include: 1) What are Polymers?; 2) History of Polymer Chemistry; 3) Composites/Materials Development at KSC; 4) Why Wiring; 5) Next Generation Wiring Materials; 6) Wire System Materials and Integration; 7) Self-Healing Wire Repair; 8) Smart Wiring Summary; 9) Fire and Polymers; 10) Aerogel Technology; 11) Aerogel Composites; 12) Aerogels for Oil Remediation; 13) KSC's Solution; 14) Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors; 15) STS-130 and 131 Operations; 16) HyperPigment; 17) Antimicrobial Materials; 18) Conductive Inks Formulations for Multiple Applications; and 19) Testing and Processing Equipment.

  5. Impact of reaction products from building materials and furnishings on indoor air quality—A review of recent advances in indoor chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.

    The variety of chemical substances present in modern building products, household products and furnishings provides potential for chemical reactions in the material (case 1), on the material surface (case 2) and in the gas phase (case 3). Such "indoor chemistry" is known as one of the main reasons for primary and secondary emissions. The conditions of production often cause unwanted side reactions and a number of new compounds can be found in finished products. Elevated temperatures are responsible for the degradation of cellulose, decomposition of non-heat-resistant additives and other thermally induced reactions like Diels-Alder synthesis. Heterogeneous chemistry takes place on the surface of materials. Well-known examples are the formation of aliphatic aldehydes from the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids or the cleavage of photoinitiators under the influence of light. In case of composite flooring structures hydrolysis is one of the major pathways for the appearance of alcohols from esters. If different kinds of material are fixed together, emissions of new VOCs formed by inter-species reactions are possible. Other indoor air pollutants are formed by rearrangement of cleavage products or by metabolism. Compounds with -C dbnd C- bonds like terpenes, styrene, 4-phenylcyclohexene, etc. undergo gas phase reactions with O 3, NO x, OH and other reactive gases. It has been shown that such products derived from indoor-related reactions may have a negative impact on indoor air quality due to their low odor threshold or health-related properties. Therefore, the understanding of primary and secondary emissions and the chemical processes behind is essential for the evaluation of indoor air quality. This publication gives an overview on the current state of research and new findings regarding primary and secondary emissions from building products and furnishings.

  6. Stabilization of high mercury contaminated brine purification sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J Ming; Lo, Tony; Walsh, Tony; Lam, Tak

    2004-09-10

    The highly leachable mercury contaminants of brine purification sludge (BPS) generated from the Hg-cell electrolysis process in chlorine production can be stabilized in the treatment procedure employing ferric-lignin derivatives (FLD) (Ligmet binder) and Portland cement (PC). The stabilization effectiveness has been examined by time-based multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests and sequential TCLP tests. In a period of 50 days, the multiple TCLP tests showed a variation of less than 90 microg l(-1) for the leachable mercury level, and the sequential TCLP tests for the same sample displayed a declining TCLP mercury level. Based on this study, the stabilization of approximately 2000 t of brine purification sludge has been successfully processed with the ferric-lignin derivatives treatment. PMID:15363526

  7. Truscott Brine Lake solar-pond system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-08-01

    Discussed is a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  8. How metalliferous brines line Mexican epithermal veins with silver

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Simmons, Stuart F.; Stoffell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    We determined the composition of ~30-m.y.-old solutions extracted from fluid inclusions in one of the world's largest and richest silver ore deposits at Fresnillo, Mexico. Silver concentrations average 14 ppm and have a maximum of 27 ppm. The highest silver, lead and zinc concentrations correlate with salinity, consistent with transport by chloro-complexes and confirming the importance of brines in ore formation. The temporal distribution of these fluids within the veins suggests mineralization occurred episodically when they were injected into a fracture system dominated by low salinity, metal-poor fluids. Mass balance shows that a modest volume of brine, most likely of magmatic origin, is sufficient to supply the metal found in large Mexican silver deposits. The results suggest that ancient epithermal ore-forming events may involve fluid packets not captured in modern geothermal sampling and that giant ore deposits can form rapidly from small volumes of metal-rich fluid. PMID:23792776

  9. Geochemical evolution of brines in the Salar of Uyuni, Bolivia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rettig, S.L.; Jones, B.F.; Risacher, F.

    1980-01-01

    Recent analyses of brines from the Salars of Uyuni and Coipasa have been compared with published data for Lakes Titicaca and Poopo to evaluate solute compositional trends in these remnants of two large Pleistocene lakes once connected by overflow from the N to the S of the Bolivian Altiplano. From Titicaca to Poopo the water shows an increase in Cl and N somewhat greater than the total solutes. Ca and SO4 increase to a lesser extent than total dissolved solids, and carbonate species are relatively constant. Between Poopo and Coipasa proportions of Ca, SO4 and CO3 continue to decrease. At Coipasa and Uyuni, the great salars frequently evaporate to halite saturation. Halite crystallization is accompanied by an increased K, Mg and SO4 in residual brines. - from Authors

  10. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  11. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  12. Deposit model for closed-basin potash-bearing brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    Closed-basin potash-bearing brines are one of the types of potash deposits that are a source of potash production within the United States, as well as other countries. Though these deposits are of highly variable size, they are important sources of potash on a regional basis. In addition, these deposits have a high potential of co- and by-product production of one or more commodities such as lithium, boron, magnesium, and others.

  13. Predicting amounts of radiolytically produced species in brine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, S.A.; Kuhn, W.L.

    1983-11-01

    The corrosion of iron overpack materials for nuclear waste forms in salt is highly dependent upon the species produced by the radiolysis of brines which may contact the metal. A computer code has been developed to predict the concentrations of the radiolytically produced species as a function of time using published values for radiation yields of species, chemical reaction rate constants, and parameters derived from experimental evidence.

  14. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  15. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and classroom materials/activities. These include: game for teaching ionic formulas; method for balancing equations; description of useful redox series; computer programs (with listings) for water electrolysis simulation and for determining chemical…

  16. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes some laboratory apparatus, chemistry experiments and demonstrations, such as a Kofler block melting point apparatus, chromatographic investigation of the phosphoric acid, x-ray diffraction, the fountain experiment, endothermic sherbet, the measurement of viscosity, ionization energies and electronic configurations. (GA)

  17. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, experiments, demonstrations, teaching suggestions, and information on a variety of chemistry topics including, for example, inert gases, light-induced reactions, calculators, identification of substituted acetophenones, the elements, analysis of copper minerals, extraction of metallic strontium, equilibrium, halogens, and…

  18. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents 12 chemistry notes for British secondary school teachers. Some of these notes are: (1) a simple device for testing pH-meters; (2) portable fume cupboard safety screen; and (3) Mass spectroscopy-analysis of a mass peak. (HM)

  19. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes several chemistry projects, including solubility, formula for magnesium oxide, dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, use of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, migration of ions, heats of neutralizations, use of pocket calculators, sonic cleaning, oxidation states of manganese, and cell potentials. Includes an extract from Chemical Age on…

  20. Chemistry Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents chemistry experiments, laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom materials/activities. These include: experiments on colloids, processing of uranium ore, action of heat on carbonates; color test for phenols and aromatic amines; solvent properties of non-electrolytes; stereoscopic applications/methods; a valency balance;…

  1. Chemistry Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the alkylation of aniline, the preparation and properties of perbromate, using scrap copper in chemistry instruction, a safe method of burning hydrogen, and the use of an ion-charge model as an alternative to the mole concept in secondary school instruction. (AL)

  2. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting byproduct selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N2, N2O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 1024 photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH4+. To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  3. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. PMID:23276425

  4. Constraints on upward migration of hydraulic fracturing fluid and brine.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >10⁶  years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  5. Constraints on Upward Migration of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid and Brine

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, Samuel A; Sharma, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in the use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to aid extraction of oil and gas from black shales have raised concerns regarding potential environmental effects associated with predictions of upward migration of HF fluid and brine. Some recent studies have suggested that such upward migration can be large and that timescales for migration can be as short as a few years. In this article, we discuss the physical constraints on upward fluid migration from black shales (e.g., the Marcellus, Bakken, and Eagle Ford) to shallow aquifers, taking into account the potential changes to the subsurface brought about by HF. Our review of the literature indicates that HF affects a very limited portion of the entire thickness of the overlying bedrock and therefore, is unable to create direct hydraulic communication between black shales and shallow aquifers via induced fractures. As a result, upward migration of HF fluid and brine is controlled by preexisting hydraulic gradients and bedrock permeability. We show that in cases where there is an upward gradient, permeability is low, upward flow rates are low, and mean travel times are long (often >106 years). Consequently, the recently proposed rapid upward migration of brine and HF fluid, predicted to occur as a result of increased HF activity, does not appear to be physically plausible. Unrealistically high estimates of upward flow are the result of invalid assumptions about HF and the hydrogeology of sedimentary basins. PMID:23895673

  6. Formate brines for drilling and completion: State of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Low solids drilling fluids based on formate brines (sodium, potassium and caesium salts of formic acid) were originally designed to minimise frictional pressure losses in slim hole drilling applications. In addition, their unique capability of stabilising polymers to high temperatures made them more temperature resistant than any other polymer based drilling fluids. Subsequent work has shown that these brines, because of their high densities and low corrosivity, are also ideal completion and packer fluids. Formate brines have excellent HSE profiles and they are compatible with reservoir fluids, good shale stabilisers, gas hydrate inhibitors, and scale dissolvers. Also, a technique has been found for cost effective clean-up and recycling of formate based drilling fluids. The commercialisation and introduction of these fluids into the field (especially caesium formate) has taken a long time, due to high prices and few manufacturers. This situation is now changing, as the number of manufacturers is increasing, and buy-back arrangements have been made available. Also, a number of successful drilling and completion trials have been carried out.

  7. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (<1.30 log10 cfu/mL) for all species assayed. The maximum death rate (kmax) was 9.98, 51.37, 38.35 and 53.01 h(-1), while the time for 4 log10 reductions (4Dr) was 0.96, 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 h for E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. Brine dilutions increased Fp and 4Dr, while decreased kmax. A cluster analysis showed that E. coli had an overall quite different behaviour being the most resistant species, but the others bacteria behaved similarly, especially S. aureus and S. enterica. Partial Least Squares regression showed that the most influential phenols on microbial survival were EDA (dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid), HyEDA (EDA linked to hydroxytyrosol), hydroxytyrosol 4-glucoside, tyrosol, and oleoside 11-methyl ester. Results confirm the adverse habitats of table olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27375250

  8. Brine resistance of window materials for a Borehole Televiewer tool

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The Borehole Televiewer is a data logging tool that was developed to inspect boreholes and evaluate geological formations. Window failures were observed after the manufacturer of the tool replaced the elastomeric windows with windows made from polyimide (Vespel), a plastic material noted for its high thermal stability. In this work, it was demonstrated that while Vespel was quite stable thermally at 250/sup 0/C in an inert environment (argon), stress cracking occurred in the presence of brine at these temperatures over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Somewhat longer exposures to brine (24 hours) at 260/sup 0/C and 20.7 MPa resulted in extensive chemical reversion of polyimides. Acids and amines were detected by infrared analysis. In contrast, the mechanical and chemical properties of Teflon (poly(tetrafluorethylene)) were unaffected after exposure to brine under the same conditions. On the basis of these results, it was recommended that acoustic windows for the Borehole Televiewer be made of Teflon. It was also recommended that the configuration of the window be modified to allow for the tendency of Teflon to flow under stress.

  9. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  10. Medicinal chemistry for 2020.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-10-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  11. Integrating Particulate Representations into AP Chemistry and Introductory Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prilliman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The College Board's recently revised curriculum for advanced placement (AP) chemistry places a strong emphasis on conceptual understanding, including representations of particle phenomena. This change in emphasis is informed by years of research showing that students could perform algorithmic calculations but not explain those calculations…

  12. Parameterization of and Brine Storage in MOR Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, J.; Lowell, R. P.; Cummings, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    Single-pass parameterized models of high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers use observational constraints such as vent temperature, heat output, vent field area, and the area of heat extraction from the sub-axial magma chamber to deduce fundamental hydrothermal parameters such as total mass flux Q, bulk permeability k, and the thickness of the conductive boundary layer at the base of the system, δ. Of the more than 300 known systems, constraining data are available for less than 10%. Here we use the single pass model to estimate Q, k, and δ for all the seafloor hydrothermal systems for which the constraining data are available. Mean values of Q, k, and δ are 170 kg/s, 5.0x10-13 m2, and 20 m, respectively; which is similar to results obtained from the generic model. There is no apparent correlation with spreading rate. Using observed vent field lifetimes, the rate of magma replenishment can also be calculated. Essentially all high-temperature hydrothermal systems at oceanic spreading centers undergo phase separation, yielding a low chlorinity vapor and a high salinity brine. Some systems such as the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the 9°50’N sites on the East Pacific Rise vent low chlorinity vapor for many years, while the high density brine remains sequestered beneath the seafloor. In an attempt to further understand the brine storage at the EPR, we used the mass flux Q determined above, time series of vent salinity and temperature, and the depth of the magma chamber to determine the rate of brine production at depth. We found thicknesses ranging from 0.32 meters to ~57 meters over a 1 km2 area from 1994-2002. These calculations suggest that brine maybe being stored within the conductive boundary layer without a need for lateral transport or removal by other means. We plan to use the numerical code FISHES to further test this idea.

  13. Evaporite Caprock Integrity. An experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Megan M.; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2012-07-25

    Characterization and geochemical data are presented from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO 2-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO 2-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well asmore » porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO 2-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO 2-enhanced oil recovery operations.« less

  14. Evaporite caprock integrity: an experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan M; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    We present characterization and geochemical data from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO(2)-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO(2)-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well as porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO(2)-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO(2)-enhanced oil recovery operations. PMID:22831758

  15. Study on effects of powder and flake chemistry and morphology on the properties of Al-Cu-Mg-X-X-X powder metallurgy advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, P. J.; Lederich, R. J.; Oneal, J. E.; Pao, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of alloy chemistry and particulate morphology on consolidation behavior and consolidated product properties in rapid solidification processed, powder-metallurgical Al-3Li-1.5Cu-1Mg-0.5Co-0.2Zr and Al-4.4Cu-1.5Mg-Fe-Ni-0.2Zr extrusions and forgings were studied. Microstructures and mechanical properties of both alloys are largely unaffected by particulate production method (vacuum atomization, ultrasonic atomization, or twin-roller quenching) and by particulate solidification rates between 1000 and 100,000 K/s. Consolidation processing by canning, cold compaction, degassing, and hot extrusion is sufficient to yield mechanical properties in the non-Li-containing alloy extrusions which are similar to those of 7075-Al, but ductilities and fracture toughnesses are inferior owing to poor interparticle bonding caused by lack of a vacuum-hot-pressing step during consolidation. Mechanical properties of extrusions are superior to those of forgings owing to the stronger textures produced by the more severe hot working during extrusion. The effects on mechanical properties of dispersoid size and volume fraction, substructural refinement, solid solution strengthening by Mg, and precipitate size and distribution are elucidated for both alloy types.

  16. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  17. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  18. Nuclear Chemistry, Science (Experimental): 5316.62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Russell R.

    This nuclear chemistry module includes topics on atomic structure, instability of the nucleus, detection strengths and the uses of radioactive particles. Laboratory work stresses proper use of equipment and safe handling of radioactive materials. Students with a strong mathematics background may consider this course as advanced work in chemistry.…

  19. Modeling of highly brines transport in large water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T. P.; Lepikhin, A. P.; Parshakova, Y. N.; Tiunov, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The paper deals with the numerical modeling of a dilution and transport of highly brines in large water bodies taking into account the density stratification effects. This problem has an exceptional importance for the guarantee of ecological security of the Kama Reservoir in the conditions of extending exploitation of Verhnekamsk deposit of potassium and magnesium salts - one of the largest in the world. The output of million of tones of the potassium fertilizer is accompanied by the producing of the same quantity of highly brines demanding utilization. With the existing technologies the desalination of such quantity of brines is extremely energy-capacious and almost inapplicable. That is why main way for the brine utilization is the release into the surface water bodies or underground water-bearing horizons. Since the uncertainty level in the parameter setting for underground water-bearing horizons is higher than that for the surface water bodies, under the same or close conditions the release into the surface water bodies is considerably less dangerous. The main water body able to assimilate such huge amount of the removed brines is the upper part of the Kama Reservoir located within the Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial centre. The wastewater arriving from this centre make a decisive contribution to the formation of hydrochemical regime of Kama river. We suggested two-dimensional imitational hydrodynamical model allowing to determine the possible pollution zones depending on the flow rate and concentration of pollutant, flow rate and water level in the Kama river and wind characteristics in the zone of pollutant discharge. This model allows not only to calculate the distribution of pollution zones for various pollutant sources but also to estimate the consequences of emergencies. The Kama river near the Solikamsk-Berezniki industrial centre has complex morphometry. For the complete and efficient accounting for the morphometry peculiarities the non-linear orthogonal

  20. ISSUES IN LIGNIN CHEMISTRY. "THE HELSINKI CONNECTION"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation covers advances in lignin chemistry (and our Helsinki connection) on dibenzodioxocins, spirodienones, and reduced structures in lignins. It also explores the various roles in defending lignification theory (based on Freudenberg's original hypothesis) against a supposed new contende...

  1. Evaluation of geopressured brine injectability: Department of Energy, Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-10-28

    A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22 to 25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-..mu..m and 10.0-..mu..m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130/sup 0/C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and untreated brine were evaluated. Test results indicated that raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  2. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  3. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  4. Imaging an Englacial Brine Conduit within a -17°C Polar Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgeley, J.; Pettit, E. C.; Carr, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Mikucki, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite cold ice, there is evidence of an active zone of englacial brine that taps the subglacial brine reservoir of Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys (average annual air temperature -17°C). As part of the MIDGE (Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Exploration) project, our geophysical study aims to reveal the hydraulic path of brine through Taylor Glacier prior to surface discharge at Blood Falls. We collected ground-penetrating-radar surveys at the terminus of Taylor Glacier that show a horizontal, linear scattering zone, the first evidence for englacial brine near Blood Falls. The scattering zone extends from Blood Falls upglacier and its trend matches that of past brine discharge cracks. By measuring depression of the basal ice reflector, we estimate a > 4% liquid brine content at the edge of the englacial scattering zone, assuming even dispersal of water within the ice column extending from the top of the scattering zone to the basal reflector. The brine content likely increases towards the center of the scattering zone as the underlying, depressed basal reflector disappears altogether. The concentration of brine at the center of the scattering zone may involve processes such at cryoconcentration and active input of brine from a nearby source. We use hydraulic potential models to map the source pathway of the englacial brine; the glacier's significant surface relief drives channelization of subglacial fluids. On the northern side of the eastward flowing glacier, channeled fluids are trapped between ice-cored moraines to the north and east and an area of high hydraulic potential to the south. The trapped fluids pond beneath and upglacier from Blood Falls and provide a likely source pool for the observed englacial brine. Although Blood Falls is a unique feature, our results suggest that polar glaciers can support subglacial and englacial hydraulic systems despite a temperature difference between the ice and the brine of nearly 10°C.

  5. Preliminary investigation of scale formation and fluid chemistry at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Counce, D.; Bergfeld, D.; Goff, F.; Johnson, S.D.; Moore, J.N.; Nimz, G.

    1997-06-27

    The chemistry of geothermal, production, and injection fluids at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada, was characterized to address an ongoing scaling problem and to evaluate the effects of reinjection into the reservoir. Fluids generally followed mixing-dilution trends. Recharge to the Dixie Valley system apparently originates from local sources. The low-pressure brine and injection waters were saturated with respect to amorphous silica, which correlated with the ongoing scaling problem. Local shallow ground water contains about 15% geothermal brine mixed with regional recharge. The elevated Ca, Mg, and HCO{sub 3} content of this water suggests that carbonate precipitation may occur if shallow groundwater is reinjected. Downhole reservoir fluids are close to equilibrium with the latest vein mineral assemblage of wairakite-epidote-quartz-calcite. Reinjection of spent geothermal brine is predicted to affect the region near the wellbore differently than it does the region farther away.

  6. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R.R.

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  7. Effects of shield brine on the safe disposal of waste in deep geologic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-08-01

    The salinity of groundwater increases with depth in the Canadian Shield (up to 1.3 kg/L of density). The existence of brine can be critically important for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, as dense brine can significantly retard the upward migration of radionuclides released from repositories. Static and flushing conditions of the deep brine are analyzed using a U-tube analogy model. Velocity reduction due to the presence of dense brine is derived under flushing conditions. A set of illustrative numerical simulations in a two-dimensional cross section is presented to demonstrate that dense brine can significantly influence regional groundwater flow patterns in a shield environment. It is implied from the results that (1) the existence of Shield brine can be an indicator of a hydrogeologically stable environment, (2) activities near ground surface may not perturb the stable groundwater environment in the deep brine region, and thus, (3) the deep brine region can be considered as a candidate geologic site for the safe disposal of waste. In addition to brine, other issues associated with long-term waste disposal, such as geological, glacial and seismic events, may need to be considered for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel in a shield environment.

  8. Atlantis II Deep geothermal brine system. Hydrographic situation in 1977 and changes since 1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, M.

    1980-02-01

    The geothermal brine system of the Atlantis II Deep in the Red Sea was reinvestigated hydrographically and chemically in November 1977. A comparison with results from earlier investigations confirms an increase of the hot brine volume, as suggested by the 1972 measurements ( SCHOELL, Bundesanstalt für Bodenforschung, Hannover, 1063 pp. 1974). The rate of increase is evidently parallel to the rate of temperature increase. The salinity of the lower brine was nearly constant during this period. The nearby Discovery Deep brine is evidently unaffected by the changes in the Atlantis II Deep as its temperature was constant within ±0.1°C during this time.

  9. Modeling the interaction of mine brines with chloride minerals of potassium-magnesium deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article is devoted to study of dynamics of saturation degree of suprasalt brines with respect to major chloride minerals of salt strata in the initial phase of an accident related to discontinuity of waterproof stratum in the mine of the Verkhnekamskoe salt deposit (Berezniki-3 mine, 1986). Physicochemical modeling has showed that the brines discharged into mine are in equilibrium with halite during all period of observation. At the same time, their degree of saturation with respect to sylvite and carnallite regularly decreases with the increase in inflow of the suprasalt Cl-Na brines. The initial stage of suprasalt brine penetration into mine is characterized by an increase in the saturation degree with respect to the considered chloride minerals, which is showed on the chart presented in the article. However, there are brines oversaturated with respect to halite, which occurs over a brief period. In contrast to the mine brines of different genesis being in equilibrium or close to equilibrium with sylvite, saturation index (SI) for this mineral decreases in the suprasalt brine. This allows one to recommend the use of this parameter in the study of the mine brines to timely detect suprasalt brines entering the mine.

  10. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of brines from three oil- and gas-producing sandstones in eastern Ohio, with applications to the geochemical tracing of brine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breen, K.J.; Angelo, Clifford G.; Masters, Robert W.; Sedam, Alan C.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic characteristics of selected inorganic constituents are reported for brines from the Berea Sandstone of Mississippian age, the Clinton sandstone, Albion Sandstone of Silurian age, and the Rose Run formation of Cambrian and Ordovician age in 24 counties in eastern Ohio. Ionic concentrations of dissolved constituents in brines from these formations generally fall in the following ranges (in millimoles per kilogram of brine): Na, Cl > 1,000; 100 < Ca, Mg < 1,000; 1 < K, Br, Sr, Li, Fe, SO4 < 100; Mn, Zn, Al, I, HCO3, SiO2 < 1. Mean ionic concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, K, SO4 and Br, and mean values of density and dissolved solids are significantly different at the 95-percent confidence level in each formation. Only potassium has a unique concentration range in each formation. Selected concentration ratios are identified as potential indicators for geochemical tracing of brines having some history of dilution. The k:Na ratios work best for identifying the source formation of an unidentified brine. Isotopic characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen indicate a meteoric origin for the water matrix of the brines. Sulfur isotopes may have utility for differentiating brines from oxidizing ground water.

  11. Covalent Chemistry beyond Molecules.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Zhao, Yingbo; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-03-16

    Linking molecular building units by covalent bonds to make crystalline extended structures has given rise to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), thus bringing the precision and versatility of covalent chemistry beyond discrete molecules to extended structures. The key advance in this regard has been the development of strategies to overcome the "crystallization problem", which is usually encountered when attempting to link molecular building units into covalent solids. Currently, numerous MOFs and COFs are made as crystalline materials in which the large size of the constituent units provides for open frameworks. The molecular units thus reticulated become part of a new environment where they have (a) lower degrees of freedom because they are fixed into position within the framework; (b) well-defined spatial arrangements where their properties are influenced by the intricacies of the pores; and (c) ordered patterns onto which functional groups can be covalently attached to produce chemical complexity. The notion of covalent chemistry beyond molecules is further strengthened by the fact that covalent reactions can be carried out on such frameworks, with full retention of their crystallinity and porosity. MOFs are exemplars of how this chemistry has led to porosity with designed metrics and functionality, chemically-rich sequences of information within their frameworks, and well-defined mesoscopic constructs in which nanoMOFs enclose inorganic nanocrystals and give them new levels of spatial definition, stability, and functionality. PMID:26863450

  12. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-09-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation.

  13. Magnesium Oxide Carbonation Rate Law in Saturated Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemer, M. B.; Allen, C.; Deng, H.

    2008-12-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) is the only engineered barrier certified by the EPA for emplacement in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy repository for transuranic waste in southeast New Mexico. MgO reduces actinide solubility by sequestering CO2 generated by the biodegradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber materials. Demonstration of the effectiveness of MgO is essential for WIPP recertification. In order to be an effective barrier, the rate of CO2 sequestration should be fast compared to the rate CO2 production, over the entire 10,000 year regulatory period. While much research has been conducted on the kinetics of magnesium oxide carbonation in waters with salinity up to that of sea water, we are not aware of any work on determining the carbonation rate law in saturated brines at low partial pressures of CO2 (PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm), which is important for performing safety assessments of bedded salt waste repositories. Using a Varian ion-trap gas- chromatograph/mass-spectrometer (GC/MS) we experimentally followed the CO2 sequestration kinetics of magnesium oxide in salt-saturated brines down to a PCO2 as low as 10-5.5 atm. This was performed in a closed reactor with a known initial PCO2. The results of this study show that carbonation is approximately first order in PCO2, in saturated brines. We believe that this method will benefit the study of the detailed kinetics of other similar processes.

  14. An Experimental Study on Liquid Brine Formation at Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E.; Martinez, G.; Elliott, H. M.; Renno, N. O.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present experiments conducted in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber [1] to test the possibility of the formation of liquid brines from calcium perchlorate salts at Gale Crater. We tested bulk samples of Ca(ClO4)2 using Raman spectroscopy to observe spectral changes in the perchlorate band (930-990 cm-1) and the O-H vibrational stretching band (3000-3700 cm-1) of the samples. Our results indicate that brine formation by deliquescence (absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere) does not occur at Gale Crater within the time (< 2 hours) [2] when the ground temperature is above the calcium perchlorate's eutectic temperature (199 K) [3] and the relative humidity is above the deliquescence threshold (26%) [4]. On the contrary, we show that bulk liquid brine of calcium perchlorate salt forms within minutes if the salt is in direct contact with water ice. However, water ice is not expected in the shallow (tens of cm) subsurface of Gale Crater [5] and, on the sols during which frost events might have occurred at the surface, the calculated frost point (~190 K) [2] was below the eutectic temperature of the perchlorate. Liquid water is one of the necessary ingredients for the development of life as we know it. The behavior of various liquid states of H2O such as liquid brine, undercooled liquid interfacial water, subsurface melt water and ground water [6] needs to be understood in order to address the potential habitability of Mars for microbes and future human exploration. These results are relevant because they help in constraining the possible mechanisms of the formation of liquid water at Gale. References: [1] Fischer, E. et al. (2014), Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060302.[2] Martínez, G. M. et al. (2014), American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.[3] Marion, G. M. et al. (2010), Icarus, 207(2), 675-685, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.12.003.[4] Nuding, D. et al. (2013), AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (Vol. 45).[5] Aharonson

  15. Transition and separation process in brine channels formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Alessia; Bochicchio, Ivana; Fabrizio, Mauro

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the formation of brine channels in sea ice. The model includes a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation for the solid-liquid phase change, a diffusion equation of the Cahn-Hilliard kind for the solute dynamics, and the heat equation for the temperature change. The macroscopic motion of the fluid is also considered, so the resulting differential system couples with the Navier-Stokes equation. The compatibility of this system with the thermodynamic laws and a maximum theorem is proved.

  16. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

  17. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  18. Undergraduate Professional Education in Chemistry: Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Provided are guidelines for evaluating undergraduate professional education in chemistry. The guidelines summarize an approved program as including: 400 hours of classroom work; 500 hours of laboratory work; a core curriculum covering principles of analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry; 1 year of advanced work in chemistry or…

  19. Electrically Conducting, Ca-Rich Brines, Rather Than Water, Expected in the Martian Subsurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, D. M.; Knauth, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    If Mars ever possessed a salty liquid hydrosphere, which later partly evaporated and froze down, then any aqueous fluids left near the surface could have evolved to become dense eutectic brines. Eutectic brines, by definition, are the last to freeze and the first to melt. If CaC12-rich, such brines can remain liquid until temperatures below 220 K, close to the average surface temperature of Mars. In the Martian subsurface, in intimate contact with the Ca-rich basaltic regolith, NaC1-rich early brines should have reacted to become Ca-rich. Fractional crystallization (freezing) and partial melting would also drive brines toward CaC12-rich compositions. In other words, eutectic brine compositions could be present in the shallow subsurface of Mars, for the same reasons that eutectic magma compositions are common on Earth. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica, a CaC12-rich eutectic brine, provides a possible terrestrial analog, particularly because it is fed from a basaltic aquifer. Owing to their relative density and fluid nature, brines in the Martian regolith should eventually become sandwiched between ice above and salts beneath. A thawing brine sandwich provides one explanation (among many) for the young gullies recently attributed to seepage of liquid water on Mars. Whether or not brine seepage explains the gullies phenomenon, dense, CaC12-rich brines are to be expected in the deep subsurface of Mars, although they might be somewhat diluted (temperatures permitting) and of variable salt composition. In any case, they should be good conductors of electricity.

  20. Conclusions after eleven years of studying brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Bills, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was established to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in the United States. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. WIPP performance assessment activities raised the concern that the brine could cause anoxic corrosion of metal in the waste storage drums and waste inventory, potentially producing large quantities of hydrogen gas, which would affect the long-term performance of Thee repository. Th WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program was developed to investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences. The WIPP is excavated in the Salado Formation, which is bedded salt of Permian age. The sediments exposed in the excavations consist of clear halite and polyhalitic halite, halite containing clay, thin clay seams, and interbedded anhydrite layers. The clear halite beds contain little brine and are effectively impermeable. The clay within the salt and in the clay seams contains brine that is released to the excavations, although virtually all of the brine release occurs within the first few years of mining. Consequently, by the time the waste storage rooms at the WIPP are filled and sealed, most of the brine that can be derived from the clay will have evaporated. These is no observed evidence from the WIPP excavations that brine will seep into the working from the anhydrite beds. It has been postulated, however, that brine could seep through the underlying anhydrite Marker Bed 139 (MB139). Recently acquired data on the hydrologic properties of MB139 show that, even if flow through the anhydrite occurs, the brine released to the storage rooms could only corrode a small percentage of the susceptible metal in the repository.

  1. Truscott brine lake solar pond system conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses a conceptual design study for a system of electricity-producing salt-gradient solar ponds that will provide power to a chloride control project under construction by the Army Corps of Engineers near Truscott, Tex. The chloride control project comprises a 1200-ha (3000-acre) brine impoundment lake to which brine will be pumped from several salty sources in the Wichita River basin. The solar ponds are formed by natural evaporation of the briny water pumped to Truscott. Heat is extracted from the solar ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) generators. Ponds were sized to provide the pumping needs of the chloride control project and the maintenance requirements of the solar ponds. The system includes six solar pond modules for a total area of 63.1 ha, and produces 1290 kW of base load electricity. Although sized for continuous power production, alternative operating scenarios involving production of peak power for shorter durations were also examined.

  2. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

  3. Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions.

    PubMed

    Mormile, Melanie R; Biesen, Michelle A; Gutierrez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B; Onstott, Tullis C; Fredrickson, James K

    2003-11-01

    Halite crystals were selected from a 186 m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9,600 and 97,000 years before present (ybp) respectively. Extracted inclusions were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with haloarchaea-specific 16S rDNA primers or placed into haloarchaea culture medium. Enrichment cultures were obtained from 97 kyr halite crystal inclusion fluid and haloarchaea-containing prepared crystals (positive controls), whereas inclusions from crystals of 9.6 kyr halite and the haloarchaea-free halite crystals (negative controls) resulted in no growth. Phylogenetic analysis (16S rDNA) of the 97 kyr isolate, designated BBH 001, revealed a homology of 100% with Halobacterium salinarum. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that BBH 001 was closely related to H. salinarum (81-75% hybridization) and its ascription to this haloarchaea species. The described method of retrieving particle-containing brine from fluid inclusions offers a robust approach for assessing the antiquity of microorganisms associated with evaporites. PMID:14641589

  4. Analysis of radiolabelled thiocyanate tracer in oil field brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørnstad, T.; Brendsdal, E.; Michelsen, O. B.; Rogde, S. A.

    1990-12-01

    Thiocyanate (SCN -) labelled with 14C or 35S is applicable for the tracing of the water flow in water-driven oil production. This work describes two improved methods for increasing the concentration of S 14CN - with sample sizes up to 1000 ml of sampled brine. The radioactivity detection is carried out by low-background liquid scintillation counting using standard-size counting vials of 20 ml. The first method is based on solvent extraction: two extraction/strip steps reduce the volume by the required factor of 100 down to 10 ml. The extraction agent is 0.5M tri-isooctylamine (TiOA) in Solvesso-150 and the stripping agent is 5M NH 3. A chemical yield of 70-75%, a somewhat unfavourable quenching factor and a moderate reproducibility lead to a detection limit LD of 0.04 Bq/1. The second method is based on anion exchange. 1000 ml tracer-containing brine may be loaded onto 6.1 ml of the anion-exchange resin AG1-x8 before significant breakthrough of the tracer. More than 98.4% is absorbed. By elution with 2.8M sodiumperchlorate, more than 99.5% of the absorbed tracer is concentrated in a sharp elution peak of 10 ml. With a total chemical yield of 98%, a lower quenching factor and higher reproducibility than for the solvent extraction method, an LD-value of 0.005 Bq/1 is obtained.

  5. Kinetics of silica deposition from simulated geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bohlmann, E.G.; Mesmer, R.E.; Berlinski, P.

    1980-03-01

    Supersaturated brines were passed through columns packed with several forms of silica (crystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, polycrystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, and porous Vycor). Also, silica deposition on ThO/sub 2/ microspheres and titanium powder was studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, pH, temperature, and salinity. The residence time was varied by adjustments of flow rate and column length. The silica contents of the input and effluent solutions were determined colorimetrically by a molybdate method which does not include polymers without special pretreatment. Essentially identical deposition behavior was observed once the substrate was thoroughly coated with amorphous silica and the BET surface area of the coated particles was taken into account. The reaction rate is not diffusion limited in the columns. The silica deposition is a function of the monomeric Si(OH)/sub 4/ concentration in the brine. The deposition on all surfaces examined was spontaneously nucleated. The dependence on the supersaturation concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, surface area, temperature and salinity were examined. Fluoride was shown to have no effect at pH 5.94 and low salinity. The empirical rate law which describes the data in 1 m NaCl in the pH range 5-7 and temperatures from 60 to 120/sup 0/C is given.

  6. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  7. FIELD TEST KIT FOR CHARACTERIZING OIL-BRINE EFFLUENTS FROM OFFSHORE DRILLING PLATFORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated to evaluate test methods for characterizing oil-brine effluents from offshore oil production platforms and to package and deliver a field test kit for on-site oil-brine analyses. After an initial laboratory evaluation and selection of test meth...

  8. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, J.H.; Frydrych, D.J.; Westerman, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H/sub 2/O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H/sub 2/, would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Distribution characteristics of boron and lithium in brine of Zhacang Caka salt lake, Xizang (Tibet), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiyu

    1984-12-01

    1. Composition of the Brine. The specific gravity of its surface brine is from 1.073 to 1.291. Its salinity is 230 350 g/L. It consists of more than 30 elements, such as Na+, K+, Mg++, Ca++, Cl-, SO4 --, HCO3 -, etc. It is also highly mineralized with rich B, Li, and Rb.

  10. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. USE OF EARTHWORMS TO ACCELERATE THE RESTORATION OF OIL AND BRINE IMPACTED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The restoration of soil ecosystems following remediation of oil and brine spills can be a lengthy process. This project has investigated the efficacy of the re-introduction of earthworms to sites which have undergone remediation for crude oil or brine spills in order to accele...

  12. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  13. Corrosion of iron by iodide-oxidizing bacteria isolated from brine in an iodine production facility.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Satoshi; Ito, Kimio; Iino, Takao; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Mori, Koji; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-10-01

    Elemental iodine is produced in Japan from underground brine (fossil salt water). Carbon steel pipes in an iodine production facility at Chiba, Japan, for brine conveyance were found to corrode more rapidly than those in other facilities. The corroding activity of iodide-containing brine from the facility was examined by immersing carbon steel coupons in "native" and "filter-sterilized" brine samples. The dissolution of iron from the coupons immersed in native brine was threefold to fourfold higher than that in the filter-sterilized brine. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses revealed that iodide-oxidizing bacteria (IOBs) were predominant in the coupon-containing native brine samples. IOBs were also detected in a corrosion deposit on the inner surface of a corroded pipe. These results strongly suggested the involvement of IOBs in the corrosion of the carbon steel pipes. Of the six bacterial strains isolated from a brine sample, four were capable of oxidizing iodide ion (I(-)) into molecular iodine (I(2)), and these strains were further phylogenetically classified into two groups. The iron-corroding activity of each of the isolates from the two groups was examined. Both strains corroded iron in the presence of potassium iodide in a concentration-dependent manner. This is the first report providing direct evidence that IOBs are involved in iron corrosion. Further, possible mechanisms by which IOBs corrode iron are discussed. PMID:24863130

  14. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  15. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  16. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  17. Origin of the oil-field brines in the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Matray, J.M. ); Fontes, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    From Br{sup {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} ratios coupled with stable-isotope compositions, the components of deep sedimentary brines - namely, primary and secondary brines (from dissolving evaporites) and diluting waters of meteoric origin - can be identified, and in favorable cases, their respective proportions can be quantified. Dilution of primary marine brines (mother liquors of halite) by meteoric waters has occurred in the Dogger and the Keuper aquifers. The presence of highly saline brines (molality of Cl{sup {minus}} = 3.9) in the Rhaetian aquifer may be due to dissolution of primary marine halite by sea water with minor contributions of primary brines. The resulting mixture is diluted by meteoric circulation.

  18. Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, V.

    1984-01-01

    The fundamental processes that control the chemical composition and cycles of the global troposphere and how these processes and properties affect the physical behavior of the atmosphere are examined. The long-term information needs for tropospheric chemistry are: to be able to predict tropospheric responses to perturbations, both natural and anthropogenic, of these cycles, and to provide the information required for the maintenance and effective future management of the atmospheric component of our global life support system. The processes controlling global tropospheric biogeochemical cycles include: the input of trace species into the troposphere, their long-range transport and distribution as affected by the mean wind and vertical venting, their chemical transformations, including gas to particle conversion, leading to the appearance of aerosols or aqueous phase reactions inside cloud droplets, and their removal from the troposphere via wet (precipitation) and dry deposition.

  19. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  20. Developments in the Coordination Chemistry of Europium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the coordination chemistry of Eu2+ are reviewed. Common synthetic routes for generating discrete Eu2+-containing complexes reported since 2000 are summarized, followed by a description of the reactivity of these complexes and their applications in reduction chemistry, polymerization, luminescence, and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Rapid development of the coordination chemistry of Eu2+ has led to an upsurge in the utilization of Eu2+-containing complexes in synthetic chemistry, materials science, and medicine. PMID:23049283

  1. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of white brined cheese.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Shaker, Reyad R; Taha, Mohammad; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 during processing and storage of white brined cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using pasteurized milk inoculated with a 4 strain E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (7 log(10) CFU/g) with or without yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus) and stored in 10% or 15% NaCl brine at 10 and 21 ºC for 28 d. NaCl concentration, water activity (a(w)), pH, and numbers of E. coli O157:H7 and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined in cheese and brine. E. coli O157:H7 was able to survive in cheese stored in both brines at 10 and 21 ºC regardless of the presence of starter LAB, although the latter significantly enhanced E. coli O157:H7 reduction in cheese or its brine at 10 ºC. E. coli O157:H7 numbers were reduced by 2.6 and 3.4 log(10) CFU/g in cheese stored in 10% and 15% NaCl brine, respectively, in the presence of starter LAB and by 1.4 and 2.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, in the absence of starter LAB at 10 ºC. The pathogen survived, but at lower numbers in the brines. The salt concentration of cheese stored in 10% brine remained about 5% during ripening, but in 15% brine, the NaCl level increased 1.6% to 8.1% (w/w) by 28 d. Values of pH and a(w) slightly decreased 1 d after exposure to brine and reached 5.5 to 6.6 and 0.88 to 0.94, respectively, in all treatments. PMID:25134419

  2. Seawater chemistry and the advent of biocalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Sean T.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Horita, Juske

    2004-06-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca2+ concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the “Cambrian explosion,” a brief drop in marine 87Sr/86Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca2+] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota.

  3. Seawater Chemistry and the Advent of Biocalcification

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, S. T.; Lowenstein, T K.; Horita, Juske

    2004-01-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca{sup 2+} concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the 'Cambrian explosion,' a brief drop in marine {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca{sup 2+}] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota.

  4. Seawater chemistry and the advent of biocalcification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Lowenstein, T.K.; Horita, J.

    2004-01-01

    Major ion compositions of primary fluid inclusions from terminal Proterozoic (ca. 544 Ma) and Early Cambrian (ca. 515 Ma) marine halites indicate that seawater Ca2+ concentrations increased approximately threefold during the Early Cambrian. The timing of this shift in seawater chemistry broadly coincides with the "Cambrian explosion," a brief drop in marine 87Sr/86Sr values, and an increase in tectonic activity, suggesting a link between the advent of biocalcification, hydrothermal mid-ocean-ridge brine production, and the composition of seawater. The Early Cambrian surge in oceanic [Ca2+] was likely the first such increase following the rise of metazoans and may have spurred evolutionary changes in marine biota. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  5. Recent advances in biochemical technology for the processing of geothermal byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, L.

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory studies has shown the biochemical technology for treating brines/sludges generated in geothermal electric powerproduction to be promising, cost-efficient, and environmentally acceptable. For scaled-up field use, the new technology depends on the chemistry of the geothermal resources which influences choice of plant design and operating strategy. Latter has to be adaptable to high/low salinity, temperatures, quantity to be processed, and chemistry of brines and byproducts. These variables are of critical and economic importance in areas such as the Geysers and Salton Sea. The brines/sludges can also be converted into useful products. In a joint effort between industrial collaborators and BNL, several engineered processes for treating secondary and other byproducts from geothermal power production are being tested. In terms of field applications, there are several options. Some of these options are presented and discussed.

  6. Geothermal brine well: Mile-deep drill hole may tap ore-bearing magmatic water and rocks Undergoing Metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.E.; Anderson, E.T.; Grubbs, D.K.

    1963-01-01

    A deep geothermal well in California has tapped a very saline brine extraordinarily high in heavy metals and other rare elements; copper and silver are precipitated during brine production. Preliminary evidence suggests that the brine may be pure magmatic water and an active ore-forming solution. Metamorphism of relatively young rocks may also be occurring within accessible depths.

  7. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  8. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  9. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  10. Evolution of Chemistry and Its Effects on the Corrosion of Engineered Barrier Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Darrell; Pan, Yi-Ming; He, Xihua; Yang, Lietai; Pabalan, Roberto

    2007-07-01

    The evolution of environmental conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, may be influenced by several factors, including the temperature and relative humidity within the emplacement drifts and the composition of seepage water. The performance of the waste package and the drip shield may be affected by the evolution of the environmental conditions within the emplacement drifts. In this study, tests evaluated the evolution of environmental conditions on the waste package surfaces and in the surrounding host rock. The tests were designed to (i) simulate the conditions expected within the emplacement drifts; (ii) measure the changes in near-field chemistry; and (iii) determine environmental influence on the performance of the engineered barrier materials. Results of tests conducted in this study indicate the composition of salt deposits was consistent with the initial dilute water chemistry. Salts and possibly concentrated calcium chloride brines may be more aggressive than either neutral or alkaline brines. (authors)

  11. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  12. R and D, fabrication and testing of pH and CO/sub 2/ sensors for geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.D.; Clack, P.J.; Phelan, D.M.; Taylor, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    Reduction or elimination of scaling is a mandatory requirement for the operation of geothermal power plants. The use of downhole sampling and subsequent analysis for solution chemistry has many disadvantages. These disadvantages include composition change with cooling, risk of sample contamination, and non real-time indication. The use of in-line sensing of solution chemistry avoids these drawbacks but requires sensors which can survive the extremely harsh environment of brine at high temperatures and elevated pressures. Leeds and Northrup had previously undertaken a contract to develop sensors for pH and pCO/sub 2/ which would withstand these harsh environments. A number of sensors were tested at a field site under actual operating conditions. Field test results indicated that certain facets of the design were inadequate to give accurate long term measurement. The primary areas addressed here are replacement of polymeric seals with anodic bonding where possible, improved methods of lead attachment, improved sealing of the pCO/sub 2/ reference feed-through, H/sub 2/S getter optimization and improved passivation of the sensing head. Each of these areas is addressed in detail in the report along with laboratory test results pertaining to the particular phase.

  13. Corrosion behavior of materials exposed to hypersaline geothermal brine

    SciTech Connect

    McCright, R.D.

    1980-11-20

    The corrosion rate and corrosion attack characteristics were determined for thirteen commercially available materials exposed in a geothermal production well for three months. The materials included carbon steels, Cr-Mo alloy steels, martensitic and ferritic stainless steels, high-nickel alloys, and titanium. The environment at the 1800 ft (600 m) depth of exposure was a single phase high salinity brine. The prevailing temperature was 260{sup 0}C and the prevailing pressure was 630 psi (4.0 MPa) during the exposure period. Results indicated that the carbon steels suffered intense generalized and localized corrosion. Addition of Cr and Mo to steels imparted significant improvement in the corrosion performance in this aggressive environment. Of the stainless steels tested, the most resistant were those containing a few percent molybdenum.

  14. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  15. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  16. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Tung, Hun-Jiat; Sam, Choon-Kook; Koh, Chong-Lek; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v). L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation. PMID:22666018

  17. Interface flow of CO2-brine mixtures in wellbore systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, J. W.; Newell, D. L.; Williams, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term geologic sequestration of CO2 will require minimal leakage from the wells used to inject the CO2, wells used for monitoring, and pre-existing wells that penetrate the caprock system. Our previous field work and experimental studies have shown that wellbore leakage processes are dominated by interface flow along the casing-cement, cement-cement, or cement-caprock interfaces. In order to constrain potential leakage scenarios, it is necessary to determine the magnitude of CO2-brine flows as a function of interface properties in addition to the subsequent mineralogical evolution of the interfaces (dissolution of cement and rock, corrosion of steel, and precipitation of carbonates). To support this effort, we have conducted a series of experimental column and core-flood studies of CO2-brine flow through interfaces. The first set of experiments was conducted at atmospheric conditions in which water, HCl (pH = 3), and CO2-saturated water were flowed through cement cylinders containing a defect channel with a diameter of approximately 0.8 mm. In all cases, permeability remained constant over the course of about 30 hours at 5 ml/min. The aqueous solutions were strongly undersaturated, including with respect to calcite in the CO2-bearing system. The cement system appeared to have developed an unreactive leached layer that did not widen with time and limited further chemical reaction. In a second study, we conducted core-flood experiments of a composite system consisting of a half-cylinder of type G oilwell cement and a half-cylinder of fine-grained, quartz-rich sandstone separated by a 2.5 mm-thick interface containing crushed rock and cured cement fragments (125 - 250 μ m). The core was wrapped in copper foil to prevent CO2 migration outside the core holder. A mixture of supercritical CO2 and synthetic, low salinity reservoir brine was flooded through the core at ≈ 100 bar and 60 oC. Differential pressure across the core was used to determine changes in

  18. Chemical-equilibrium calculations for aqueous geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    Results from four chemical-equilibrium computer programs, REDEQL.EPAK, GEOCHEM, WATEQF, and SENECA2, have been compared with experimental solubility data for some simple systems of interest with geothermal brines. Seven test cases involving solubilities of CaCO/sub 3/, amorphous SiO/sub 2/, CaSO/sub 4/, and BaSO/sub 4/ at various temperatures from 25 to 300/sup 0/C and in NaCl or HCl solutions of 0 to 4 molal have been examined. Significant differences between calculated results and experimental data occurred in some cases. These differences were traced to inaccuracies in free-energy or equilibrium-constant data and in activity coefficients used by the programs. Although currently available chemical-equilibrium programs can give reasonable results for these calculations, considerable care must be taken in the selection of free-energy data and methods of calculating activity coefficients.

  19. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  20. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  1. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  2. Multimeric hemoglobin of the Australian brine shrimp Parartemia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M; Matthews, C M; Trotman, C N

    2001-04-01

    The hemoglobin molecule of the commercially important brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been used extensively as a model for the study of molecular evolution. It consists of nine globin domains joined by short linker sequences, and these domains are believed to have originated through a series of duplications from an original globin gene. In addition, in Artemia, two different polymers of hemoglobin, called C and T, are found which differ by 11.7% at the amino acid level and are believed to have diverged about 60 MYA. This provides a set of data of 18 globin domain sequences that have evolved in the same organism. The pattern of amino acid substitution between these two polymers is unusual, with pairs of equivalent domains displaying differences of up to 2.7-fold in total amino acid substitution. Such differences would reflect a similar range of molecular-clock rates in what appear to be duplicate, structurally equivalent domains. In order to provide a reference outgroup, we sequenced the cDNA for a nine-domain hemoglobin (P) from another genus of brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana, which differs morphologically and ecologically from Artemia and is endemic to Australia. Parartemia produces only one hundredth the amount of hemoglobin that Artemia produces and does not upregulate production in response to low oxygen partial pressure. Comparison of the globin domains at the amino acid and DNA levels suggests that the Artemia globin T gene has accumulated substitutions differently from the Parartemia P and Artemia C globin genes. We discuss the questions of accelerated evolution after duplication and possible functions for the Parartemia globin. PMID:11264409

  3. Chemical modeling for precipitation from hypersaline hydrofracturing brines.

    PubMed

    Zermeno-Motante, Maria I; Nieto-Delgado, Cesar; Cannon, Fred S; Cash, Colin C; Wunz, Christopher C

    2016-10-15

    Hypersaline hydrofracturing brines host very high salt concentrations, as high as 120,000-330,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS), corresponding to ionic strengths of 2.1-5.7 mol/kg. This is 4-10 times higher than for ocean water. At such high ionic strengths, the conventional equations for computing activity coefficients no longer apply; and the complex ion-interactive Pitzer model must be invoked. The authors herein have used the Pitzer-based PHREEQC computer program to compute the appropriate activity coefficients when forming such precipitates as BaSO4, CaSO4, MgSO4, SrSO4, CaCO3, SrCO3, and BaCO3 in hydrofracturing waters. The divalent cation activity coefficients (γM) were computed in the 0.1 to 0.2 range at 2.1 mol/kg ionic strength, then by 5.7 mol/kg ionic strength, they rose to 0.2 for Ba(2+), 0.6 for Sr(2+), 0.8 for Ca(2+), and 2.1 for Mg(2+). Concurrently, the [Formula: see text] was 0.02-0.03; and [Formula: see text] was 0.01-0.02. While employing these Pitzer-derived activity coefficients, the authors then used the PHREEQC model to characterize precipitation of several of these sulfates and carbonates from actual hydrofracturing waters. Modeled precipitation matched quite well with actual laboratory experiments and full-scale operations. Also, the authors found that SrSO4 effectively co-precipitated radium from hydrofracturing brines, as discerned when monitoring (228)Ra and other beta-emitting species via liquid scintillation; and also when monitoring gamma emissions from (226)Ra. PMID:27470293

  4. Buoyancy-driven CO2/brine flow at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Kim, K.; Han, W.; Kim, T.; Kim, J.; Park, E.

    2013-12-01

    Suitable geological formations should guarantee a long-term safe and reliable storage of the injected supercritical CO2. In this study we targeted the cases of gravity-driven CO2 plume migration in a storage formation and the resulting CO2 leakage to overlying formation through a possible fractures or abandoned wells. A laboratory experiment and numerical model for two-phase core-flooding tests were designed to understand the buoyancy effect on supercritical CO2 migration under reservoir conditions. A series of core flooding tests were performed with Berea sandstone cores which have 20 % porosity and 1.7×10-13 m2 permeability. Unlike the normal core-flooding tests, the core was set up in a vertical direction and the CO2 was released at the bottom of the core to investigate the gravity effect on CO2 migration. During the test, the downstream pressure was maintained at 10 MPa, and the confining pressure was kept at 20 MPa. The temperature was set to be 40 °C to reflect the 1 km subsurface environment. The CO2-flooding (drainage) tests with brine-saturated core were performed with various CO2-release periods. The CO2 saturation was measured with a linear X-ray scanner. In addition to laboratory experiments, numerical simulations were performed to provide further insight into the CO2 migration behavior. TOUGH2 with ECO2N module was used to simulate CO2/brine core-flooding tests. Dimensionless numbers (Capillary number and Bond number) were calculated with the simulation results at various time points covering both the release and monitoring period.

  5. Monitoring the Dissolution of a Limestone in CO2-rich Brine Using 4D Synchrotron Microtomography: Impact on Single and Multiphase Flow Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltolini, M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonates are common reservoir rocks for both CO2 EOR operations (e.g. Permian Basin, Weyburn) as well as conventional saline aquifer GCS studies (e.g. MRSP, Big Sky Kevin Dome Project). While the dissolution of carbonates in high pCO2 brines is relatively well-studied, only recently have we developed the imaging tools required to dynamically monitor dissolution-induced transformations in pore architecture an macroscopic samples. The details of such transformations are crucial in understanding the coupling between between reactive chemistry and reservoir flow, particularly in GCS where large scale variations in pH are induced during CO2 injection. A complicating factor is the range of dissolution architectures generated under varying flow rate and reaction conditions; these variations, typically understood in terms of advective Dahmkohler (Da) number, generate structures between localized wormholes and uniform dissolution. However, to date, minimal work has been done evaluating the relationship between Da, porosity, and capillary entry pressure during carbonate dissolution; this relationship is crucial when attempting to predict CO2 drainage processes in heterogeneous carbonate systems and could provide a mechanism for long term expansion of the plume footprint through lower permeability lamina. We present results from a 4D synchrotron XR microtomography experiment which monitored dissolution in a model carbonate, a small core from the well-studied Bedford limestone. Ten datasets, spanning a wide range of states in micro-architecture, were acquired over a multi-day acquisition campaign at beamline 8.3.2 (Advanced Light Source). Dissolution was induced by injection of water saturated with CO2; while the run was conducted at low pressure (~30 psi), significant dissolution occurred over the duration of the experiment. Imagery of the resulting pore-scale modifications was reconstructed, filtered, and segmented to yield a timelapse movie of the dissolution process

  6. Capillarity and wetting of carbon dioxide and brine during drainage in Berea sandstone at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behavior of this system to pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. We report observations of the impact of reservoir conditions on the capillary pressure characteristic curve and relative permeability of a single Berea sandstone during drainage—CO2 displacing brine—through effects on the wetting state. Eight reservoir condition drainage capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5-20 MPa), temperatures (25-50°C), and ionic strengths (0-5 mol kg-1 NaCl). A ninth measurement using a N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The capillary pressure curves from each of the tests were found to be similar to the N2-water curve when scaled by the interfacial tension. Reservoir conditions were not found to have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system during drainage through a variation in the wetting state. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is water wetting and multiphase flow properties invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  7. Selenium biotransformations in an engineered aquatic ecosystem for bioremediation of agricultural wastewater via brine shrimp production.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Radomir; Tantoyotai, Prapakorn; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Bañuelos, Gary S; Hristova, Krassimira R; Freeman, John L

    2013-05-21

    An engineered aquatic ecosystem was specifically designed to bioremediate selenium (Se), occurring as oxidized inorganic selenate from hypersalinized agricultural drainage water while producing brine shrimp enriched in organic Se and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for use in value added nutraceutical food supplements. Selenate was successfully bioremediated by microalgal metabolism into organic Se (seleno-amino acids) and partially removed via gaseous volatile Se formation. Furthermore, filter-feeding brine shrimp that accumulated this organic Se were removed by net harvest. Thriving in this engineered pond system, brine shrimp ( Artemia franciscana Kellogg) and brine fly (Ephydridae sp.) have major ecological relevance as important food sources for large populations of waterfowl, breeding, and migratory shore birds. This aquatic ecosystem was an ideal model for study because it mimics trophic interactions in a Se polluted wetland. Inorganic selenate in drainage water was metabolized differently in microalgae, bacteria, and diatoms where it was accumulated and reduced into various inorganic forms (selenite, selenide, or elemental Se) or partially incorporated into organic Se mainly as selenomethionine. Brine shrimp and brine fly larva then bioaccumulated Se from ingesting aquatic microorganisms and further metabolized Se predominately into organic Se forms. Importantly, adult brine flies, which hatched from aquatic larva, bioaccumulated the highest Se concentrations of all organisms tested. PMID:23621086

  8. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  9. Tests of proprietary chemical additives as antiscalants for hypersaline geothermal brine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Deutscher, S.B.; Frey, W.P.; Lorensen, L.E.; Snell, E.O.; Lim, R.; Ryon, R.W.; Quong, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory brine treatment test system has been used to carry out a short-term evaluation of a number of proprietary chemical additives as antiscalants for the hypersaline brine of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. In addition, a test of sludge seeding was conducted as a technique for scale control. The effect of each additive on the rate of precipitation of silica from the effluent brine at 90/sup 0/C was measured, and scaling rates of brine treated with nine of the additives were measured at 125 and 210/sup 0/C. Corrosion rates of mild steel in the treated brines were estimated using Petrolite linear polarization resistance equipment. None of the additives had a direct effect on the rates of silica precipitation, and none had a beneficial effect on the scale formed at 210/sup 0/C. At 125/sup 0/C, two additives, Drewsperse 747 (Drew Chemical) and SC-210 (Southwest Specialty Chemicals) afforded a marginal degree of scale reduction. The Austral-Erwin additive diminished the adherence of scale formed at points of high velocity fluid flow but increased solids accumulation at other points. Sludge seeding shows some promise because it reduces the degree of silica supersaturation of the brine. Results of analyses of solids precipitated from effluent brines (Woolsey No. 1 and acidified Magmamax No. 1) are presented.

  10. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  11. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments.

    PubMed

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Sherry K; Aziz, Ramy K; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-01-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 10(9) bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27596223

  12. The brine underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA: Characterization, genesis, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Nativ, R.

    1996-03-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Atomic Reservation contains brine. Its origin was assessed using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model which best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Potential sources for this brine are in the Appalachian Mountains in the east, where bedded halite is documented, and where the hydraulic gradient needed to move the residual brine exists. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated. In places, contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds have reached the deep system. The chemical and isotopic features of the brine were examined with respect to its potential discharge, contaminated in places, into shallow, freshwater systems. The observations suggest that whereas the origin of the salts in the brine may be very old, influx of recent water takes place. Consequently, the brine is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-bearing units. 78 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, J.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

  14. Origin of Na-Ca-Cl brines in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs of Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.

    1985-02-01

    Na-Ca-Cl brines in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs in the Gulf Coast have been attributed to the diagenesis of concentrated Jurassic seawater related to Louann Salt deposition and alternatively to the diagenesis of brines produced by halie dissolution. These brines contain up to 35,000 mg/L Ca, up to 4000 mg/L, from 400 to 2400 mgL Br, and up to 13,000 mg/L K. Mutual relationships of Na, Cl, total divalent cations minus sulfate and bicarbonate, K, and Br are similar to those in seawater that has been evaporated past the initial stage of halite deposition, particularly when the K content of the brine exceeds 5000 mg/L. The concentrations of divalent cations and K increase, and the mutual relationships of all the dissolved salts become increasingly similar to those in seawater with increasing proximity to bedded salt. The abundance of authigenic K-feldspar in rocks above the salt beds explains the relatively rapid decrease in the K content of the brines upsection. The Ca and K contents of Jurassic Gulf Coast brines are similar to those in Na-Ca-Cl brines in feldspar-poor carbonate sequences in other basins.

  15. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  16. On the viscosity of natural hyper-saline solutions and its importance: The Dead Sea brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, Noam; Yechieli, Yoseph; Shandalov, Semion; Lensky, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the density, temperature and viscosity of hypersaline solutions, both natural and synthetic, is explored. An empirical equation of the density-viscosity relationship as a function of temperature was developed for the Dead Sea brine and its dilutions. The viscosity levels of the Dead Sea brine (density of 1.24 ṡ 103 kg/m3; viscosity of 3.6 mPa s at 20 °C) and of the more extremely saline natural brine (density of 1.37 ṡ 103 kg/m3) were found to be ∼3 and ∼10 times greater than that of fresh water, respectively. The combined effect of the above changes in viscosity and density on the hydraulic conductivity is reduction by a factor of 3-7. The chemical composition significantly affects the viscosity of brines with similar densities, whereby solutions with a higher Mg/Na ratio have higher viscosity. This explains the extremely high viscosity of the Dead Sea and related Mg-rich brines in comparison with the much lower values of NaCl and KCl brines with similar density. Possible impacts of the results include reduced settling velocity of grains in hypersaline viscous brines and changing hydraulic dynamics at the freshwater-saltwater and the vicinity of sinkholes.

  17. Wettability from Capillarity of CO2-Brine-Rock Systems at Reservoir Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Niu, Ben; Krevor, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The wettability of CO2-brine-rock systems will have a major impact on the management of carbon sequestration in subsurface geological formations. Recent contact angle measurement studies have reported sensitivity in wetting behaviour of this system to pressure, temperature and brine salinity. We report results of an investigation into the impact of reservoir conditions on wetting through direct observations of their impact on the capillary strength of the system. Eight capillary pressure characteristic curves were measured using CO2 and brine in a single fired Berea sandstone at pressures (5 to 20 MPa), temperatures (25 to 50 °C) and ionic strengths (0 to 5 M kg-1 NaCl) representative of subsurface reservoirs. A ninth measurement using an N2-water system provided a benchmark for capillarity with a strongly water wet system. The semi-dynamic capillary pressure core flooding technique was used with in situ saturation monitoring. In all cases, the capillarity of the system, scaled by the interfacial tension, were equivalent to the N2-water system within measurement uncertainty. Thus reservoir conditions did not have a significant impact on the capillary strength of the CO2-brine system through a variation in wetting. Two steady-state relative permeability measurements with CO2 and brine and one with N2 and brine similarly show little variation between conditions, consistent with the observation that the CO2-brine-sandstone system is strongly water wetting and invariant across a wide range of reservoir conditions.

  18. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. PMID:27351340

  19. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H. A.; Aziz, Sherry K.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-01-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27596223

  20. CapiBRIC- Capillary-Based Brine Residual In-Containment for Secondary Water Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam; Pensinger, S.; Callahan, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of the AES Life Support Systems Project is to achieve 98% water loop closure for long-duration human exploration missions. Brine water recovery is the primary technology gap that must be bridged to realize this goal. In response to an Agency call for technologies to compete in an October down-select, Capi-BRIC was chosen through a JSC down-select as the strongest candidate to go forward. This resulted in a period of intense development to increase its TRL in preparation for the Agency down-select. This was achieved through rapid prototype design, fabrication, and test at JSC and in a zero-g drop tower at Portland State University. INNOVATION CapiBRIC takes a novel approach of optimizing the containment geometry to support capillary flow and static phase separation to enable evaporation in a microgravity environment. OUTCOME TRL was advanced from 3 to 4, and was selected for continued funding through the AES program. CapiBRIC is poised for development into an ISS technology demonstration, proving its viability as an enabling technology for exploration.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the carotenoids during development of the brine shrimp Artemia.

    PubMed

    Nelis, H J; Lavens, P; Van Steenberge, M M; Sorgeloos, P; Criel, G R; De Leenheer, A P

    1988-04-01

    In order to study the biological fate of all-trans- and cis-canthaxanthin in the brine shrimp Artemia, a quantitative method was developed for the determination of both carotenoids and their metabolic precursors in encysted embryos (cysts), nauplii, whole animals, organs, and subcellular fractions. This method is based on nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography, two new exhaustive extraction procedures, and the determination of proteins in the extracted residue. Hydration of Artemia cysts caused a reversible conversion of part of the all-trans- to cis-canthaxanthin. During further pre-emergence embryonic development, there was little change in the levels of both isomers. After hatching of cysts, cis-canthaxanthin was progressively isomerized to the all-trans form, while the total (all-trans + cis) canthaxanthin to protein ratio tended to remain constant. Cis-canthaxanthin rapidly became undetectable in animals fed on algae and reappeared in females at an advanced stage of the reproductive cycle. All-trans-canthaxanthin remained present during the whole Artemia life cycle in addition to its metabolic precursors echinenone and beta-carotene. The carotenoid distribution in organs and subcellular fractions indicated high affinity of cis-canthaxanthin for the female reproductive system, oocytes in general, and yolk in particular. A role for cis-canthaxanthin is suggested at an early developmental stage, i.e., in cysts, before hatching. PMID:3392466

  2. Lessons for Introductory Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John S.; Blackburn, Edward V.

    2000-07-01

    These twelve lessons, and an introductory lesson, are tutorials in basic topics of introductory chemistry. They are suitable for school use, individual study, or distance learning. They are particularly valuable as review material for students in more advanced courses who may have been away from the subject for some time. They contain a great variety of problems and exercises driven by random-number generators, so that the same problem never repeats exactly. The lessons are, for the most part, Socratic dialogues in which the student is required to answer questions and perform simulated experiments in order to discover chemical principles. They are organized in an intuitive chapter and page structure. One may move readily around each lesson. There are many on-screen facilities such as help, data tables, and a calculator.

  3. Modeling brine inflow to Room Q: A numerical investigation of flow mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, G.A.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-04-01

    A hydrologic modeling study was performed to gain insight into the flow mechanisms around Room Q. A summary of hydrologic and structural data and of predictive fluid flow models from Room Q are provided. Six years of measured data are available from the time of excavation. No brine accumulation in Room Q was measured in the first two years following excavation. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with this early-time data due to inadequate sealing of the room. Brine may have been lost to evaporation or it may have flowed into newly created disturbed rock zone (DRZ) porosity resulting from excavation. Non-zero brine accumulation rates were measured from 2--5 years, but brine accumulation within the room dropped to zero after 5.5 years. A conceptual model for brine inflow to Room Q was developed which assumes far-field Darcy flow combined with an increasing DRZ pore volume. Numerical simulations employed TOUGH28W and used predictive DRZ porosity increase with time from SPECTROM-32 rock deformation simulations. Simulated brine inflow showed good agreement with measured brine accumulation rates for the first five years. Two important conclusions were drawn from the simulation results: (1) early-time brine inflow to the room can be reduced to zero if the DRZ pore volume increases with time, and (2) brine accumulation (inflow) rates from 2 to 5 years suggest a far-field permeability of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}22} m{sup 2} with a bulk rock compressibility of 5.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} Pa{sup {minus}1}.

  4. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  5. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. PMID:25746960

  6. Numerical simulation of surface-downhole geoelectrical measurements in order to detect brine plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, María Victoria; Grünhut, Vivian; Osella, Ana; Tichno, Adrián

    2015-05-01

    A large amount of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the world are in the secondary recovery stage and improving this step in the exploitation of these reservoirs would greatly benefit the oil industry. Secondary recovery involves injecting brine in some wells in order to maintain reservoir pressure. The injected water moves mainly through the channels with higher permeability of the reservoir rock. The identification of these channels would allow the development of technical strategies to close them. In this context, the ability to detect brine flow pathways after injection is a goal of this work. Given the high electrical conductivity of brine, the use of geoelectrical methods can be useful to detect and monitor flow evolution. The limitations in the application of this method are due to the characteristics of the target: a very conductive fluid is usually contained in paths with dimensions that are much smaller than the depth at which it is located. Therefore, our objective is to overcome these constraints in order to find the strategies required to successfully detect and eventually monitor the movement of brine flowing from injection wells. In this work, we studied the feasibility of detecting brine in an oil reservoir with surface-downhole electrical measurements. To achieve this, we designed an electrical model of the reservoir from well data and numerically simulated the forward geoelectrical response to determine the conditions under which the anomaly, i.e., the accumulation of brine, can be identified. Our results show that once the initial location of the brine is known, by installing potential electrodes in a single well the direction of brine migration can be determined, even in unfavorable conditions with relatively few surface measurements. In the case of a well equipped with permanent electrodes, this could be an efficient method to monitor the evolution of the brine plume.

  7. Deep well injection of brine from Paradox Valley, Colorado: Potential major precipitation problems remediated by nanofiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Thordsen, J.J.; Davis, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater brine seepage into the Dolores River in Paradox Valley, Colorado, increases the dissolved solids load of the Colorado River annually by ~2.0 x 108 kg. To abate this natural contamination, the Bureau of Reclamation plans to pump ~3540 m3/d of brine from 12 shallow wells located along the Dolores River. The brine, with a salinity of 250,000 mg/L, will be piped to the deepest (4.9 km) disposal well in the world and injected mainly into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone. Geochemical modeling indicates, and water-rock experiments confirm, that a huge mass of anhydrite (~1.0 x 104 kg/d) likely will precipitate from the injected brine at downhole conditions of 120??C and 500 bars. Anhydrite precipitation could increase by up to 3 times if the injected brine is allowed to mix with the highly incompatible formation water of the Leadville Limestone and if the Mg in this brine dolomitizes the calcite of the aquifer. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that nanofiltration membranes, which are selective to divalent anions, provide a new technology that remediates the precipitation problem by removing ~98% of dissolved SO4 from the hypersaline brine. The fluid pressure used (50 bars) is much lower than would be required for traditional reverse osmosis membranes because nanofiltration membranes have a low rejection efficiency (5-10%) for monovalent anions. Our results indicate that the proportion of treatable brine increases from ~60% to >85% with the addition of trace concentrations of a precipitation inhibitor and by blending the raw brine with the effluent stream.

  8. Alteration Mineralogy and Geochemistry at Swansea, Arizona: A Potential Analog for Brine-Basalt Interaction on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, J. R.; Reynolds, S. J.; Sharp, T. G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2002-12-01

    fluids that altered each locality are likely genetically related, but their chemistry may reflect evolution of the fluid through time and space. Future work will include the development of a model for alteration of basalt by brine on the Earth and Mars. Although some of the variables between terrestrial analogs and Martian conditions are obviously different, this study may lead to models of alteration or albitization of basalt by brines on Mars.

  9. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  10. Advances in chemistry applied to forensic science.

    PubMed

    Rendle, David F

    2005-12-01

    Acts of terrorism, an increase in the use of firearms, drug abuse, the use of so-called date-rape drugs, and driving whilst under the influence of drugs, are just some of the subjects frequently in the news. In the absence of fingermarks and of material leading to the recovery of DNA, the forensic scientist has to rely upon chemical analysis of trace amounts of materials including explosives, drugs, toxicological specimens, firearms discharge residues, fibres, glass, paint, soil etc., in order to establish or eliminate links between suspect and victim and/or scene. This tutorial review describes analytical problems facing the forensic chemist, and the current methods and techniques employed to tackle them. PMID:16284668

  11. Advanced polymer chemistry of organometallic anions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, R.M.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.; Fino, S.A.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to prepare and characterize new polymers incorporating cobalt dicarbollide. Specific goals were to prepare polymerizable cobalt dicarbollide monomers using the nucleophilic substitution route discovered in laboratories and to establish the reaction conditions required to form polymers from these complexes. This one-year project resulted in two publications (in press), and provided the foundation for further investigations into polymer synthesis and characterization using cobalt dicarbollide and other metallocarboranes. Interest in synthesizing organometallic polymers containing the cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anion is motivated by their possible application as cation exchange materials for the remediation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from nuclear wastes.

  12. Advanced physical chemistry of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application. PMID:25580625

  13. Advances in Non-Aqueous Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, A. K.; Nicholls, D.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion concerning the choice of solvents for a chemical reaction is followed by an examination of the advantages of using liquid ammonia, oxide solvents, and molten salts as alternatives to water as a solvent. (DT)

  14. Advanced Physical Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P.

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application.

  15. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  16. NEW ADVANCES IN BORON SOIL CHEMISTRY - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boron is an essential plant micronutrient for which the range between deficiency and toxicity is narrower than for any other nutrient element. Plants respond directly to the amount of B in soil solution and only indirectly to the amount of B adsorbed on soil particle surfaces. ...

  17. Recent advances in the chemistry of spinosyns.

    PubMed

    Crouse, G D; Sparks, T C; Schoonover, J; Gifford, J; Dripps, J; Bruce, T; Larson, L L; Garlich, J; Hatton, C; Hill, R L; Worden, T V; Martynow, J G

    2001-02-01

    The spinosyns are a new class of fermentation-derived insect control agents that are effective against a variety of chewing insect pests. The successful introduction of spinosad into the agricultural marketplace represents an important milestone in the use of natural products for commercial pest control. The development of a natural product presents additional limitations relative to a synthetic material. While the latter affords some degree of control in building appropriate physical attributes such as photostability, a natural product, designed to function in a different environment, is often less suited for traditional spray applications. Despite its intrinsic photolability, spinosad is stable enough to perform under field conditions. In an effort to generate analogs with improved physical characteristics, we have developed a variety of conditions for selectively modifying different portions of the molecule, and we have discovered analogs with greater activity against a broader spectrum of pests. The inability to translate improved greenhouse activity to actual field conditions resulted in a detailed study of the effects of formulations and crystallinity on biological activity. Through this effort, measurably improved field performance of synthetic spinosyn analogs relative to the natural product have now been observed. PMID:11455648

  18. Advanced Undergraduate Experiments in Thermoanalytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, J. O.; Magee, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments using the techniques of thermal analysis and thermometric titrimetry. Defines thermal analysis and several recent branches of the technique. Notes most of the experiments use simple equipment and standard laboratory techniques. (MVL)

  19. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  20. Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

    2010-01-15

    Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the